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Pope, John (1822-1892).

American general. Principal wars: U.S.-Mexican War (1846-1848); Civil War (1861-1865). Principal battles: Monterrey (Mexico) (1846); Buena Vista (near Saltillo, Mexico) (1847); Blackwater (near Warrensburg, Missouri) (1861); Island No. 10 (in the Mississippi near New Madrid, Missouri), Bull Run II (Manassas, Virginia), Chantilly (Virginia) (1862).

Born March 16, 1822, in Louisville, Kentucky; graduated from West Point (1842) and commissioned in the topographical engineers; surveyor in Florida and in the Northeast (1842-1846); with Zachary Taylor's army during the Mexican War (1846-1848); brevetted 1st lieutenant at Monterrey (September 20-24, 1846) and captain at Buena Vista (February 22-23, 1847); led a surveying party on the Red River in Minnesota (1849-1850); chief topographical engineer for the Department of New Mexico (1851-1853); western explorer and then surveyor for the Pacific Railroad (1853-1859); 1st lieutenant (March 1853); captain (July 1856); brigadier general of volunteers under Fremont in Missouri (May 1861); won a notable victory at Blackwater, Missouri, defeating Gen. Sterling Price, capturing 1,300 Confederates and numerous supplies (December 18); major general of volunteers and commander of the Army of the Mississippi (March 1862); campaigned against the rebels along the Mississippi River; besieged and captured New Madrid, Missouri (March 3-14) and took Island No. 10 (April 7), which eventually led to the opening of the Mississippi River; served in Halleck's Corinth (Mississippi) campaign (May-June); sent to the Shenandoah valley to mobilize the new Army of Virginia (June); brigadier general of regulars (July); while operating in defense of Washington, D.C., his supply depot at Manassas Station was taken by Jackson (August 27); defeated by Lee at Second Bull Run (August 29-30), he retired on Washington, repulsing an attack by Jackson at Chantilly en route (September 1); relieved of command and his army dissolved (September 5); transferred to command of the Department of the Northwest (probably 1862-1864); commander of the Division (later Department) of the Missouri (January 1865); brevetted major general of regulars (March); built Fort Hays (Hays, Kansas) (1867); subsequently commander of the Third Military District (1867-1868), the Department of the Lakes (1868-1870), and the Department of the Missouri (1870-1883); major general (October 1882); commander of the Department of California and the Division of the Pacific (1883-1886); retired (March 1886); died September 23, 1892, at Sandusky, Ohio.

Pope was a good administrator whose organizational talents were superior to his tactical skills; although he fought credibly in Missouri, his piecemeal, uncoordinated attacks at Second Bull Run, coupled with an abrasive and arrogant personality, cost him future field command; his command of the various western departments was admirable. <BL>

Sources:
Fiske, John, The Mississippi Valley in the Civil War. Boston,
     1900.
Gordon, George H., History of the Campaign of the Army of
     Virginia--from Cedar Mountain to Alexandria, 1862. Boston, 1880.
Mills, Lewis Este, General Pope's Virginia Campaign of 1862.
     Cincinnati, 1870.
Ropes, John Codman, The Army Under Pope. New York, 1882.

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Author:Hawkins, Vincent B.
Publication:The Harper Encyclopedia of Military Biography
Article Type:Reference Source
Date:Jan 1, 1992
Words:475
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