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Population Density of Foliage Insect Pest on Jujube, Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Ecosystem.

Byline: Imtiaz Ahmed Nizamani, M.A. Rustamani, S.M. Nizamani, Shafique Ahmed Nizamani and Muhammad Ibrahim Khaskheli

Abstract:

Jujube, Ziziphus mauritiana L. is the King of arid zone fruits, due to its adaptations to tolerate the biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the occurrence of insect pest is the major threat to reduce the quality and quantity of fruits. The current studies are the first comprehensive evidence on the population density of foliage insect pests evaluated on two different varieties, Golden Gola (susceptible) and White Kherol (resistance) at farmer's field Tando Qaiser, District Hyderabad during 2007 and 2008. A total of 13 different insect pests which were categorized as major (Ancylis sativa, Euproctis fraterna and Adoretus pallens), minor (Scirtothrips dorsalis, Amrasca biguttula biguttula, Myllocerus discolor, Achaea janata, Agrotis biconica and Aphis gossypii) and occasional (Oxycareous hyalinipennis, Dichromorpha viridis, Tarucus balkanicus and Orgyia postica) based on overall population of two years.

The mean population percentage of insect pests indicates the highest percentage for E. fraterna followed by A. pallens, A. biguttula biguttula, M. discolor and S. dorsalis on White Kherol, whereas, Golden Gola was severely infested and showed maximum percentage with A. sativa followed by E. fraterna, S. dorsalis, A. pallens and A. biguttula biguttula. It is concluded that A. sativa, E. fraterna and A. pallens are serious insect pests of jujube. Pest monitoring with direct count and light trap can help to determine the ETL that is most important for the management of various insect pests including these major and minor pest. The present study will hopefully be helpful for management of foliage insect pests of jujube.

Keywords: Ziziphus mauritiana, Foliage insect pests, population.

INTRODUCTION

Jujube, Ziziphus mauritiana L. is one of the most ancient and important fruit crops of arid and semi arid zones of the world. It is considered as the King of arid zone fruits, due to its adaptations to tolerate the biotic and abiotic stresses prevailing under rain fed conditions [1]. Z. mauritiana occur in nearly every continent and is thought to possess great genetic variation. It is an example of an extremely drought hardy species and is a dominant component of the natural vegetation of the Indo -Pak deserts [2]. Z. mauritiana is a beautiful evergreen tree and has dark, rounded green leaves, which are very attractive to various foliage pests.

Jujube fruit is one of the world's most nutritious plants, provide energy for human consumption and play a vital role in the development of human body [3, 4]. There is a traditional Chinese proverb that eating three jujubes a day keeps the doctor away" [5]. It is a good source of protein, sugar, amino acids, calcium, phosphorus, iron, carbohydrates, ascorbic acid, vitamin A and C. The fruits contain between 70 and 165 mg ascorbic acid per 100 g of pulp, which is two to four times higher than the vitamin C content of citrus fruits. The mineral content of calcium, phosphorus and iron in Z. mauritiana fruits is also reported as being higher than in apples and even oranges [6, 7].

The production of jujube is known to be greatly influenced by pruning, fertilization, intercropping along with other management practices. However, pruning is essential to maintain vigor in the trees and to maintain fruit productivity, quality and size [8]. Generally pruning of jujube tree after harvesting the crop is more common in almost all jujube growing orchards, especially in Sindh province of Pakistan. However, insect pest infestation and disease may cause huge economic losses in some circumstances. Research reports reveal that numerous insects feed on foliage either by direct destruction of plant tissues or by sucking the plant sap. Jujube is known to attack by 23 different species of insect pests, however, out of these 13 species attack on the foliage right from sprouting to fruit harvest [9].

Among all the foliage insect pests Leaf roller (Ancylis sativa; Synclera univocalis Wlk), Hairy caterpillar (Euproctis fraterna Moore) and Jujube beetle (Adoretus pallens Har) are the s erious foliage insect pests [10- 15]. These foliage insect pests are not only cause damage on leaves but their attacks ultimately loosen the vigor of the tree and thus the fruit production is also reduced. The available reports on jujube especially the documentation of insect pests and their management is rarely known in Pakistan. Sarwar [16] reported the highest population and infestation of fruit fly, however, other insect species attacking jujube tree were certain caterpillars, weevils, beetles, and mite.

The current study was carried to determine the population fluctuation of various foliage insect pests attacking jujube tree. This is the preliminary step for the management of foliage insect pests. After getting the comprehensive knowledge about various pests, grower/researcher will be able to follow the certain management strategies. The analysis was undertaken through different pest scouting methods to achieve the goal of present study.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

To determine the population density of foliage insect pests of Jujube, present study was carried out during 2007 and 2008 at the farmer's field Tando Qaiser, District Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan. Pest population status in jujube ecosystem was recorded during both years of observation under naturally infestations from freshly grown leaves upto the pruning of Jujube, in the month of March. The material used and methods followed for different investigations are presented here under.

Population Status of Foliage Insect Pest in Jujube Pest population was counted using following methods:

Direct Counting Method

The observation was taken from randomly selected 100 leaves tree-1 under naturally infested conditions on weekly interval from freshly grown leaves of Jujube till the final observation (Figure 1A).

Sweep Net Method

In this method, a sweep net was used to collect the pest population of selective varieties and was counted on weekly interval until the final observation. A random numbers table was used to identify four rows per acre to be used for sweep net sampling. Ten sweeps were collected in each row from a different starting point each week and number pests species were recorded (Figure 1B).

Water Pan Trap Method

The determination of pest population through this method was carried out for pest count by using yellow plastic pan traps 85 x 40 cm in diameter. Kerosene oil and tap water was supplied to each pan trap and kept under each sampled tree for observation. Pest found in each trap were identified and counted (Figure 1C).

Light Trap Method

Light trap have has been reported fairly fast and easy way to (monitor) collect nocturnal, photo/thermo- taxic insects. This technique is generally applied for the monitoring and collection of moths, scarabaeid beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae), and some Hemiptera and Hymenoptera. In the current study, we also used light trap for the monitoring of jujube beetle. The light trap was installed at the center of jujube orchards, and was operated at night for 8 hours. A light source was fluorescent bulb which was assembled in light trap and the trapped insects were killed with the potassium cynide placed in the mounted glass jar (Figure 1D). Data was recorded on daily basis and different insect species were indentified.

Identification of Jujube Insect Pests

All the collected species of current study were identified based on their morphological characteristics as mentioned by Atwal [17] and Hashmi [9], and taxonomic keys using various internet databases.

These species were also confirmed with the help of Department of Entomology and Plant Protection, Sindh Agriculture University, Tando Jam; Entomology Section of Agricultural Research Institute (ARI), Tando Jam, Pakistan. The broad criteria for classifying the insects were based on the overall two year population percentage as follows: Minor pests: Less than 15 per cent population; Major pests: More than 15 percent populat ion.

Statistical Analysis

The data collected on the population of foliage insect pests were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA); to test the superiority of mean values LSD test was applied and all differences described in the text were considered significant at the 5 % level of probability. These analyses were performed using computer software package Statistix 8.1 (Analytical Software 2005). The percentage population was calculated using Microsoft Excel Software 2007.

RESULTS

Population Status of Insect Pests

Diversity of insect pests was observed with Jujube agro-ecosystem analysis (JAESA) at farmer 's field Tando Qaiser, District Hyderabad through different insect scouting methods during 2007 and 2008. Several foliage insect pests were found infesting on

Table 1: Insect Pests Observed through Different Methods of Insects Scouting During 2007 and 2008

###Insect Pest###White Kherol###Golden Gola

###Direct###Sweep net###Water pan###Light Trap###Direct###Sweep net###Water pan###Light Trap

###counting###trap###counting###trap

Major Pests

###Jujube Leaf roller###87.10###3.00###9.00###22.00###872.90###2.00###11.00###220.00

Jujube Hairy caterpillar###400.80###5.00###11.00###123.00###693.50###4.00###16.00###81.00

###Jujube beetle###0.00###2.00###4.00###291.90###0.00###4.00###7.00###469.20

Minor Pest

###Thrip###149.00###12.00###5.00###0.00###503.50###5.00###7.00###0.00

###Jassid###247.90###14.00###9.00###0.00###454.50###7.00###11.00###0.00

###Jujube Gray weevil###160.40###13.00###5.00###0.00###193.60###13.00###21.00###0.00

###Jujube looper###60.20###0.00###5.00###40.00###95.70###0.00###6.00###98.00

###Cutworm###46.60###0.00###7.00###26.00###94.90###0.00###17.00###36.00

###Aphid###87.50###6.00###0.00###0.00###127.20###14.00###0.00###0.00

Sporadic Pest

###Dusky cotton bug###63.00###7.00###0.00###0.00###145.00###9.00###19.00###0.00

###Grasshopper###4.00###1.00###0.00###0.00###9.00###5.00###2.00###0.00

###Butterfly###8.00###2.00###0.00###0.00###21.00###7.00###2.00###0.00

###Moth###3.00###1.00###0.00###4.00###9.00###5.00###0.00###5.00

Table 2: Taxonomical Position and Nature of Various Insects Observed During 2007 and 2008

S. No###Common Name###Technical Name###Family###Order

Major Pests

###1.###Jujube Leaf roller###Ancylis sativa Liu###Tortricidae###Lepidoptera

###2.###Jujube Hairy caterpillar###Euproctis fraterna Moore###Lymentriidae###Lepidoptera

###3.###Jujube beetle###Adoretus pallens Blanchard###Scarabaeidae###Coleoptera

Minor Pests

###4.###Cutworm###Agrotis biconica Kollar, 1844###Notuidae###Lepidoptera

###5.###Thrip###Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood###Rambutanae###Thysanoptera

###6.###Jujube looper###Achaea janata Linn.###Notuidae###Lepidoptera

###7.###Jassid###Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida###Cicadilidae

###8.###Aphid###Aphis gossipie Glover###Aphididae###Hemiptera

###9.###Jujube Gray weevil###Myllocerus discolor Boheman###Curculionidae###Coleoptera

Sporadic Pest

###10.###Dusky cotton bug###Oxycareous hyalinipennis Costa###Lygaediae:###Hemiptera

###11.###Green Grasshopper###Dichromorpha viridis Scudder###Acrididae###Orthoptera

###12.###Jujube Butter fly###Tarucus balkanicus Freyer, 1844###Lycaenidae###Lepidoptera

###13.###Moth###Orgyia postica Wlk###Lymantriidae###Lepidoptera

Golden Gola (susceptible) and White Kherol (resistance) jujube trees. The results of present studies revealed that highest population density was determined when insect scouting was done through direct count method. Other scouting methods were also remained useful for specific insect species such as light trap for nocturnal (moth of jujube leaf roller) (Table 1). There was also variability in the population percentage of different insect pests for White Kherol and Golden Gola varieties (Table 1, Figure 2A and 2B). However, mean population percentage of insect pests during 2007 and 2008 indicates the highest percentage for Hairy caterpillar followed by Jujube beetle, Jassid, Gray weevil and Thrips on White Kherol, whereas, Golden Gola was severely infested and showed maximum percentage with Leaf roller followed by Hairy caterpillar, Thrips, Jujube beetle and Jassid (Figure 2A and 2B).

Identification of Jujube Insect Pests

A total of 13 different insects pest invading the jujube tree were observed during the both year of study, 2007 and 2008 (Table 2) when pest scouting was made through different methods. The taxonomical positions of all observed insects are described in Table 2. Based on the overall population of two year, three insect pests (Jujube Leaf roller, Jujube Hairy caterpillar and Jujube beetle) were categorized as major insect pest due to their highest population than other insect pests (Figure 3). The minor pests observed in the current study were Thrips, Jassid, Jujube Gray weevil, Jujube looper, Cutworm and Aphid. There were also some other insect pests which were sporadically found on the jujube trees are Dusky cotton bug, Grasshopper, Jujube Butterfly and Arctiid Moth (Table 2).

Table 3: Analysis of Varience for Population Denisty of Major Insect Pest Obsevred During 2007 and 2008

###Source###DF###Leaf roller###Hairy catterpillar###Jujube Beetle

###MS###P###MS###P###MS###P

###Year###1###2.501###0.4352###0.2375###0.5957###0.2503###0.2816

###week###23###110.446###0.0000###82.6977###0.0000###27.6676###0.0000

###Tree###4###15.204###0.0053###4.9345###0.0001###0.0281###0.9714

###Yearweek###23###0.294###1.0000###0.0942###1.0000###0.0723###0.9987

###Error###908###4.103###0.8431###0.2156

###Total###959

###CV###161.78###67.90###58.56

Population Fluctuation of Major Foliage Insect Pests

The data recorded specifically on different insect pests showed the difference in the population. The mean population density 100-1 leaves of leaf roller (Ancylis sativa) on White Kherol and Golden Gola was significantly varied for varieties, however, no significant difference was observed for two year of observations (Table 3).

The population of Ancylis sativa was gradually increased from April and then declined in the month of October for year, 2007 and 2008. It was reached to the ETL (3.3 Ancylis sativa 100-1 leaves) on Golden Gola variety after 15th May and continued up to the 15th September. However, the population density was remained below the ETL in White Kherol variety indicates complete resistant during both year of research. The overall population of leaf roller on both varieties during two year of observation showed increase above the ETL after 15th June, which continued up to the 15th August. The highest peak of Ancylis sativa was seen after 15th July and then gradually decreasing (Figure 4A). The result presented in Figure 4B indicates the population of Ancylis sativa during 2007 and 2008. The peak population of Ancylis sativa was recorded in the second 15 days of July 2007 and 2008 (Figure 4B).

The population density 100-1 leaves of Hairy caterpillar (Euproctis fraterna) on the foliage of White Kherol and Golden Gola jujube trees was fluctuating during the period of observation. Similar to leaf roller signification difference was observed for two varieties, however, no significant difference was observed for years of observations, 2007 and 2008. The increase in the population of Euproctis fraterna was seen from the month of April and which crossed the ETL (2.5 Euproctis fraterna 100-1 leaves) in the beginning of June and then declined in the month of October on Golden Gola variety. Results further indicates that the population showed decline below the ETL only after 15th August to 15th September, however, in the rest of the months (April to October) it was remained above the ETL. The results regarding the Kherol variety, the ETL was crossed in the beginning of June and then declined after 15th July.

The highest peak of Euproctis fraterna was seen after 15th July and then declined. The second peak of Euproctis fraterna was noticed after 15th September and the gradually declined (Figure 5A).

The results presented in Figure 5B indicate the population of Euproctis fraterna during 2007 and 2008. The peak population of Euproctis fraterna was recorded in the first 15 days of July 2007. During 2008, the boosting time of Euproctis fraterna was also same, however, the population density was little lower compared to 2007 (Figure 5B, Table 3).

The result presented in the Figure 6A and 6B showing the population density of Adoretus pallen which significantly varied between susceptible and resistant varieties. It was fluctuating from April to October on both varieties during 2007 and 2008. The population density 100-1 leaves on the foliage of White Kherol and Golden Gola jujube trees crossed the ETL (1.3 Adoretus pallens 100-1 leaves) after 15th May, which continued above the ETL on Golden Gola variety up to the end of September. However, on the White Kherol the population declined below the ETL after 15th June, which continued below ETL throughout the year. The first highest peak of Adoretus pallens was seen after 15th July and then declined. The second peak of Adoretus pallens was noticed in the beginning of September and the gradually declined (Figure 6A).

The Figure 6B showed the population density of Adoretus pallens 100-1 leaves for 2007 and 2008. There was a significant difference for two year of observation; however, on overall basis the population of Adoretus pallens 100-1 leaves was higher during 2007 compared to 2008 (Figure 6).

DISCUSSION

Jujube, Ziziphus mauritiana is one of the most important fruit, consumed worldwide for its nutritional and medicinal purpose [3, 4]. Beside its economic value, several biotic and abiotic factors are influencing on the production. However, the literature available on Z. mauritiana especially in Pakistan indicates very negligible work has been done over this important fruit tree. The infestation of fruit fly and lower infestation of caterpillars, weevils, beetles, and mite on jujube tree has also been reported [16]. However, no any further details are reported in this study that can be used as indicators for pest management. The occurrence of insect pest is the major threat to reduce the quality and quantity of fruits, ultimately causing tremendous economic loss to the growers. It is also reported that some time these insect pest may reduce up to the 100 percentage of crop yield.

The current study is the first comprehensive study on the population density of foliage insect pests, which are the main threats for this most important fruit tree. The resistant and susceptibility of jujube variety has been decided based on the population density of foliage insect pests. On the basis of overall population percentage, Kherol variety was observed as resistant and Golden Gola as susceptible against almost all insect. The major insect pests such leaf roller, hairy caterpillar and jujube beetle found infesting on the both variety. However, White Kherol showed the complete resistance against leaf roller compared to hairy caterpillar and jujube beetle. This may be due to the plant metabolites available in the leaf of white Kherol that developed the resistant against leaf roller. The population density of jujube leaf roller on Golden Gola was observed higher that indicates the susceptibility in this variety.

It has also been reported that jujube leaf roller is serious pest in India and Pakistan; larvae feed from lower surface of the freshly grown leaves, rolling up leaves from the edges to midrib and feed on leaf tissues [17, 18]. In the current study, similar evidence was observed for jujube leaf roller. However, no any detailed evidence is available pertaining to the population density of this major pest. Current study determined the population fluctuation throughout the year, and found the highest peak of Ancylis sativa after 15th July and which was gradually decreased in the later months. This may be due to the jujube phrenology and environmental condition of the jujube area. Generally primary shoots are developing in the month of March and April, and the secondary shoots are growing in the month of May to July, that are tender and soft, respectively, supporting the growth and development of jujube leaf roller.

It was observed that the older leaves were not supporting the growth and development of this pest. Another species of jujube leaf roller, Synclera univocalis reported by Singh and Mann [18] which is also main pest webbing the leaves of jujube in the Indian Punjab. In the previous studies, even for both species, there was no any decided ETL that may be kept under consideration before managing the pest. Here, we formulated the ETL i.e 3.3 Ancylis sativa 100-1 leaves of susceptible jujube tree based on the population.

Similarly, hairy caterpillar is widely distributed in India and Pakistan [19]. This is polyphagous in nature and is reported as destructive pest to Jujube especially during summer season [20]. In the current study, Hairy caterpillar (Euproctis fraterna) was major and second most important insect pest infesting on both, White Kherol and Golden Gola. Two peaks of Euproctis fraterna were noted, first after 15th July, then declined and second peak after 15th September and the gradually declined. The population of Euproctis fraterna crossed the ETL (2.5 E. fraterna 100-1 leaves) in the beginning of June and then declined in the month of October, however, in Kherol variety; population crossed the ETL in the beginning of June and then declined after 15th July. This variability maybe due to the varietal response as well as due to the influence of a biotic factor on the pest population.

The third major insect pest of current study was jujube beetle, which was observed with high population on both varieties that crossed the ETL (1.3 Adoretus pallens 100-1 leaves) after 15th May. In the previous studies jujube beetle is reported as serious foliage pest and has been active during summer (May-August) [9, 21].

With reference to pest scouting methods, direct counts, though it was laborious, resulted high population, however, some nocturnal insect are difficult to observe. To cope the situation light trap was used for the monitoring of nocturnal insect pest. As result we become able to present the data of jujube beetle which showed high population through light trapping and also some moths which were captured in light trap which was assembled in iron stand with glass jar. The source of light was mercury bulb that emitted fluorescent light. It also reported that this technique is generally applied for the collection of moths, scarabaeid beetles (Lepidoptera, Scarabaeidae), and some Hemiptera and Hymenoptera. The beetles have been reported to be trapped by using any source of light [8].

It is concluded from the present study that Leaf roller (Ancylis sativa), Hairy caterpillar (Euproctis fraterna Moore) and Jujube beetle (Adoretus pallens Blanchard) are serious insect pests and can cause heavy economic loss in case of improper management. During two years of studies, highest population density was recorded for these three major pests. Pest monitoring with direct count and light trap can help to determine the ETL that is most important for the management of various insects.

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