Pope stacks school of Cardinals; anti-communist, Opus Dei line strengthened.
I deliberately use the old word -- "creating cardinals" -- because it is so accurate. The pope makes cardinals out of nothing. He need consult nobody. They are entirely dependent on his will. Agency reports speak of him as "installing cardinals" Nov. 26. There is no such ceremony.
Many appointments are "obvious." A cardinal's hat -- also now symbolic -- goes with certain major sees. The two Americans, Joseph Maida, 64, archbishop of Detroit, and William Henry Keeler, 63, archbishop of Baltimore, fall into this category.
But then one has to ask why Justin Rigali, 59, since January archbishop of another see that normally carries a hat, failed to get one. Perhaps he is in this context "too young." We need to see how he performs in St. Louis before moving him to New York when Cardinal John J. O'Connor tenders his resignation Jan. 15, 1995. But not all the obvious nominations are ideologically neutral. Pierre Eyt, archbishop of Bordeaux, France, is close to the "new movements" and possibly Opus Dei.
Opus Dei members may imagine they have the next conclave sown up thanks to the sympathy shown it by the camerlingo or chamberlain, Spanish Cardinal Eduardo Martinez Somalo, 67, appointed in 1991. On the death of the pope, his task will be to arrange the funeral and organize the conclave.
Cardinal Carlo Maria Martini, 67, archbishop of Milan, does not stand a chance in this company -- although he was at the top of the list of European bishops in the election for the synod council.
Then there are "political" appointments in communist or semi-communist countries. John Paul's Polish experience persuades him that cardinals -- men in red -- are best equipped to deal with reds. Thus the archbishop of Hanoi, Paul Joseph Pham Dinh Tung, 75, gets the nod. So too does Jaime Luca Ortega y Alamino, 58, archbishop of Havana whose task is to wave farewell to President Fidel Castro.
There are four cardinals from ex-communist countries. Miroslav Vlk (his name means "wolf"), archbishop of Prague, needs it to strengthen his authority. John Paul maneuvered him into the presidency of the European bishops' conference. The ex-window cleaner did not want the job since it mean ousting Martini.
Prague is at the exact center of Europe. Vlk is a pious man, most of whose new clergy have come out of Focolarini, founded by Chiara Lubich, the best of the new movements.
With excellent theologians like Dominik Duka, provincial of the Dominicans and friend of President Vaclav Havel, and Tomas Halik to help, Vlk can make Prague the crossroads of the church in Europe.
The surprise here -- the joker in the pack -- is Vinko Puljic, 49, archbishop of Sarajevo. John Paul saw a lot of him in the past six months as the pope prepared for his aborted trip to Sarajevo. Puljic, in his intervention at the synod on religious, reported on some sociological field work. Sixty-two percent of the religious he interviewed in Zagreb and Spoleto said they could justify disobedience to their superiors in the name of human rights.
He feared that some religious were more concerned to defend "the collective ideology of their congregation" than the founder's charism. Obedience, virtue and sacrifice had been exchanged, he opined, for "democratic values."
The two others from ex-communist countries are both over 80: Kazimierz Swiatek, archbishop of Minsk,Belarus, stayed on after 75 because there is no one else; and Fr. Mikel Koliqi who miraculously survived the harsh atheist regime in Albania.
Then comes a little group of Jesuits, indispensable when it comes to the crunch.
Augusto Vargas Alzamora, 72, archbishop of Lima, Peru, has played a useful role in the post-Shining Path situation. Julius Riyadi Darmaatmadja, 59, archbishop of Semarang, Indonesia, knows about life under Islam. The other Jesuit cardinal, Fr. Alois Grillmeier, theologian from Sankt Georgen, Frankfurt, is a man of copper-bottomed reliability whose account of the early councils and Christological controversies is the standard work.
The obvious German candidate, Karl Lehmann, bishop of Mainz, was passed over. He made the mistake of helping write the letter on the pastoral treatment of the divorced and remarried that caused a furor. Such deliberate snubs are worrying.
No Brazilian was thought worthy of becoming a cardinal. Yet the president of the conference, Jesuit Luciano Pedro Mendes de Almeida, came first in the election to the synod council. (Cardinal Joseph Bernardin of Chicago came second.) That the country with the world's largest Catholic population should get no new cardinals looks like a deliberate slight.
If Mendes de Almeida, archbishop of Mariana, raises alarm by being a Jesuit -- he would presumably be another vote for Martini -- then Helder Camara Pessoa, 85, formerly bishop of Recife, could have been honored in old age.
In the 1970s Helder Camara was a name to conjure with. He had defied his military regime and was the most "prophetic" bishop in Latin America. As such he stood alongside Mother Teresa at the bicentennial celebration in Philadelphia in 1976. His mistake was to suggest that theologians today should do for Marx what St. Thomas Aquinas did for Aristotle in the 13th century.
While Brazil gets no cardinals, Mexico gets two: Adolfo Antonio Suarez Rivera, 67, archbishop of Monterrey, and Juan Sandoval Iniguez, 61, archbishop of Guadalajara.
Chile's new cardinal, Carlos Oviedo Cavada, 67, archbishop of Santiago, addressed the synod on one-parent families or, as he put it, "families not created through matrimony."
Having a cardinal puts small nations on the map. So Tom Winning, 69, archbishop of Glasgow, Scotland, just shades it ahead of Edinburgh -- or St. Andrew's as it is known. Winning has always tried to stress his man-of-the-people differences with patrician Cardinal Basil Hume down in Westminster.
Like Scotland, Catalonia, a region of northeast Spain, counts as a nation within the European Union. It is right that Ricardo Maria Carles Gordo, 68, archbishop of Barcelona, should get a hat. Maybe Jean-Claude Turcotte, of Montreal, Canada, a youthful 58, belongs here.
The curialists form another distinct group. Carlo Forno, 72, was such a disaster as nuncio to Brazil that he was kicked upstairs as Vatican ambassador to Italy, a post he will now relinquish, since a cardinal cannot be a nuncio.
Luigi Poggi, 77, was once the Vatican's troubleshooter for Central and Eastern Europe. He has now retired into the Vatican Library. He should write his memoirs.
No reporter is known to have ever seen the Swiss Gilberto Agustoni, 72, head of various tribunals in the Vatican. Belgian Jan P. Schotte, 66, has been relatively visible if rather silent as synod secretary since 1984. He must now give up this job, deemed unworthy of a cardinal.
Vincenzo Fagiolo, 76, is president of the Pontifical Council for the Interpretation of Legislative Texts. He solemnly warned the synod that "subsidiarity," of which he approved, did not mean smuggling democratic practices into the church.
Three more complete the list. Emmanuel Wamala, now 67, archbishop of Kampala, Uganda, is the only African, unless we count Armand Gaetan Razafindratandra, 69, of Madagascar. Peter Seiichi Shirayanegi, 66, archbishop of Tokyo, is definitely Asian. From the Mideast is Nasrallah Pierre Sefir, 74, patriarch of the Maronites in Lebanon. The Maronites number 900,000 of the 1.1 million Lebanese Catholics.
"Honorary" cardinals are Ersilio Tonino, formerly archbishop of Ravenna, Italy, star of Italian TV; and French Dominican Yves Congar, who is practically confined to his bed in the Invalides where les grands francais end their days. He will most certainly refuse to be ordained archbishop, as did his friend, the Jesuit Henri de Lubac.
Before this exercise, there were 97 cardinals eligible to vote in the next conclave. After it, and if no one dies in the meantime, the maximum complement of 120 will have been reached. They would be very crowded and possibly asphyxiated in the Apostolic Palace. However, in 1993 work began on a new hotel-like building on the Piazza Santa Marta just inside the Vatican to the left of St. Peter's. It will cost $15 million, said to have been provided by U.S. benefactors.
Officially the purpose of the new building is to house long-term guests to Rome. But with its 130 rooms "complete with every amenity" it could well be used for the next conclave.
The building will be ready by 1996. Is this a clue?
New cardinals [dagger]
Pope John Paul II announced recently the appointment of 30 new cardinals from 24 countries. Their appointments will give the United States 12 cardinals. That is more than any other country except Italy, which will have 37 cardinals after Nov. 26. The following is a complete list of the new cardinals:
[dagger] Patriarch Nastrallah Pierre Sfeir of Antioch of the Maronites, Lebanon.
[dagger] Archbishop Miloslav Vlk of Prague, Czech Republic.
[dagger] Archbishop Luigi Poggi, prolibrarian and pro-archivist of the holy Roman church.
[dagger] Archbishop Peter Seiichi Shirayanagi of Tokyo, Japan.
[dagger] Archbishop Vincenzo Fagiolo, president of the Pontifical Council for the Interpretation of Legislative Texts.
[dagger] Archbishop Carlo Furno, apostolic nuncio in Italy.
[dagger] Archbishop Carlos Oviedo Cavada of Santiago, Chile.
[dagger] Archbishop Thomas Joseph Winning of Glasgow, Scotland.
[dagger] Archbishop Adolfo Antonio Suarez Rivera of Monterrey, Mexico.
[dagger] Archbishop Jaime Lucas Ortega Alamino of San Cristobal de La Habana, Cuba.
[dagger] Archbishop Julius Riyadi Darmaatmadja of Semarang, Indonesia.
[dagger] ARchbishop Jan P. Schotte, secretary general of the Synod of Bishops.
[dagger] Archbishop Pierre Eyt of Bordeaux, France.
[dagger] Archbishop Gilberto Agustoni, pro-prefect of the Supreme Court of the Apostolic Signature.
[dagger] Archbishop Emmanuel Wamala of Kampala, Uganda.
[dagger] Archbishop William Henry Keeler of Baltimore.
[dagger] ARchbishop Augusto Vargas Alzamora of Lima, Peru.
[dagger] Archbishop Jean-Claude Turcotte of Montreal.
[dagger] Archbishop Ricardo Maria Carles Gordo of Barcelona, Spain.
[dagger] ARchbishop Adam Joseph Maida of Detroit.
[dagger] ARchbishop Vinko Puljic of Vhrbosna-Sarajevo, Bosnia- Herzegovina.
[dagger] Archbishop Armand Gaetan Razafindratandra of Antananarivo, Madagascar.
[dagger] Archbishop Paul Joseph Pham Dinh Tung of Hanoi, Vietnam.
[dagger] Archbishop Juan Sandoval Iniguez of Guadalajara, Mexico.
[dagger] Archbishop Bernardino Echeverria Ruiz, retired archbishop of Guayaquil and apostolic administrator of Ibarra, Ecuador.
[dagger] Archbishop Kazimierz Swiatek of Minsk-Mohilev, Belarus.
[dagger] Archbishop Ersilio Tonini, retired archbishop of Ravenna-Cervia, Italy.
[dagger] Msgr. Mikel Koloqi, a priest of the Shkoder, Albania, archdiocese.
[dagger] Dominican Fr. Yves Congar, France.
[dagger] Jesuit Fr. Alois Grillmeier, Germany.
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Title Annotation:||30 new cardinals created by John Paul II|
|Publication:||National Catholic Reporter|
|Date:||Nov 11, 1994|
|Previous Article:||Venerable but rocky history of U.S. collegiality.|
|Next Article:||Here and Now: Living in the Spirit.|