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Portmanteau characters in Chinese.

Portmanteau here refers to an unusual type of Chinese character: a composite of two or more graphs for living words, all of which are to be read (in order) to give the meaning of the word represented by the whole character. It is something different from the conventional notion of the "ideograph" or huiyizi [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], the juxtaposition of graphs representing ideas or objects that contribute abstractly to the overall meaning of the word represented. I have shown elsewhere that characters are read through a process of recognition rather than decipherment, arguing that "complex pictograph" is a better description of the "motivation" (basis of character structure) of many graphs traditionally considered huiyi (Branner 2009). But the portmanteau is a different case. Its components are not abstract; understanding its structure depends on actually reading these components as connected words to form a phrase that defines or denotes the word.

This paper reviews a number of portmanteaux in current use and considers their place in Chinese grammatology. Such characters are of course part of the history of cursive Chinese and seem to have begun to be discussed rather late in the received history of Chinese writing, around the sixth century C.E., it is doubtful that they could be strictly the same as the huiyi mentioned in the first-century Shu[bar.o]wenjezi [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

In terms of their structure and their relationship to oral words, portmanteaux embody a conception different from most mainstream characters. Their construction is more self-conscious than other character-types, which suggests that they are a later development. Their relationship to oral words is tenuous and tends to change frequently.

GRAMMATOLOGICAL MOTIVATION

The portmanteau most widely seen today is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]", which represents the colloquial modal auxiliary bing 'not to need to', a contraction of buyong [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is a portmanteau not because it represents a contraction but because it is constructed of the characters for the phrase that defines it: buyong; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Now, the composite structure of the graph and the fact that the word it represents is a modern contraction are both well known. (1) What is less well known today is that the graph [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is associated with at least two older readings that have nothing to do with the sound bang, even though their meanings are related to the decomposition [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] not to need'. The tenth-century Longk[a.bar]n shoujing [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] reads [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] as [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], our qi to discard'; the sixth-century Yanshi jiaxun [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] says [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] represents [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], our ba 'to stop' ~'to resign'. (2)

This diversity of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]'s readings points up the unusual motivation of portmanteaux. Most Chinese characters are of the familiar "phonogram" (xingsh[bar.e]ng [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) structure, combining one phonetic and semantic token each. The reading beng for [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] can be called phonologically motivated because it is a contraction of precisely the same two words whose graphs make up the portmanteau. But in the case of the other two readings, we are within the realm of Saussure's arbitraire du signe--only convention links qi or bit to the structure of And these other two readings are more typical of Chinese portmanteaux generally than bong is.

What is the motivation of portmanteau graphs? To answer this, it is illustrative to compare them with a different kind of playfully conceived character: ligatures or single-graph render-ings of multi-syllable words. Several of the latter were described in the 1920s by Chen Bodd (1904-1989) he says he has "collected" them from living usage (Chen 1927: l67): (3)
  [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [read chiling 'rescript'; used on
  healing talismans]"
  [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [read hetong 'contract'; used on
  deeds]"
  [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [read mili * centimeter'; there are
  many graphs of this sort, used in calculation'" (4)


Chen presented these and other examples to defend the coining of the graph [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] by Doo Ding-U [Du Dingyou [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ] (1898-1967) to write tushuguan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] a 'library' (Doo 1927). This was part of the bubbling pot of ideas out of which the official Chinese character simplification movement later developed. Doo proposed not only [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] for [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ("a savings of 13 strokes"), but also [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] for tushu [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'books' alone--[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] missing the bottom stroke--and a cursive form [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] caught on in Japan and was popular in China for a while before the Communist Revolution, even making its way into the 1943 revision of Mathews's dictionary, handwritten by Y. R. Chao at the entry for tushuguan (Mathews 1943: 950, entry #6531). Recently, there has been a tradition that [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is to be read Wan, a contraction of tushuguan, but that defeats the whole stated point of Doo's invention--to represent a multi-syllable word by a single, unique character, rather than to abbreviate the word into a single syllable. Technically, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is a kind of abbreviated ligature, but [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is not necessarily a ligature at all. That is, when [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] represents benng, it. is indeed a ligature, because beng really consists of the two words buyong. But that is not the situation with the readings qi and biz for [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], where the constituents of a graph represent not the corresponding spoken word but only a definition of a spoken word. Chinese uses a single term for both ligatures and portmanteaux: hewen [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] combined graphs', but there is this essential difference between the two: the nature of a ligature is to compress two or more words (spoken and written words simultaneously) into the space of a single graph; a portmanteau, however, is a graphic ligature only, and it is not bound to specific words.

Portmanteaux are not part of the classical inventory of character structures. They seem closest to the huiyi [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'assembled meanings' ("syssemantic" or "ideographic") structure, although they lack what we usually think of as the abstractness of ideography. As many have observed, the ideograph is an attractive but evanescent notion with few clear-cut examples in real Chinese usage. (5) Portmanteaux differ from notional ideographs--and this is recognized by a number of Chinese sources in traditional times. Lacking explicit phonological motivation, they are constructed based on the meaning of the words (as expressed simultaneously in oral and written form) of which the graph is made up.

In addition to their distinctive structure, portmanteaux commonly exhibit two other features. They are often associated (at different times and places) with more than one word or sound. And they often seem to have come late to their modern readings, some of which have no corresponding syllable in medieval phonology. In the long era before standardization of an absolute reading pronunciation, words without a place in medieval phonology could have no undisputed identity in the historical continuum of written Chinese. Another feature of the portmanteaux is that the words they stand for often have competing graphs to represent them, which in the nature of things usually means phonograms. Where portmanteaux are involved, there are persistent problems linking written word to spoken word, because of the lack of phonological motivation. Not surprisingly, a graph that cannot be consistently linked to an oral word tends to lack stability in how it is read at different times.

LIVING EXAMPLES

The largest modern dictionaries contain hundreds of these forms, most no longer used. (6) Below I offer a tour of seven examples, all of special interest because they are associated with words known today in ordinary spoken Mandarin, after which I consider the question of how far back these graphs can be traced in the received tradition.

Consider another character containing the negative particle bu [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], a portmanteau of buzheng [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'not straight'. Today, we read it wai 'crooked, tilted to one side, off-center', a reading attested since the time of the Zihui. (7) The traditional way of writing wai is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], a phonogram found in the Shuowen. (8) But our contemporary spoken word wai has not been associated explicitly with [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] until recently (in, for example, the eighteenth-century Kangxi ziclian), in the eleventh-century Guangyun [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is assigned the readings *huai~*hua, neither of which is now attested as a Mandarin word for 'crooked'. (9) The Longkan shoujing reads [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] as *kuai, a syllable that is phonologically possible but in practice unused in modern standard Mandarin. (10)

Another example is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], a portmanteau of buhao [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'not good'. Today it is standardly read nao, a syllable that may have originated as a contraction and has no equivalent medieval syllable or graph. (11) The Longkan shaujing and zihui read [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] as *wai; the seventeenth-century Zhengzi tong [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] gives *huai. (12) In medieval phonology, this huai is not exactly homophonous with our word huai for 'bad', written [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], but the same word may well have been intended. (13) Could the Longkan shouting's *wai also be an attempt to write the same word?

Another common Northern Chinese verb that has no other normal graph is hang 'to tamp (earth)', written [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], apparently a portmanteau of dali [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'great strength'. (14) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] appears in pre-modern sources with meanings that are basically compatible with the definition Ito use] great strength'. The seventeenth-century Zihui [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] glosses it "[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [to exert great strength; to carry an object on the shoulder]" ([16123.) 1991: 99A giving it a reading equivalent to modern *hang, which is tonally different from contemporary pronunciation but at least segmentally the same. (15) also appears, without a reading, in the twelfth-century Chanlin baoxun [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]:
  [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 2008: p1020c10-11)
  If she is unwilling to abandon the things in her boudoir, she
  involves other people in carrying them for her--isn't that being too
  much trouble to others?


The modern meaning 'to tamp', however, is not in evidence. (16)

[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], which is now rare but which was in use within living memory in Shanghai, seems to take its motivation from s[bar.a]n zh[bar.i] shou [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'three hands', a slang expression for 'pick-pocket'. How is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] to be read? In its earliest attestation, it is explained as an alternate form for either character (!) in pashou [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] pickpocket'. Apparently it can be read either she5u 'hand' or pa [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (verb for stealing by snatching or pickpocketing). The source for this claim is the 1917 Qing bai leichao [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] of Xu Ke [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (1869-1928):
  [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Xu[1917] 1966 83.84)
  Pashou 'to pick pockets': to take what another person has on his
  person when he is unaware; also written
  [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].
  [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Xu [1917] 1966 83.105)
  Shanghai people call a pickpocket '[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]',
  meaning '[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] '.


The graph [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] models the phrase rushui [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'to enter the water'. In modern usage it is read cuan 'to parboil', whose phonogrammatic variant may perhaps be [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], representing the word cuan 'to toss, fling' (both actions involving quick motions of something held in the hand). The Zihui assigns it a reading *tan, an empty syllable in modern Mandarin, and the gloss "[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [for water to push something]." (17) A competing claim as to the word it represents is modern qiu [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'to swim', which comes from Zhou Quf[bar.e]i [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]'s (1135-1189) Lingwai daida [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: "[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [read * qiu; it means a person upon the water]" (Zhou 1985:43-44).

The graph [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] appears to model the phrase shangxiao xia da [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'small on top and large on the bottom' or xiao shang da [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'small on top of large', and it has been used for some time to write the word ji[bar.a]n 'pointed'. The tenth-century scholar Xu Kai [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (920-74) identifies the Shu[bar.o]wen's graph shan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'wedge' as "modern " [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]." (18) But this equation is dubious because sh[bar.a]n [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] has a different medieval reading from jian [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. If the placement of ji[bar.a]n [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] . If the placement of ji[bar.a]n [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] the rime books is to be trusted, it represents a word also variously written
  [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] to pierce, stab; field tool';
  [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] to engrave';
  [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'awl'.


These possible doublet graphs are all homophones of jian [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in the Guangyun or Jiyun, occupying the phonological pigeonhole {tsam-3b [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]}. (19)

The graph [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (with a deprecated variant [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) is explained in the Zihui as a portmanteau graph recalling the phrase "yi qu bu huan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [entirely gone and never to return, or once gone, never to return again]" and a reading *diu, which presumably matches the modern word represented by [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: diu 'to throw"-'to discard'; the Zihui bu gives an alternate reading *diu. (20) (Note that no medieval syllable exists corresponding to Mandarin din or diu because the initial implies Div. IV, but the only available medieval rime is Div. III; see discussion in Branner 2006: 300.)

Below I summarize the diverse semantic and phonological associations of the seven graphs in modern use discussed here. (The prevalence of yinping-readings seems to me fortuitous.)
              Modem word     Canonical                     Century
                             graph                         when

Graph         and gloss      for this       Also equated   so
                             word           to             attested

[TEXT NOT     beng 'not to  --            qi [TEXT NOT   10th
REPRODUCIBLE  need to'                      REPRODUCIBLE
IN ASCII]                                   IN ASCII] 'to
                                            discard'

                                            ba [TEXT NOT   6th
                                            REPRODUCIBLE
                                            IN ASCII] 'to
                                            stop'-'to
                                            resign'

[TEXT NOT     wai 'crooked,  [TEXT NOT      reading *huai  11th
REPRODUCIBLE  tilted to      REPRODUCIBLE   -*hua
IN ASCII]                    IN ASCII]

              one side,                     reading        10th
              off-center'                   *kuai

[TEXT NOT     nao 'not      --            Reading *      17th
REPRODUCIBLE  good'                         huai ([not
IN ASCII]                                   equal to]
                                            [TEXT NOT
                                            REPRODUCIBLE
                                            IN ASCII])

                                            Reading *wai   10th

[TEXT NOT     hang 'to tamp --            ? 'to carry    12th
REPRODUCIBLE  (earth)'                      on the back'
IN ASCII]

[TEXT NOT     in pashou 'to  [TEXT NOT      --
REPRODUCIBLE  pick a         REPRODUCIBLE
IN ASCII]     pocket' -     IN ASCII] or
              'pickpocket'   [TEXT NOT
                             REPRODUCIBLE
                             IN ASCII]

                                            Reading *tun
                                            '"for water
                                            to

[TEXT NOT     cuan 'to       [TEXT NOT      Reading *tun   17th
REPRODUCIBLE  parboil'       REPRODUCIBLE   '"for water
IN ASCII]                    IN ASCII] 'to  to push
                             toss'?         something"'

                                            qiu [TEXT NOT  12th
                                            REPRODUCIBLE
                                            IN ASCII] 'to
                                            swim'

                             [TEXT NOT
                             REPRODUCIBLE
                             IN ASCII] 'to
                             pierce, stab;
                             field tool';

[TEXT NOT     Jian           [TEXT NOT      --
REPRODUCIBLE  'pointed'      REPRODUCIBLE
IN ASCII]                    IN ASCII]/
                             [TEXT NOT
                             REPRODUCIBLE
                             IN ASCII] 'to
                             engrave';

                             [TEXT NOT
                             REPRODUCIBLE
                             IN ASCII]
                             'awl'

[TEXT NOT     diu 'to       --            Reading *diu-  17th
REPRODUCIBLE  throw' - 'to                  *diu
IN ASCII]     discard'


Of the hundreds of examples of portmanteaux in the largest modern dictionaries, most are already attested in compendious Ming and Q[bar.i]ng sources; smaller numbers are introduced in late medieval sources like the Lingwai daida and Lognk[bar.a]n shoujing. Can we push back to the oldest discussion of character structure we have, in the Shu[bar.o]wen?

There are a few possible candidates. One is lie[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], anciently 'weak', apparently a portmanteau of shaoli [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]'little strength' and not obviously a phonogram ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] belongs to yuebu [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] to zhibu [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], meaning that they are thought to have had different oral stop codas). Another possibility is song [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'high (said of mountains)', apparently a portmanteau of sh[bar.a]n g[bar.a]o [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'the mountain is high'. A third is fei-pei [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'the first light of the new moon', whose form seems to render yuech[bar.u] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'the moon emerges'; perhaps this is the same word as po, written [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], the first appearance of the new moon'. (21) Our reconstructed Shu[bar.o]wen simply names components and does not specify their relationship or use the expression huiyi. (22) But it is striking that the articulate Shu[bar.o]wen preface does not discuss the portmanteau as a type of structure, suggesting that, if productive and recognized, it was not considered important. (23) This seems to me the most important argument against viewing portmeanteaux as the same as huiyi.

COMMENTS FROM HISTORY

What discussions there are generally come from periods later than the Shuowen. In the received tradition proper, it is not until well into the medieval period that we have records of true portmanteaux--pairs of common graphs combined as whole words to make a third graph. A number of often-quoted passages about them appear in biji [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'notes' from the twelfth century, giving examples of native characters in use in China's semi-civilized southern or southwestern fringe areas. Here, for instance, is Zhuang Chuo [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (fl. 1126) describing some of the linguistic culture of Guangdong-Gangxi area:
  [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Zhuang 3/16a)
  The custom of Guangnanis to create extra pen-strokes for characters.
  They use "father" plus "son" for en 'kindness', "great" plus "sit"
  for wen 'stable', "not" plus "long" for ai 'short in height'; such
  cases are many. They also call the mother's brother gutin 'official',
  the father's sister fin 'lady of the house', a bamboo sedan chair
  xiaoyaoozi 'the free and easy', a son-in-law fumy the Emperor's
  son-in-law'--all things that one dares not say in the central
  counties. And they set off firecrackers on lunar New Year's eve,
  and soldiers and commoners gather in a circle and shout "Banzai! Ten
  thousand years!" It is something particularly shocking.


Fan Chengda [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (1126-1193) lists a number of portmanteaux from the Guilin [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] area, which he prefaces this way:
  [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII],
  [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII],
  [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]
  (Fan 1986: 171-72)
  The border is remote and its customs are backward. In letters,
  petitions, vouchers, and contracts, they use local vulgar characters
  exclusively. All the towns in Guilin are the same way. Here record a
  few Lingui characters. Although they are very provincial, nonetheless
  the constituent elements have a sound basis.


Fan is the most famous of the writers on this topic. Zh[bar.o]u Qufei, mentioned above, discusses "fangyan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [regional language]" and "suzi [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] vulgar characters]" as part of his Lingwai daida [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (Zh[bar.o]u 1985: 43-44), and there are other accounts, as well.

But portmanteaux were already well known in the received tradition half a millennium before that. As in the twelfth-century materials, these non-standard graphs are always seen as worth of special mention. The Tang-era female emperor Wu Zeti[bar.a]n [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (624-705), for example, is said to have introduced eight of them, including one for her posthumous name of (our zhao [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'to shine on'), motivated by the phrase mingk[bar.o]ng fifl'is. 'to brighten the void' (Mc Tangshu 6.115). Considering how many historical portmanteaux are found in later dictionaries in spite of being recognized as "very provincial," the surprising thing is not their existence but their survival into modern standard usage.

In the received tradition, the earliest extensive discussion of portmanteaux and their cultural context comes from Yan Zh[bar.i]tu[bar.i] (531 after 591), an advocate of maintaining philological rectitude in everyday life. Yan mentions six portmanteaux as part of a fad for incorrect characters that he says began at the end of the Datong [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. reign period (535-545) of the Liang dynasty. He says the fad became a serious problem in the South and was exacer-bated in the North by a scarcity of books brought about by political chaos: (24)
    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  Since the Jin and Song,
    ASCII]

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  there have been many who could
    ASCII]                     write,

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  and so their habits
    ASCII]

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  have spread and been emulated back
    ASCII]                     and forth.

5   [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  In all the books,
    ASCII]

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  standard square script is worth
    ASCII]                     looking at.

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  Not that it lacks for vulgar
    ASCII]                     characters.

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  but it is not greatly harmed by
    ASCII]                     them.

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  By the Liang's
    ASCII]

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  Tianjian era,
    ASCII]

10  [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  this trend had not altered,
    ASCII]

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  but by the end of the Datdng,
    ASCII]

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  errors and substitutions were
    ASCII]                     spreading.

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  Xiao Ziyun
    ASCII]

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  altered the forms of characters
    ASCII]

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  and the Shading Prince
    ASCII]

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  used many false characters.
    ASCII]

15  [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  Both at court and away from court
    ASCII]

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  these were taken as standard forms.
    ASCII]

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  "Painting a tiger and failing," (25)
    ASCII]

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  many were harmed by this.
    ASCII]

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  Even when someone writes the
    ASCII]                     character "one" ([??]).

20  [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  All you see is a few dots.
    ASCII]

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  Some people laid texts out wildly
    ASCII]

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  And rearranged them as they pleased
    ASCII]

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  After that, the tomb-like old texts
    ASCII]

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  Became virtually impossible to look
    ASCII]                     at.

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  Under the northern courts.
    ASCII]

25  [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  After the time of death and chaos
    ASCII]

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  Handwriting became unsophisticated
    ASCII]                     and low.

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  The northerners
    ASCII]

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  Arbitrarily create characters;
    ASCII]

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  This awkwardness
    ASCII]

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  Is more severe than in the South
    ASCII]

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  They use
    ASCII]

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  "hundred thoughts" ([??]) to write
    ASCII]                     "sorrow" ([??]);

30  [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  "Words in rebellion" ([?]? [??]?) to
    ASCII]                     write "abnormal situation" ([??]);

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  "not to need" ([??]) to write "to put
    ASCII]                     an end to" ([??]);

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  "chase back here" ([??]) to write
    ASCII]                     "render to" ([??]);

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  "revived" ([??]) to write "sober"
    ASCII]                     ([??]);

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  "predecessor" ([??]) to write "old
    ASCII]                     person" ([??]).

35  [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  Such cases are not solitary
    ASCII]

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  But fill the classics and histories.
    ASCII]

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  Only Yao Yuanbiao
    ASCII]

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  Skilled at eh cursive and clerical
    ASCII]                     styles. (26)

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  Paid attention to philological
    ASCII]                     correctness.

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  Among the young, those who emulated
    ASCII]                     him were a throng.

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  Down to the end of the Qi
    ASCII]

40  [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  Those who keep private records and
    ASCII]                     make fine copies.

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  and do so more wisely than in the
    ASCII]                     past0

    [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN  are many.
    ASCII]


One of the characters Yan mentions, s[bar.u] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (line 33), remained in use until very recently. Yan is clearly telling us that he disapproves of these graphs. As we read his tidily composed blank verse, we must remember that he loves to criticize people for their lack of grounding in philology. Elsewhere I have observed that Yan pooh-poohs the chief evidence we have of a possible typological difference between early and medieval-modern Chinese; every interested student must decide whether that evidence is invalid or whether Yan is so fully invested in his own paradigm that he cannot conceive of an alternative (Branner 2003). (27)

CONCLUSION

Portmanteaux are not China's only non-standard graphs. Although they are associated with the fringes of Chinese culture, other varieties of "vulgar" character structure are also known from those fringes. Vietnamese chu Nom [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] script and Written Cantonese script (Yuewen [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) are both based on sound xingsheng principles, meaning that they are restricted to use with specific spoken languages or (if high register) regional accents. One of the regional characters mentioned by Zheu qufei in the twelfth century seems to be a complex pictograph: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], which survives today as the standard graph for shuan 'door-bolt. (28) This word shuan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] has conventional phonogrammatic variants [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] but [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is the juxtaposition of a horizontal bar ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) with the character for men [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'door, gate'--it is neither portmanteau nor phonogram, nor, for that matter, a ligature.

Portmanteaux seem to have a perpetual hold over the imaginations of literate Chinese people, perhaps because of their contrast with graphs of more conventional structure. Their characteristic features, apart from structure, derive from their lack of phonological motivation. In this respect, they are no different from the notional huiyizi. However, there seem to be very few of them in the Shuowen--and we see no statement in it to convince us that its author is aware of their structure as described here. So it is likely that they became popular in some social context other than the highly formal one that informs the Shunwen-and perhaps at a later date, too. Beyond that difference from httlyizi, portmanteaux are unstable in their function of representing words: they are associated mainly with colloquial words, including some for which no medieval equivalent exists or possibly can exist. If we view them across time, they are prone to representing more than one word in records of different ages.

In the context of China's high tradition of textual and philological continuity, portmanteaux are the intrusion not of oral language, that darling of the alphabetic cultures, but of a competing native vision of non-phonetic writing.

Author's note: This paper was read on 14 March, 2009, at the Annual Meeting of the American Oriental Society in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Some of the content is discussed in Branner 2009, a study of the relationship between graphic motivation and literacy in the early period. This paper is dedicated to Victor Mair.

(1.) The syllable bring has no place in the pan-Chinese common phonological system--the conjunction of Mandarin tone 2, a voiceless stop initial, and a nasal ending marks it as a special word that cannot correspond to any syllable in medieval phonology. For that reason it. often appears in trick questions on historical phonology exams.

(2.) Longk[bar.a]n shoujing " [(khiH-3cy[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]}]" (1982: 543). The Yeinshi ji[bar.a]xun passage is cited below. In this paper, medieval phonological values are shown using the format described in Branner 2006: a non-reconstructive transcription of the medieval categories, together with Chinese notation for those categories.Asterisked forms represent Mandarin readings expected based on medieval phonological values, rather than reconstructed medieval readings.

(3.) Chen is best remembered as a confederate of the Gang of Four, later in life.

(4.) The ligature [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] survives in contemporary usage, although in the meaning 'centimeter' it is now usual to say [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (simplified as rather than mini

(5.) See the discussion in Branner 2009.

(6.) Having said that, I must take it back at once. In the academic world, so-called suzi [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'vulgar characters' are a subject of perpetual research by Chinese specialists in the writing system; see HsU 2008 for a recent study. Scholarly interest has led to the inclusion of these graphs in Unicode and therefore to their being available to almost everyone with a computer. The advent of Unicode and comprehensive fonts of Chinese characters has provided powerful tools to Chinese practitioners of "133t," the slick and constantly evolving Internet cipher. Chinese versions of I33t, which currently go by the names "huoxingwen [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Martian script]" and "naocanwen [brain damaged script]," often feature. bizarre graphs that would have slumbered eternally in old dictionaries had they not been revived and brought into users' homes by Unicode.

(7.) Zihui "[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [{wei-2b [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] }]" ([16151] 1991: 231 B [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ).

(8.) It has Sr. 'to stand' semantic, with guo [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] /[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'earthen cooking pot' phonetic. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] appears to be an ancient graph for the common word we now write [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] it is, itself, a phonogram, constructed of Li [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'earthen vessel' with kua [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] phonetic. The graphs [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] are all straightforward representatives of the early Chinese gebu [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] rime group, of which the -ai final of Mandarin wai is intriguingly reminiscent of Baxter's 1992 reconstruction for this rime group, -aj.

(9.) Guangyun "[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [{hwei-2a [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ]" ([1008] 1976: 93).

(10.) Longk[bar.a]n shoujing "[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [{khwei-2b [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] }]" (1982: 543).

(11.) Our new, despite its tone, suggests a contraction with hao [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'good' as the source of its ending; the initial n-suggests the southern (non-Mandarin) nasal-initial negatives.

(12.) Longkan shoujing "[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [{weiH-2b [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] {]" ([997 CE] 1985: 543). Zihui "[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [{weiH-2b [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] }, which is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in hte qusheng; 'bad']" ([1615] 1991:113A[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]). Zhengzi tong [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]:" [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [{hweiH-2b [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] }, which is [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] in the qusheng; 'bad']" ([1671] 1996: 337A[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ).

(13.) For [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], the Guangyan has [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [{ghweiH-2B [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] }}," (glossed '[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]'; [1008] 1976: 386).

(14.) This word is sometimes associated with the graph 06, which however is canonically read hying. Guangyun "[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [{ghung-1b [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] }]" ([1008] 1976: 30).

(15.) Zihui "[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [read {hangQ-1 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] }, which is {hak-1 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] } in hte shang tong]," indicating that it was not a normal syllable in hte medieval phonological system ([1615]1991:99A[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ]

(16.) A modern commentary on the Chanlin baoxun likewise glosses [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] as [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'to carry on the back' (Chanlin baoxun 1997: 96).

(17.) Zihui "[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [read {thenQ-1 ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ), which is (then-1 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] } in the shang tong]" ([1615]199:240B[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ). Again, there is no place for this syllabel in the medieval system.

(18.) "[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [this is none other than using the modern vulgar form with %IN above A to write Mr (Shuowen jiezi gulin [1932] 1994: 5.717, entry #3648).

(19.) Guangyun "[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]" ([1008] 1976: 227); Man [1038] 1987: 288, where [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is a variant of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

(20.) Zihui "[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [tou-3b [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] }]" ([1615] 1991: 25A [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]); Zihui bu "[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [{touH-3b [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] }]" (2B[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ), curiously, both of these entries contain " direct readings" that are at variance with fanqie preceding them: [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] is equivalent to {tou-1} rather than {tou-3b}, an d"[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] " is equivalent to {louH-3b} ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and many other words) rather than {touH-3b}. Neither {tou-3b} nor {touH-3b} is possible in Guangyun because initial (t) is generally restricted to Div. I and IV. Although the variant [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], now standard in the People's Republic, is deprecated in the Zihui ("[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ), [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [vulgarly written with J, which is incorrect]"), we cna hazard our own portmanteau explanation of it: "[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ) ([TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [to toss away]."

(21.) Jiyun: "[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [read {pheik-2a [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]}]" ([1038]1987: 732). There. is a parallel structure in the graph pb 11;h 'the sun before it becomes bright', apparently a portmanteau of richu [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]'the sun comes out'. But in) is not seen in surviving compendia until long after the Shuowen.

(22.) [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]; "[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [belongs to the components 'strength' and 'little']"'(shuowen jiezi gulin [1932] 1994:10.1356-57, entry #9185). [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: "[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [belongs to the component 'mountain' and belongs to the component 'gigh']" (shuowen jie zi gulin [1932]1994: 8.68-69, entry #5878). [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: "[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (belongs to the components 'moon' and 'to come out' (shuowen jiezi gulin [1932] 1994:6.2145-16, entry #4291).

(23.) It was felt in the seventeenth century, if not earlier, that the portmanteau was something different from hulyi; the Zhengzi tong comments under [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: "[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [what Fan Chengda calls vulgar characters are all of the kind that are not included in the Six Scripts]" ({16711 1996: 337A]:).

(24.) Yan Zhitui 1960: 127 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] -128[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] .

(25.) This line recalls a moral precept of Ma Yuan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (14 B.C.E.-49 c.E.) to his nephews, who he feared were prone to frivolity. "[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [If you fail at imitating Long Bog[bar.a]o, you will still be a prudent--official this is what is meant by 'if you carve a swan unsuccessfully, it still looks like a duck.' But if you fail at imitating Du Tithing, you will he thought frivolous by the whole world--this is what is meant by 'if you draw a tiger unsuccessfully, it actually looks like a dog']" (Hou Han shu 24.845).).

(26.) Retaining cao [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] for kai [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], following Zhou Fagao..

(27.) Like Yan, eighteenth-century philological purists also looked askance at portmanteaux, just as they did at variant character readings. The polymath Qian Daxin [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (1728-1804) wrote, "[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ..., [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. [The Longkan shoujing has collected many vulgar characters, such as. ... These are all wild and ludicrous. They were probably created by some vulgar bonze]" (Qian 1957).

(28.) Zhou 1985: 43-44. On the notion of complex pictographs, see Branner 2009.

REFERENCES

Baxter, William H. 1992. A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Branner, David Prager. 2003. On Early Chinese Morphology and Its Intellectual History. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, ser. 3, 15: 45-76.

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--. 2009. Phonology in the Chinese Script and Its Relationship to Early Chinese Literacy. Read at "Writing and Literacy in Early China," a conference of the Columbia Univ. Early China Seminar, 7 February, 2009. To appear in Writing and Literacy in Early China, ed. Li Feng and David Prager Branner (Seattle: Univ. of Washington Press), 85-137.

Chanlin baoxun [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 1997, Xu Xiaoyao [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], ed. Kao-hsiung: Fogu[bar.a]ng Wenhua SHiye Youxian G[bar.o]ngsi [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] .

--. 2008. Dazheng xinxiu Dazang jing [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] No. 2022 <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] >>. CBETA [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] V1.13 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Taisho Tripitaka, vol. 48, no. 2022 [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], CBETA Chinese electronic Tripitaka V1.13, normalized version.] Accessed at http://cbeta.buddhist-canon.com in October 2008.

Chen Boda [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1927. Ba [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [comment (on Doo Ding-U 1927)], Tush[bar.u]guanxue jik[bar.a]n [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 2.1: 166-67.

Doo Ding-U Dingyou] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1927. Tush[bar.u]guan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] Tush[bar.u]guanxue jik[bar.a]n [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]: 164-65.

Fan Chengda [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]1986. Guihai yuhen zhi [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Hu Qiwang [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and Tan Gu[bar.a]ngguang [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], ed. and tr. Chengdu: Sichu[bar.a]ng Minzu Ch[bar.u]banshe.

Guangyun [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] . (1008) 1976. Comp. Chen Pengnian [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] et al. X[bar.i]njiao zhengqie Song ben Guangyun [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], ed. Lin Yin [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Taipei: Liming Wenhua.

Hou Han sh[bar.u] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. 1965. Comp. Fan Ye [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Beijing: Zhonghua Sh[bar.u]ju.

Hsu Tan0hui [Xu Tanhui] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. 2008. Zihui bu suzi xilun <<[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] >> [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Zh[bar.o]ngwen Biaogan [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 12:1-33.Sari= 12: 1-33.

Jiyun [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (1039) 1987. Comp. Ding Du [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. jiaodingben jiyun [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Shanghai: Shanghai Guji, 1987.

Jiu Tangshu [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. 1975. Comp. Liu Xu [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Beijing: Zh[bar.on]ghua Shuju.

Kangxi zidian [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (1715) 1958. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju.

Longk[bar.a]n shoujing [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (997 C.E.) 1985. Xingj[bar.u]n [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ed. Beijing: Zhonghua Sh[bar.u]ju. Composition edition with preface in one portion dated 997.

Mathews, Robert Henry, ed. (1931) 1943. A Chinese-English Dictionary. Shanghai: China Inland Mission and Presbyterian Mission Press. (Repr. with revised pronunciations, ed. Yuen Ren Chao. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1943. Citation is to the 1943 ed.)

Qian Dax[bar.i]n [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1957. Song shi suzi [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. In shijiazh[bar.a]iyangx[bar.i]n lu [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Shanghai: Shangwu Shangwu Yinshuguan, 4.87. Note: the SBBY edition omits this paragraph.

Shu[bar.o]wen jiezi gulin [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. (1932) 1994. Comp. Ding Fubao [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Shanghai: Sh[bar.a]ngwu Yingshuguan. (Repr. Shu[bar.o]wen jiezi gulin zhengbu hebi[bar.a]n [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Taipei: Dingwen sh[bar.u]ju, 1994.)

Xu K[bar.e] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. (1917) 1966. Daozei lei [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Q[bar.i]ngbai leichao [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], vol. 38, Sh[bar.a]nghai: Shangwu Yingsh[bar.u]guan. (Repr. Taipei: Sh[bar.a]ngwu Yingsh[bar.u]guan, 1966.)

Yan Zh[bar.i]tu[bar.i] [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 1960. yanshi ji[bar.a]xun huizhu [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Ed. Zh[bar.o]u Fagao [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Tappei: Academia Sinica.

Zhengzi tong [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. (1671) 1996. Ed. Zh[bar.a]ng Zilie [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], rev. [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Beijing: Guoji Wenhua.

Zh[bar.o]u Qufei [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. 1985. F[bar.e]ngtu men [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], lingwai daida [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], vol. 4. In Congsh[bar.u] jicheng chubian [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 3118-19. Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju.

Zhu[bar.a]ng Chuo [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1990. Jilei bian [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. Shanghai: Shanghai Sh[bar.u]dian [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

Zihui [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. (1615) 1991. Ed. Mei Y[bar.i]ngzuo [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] In Zihui Zihui bu [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Shanghai: Shanghai Cish[bar.u] Ch[bar.u]banshe [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 1991.

Zihui bu [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. (1666) 1991. Ed. Wu Renchen [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] In Zihui Zihui bu [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], Shanghai: Shanghai Cish[bar.u] Ch[bar.u]banshe [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], 1991.

DAVID PRAGER BRANNER GROVE SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING CITY COLLEGE OF NEW YORK
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Publication:The Journal of the American Oriental Society
Article Type:Essay
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Date:Jan 1, 2011
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