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Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels in an expanded market basket survey of U.S. food and estimated PBDE dietary intake by age and sex.

OBJECTIVES: Our objectives in this study were to expand a previously reported U.S. market basket survey using a larger sample size and to estimate levels of PBDE intake from food for the U.S. general population by sex and age.

METHODS: We measured concentrations of 13 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in food in 62 food samples. In addition, we estimated levels of PBDE intake from food for the U.S. general population by age (birth through [greater than or equal to] 60 years of age) and sex.

RESULTS: In food samples, concentrations of total PBDEs varied from 7.9 pg/g (parts per trillion) in milk to 3,726 pg/g in canned sardines. Fish were highest in PBDEs (mean, 1,120 pg/g; median, 616 pg/g; range, 11.14-3,726 pg/g). This was followed by meat (mean, 383 pg/g; median, 190 pg/g; range, 39-1,426 pg/g) and dairy products (mean, 116 pg/g; median, 32.2 pg/g; range, 7.9-683 pg/g). However, using estimates for food consumption (excluding nursing infants), meat accounted for the highest U.S. dietary PBDE intake, followed by dairy and fish, with almost equal contributions. Adult females had lower dietary intake of PBDEs than did adult males, based on body weight. We estimated PBDE intake from food to be 307 ng/kg/day for nursing infants and from 2 ng/kg/day at 2-5 years of age for both males and females to 0.9 ng/kg/day in adult females.

CONCLUSION: Dietary exposure alone does not appear to account for the very high body burdens measured. The indoor environment (dust, air) may play an important role in PBDE body burdens in addition to food.

KEY WORDS: age, dietary intake, market basket survey, PBDEs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, sex. Environ Health Perspect 114:1515-1520 (2006). doi:10.1289/ehp.9121 available via http://dx.doi.org/[Online 13 July 2006]

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Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), persistent and bioaccumulative flame retardants, are of concern because they are ubiquitous in the United States, are potentially toxic, and have been found at rapidly rising levels in humans during the past few decades (Birnbaum and Staskal 2004; Hites 2004; Schecter et al. 2005b; Sjodin et al. 2004; Webster et al. 2005). The high level of PBDE contamination in the U.S. population and food is cause for concern because these compounds are chemically similar to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and have been shown in laboratory animal studies to be toxic in a number of ways. These include cancer in high-dose studies [National Toxicology Program (NTP) 1986], reproductive and developmental toxicity (Stoker et al. 2004), endocrine disruption (Hallgren and Darnerud 2002), and central nervous system effects (Eriksson et al. 2002; Viberg et al. 2003). PBDEs can be found in some textiles, electronics, (e.g., computers, televisions), plastics, and furniture such as sofas, chairs, and mattresses. Unlike dioxins and PCBs, these chemicals are primarily indoor pollutants and are found at high levels in household vacuum dust and other home and workplace environmental samples (Schecter et al. 2005a; Stapleton et al. 2005).

Very high levels of PBDEs have recently been found in the United States in mothers' milk (Schecter et al. 2003, 2005b), blood (Mazdai et al. 2003; Morland et al. 2005; Schecter et al. 2004, 2005b; Sjodin et al. 2004), food (Schecter et al. 2004), and adipose tissue (Johnson-Restrepo et al. 2005; She et al. 2002). U.S. blood and milk concentrations were 10-to 20-fold higher than the levels found in Europe (Bocio et al. 2003; Meironyte et al. 1999; Noren and Meironyte2000; Ohta et al. 2002). Although levels of dioxins, dibenzofurans, and PCBs in human tissues are declining, PBDEs have been increasing substantially in blood levels in the United States during the past two to three decades (Schecter et al. 2005b; Sjodin et al. 2004).

The penta-BDE and octa-BDE commercial PBDE mixtures are no longer being produced or sold in the United States, whereas deca-BDE continues to be manufactured and sold in the United States as well as worldwide. Furthermore, because these compounds are persistent in the environment, reservoir sources are likely to be present for substantial periods of time. These reservoir sources may continue to contaminate food and dust, both of which are believed to contribute substantially to human intake of these compounds (Birnbaum and Staskal 2004; Jones-Otazo et al. 2005; Webster et al. 2005).

Even though studies have begun to estimate PBDE intake from ingestion and inhalation, the amount and percent of intake from food in the U.S. general population have not been well characterized nor have the amounts of intake from dust ingestion and inhalation been well defined (Jones-Otazo et al. 2005; Stapleton et al. 2005; Webster et al. 2005). The present study expands and complements our previous U.S. market basket survey (Schecter et al. 2004) and also estimates dietary PBDE exposure by age and sex from birth through [greater than or equal to] 60 years of age. The food sample size is approximately twice the size of the earlier study and includes previously unpublished congener data from that study (Schecter et al. 2004). For the first time, we characterize the U.S. population's PBDE intake from food.

Methods

Food samples were purchased during 2003 and 2004 in Dallas, Texas, from three large supermarkets representing national chains. We chose commonly eaten food types and purchased national or store brands whenever possible. Items were frozen and shipped on dry ice to Eurofins-ERGO Laboratory for analysis. The laboratory measured 13 PBDE congeners (BDE-17, BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-66, BDE-77, BDE-85, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-138, BDE-153, BDE-154, BDE-183, and BDE-209) in 62 food samples by gas chromatography-isotope dilution high resolution mass spectrometry. For quality control purposes, one laboratory blank and a quality control pool for each block of samples were run. Quantification was performed only if the sample level was at least twice the blank level. For the analysis of samples of major food types such as fish, meat, cooked egg, cheese, ice cream, and sausage, a total of 5-200 g of the sample was homogenized and mixed with sodium sulfate. Before column extraction, a mixture of internal [.sup.13.C]-labeled standards was added to each sample. A mixture of cyclohexane and dichloromethane was applied during column extraction of lipids. After solvent evaporation, gravimetric lipid determination was performed. Fish oil and human milk were used as quality control pools. Details of the analytical procedure have been described elsewhere (Papke et al. 2004; Schecter et al. 2004). In the present study, we used half the limit of detection (LOD) to estimate levels of congeners below the LOD, whereas we previously calculated them as equal to zero (Schecter et al. 2004).

We used the mean PBDE concentrations in our food samples, in combination with other food consumption estimates, to estimate PBDE intake for several age and sex groups in the U.S. population. We assumed nursing to be the only source of food for nursing infants, and calculation of their intake was based on the assumption that the daily consumption of human milk is 800 g (Dewey et al. 1991; Kent et al. 1999; Neville et al. 1988); milk PBDE levels were primarily levels previously reported (Schecter AJ, unpublished data; Schecter et al. 2003, 2005b). To calculate PBDE intake relative to body weight, we estimated an average weight of 7 kg for nursing infants [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2000]. For other population groups, we obtained the median amount consumed each day for each of several categories of food from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) dietary intake survey (USDA 1999a, 1999b) and from Smiciklas-Wright et al. (2003). These intake estimates were multiplied by the mean PBDE concentration of our sample foods in each category to obtain a PBDE intake estimate for a " typical" man or woman (one whose food intake is at the 50th percentile) for each age group.

Results

Tables 1-4 show the PBDE levels in U.S. food products reported on a whole weight basis. Of the 18 meat samples analyzed (Table 1), total PBDE levels varied from 39 ppt wet weight in a bacon sample to 1,426 ppt in one pork sausage sample. We observed considerable variation in levels, even between samples of the same type of meat, such as bacon, ground pork, and pork sausage. BDE-209 (deca-BDE), the major remaining congener in commercial production, was detected in 8 of the 18 meat samples and, when detected, ranged from 9.7 ppt in one ground beef sample to 245 ppt in ground turkey. Compared with PBDE levels in meat products in Spain (10-172 ppt) and Japan (6.25-63.6 ppt), PBDE levels were higher in the United States (Bocio et al. 2003; Ohta et al. 2002). Of the 24 fish samples analyzed (Table 2), total PBDE concentration ranged from 11 to 3,726 ppt. These values, although somewhat higher, are comparable with PBDE concentrations in fish of 88-1,019 ppt in Spain and 17.7-1,720 ppt in Japan (Bocio et al. 2003; Ohta et al. 2002). As with meat, we found considerable variation between samples of the same type of fish. Farm grown salmon and other fish tend to have higher PBDE concentrations than wild fish. Unfortunately, it is not always clear from the store label whether salmon or other fish were farm grown, because mislabeling appears to be common (Burros 2005). We found BDE-209 in 10 of the 24 fish samples, ranging from 4.9 ppt in a canned tuna sample to 1,269 ppt in a catfish sample. Of 15 dairy products analyzed (Table 3), the total PBDE concentration varied from 7.9 ppt in both whole and nonfat cows' milk, to 683 ppt in cream cheese. We measured BDE-209 in 7 of the 15 dairy samples, with concentrations ranging from 9.1 ppt in lowfat yogurt to 481 ppt in cream cheese. Again, this was considerably higher than concentrations in these foods in Spain (10-48 ppt) (Bocio et al. 2003). Of the five types of miscellaneous food products analyzed (Table 4), eggs were lowest at 85 ppt and calf liver highest at 2,835 ppt total PBDEs. BDE-209 was found in all of the miscellaneous samples except margarine and varied from 10.3 ppt in eggs to 288 ppt in calf liver.

When PBDE concentrations are expressed on a lipid basis, fish still contain the highest levels, followed by meat and dairy products. Table 5 shows the PBDE levels for the various food types analyzed, on a lipid basis as well as on a wet weight basis. Although these lipid-normalized values reflect animal or fish body burdens of PBDEs, they are not useful in calculating dietary intake.

Table 6 and Figure 1 present estimates of dietary intake of PBDEs subdivided by food types for the U.S. population. In all groups > 1 year of age, total PBDE intake from meat is significantly higher than from any other food. As shown in Table 6, the highest dietary intake values of PBDEs are in nursing infants (307 ng/kg body weight per day, which compares to 1.0 or 0.9 ng/kg/day at [greater than or equal to] 60 years of age for men and women, respectively; these are much higher than Swedish values of 0.63 and 0.58 ng/kg/day, respectively (Lind et al. 2002).

Discussion

This larger U.S. market basket survey confirms that PBDE contamination levels in U.S. food are currently higher than previously reported in other countries (Bocio et al. 2003; Huwe and Larsen 2005; Ohta et al. 2002). Fish are highest in PBDE contamination on a whole weight basis, followed by dairy products and meat. Meat is the major source of PBDEs in the U.S. diet after nursing ends, followed by dairy products and fish, unlike some other countries where fish intake predominates (Bocio et al. 2003; Darnerud et al. 2001; Ohta et al. 2002). Men, with larger daily intakes of food, have a larger dietary intake of PBDEs than do women.

A large variation of PBDE levels exist, even for the same type of food (Huwe and Larsen 2005). Although the present study is the largest PBDE food survey in the United States to date to the best of our knowledge, we cannot claim that these new data are a representative sampling of the U.S. diet. Like other published surveys from other countries, the sample size needs to be increased and the samples need to be representative of the diet(s) of the country. Until this is done, uncertainty in estimates of food levels will exist, and as a result, intake estimates will be somewhat imprecise.

The comparatively higher PBDE levels in food cannot however be the only explanation for the 10-to 20-fold higher levels in blood and milk from the U.S. general population compared with European and Canadian levels (Bocio et al. 2003; Mazdai et al. 2003; Meironyte et al. 1999; Morland et al. 2005; Noren and Meironyte 2000; Ohta et al. 2002). Our total daily PBDE intake from dietary sources for adults is only 0.9-1.2 ng/kg body weight, which compares to Spain's 1.2-1.4 ng/kg/day (Bocio et al 2003) and the United Kingdom's approximately 1.5 ng/kg/day, assuming an average adult weight of 70 kg (Harrad et al. 2004), but is higher than Sweden's 0.58-0.63 ng/kg/day (Lind et al. 2002). Although there is a great deal of uncertainty on half-lives of PBDEs, assuming a maximum half-life of 2 years (Geyer et al. 2004; Thuresson et al. 2006) and an American body composition of approximately 25% adipose tissue, PBDE intake from food would lead to a steady-state body burden of < 10 ppb lipid. Given that the median lipid-adjusted levels in the United States from recent blood, milk, and adipose specimens exceed 30 ppb lipid, and that those of the top 5% of the population are 10-100 times greater, it appears unlikely that diet is the sole or even major source of exposure to PBDEs. This is in direct contrast to the situation with PCBs and dioxins in which > 95% of the exposure of the general population comes from food (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2004). This suggests that other routes of intake might be more significant for PBDEs than is the case for dioxins and PCBs.

The trends in dietary intake of PBDEs show a decreased intake per kilogram of body weight with age, with the highest dietary intake during nursing in the first year of life, 307 ng/kg body weight. This is due to the high level of PBDEs in human milk (median, 1,056 pg/g wet weight), assuming that human milk was the only food consumed. Children 2-5 years of age have higher PBDE dietary intake per kilogram of body weight than do older persons because of higher food intake per kilogram of body weight.

PBDE congeners 47, 99, 100, 153, and 154, and in some cases 209, are major contributors in both food concentration and dietary intake estimates. This reflects the previously reported findings on the congener distribution in human blood (Schecter et al. 2005b).

As is true for dioxins and PCBs, human breast milk is a major source of daily exposure to PBDEs for infants. Based on lactational exposure to dioxins, the body burden of the infant does not exceed 3-5 times that of the mother, in spite of the 50-100 times greater daily intake (Abraham et al. 1996; Lorber and Phillips 2002). A similar situation may exist for PBDE exposure of nursing infants, in which case human milk can be a significant route of exposure for babies. We join Wu et al. (2005) in suggesting that, as well as food, routes of exposure such as house dust ingestion and inhalation are likely important pathways of PBDE intake for children as well as adults.

Extrapolating from rodent studies, MacDonald (2005) hypothesized that health risks are possible for more highly exposed persons in the U.S. general population. Although the health effects of the levels we report are not clear, it seems reasonable from a public health standpoint to reduce the levels of these chemicals in the environment.

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Arnold Schecter, (1) Olaf Papke, (2) T. Robert Harris, (1) K.C. Tung, (1) Alice Musumba, (1) James Olson, (3) and Linda Birnbaum (4)

(1) University of Texas School of Public Health at Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA; (2) Eurofins-ERGO, Hamburg, Germany; (3) State University of New York Medical Center at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA; (4) National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina USA

Address correspondence to A. Schecter, University of Texas School of Public Health, 5323 Harry Hines, V8.112, Dallas, TX 75390-9128 USA. Telephone: (214) 648-1096. Fax: (214) 648-1081. E-mail: arnold.schecter@utsouthwestern.edu

This study was partially funded by a grant from the CS Foundation, Warsh Mott Legacy.

The information in this document has been subjected to review by the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and approved for publication. Approval does not signify that the contents reflect the views of the agency, nor does mention of trade names or commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

The authors declare they have no competing financial interests.

Received 23 February 2006; accepted 13 July 2006.
Table 1. PBDE levels (pg/g wet weight) in 18 U.S. meat samples.

Sample Lipid (%) BDE-17 BDE-28 BDE-47 BDE-66

Bacon A 52.3 ND (5.2) ND (7.1) ND (78.8) ND (5.2)
Bacon B 43.4 ND (0.4) ND (2.1) ND (19.9) ND (0.4)
Bacon C 35.3 0.7 ND (2.0) 30.1 NA
Beef (ground) A 30.7 ND (3.1) 59.7 87.5 ND (3.1)
Beef (ground) B 13.6 0.2 ND (0.7) 23.4 0.5
Beef tenderloin 13.7 ND (1.4) ND (1.5) 35.1 ND (1.4)
Chicken breast 4.9 ND (0.04) 0.5 60.5 NA
Duck 75.1 ND (0.5) ND (3.0) 286 2.7
Ground chicken 7.3 ND (0.7) ND (1.5) 11.0 ND (0.7)
Ground lamb 19.7 ND (2.0) ND (2.1) ND (23.0) ND (2.0)
Ground pork 21.5 ND (2.2) ND (3.5) 53.8 ND (2.2)
Ground turkey 11.1 0.2 ND (0.5) 98 0.8
Pork 8.9 0.1 ND (0.5) 6.9 NA
Pork sausage A 23.7 ND (1.3) ND (6.9) 387 ND (1.0)
Pork sausage B 24.4 ND (2.4) ND (3.4) 39.4 ND (2.4)
Sausage A 26.2 ND (2.6) ND (5.5) ND (34.8) ND (2.6)
Sausage B 28.5 ND (2.9) ND (3.2) 94.1 ND (3.5)
Wieners 32.9 ND (0.3) ND (1.5) 386 1.4
Mean 26.3 0.76 4.59 93.2 1.19
Median 24.1 0.66 1.03 39.4 1.08
Minimum 4.87 0.02 0.24 6.93 0.21
Maximum 75.1 2.62 59.7 387 2.74

Sample BDE-77 BDE-85 BDE-99 BDE-100 BDE-138

Bacon A ND (5.2) ND (5.2) ND (28.8) ND (6.8) ND (5.2)
Bacon B ND (0.2) NA ND (15.6) ND (2.8) ND (0.4)
Bacon C NA 1.4 16.8 4.8 ND (0.7)
Beef (ground) A ND (3.1) ND (3.1) 35.5 6.2 ND (3.1)
Beef (ground) B NA NA 32.3 4.5 0.4
Beef tenderloin NA 1.7 40.3 6.9 ND (1.4)
Chicken breast NA NA 128 17.1 2.2
Duck ND (0.3) 15.2 609 122 7.3
Ground chicken NA ND (0.7) 18.9 4.6 ND (0.7)
Ground lamb ND (2.0) 3.2 56.8 16.8 ND (2.0)
Ground pork NA 3.1 74.2 12.9 4.3
Ground turkey ND (0.1) NA 217 54.4 3.9
Pork NA NA 16.3 1.8 0.2
Pork sausage A ND (0.3) 16.8 688 74.5 5.6
Pork sausage B ND (2.4) 2.6 71.6 8.3 ND (2.4)
Sausage A NA 3.1 40.1 6.4 ND (2.6)
Sausage B ND (2.9) ND (2.9) 43.7 8.3 ND (2.9)
Wieners ND (0.2) 11.1 703 53.9 7.2
Mean 0.83 4.93 157 22.7 2.33
Median 0.57 2.62 42 7.57 1.37
Minimum 0.06 0.36 7.79 1.39 0.16
Maximum 2.62 16.8 703 121 7.28

 Total
Sample BDE-153 BDE-154 BDE-183 BDE-209 PBDEs (a)

Bacon A ND (5.2) ND (5.2) ND (5.2) ND (166.6) 165
Bacon B ND (1.1) ND (0.9) ND (1.7) ND (32.8) 39 (b)
Bacon C 4.5 2.8 14.3 28.4 105 (b)
Beef (ground) A 6.8 4.6 ND (4.2) ND (95.7) 258
Beef (ground) B 4.7 2.5 NA 9.7 79 (b)
Beef tenderloin 4.9 3.7 3.8 ND (11.1) 105
Chicken breast 12.0 10.8 3.2 48.5 283 (b)
Duck 52.3 42.9 31.6 113 1,283 (b)
Ground chicken 4.1 2.6 5.8 80 129
Ground lamb 9.6 6.3 ND (2.0) ND (150.6) 186
Ground pork 18.7 15.0 19.9 ND (31.3) 221
Ground turkey 32.9 24.1 36.8 245 713 (b)
Pork 1.0 1.2 1.3 11.7 41 (b)
Pork sausage A 81.6 55.3 14.6 49.7 1,378 (b)
Pork sausage B 22.0 13.7 10.7 ND (139) 244
Sausage A 5.9 4.9 6.9 ND (51.0) 1,426
Sausage B 8.5 9.2 ND (2.9) ND (41.7) 195
Wieners 106 49.8 14.3 ND (28.7) 1,348 (b)
Mean 21.1 14 10.1 53.3 383
Median 7.68 5.63 5.83 38.1 190
Minimum 0.53 0.44 0.86 5.53 39
Maximum 106 55.3 36.8 245 1,426

Abbreviations: NA, not available; ND, not detected. LODs are shown in
parentheses. Total PBDE levels and statistics for each congener were
calculated by assuming that nondetected concentrations were one-half the
LOD; for calculations, these were treated as zero.
(a) Totals rounded to the nearest whole number for hundreds and to the
nearest decimal place for tens. (b) Data from Schecter et al. (2004).

Table 2. PBDE levels (pg/g wet weight) of 24 U.S. fish samples.

Sample Lipid (%) BDE-17 BDE-28 BDE-47 BDE-66

Canned tuna A 0.3 0.1 0.6 5.1 0.2
Canned tuna B 0.5 ND (0.1) 0.2 2.1 0.2
Catfish A 11.1 4.6 6.4 372 4.3
Catfish B 5.3 4.6 5.1 438 13.5
Catfish C 5.2 2.2 3.7 137 0.7
Catfish fillet 5.7 1.1 3.7 197 6.3
 (farm)
Halibut 0.2 0.6 4.1 76.6 2.8
Herring 9.1 4.1 56.3 2,072 69.4
Mahi mahi 0.5 0.6 ND (2.0) 24.1 2.0
Salmon A 8.0 79.2 92.6 1,222 30.6
Salmon B 13.9 118 142 2,081 59.1
Salmon C 10.3 18.4 49.4 1,103 35.3
Salmon D 6.3 1.4 5.2 94.7 5.2
Salmon E 12.3 1.7 20.4 356 ND (2.1)
Salmon fillet 7.4 11.1 50.5 1,000 63.1
 (farm) A
Salmon fillet 6.9 2.3 27.9 517 24.3
 (farm) B
Sardines 9.6 3.3 53.6 2,748 85.6
Shark 0.4 1.1 29.8 784 29.5
Shrimp 0.6 0.3 3.6 75.6 NA
Tilapia 1.0 ND (0.1) ND (0.7) 5.9 NA
Trout A 4.2 4.8 22.2 320 NA
Trout B 10.1 4.3 49.3 826 ND (5.6)
Tuna 0.2 ND (0.1) ND (1.0) 16.6 0.7
Wild perch 1.2 ND (0.1) 0.7 10.2 0.4
Mean 5.43 11.01 26.19 603 20.8
Median 5.52 1.97 5.77 338 5.23
Minimum 0.15 0.03 0.20 2.11 0.18
Maximum 13.9 118 142 2,748 85.6

Sample BDE-77 BDE-85 BDE-99 BDE-100 BDE-138

Canned tuna A NA 0.2 3.2 0.6 ND (0.0)
Canned tuna B NA ND (0.1) 1.1 0.4 ND (0.1)
Catfish A NA NA 589 116 5.1
Catfish B ND (0.1) 41.6 834 102 7.9
Catfish C ND (0.5) 11.7 184 39.5 ND (2.7)
Catfish fillet NA 16.4 282 53.0 ND (4.1)
 (farm)
Halibut NA ND (0.1) 10.6 12.4 ND (0.1)
Herring 3.6 ND (0.9) 267 221 ND (0.9)
Mahi mahi NA 0.6 13.0 5.1 ND (0.8)
Salmon A ND (0.2) NA 93.2 348 ND (0.2)
Salmon B ND (0.1) NA 147 353 ND (0.2)
Salmon C ND (0.1) ND (0.1) 239 217 ND (0.1)
Salmon D ND (0.9) ND (0.6) 15.4 7.1 ND (0.6)
Salmon E ND (1.2) ND (1.2) 84.4 84.2 ND (1.2)
Salmon fillet NA 7.9 410 210 ND (1.4)
 (farm) A
Salmon fillet NA ND (0.7) 168 115 ND (0.7)
 (farm) B
Sardines ND (5.0) ND (1.0) 358 257 ND (1.0)
Shark 0.3 NA 57.8 608 0.4
Shrimp NA NA 9.4 14.3 ND (0.1)
Tilapia NA 0.1 1.3 0.6 ND (0.1)
Trout A NA ND (0.2) 79.8 66.5 0.2
Trout B ND (1.0) ND (1.0) 128 198 ND (1.0)
Tuna NA ND (0.0) ND (4.6) 2.9 ND (0.1)
Wild perch NA ND (0.1) 2.3 2.1 ND (0.1)
Mean 0.78 4.29 166 126 0.89
Median 0.30 0.35 88.8 75.3 0.33
Minimum 0.06 0.02 1.15 0.43 0.02
Maximum 3.60 41.6 834 608 7.94

 Total
Sample BDE-153 BDE-154 BDE-183 BDE-209 PBDEs (a)

Canned tuna A 0.3 0.2 1.1 4.9 16.6
Canned tuna B 0.2 0.3 2.1 8.8 15.5
Catfish A 37.1 39.6 7.3 1269 2,450 (b)
Catfish B 49.9 45.8 4.9 ND (15.9) 1,547 (b)
Catfish C 15.8 15.2 ND (1.6) ND (49.4) 437
Catfish fillet 18.4 21.3 3.8 22.7 627
 (farm)
Halibut 1.1 2.6 1.8 11.4 124
Herring 29.3 69.9 2.5 ND (26.4) 2,809
Mahi mahi 1.4 4.9 4.3 ND (16.6) 66
Salmon A 27.7 98.8 1.4 ND (9.0) 1,999 (b)
Salmon B 36.6 142 ND (1.2) ND (7.0) 3,082 (b)
Salmon C 18.3 45.1 ND (1.3) ND (11.2) 1,732 (b)
Salmon D 1.4 5.0 ND (0.8) ND (9.1) 141
Salmon E 10.1 29.8 ND (1.4) ND (29.2) 605
Salmon fillet 37.4 104 3.7 20.5 1,919
 (farm) A
Salmon fillet 16.0 35.8 1.7 681 1,590
 (farm) B
Sardines 51.9 139 ND (3.2) ND (51.4) 3,726
Shark 112 291 2.0 5.4 1,920 (b)
Shrimp 1.2 2.6 0.2 ND (1.3) 108 (b)
Tilapia 0.2 0.5 ND (0.2) ND (4.0) 11 (b)
Trout A 11.8 26.3 4.4 ND (26.7) 549 (b)
Trout B 24.7 61.3 2.5 ND (42.9) 1,319
Tuna ND (0.4) ND (1.0) 0.5 23.4 48
Wild perch 0.7 2.4 0.6 5.9 25
Mean 21 49.3 2.08 91.8 1,120
Median 15.9 28. 1.68 10.1 616
Minimum 0.21 0.21 0.12 0.63 11.14
Maximum 112 291 7.32 1,269 3,726

Abbreviations: NA, not available; ND, not detected. LODs are shown in
parentheses. Total PBDE levels and statistics for each congener were
calculated by assuming that nondetected concentrations were one-half the
LOD; for calculations, these were treated as zero.
(a) Totals were rounded to the nearest whole number for hundreds and to
the nearest decimal place for tens. (b) Data from Schecter et al.
(2004).

Table 3. PBDE levels (pg/g wet weight) of 15 U.S. dairy product samples.

Sample Lipid (%) BDE-17 BDE-28 BDE-47 BDE-66

American cheese A 19.0 ND (1.9) ND (1.9) 45.5 ND (1.9)
American cheese B 11.6 ND (1.2) ND (1.9) 28.2 0.80
Gouda cheese 26.2 ND (2.6) ND (3.0) 75.6 ND (2.6)
Cottage cheese A 4.7 ND (0.5) ND (1.5) 13.6 ND (0.5)
Cottage cheese B 1.7 ND (0.2) ND (1.3) ND (6.9) ND (0.2)
Cream cheese 39.2 0.4 ND (1.8) 97.8 1.57
Milk (cow's) 3.2 ND (0.3) ND (0.3) ND (5.6) ND (0.5)
Evaporated milk A 6.6 ND (0.1) ND (0.9) 15.8 NA
Evaporated milk B 6.3 ND (0.1) ND (0.9) 11.9 NA
Goat milk 6.7 0.20 2.56 105 1.82
Nonfat milk 0 ND (0.0) ND (0.6) ND (3.8) ND (0.1)
Infant formula A 3.4 ND (0.0) ND (0.5) ND (3.1) ND (0.1)
Infant formula B 3.2 ND (0.1) ND (1.2) ND (7.7) ND (0.1)
Lowfat yogurt 1.3 0.2 0.9 9.05 0.24
Ice cream 19.9 ND (0.2) ND (0.8) 60.5 ND (1.0)
Mean 10.2 0.29 0.79 31.8 0.61
Median 6.3 0.16 0.63 13.6 0.24
Minimum 0.0 0.02 0.16 1.54 0.03
Max 39.2 1.31 2.56 105 1.82

Sample BDE-77 BDE-85 BDE-99 BDE-100 BDE-138

American cheese A NA ND (1.9) 34.9 5.91 ND (1.9)
American cheese B NA ND (1.2) 23.1 4.14 ND (1.2)
Gouda cheese NA 5.52 57.4 12.2 ND (2.6)
Cottage cheese A NA ND (0.5) 14 2.63 ND (0.5)
Cottage cheese B ND (0.2) ND (0.2) 2.24 ND (0.4) ND (0.2)
Cream cheese ND (0.2) NA 77.1 12.2 NA
Milk (cow's) ND (0.3) ND (0.3) 1.58 0.23 ND (0.32)
Evaporated milk A NA NA 8.47 1.89 ND (0.2)
Evaporated milk B NA NA 12.6 2.27 0.20
Goat milk ND (0.07) NA 97.9 27.3 NA
Nonfat milk NA ND (0.1) ND (2.5) ND (0.8) ND (0.1)
Infant formula A NA NA 12.3 1.10 0.27
Infant formula B NA NA ND (5.1) ND (1.5) ND (0.3)
Lowfat yogurt ND (0.02) NA 7.78 1.39 0.05
Ice cream ND (0.4) NA 63.7 9.45 ND (0.4)
Mean 0.10 1.08 27.8 5.48 0.33
Median 0.10 0.24 12.6 2.27 0.20
Minimum 0.01 0.05 1.26 0.22 0.04
Max 0.20 5.52 97.9 27.3 1.31

 Total
Sample BDE-153 BDE-154 BDE-183 BDE-209 PBDEs (a)

American cheese A 3.67 2.67 2.09 14.6 114
American cheese B 2.37 1.67 ND (1.2) 17.5 81.1
Gouda cheese 8.27 4.76 1.6 ND (22.7) 182
Cottage cheese A 1.39 1.01 ND (0.9) ND (13.5) 41.5
Cottage cheese B 0.39 0.27 ND (0.3) ND (4.2) 9.8
Cream cheese 5.96 2.84 ND (5.6) 481.4 683 (b)
Milk (cow's) ND (0.3) 0.22 ND (0.3) ND (3.5) 7.9
Evaporated milk A 1.35 0.44 0.22 ND (1.9) 29.7 (b)
Evaporated milk B 1.91 0.80 ND (0.1) ND (1.9) 31.1 (b)
Goat milk 29 8.27 12.22 5.67 290 (b)
Nonfat milk ND (0.1) ND (0.2) ND (0.1) ND (7.5) 7.9 (b)
Infant formula A 1.41 1.08 0.20 14 32.2 (b)
Infant formula B ND (0.5) ND (0.3) 0.40 16.5 25.4
Lowfat yogurt 0.97 0.40 1.44 9.08 31.6 (b)
Ice cream 6.91 3.41 5.47 ND (41.2) 171 (b)
Mean 4.27 1.87 1.86 40.5 116
Median 1.41 1.01 0.45 9.08 32.2
Minimum 0.06 0.08 0.05 0.94 7.91
Max 29.0 8.27 12.2 481 683

Abbreviations: NA, not available; ND, not detected. LODs are shown in
parentheses. Total PBDE levels and statistics for each congener were
calculated by assuming that nondetected concentrations were one-half the
LOD; for calculations, these were treated as zero.
(a) Totals were rounded to the nearest whole number for hundreds and to
the nearest decimal place for tens. (b) Data from Schecter et al.
(2004).

Table 4. PBDE levels (pg/g wet weight) of five U.S. miscellaneous food
samples.

Sample Lipid (%) BDE-17 BDE-28 BDE-47 BDE-66

Chicken eggs (6) 11.5 0.14 0.20 22.5 0.24
Butter 78.3 0.4 1.3 165 1.2
Calf liver 6.4 0.1 0.4 9.0 NA
Chicken liver 6.4 0.3 1.1 687 5.3
Margarine 83.3 ND (0.7) ND (2) ND (12) ND (2.3)

Sample BDE-77 BDE-85 BDE-99 BDE-100 BDE-138

Chicken eggs (6) 0.03 1.52 36.6 5.93 0.58
Butter NA NA 172 40.4 4.5
Calf liver ND (0.6) 0.5 10.5 1.6 ND (0.2)
Chicken liver NA 27.2 1,258 261 17.9
Margarine ND (1) ND (1.1) ND (7.2) ND (2) ND (1.4)

 Total
Sample BDE-153 BDE-154 BDE-183 BDE-209 PBDEs (a)

Chicken eggs (6) 3.63 2.56 0.68 10.32 85 (b)
Butter 16.8 12.6 5.3 66.2 485 (b)
Calf liver 2.9 1.8 6.2 81.6 115 (b)
Chicken liver 148 130 11.5 288 2,835 (b)
Margarine 0.9 ND (0.9) ND (2.6) ND (142) 88 (b)

Abbreviations: NA, not available; ND, not detected. LODs are shown in
parentheses. Total PBDE levels and statistics for each congener were
calculated by assuming that nondetected concentrations were one-half the
LOD; for calculations, these were treated as zero.
(a) Totals were rounded to the nearest whole number for hundreds and to
the nearest decimal place for tens. (b) Data from Schecter et al.
(2004).

Table 5. PBDE concentrations (pg/g wet weight) in the survey items.

 No. of Lipid-based
 samples Minimum Mean Median Maximum

Human milk (a) 62 6,000 66,000 32,000 419,000
Meat
 Poultry 4 1,708 3,919 3,771 6,423
 Beef 3 581 729 766 840
 Pork 2 461 744 744 1,028
 Bacon 3 90 234 298 316
 Processed meat 5 684 3,408 4,097 5,814
Dairy
 Ice cream 2 859 1,645 1,645 2,431
 Milk 2 NA NA NA NA
 Cheese 6 577 866 697 883
 Eggs 1 NA 739 739 NA
Fat
 Margarine 1 NA 106 106 NA
 Butter 1 NA 619 619 NA
Fish 24 1,100 37,319 17,408 480,000

 Wet weight/whole weight
 Minimum Mean Median Maximum

Human milk (a) 31 1,916 968 21,359
Meat
 Poultry 129 602 498 1,283
 Beef 79 147 105 258
 Pork 41 131 131 221
 Bacon 39 103 105 165
 Processed meat 195 918 1,348 1,426
Dairy
 Ice cream 31.6 101.3 101.3 171
 Milk 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.9
 Cheese 9.8 185 97.6 683
 Eggs NA 85 85 NA
Fat
 Margarine NA 88 88 NA
 Butter NA 485 485 NA
Fish 11 1,119 616 3,726

NA, not available.
(a) Data from Schecter AJ (unpublished data) and Schecter et al.
(2005b).

Table 6. Daily PBDE dietary intake from food sources (pg/kg, or parts
per quadrillion bw).

 Age (years)/sex/bw
 0-1 2-5 6-11 12-19 12-19
 M and F M and F M and F M F
Food (5 kg) (16 kg) (29 kg) (55 kg) (49 kg)

Dairy
 Ice cream and ice milk 0 63 59 33 35
 Milk 0 191 113 61 42
 Total cheese 0 173 121 118 83
 Total dairy 427 293 212 160
Meat
 Poultry 0 790 477 449 344
 Beef 0 211 177 187 126
 Pork 0 52 36 37 23
 Bacon 0 6 4 4 2
 Processed meat 0 780 476 334 215
 Total meat 1,839 1,170 1,011 710
Fish
 Total fish 0 280 232 163 137
Eggs
 Total eggs 0 69 38 31 24
Fat
 Margarine 0 6 6 3 4
 Butter 0 30 17 9 10
 Total fat products 36 23 12 14
 Human milk 306,560 0 0 0 0
Sum PBDE intake per body 306,560 2,652 1,755 1,429 1,045
 weight (pg/kg-day ww)

 Age (years)/sex/bw
 20-39 20-39 40-59 40-59
 M F M F
Food (70 kg) (60 kg) (70 kg) (60 kg)

Dairy
 Ice cream and ice milk 25 17 27 20
 Milk 29 27 29 25
 Total cheese 90 62 56 46
 Total dairy 144 106 112 91
Meat
 Poultry 413 331 396 331
 Beef 168 93 134 88
 Pork 34 22 34 22
 Bacon 3 2 3 3
 Processed meat 300 164 244 153
 Total meat 918 612 811 597
Fish
 Total fish 160 149 208 187
Eggs
 Total eggs 27 21 30 23
Fat
 Margarine 3 3 4 4
 Butter 14 8 7 8
 Total fat products 17 11 11 12
 Human milk 0 0 0 0
Sum PBDE intake per body 1,264 900 1,172 912
 weight (pg/kg-day ww)

 Age (years)/sex/bw
 [greater than or equal to] 60
 M
Food (70 kg)

Dairy
 Ice cream and ice milk 30
 Milk 30
 Total cheese 37
 Total dairy 97
Meat
 Poultry 275
 Beef 95
 Pork 32
 Bacon 4
 Processed meat 178
 Total meat 584
Fish
 Total fish 224
Eggs
 Total eggs 32
Fat
 Margarine 5
 Butter 14
 Total fat products 19
 Human milk 0
Sum PBDE intake per body 957
 weight (pg/kg-day ww)

 Age (years)/sex/bw
 [greater than or equal to] 60
 F
Food (60 kg)

Dairy
 Ice cream and ice milk 22
 Milk 28
 Total cheese 28
 Total dairy 78
Meat
 Poultry 291
 Beef 74
 Pork 22
 Bacon 3
 Processed meat 120
 Total meat 510
Fish
 Total fish 243
Eggs
 Total eggs 26
Fat
 Margarine 4
 Butter 8
 Total fat products 12
 Human milk 0
Sum PBDE intake per body 869
 weight (pg/kg-day ww)

Abbreviations: bw, body weight; F, female; M, male; ww,wet weight.
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Title Annotation:Research
Author:Birnbaum, Linda
Publication:Environmental Health Perspectives
Date:Oct 1, 2006
Words:8102
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