Pollution of "Akmenes cementas" vicinity: alkalizing microelements in soil, composition of vegetation species and projection coverage/"Akmenes cemento" aplinkos tarsa. Dirvozemi sarminantys mikroelementai, augalijos rusiu ivairove ir projekcinis padengimas.
Changes in the atmosphere and soil due to human activities, especially industrial pollution, have a considerable impact on many ecosystems. Atmospheric deposition of toxic mass and alkalizing substances has become an important environmental problem. Soil contamination is the global problem of industrial environment and agricultural technological processes, to which no universal solution has been found yet (Baltrenas et al. 2010; Juostas and Janulevicius 2009; Jankaite 2009). Countless soils around the world are contaminated with heavy metals. In Lithuania, there are wide analyses of air pollutants such as N[O.sub.x], C[O.sub.2] (Juostas and Janulevicius 2009) or particulate matter (Vyziene and Girgzdys 2009). Anthropogenic pollution emissions can be controlled by various biofilters (Baltrenas and Zagorskis 2010). For soil remediation from heavy metals, mathematical modelling can be used (Jankaite 2009).
With increasing environmental pollution and its effects on nature, many ecosystems were undergoing transformation. Forest ecosystems situated close to pollution sources suffer the greatest impact as the concentration of harmful substances in the local pollution zone often exceeds permissible amounts. Up to 1980, environmental pollution has resulted in a significant decrease of biodiversity in anthropogenized or semi-natural ecosystems. This particularly concerns the species of vascular plants as well as diversity of ground vegetation (Tylianakis et al. 2008). Changes of the structure, composition of species and health condition of plant communities are especially characteristic of forest ecosystems locally and on a regional scale (Hendriks et al. 1997; Ozolincius, Stakenas 1999; Juknys et al. 2002). Significant damages of tree stands have been determined in different regions of northwestern Europe (Innes, 1998; Fischer et al. 2007). Most scientists state that decline of forest condition is caused by a complex of various factors, but the main factor causing large scale forest damage is environmental pollution, and other negative factors just strengthen the impact of pollutants (Kandler, Innes 1995; Nihlgard 1997; Klap et al. 2000). In forests of Germany and the Czech Republic that have been severely damaged by anthropogenic pollution, an invasion of nitrophilous and gramineous plants (Schmidt 1993; Bobbink et al. 1998) has been attributed not only to the environmental eutrophication due to nitrogen deposition (Kral 1990; Schmidt 1993), but also to a competitive exclusion of characteristic species due to thinning of tree crowns and to attenuation of the trees (Jones 1989; De Vries et al. 2003).
Changes in the chemical composition of forest soil and impact of these changes on species composition of plant communities considering the direct effect of cement dust were observed in the vicinity of cement plants of Estonia (Liblik et al. 2003; Mandre 1995), northern Lithuania (Armolaitis et al. 1999) as well in Ukraine (BopoH 2002). As a result of fluxes of fly ash, the precipitation in north-east Estonia was often alkaline with pH reaching up to 7.5-9.5; alkaline factor has caused essential changes in environmental conditions in bogs, plant cover and species composition (Karofeld 1994).
Investigations of ground vegetation changes of due to atmospheric deposition was performed making a comparison of the vegetation structure of analogous ecosystems by pollution gradient (control method) or analyzing the changes of plant species composition time-wise (Schmidt 1993).
The condition of damaged forest ecosystems started to improve locally and on regional scale at the beginning of 1990s as the result of reduced environmental pollution (Hendriks et al. 1997; Ozolincius, Stakenas 1999; Juknys et al. 2002; De Vries et al. 2003; Fischer et al. 2007).
The impact of long-term cement dust alkalizing pollution on forest vegetation has not yet been investigated in Lithuania. Before now the investigations in the vicinity of "Akmenes cementas" factory were related to analyzing of tree radial increment and assessment of forest ecosystems health condition. The questions of Scots pine radial growth dynamics, changes peat soil features and communities of pedobionts due to the alkalizing impact of "Akmenes cementas" pollution (Stravinskiene, Kubertaviciene 2001; Stravinskiene, Erlickyte-Marciukaitiene 2009; Armolaitis et al. 2003), analyzing of Scots pine needles surface characteristics (Kupcinskiene, Huttunen 2005) were tackled.
The aim of research was to analyse the alkalizing microelements in peat soil, species composition and coverage of forest undergrowth, herbaceous at different distances from the pollution source.
2.1. Study area
The study area is situated near the "Akmenes cementas" cement factory in Naujoji Akmene (56[degrees]40' N, 22[degrees]87' E) district in the northern part of Lithuania. "Akmenes cementas" is the largest company in the Baltics and one of the largest cement and slate factories in Europe.
It began operating in 1952. At the times of prosperity (the beginning of the 70s of the 20th century) the amount of pollutants discharged into the atmosphere consisted of 27 thou. tons of sulphur dioxide (S[O.sub.2]), 9-10 thou. tons of cement dust, 8.5 thou. tons of nitrogen oxides (N[O.sub.x]), 1 thou. tons of ash and other solid particles annually (Armolaitis et al. 1999). At the beginning of the 1990s, due to industrial decline emissions gradually decreased. In 1989-1991 annual emissions amounted to 60-70 thou. tons. During the transition period, annual emissions decreased due to reduced of plant production and improved production technology. In 2006, emissions comprised about 6.3 thou. tons. Recently, annual emissions of this factory failed to exceed 4-5 thou. tons (Stravinskiene, Erlickyte-Marciukaitiene 2009).
"Akmenes cementas" is surrounded by the forests belonging to Naujoji Akmene forestry of Mazeikiai forest enterprise. Research was performed in drained 65-75-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands of 0.7 stocking level, III site class, located at distances of 0.5-1.0, 3.0-3.5 and 5.5-6.0 km in the direction of prevailing south-westerly winds (Table 1), growing on the peat soils of transitional bog (Terri-Fibric Histosols -[P.sup.t.sub.2]) in Myrtillo-oxalidosa turfuso-siccata forest type (Karazija 1988), characterised by a high absorptiveness of different pollutants. Control Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest stands with analogical dendrometric parameters were chosen in the site that had no local pollution, located at the distance of 10.0-12.0 km in the direction of nonprevailing winds.
2.2. Sampling design and vegetation anglysis
The sample plots were established along a 6.0 km transect running to the east from the plant. Apart from the pollution level, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands and site types in sample plots were relatively similar.
The analysis of physical-chemical characteristics of peat soils and vegetation analysis was carried out from 2005 to 2008 in sampled observation plots at three locations (0.5-1.0, 3.0-3.5 and 5.5-6.0 km) along the study transect in the direction of prevailing winds (Fig. 1). In each distance (observation plot) and control at 3 places, applying the method of American Forest Health Monitoring (Tallent-Halsell 1994), four vegetation study sites (subplots) with a radius of 7.32 m were allocated systematically. Totally, in all observation plots and control 48 vegetation sample squares (microplots) were distinguished. In each microplot 3 vegetation sample quadrates (area of 1 [m.sup.2]) were selected (Fig. 2).
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
All undergrowth species (trees and shrubs) up to the height of 0.6 m, the number of herbaceous and bryophyte species, as well as their projection covering (%) in 144 vegetation sample quadrates in total were ascertained.
Forest litter, 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm peat layer soil samples were collected, prepared and analysed according to widely using in chemical analysis techniques (Manual on Methodology ... 1994; [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ... 1975, etc.). Forest litter and peat layers soil samples at all observation plots at different distances from the pollution source and control forest stands were taken in three replications in 2007. In total, 36 samples of forest litter and peat soil from observation plots and control area were taken. Amounts of strontium, barium, titanium, manganese, copper, chromium, nickel and boron were evaluated. Nomenclature of vascular plants is presented according to Z. Gudzinskas (1999), bryophytes--according to I. Jukoniene (2003). "Statistica" and "Microsoft Excel" software were applied for statistical analysis and presentation of data.
3. Results and discussion
3.1. Study of peat soil microelement composition
Studies on soil nutrient composition have shown that emissions from "Akmenes cementas" contain the alkalizing substances. Alkalizing impact of the emissions increases the amount of strontium, barium, titanium, manganese, lead, copper, chromium, nickel and boron.
At the farthest distance from the pollution source peak amounts of strontium, barium, titanium, manganese (in observation plots I and II 1050 [+ or -] 25 mg/kg and 1100 [+ or -] 50 mg/kg correspondingly) were found in the upper 10 cm layer of peat soil. At the depth of 10-20 cm amounts of microelements were 2-3 times lower, while forest litter according to the accumulation of microelements occupies an intermediate position. Strontium, barium, titanium and manganese are the principal microelements in the cement dust. At the farthest distances from the factory (observation plot III) the amount of microelements decreases (Fig. 3).
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
Most amounts of nickel, chromium, copper and barium were found close to the plant (observation plot I - 46 [+ or -] 4.9 mg/kg) and at the distance 3.0-3.5 km (observation plot II--48 [+ or -] 4.3 mg/kg) in the upper 10 cm layer of peat. At the depth of 10-20 cm their amounts are 4.6-10 times lower, while forest litter according to the accumulation of these microelements occupies an intermediate position--amounts of microelements 1.5-2 times less than in the upper 10 cm layer of peat. Further away from the plant their amounts decrease. At the distance of 5.5-6.0 km from the chemical plant the amount of nickel, chromium, copper and boron in forest litter and peat soil is similar to control (Fig. 4). The dust of calcium and magnesium neutralizes acid peat soils. This leads to alkalization of peat soil and forest litter. During the process of alkalinisation, both harmful (aluminium, manganese, cadmium, lead) and useful (barium, phosphorus, copper, cobalt) for plants elements become active.
[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]
Comparing to the results of our previous analysis (Stravinskiene, Kubertaviciene 2001, the results of this study indicates decreased amounts of microelements in all observation plots. Significant (20-30%) decrease of strontium, barium, titanium and manganese amounts was estimated in forest litter and upper 10 cm peat layer at observation plots I and II (till 3.5 km from the factory). At the farthest distance (5.5-6.0 km) the reduction of amounts is less and similar to the control.
The insoluble cement dust deposited on a wet leaf or needle forms crust, which pushes the sheet surface and changes light, temperature and water treatment of the plant tissues. Solid particles, clogging the stomates of leaves or needles modify the transpiration rate and reduce the intensity of photosynthesis (Mandre 1995). Alkalizing dust causes changes of the metabolic processes, resulting in abnormal growth and development, leading to extinction of some plant species (Annuka 1995).
[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]
Studies in the vicinity of Kunda cement plant in northern Estonia confirm that alkalisation of forest ecosystems and changes of soil, soil water, precipitation, etc. are expressed as changes of the species composition and growth of trees and plant communities considering the direct effect of cement dust (Mandre 1995; Liblik et al. 2003). Studies in Lithuania have shown that moving away from the factory adverse impact of pollutants on the soil cover reliably decreases (Armolaitis et al. 2003).
3.2. Species composition and projection coverage of ground vegetation
This research described features of ground vegetation species composition and coverage in the vicinity of cement factory alkalizing pollution. Study of ground vegetation showed that the total number of plant species at different observation plots at different study year differed insignificantly. On an average, 53 plant species were found. The greater part (75-81 %) of them consisted of vascular plants. The number of herbaceous and bryophytes in different distances from the chemical plant was increasing from on an average 40, at a distance of 0.5-1.0 km from the plant, to 43 at a distance of 5.5-6.0 km. The number of herbs species at the closest distance is 27 [+ or -] 2.4. The average number of herbaceous species was regularly increasing depending on the distance from the plant (Fig. 5). At the farthest distance the total number of herb species increased to 33 [+ or -] 2.8 (Table 2).
Number of herbaceous species in the observation plots significantly (p < 0.05) differed from that of the control. The main indicator species of Myrtillo-oxalidosa site type, i.e. Vaccinium myrtillus L. and Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., appeared only at farther distances, whereas in the area polluted by alkaline dust, nitropfhilic species typical of more fertile site types, such as Rubus idaeus L., Rubus caesius L., Epilobium angustifolium L., Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop., Poaceae sp. herbs were seen more frequently. In the most polluted area Calamagrostis canescens (Weber) Roth, Oxalis acetosella L., Rubus idaeus L., Rubus saxatilis L. and Galium mollugo L. were widespread. Fragaria vesca L., Rubus idaeus L., Galium mollugo L., Epilobium angustifolium L., Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop. were abundant in all vegetation sample quadrates (Table 3).
Eight plant species specific to this zone, i.e. Carex digitata L., Lycopus europaeus L., Galium boreale L., and fertile soil indicators--Aegopodium podagraria L., Maianthemum bifolium (L.) F.W.Schmidt, Urtica dioica L., Sonchus oleraceus L., and Solanum dulcamara L. were found in the observation plot I. Coverage of these species decreased at greater distances from the plant.
According to the results of soil liming experiments (Kreutzer 1995; Kostikov et al. 2001), due to increased soil pH, the concentration of nitrogen compounds in the soil has augmented. The spreading of nitrophilic species has been recorded in most cases when liming of soils leads to an increase in soil pH (Rodenkirchen 1992; Duliere et al. 2000). Our research indicated that with increasing distance from the plant, the coverage of nitrophilic species decreases. It can be explained by the fact that with increasing distance from the source of alkalizing pollution, soil pH decreases.
At greater distances from the factory the projection coverage of Nardus stricta L., Epilobium montanum L., Mycelis muralis (L.) Dumort. has increased. At the distance of 5.5-6.0 km from the pollution source (observation plot III), plant species, such as Stellaria graminea L., Carex lasiocarpa Ehrh., Dactylis glomerata L., Moehringia trinervia (L.) Clairv., and Poa trivialis L. were observed.
The number of species in observation plots in the polluted area was higher by 13-15% than that in the control observation plot (see Table 2). These differences were caused by reduced soil acidity due to the alkalizing impact of emissions. The number of bryophyte species was changing insignificantly, meanwhile that of herbaceous was potentially growing.
The investigated Scots pine stands were similar by the richness of the undergrowth. The undergrowth species composition corresponded to the control, where its species comprised about one fifth (21.7%) of the total number of observed species. Evaluation of the undergrowth vegetation species composition showed that in vicinity of alkalizing emission impact, such deciduous species as Corylus avellana L., Frangula alnus Mill., Quercus robur L., Betula pendula Roth, considered as resistant plants to such pollution type, were existing here. These results confirm the data of other researchers (Annuka 1995) that some deciduous species, like Corylus avellana L., Quercus robur L., Frangula alnus Mill., Betula pendula Roth are resistant to alkalizing pollution.
Salix myrsinifolia Salisb., tolerant fertile and moist soils, was observed at the farthest distance. The number of undergrowth trees and shrubs species decreased as the distance from the alkalizing pollution source increased and varied from 13 at the closest distance to 10 at the farthest distance from the plant.
Mean projection coverage of the undergrowth (trees and shrubs) species varied from 5.2 [+ or -] 0.7% at the closest to the pollution source distance to 2.2 [+ or -] 0.4% at the 3.0-3.5 km distance. Mean projection coverage of the undergrowth species in control study sites is 3.6 [+ or -] 0.8% (Tables 2, 4).
Results of our investigation revealed diversity of plant species composition in the vicinity of alkalizing pollution source due to changes in the chemical status of peat soil (Armolaitis et al. 2003). Other authors (Mandre 1995; Makipaa 1995; Kannukene 1995) have described that the impact of pollution on soil chemical structure changes are better expressible in ground vegetation (herbaceous, bryophytes, lichens, etc.) than in forest trees. In the changed herbal communities, plant species that tolerate acid substrates and are typical for some forest types are inhibited, while neutrophilic and calciphilic species become dominant. With the increasing distance from the pollution source and decreasing influence of emissions species composition of bryophytes has changed gradually: 13 [+ or -] 2.3 species nearby the plant (observation plot I), 10 [+ or -] 3.2 and 10 [+ or -] 3.0 species at farther distances correspondingly. The average number (10 [+ or -] 2.6) of bryophyte species in contol study sites was similar to its number at observation plots II and III (Tables 2, 5).
The dominant bryophyte species, such as Calliergonella cuspidata (Hedw.) Loeske, Plagiomnium affine (Blandow) T.J. Kop.), Plagiomnium undulatum (Hedw.) T.J. Kop.), and Eurhynchium striatum (Hedw.) Schimp.), are nonspecific to Myrtillo-oxalidosa turfuso-siccata site type. Neaby the plant (0.5-1.0 km), in most cases, scraggy, sparse bryophytes were found on the stumps of trees. It was estimated (Okland 1995; Duliere et al. 2000) that alkaline dust affected the moss at first, then grasses and woody plants. Calliergonella cuspidata (Hedw.) Loeske was sufficiently abundant and covered over 9% of this observation plot area.
Species, which tolerate alkaline and carbonized substratum, like Campylium stellatum (Hedw.) Lange et C.E.O. Jensen and Campylium sommerfeltii (Myrin) Lange were found here. Eurhynchium striatum (Hedw.) Schimp., Plagiomnium undulatum (Hedw.) T.J. Kop., and Campylium stellatum (Hedw.) Lange and Thuidium philibertii Limpr were observed rare.
The typical for Myrtillo-oxalidosa site type bryophyte species, such as Hylocomium splendens was found in observation plot II, while Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus--only on the farthest (5.5-6.0 km) distance from the cement factory. Their projection coverage has increased in the farthest areas and they were becoming more viable under these conditions. One of the main indicator species of this site type Pleurozium schreberi at the farthest distance from the pollution source was not detected at all.
[FIGURE 6 OMITTED]
The similar results were obtained in Estonia--at the lowest cement factory impact zone Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus (Hedw.) Warnst.) was observed and Pleurozium schreberi declined also (Kannukene 1995). At the farthest distances an indicatory species of Myrtillo-oxalidosa site type Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus (Hedw.) Warnst. was observed. At observation plots II and III the total number of bryophyte species decreased to 10 and equal to the number of these species in the control forest stand (Table 5).
The coverage of mosses increased with increasing distance from the plant: as the first observation plot compared with the third, at the latter coverage increased by two times. At a distance of 5.5-6.0 km it was the highest (35.2 [+ or -] 3.3%) among all study sites. In the areas closer to the factory (observation plots I and II; 14.6 [+ or -] 2.3% and 17.2 [+ or -] 3.0% correspondingly), the projection coverage of bryophytes was significantly less (p < 0.05) compared with the coverage on the farthest distance and control (28.6 [+ or -] 2.7%) study sites (Fig. 6).
According to the results of our investigation, total projection coverage of vegetation further away from the chemical plant was changing unevenly. The greatest part of coverage consisted of herbs and undergrowth plants. The total coverage of all ground vegetation species varied from 35.5+1.9% in the most polluted area to 19.6 [+ or -] 2.1% at the 3.0-3.5 km distance from the pollution source. It is significantly less (p < 0.05) as compared to control study sites (Table 2, Fig. 6).
The coverage of undergrowth tree and shrub species was significantly greater (p < 0.05) at observation plot I as compared to the control. The projection coverage of herbaceous was reliably greater in the closest to the pollution source observation plot (p < 0.05), while in more distant observation plots it was lower as compared to the coverage in observation plot I and control study sites.
1. Studies on soil nutrient composition have shown that emissions (dusts and ashes) of "Akmenes cementas" cement factory contain the alkalizing substances. Alkalizing impact of emissions increases the amount of strontium, barium, titanium, manganese, lead, copper, chromium, nickel and boron in forest litter and peat soil.
2. Peak amounts of nickel, chromium, copper and barium are found nearby the cement factory and at the distance 3.0-3.5 km in the upper 10 cm layer of peat. At the depth of 10-20 cm their amounts are 4.6-10 times lower; while forest litter according to the accumulation of microelements occupies an intermediate position.
3. 53 plant species were found; most of them (75-81 %) vascular plants. The number of herbaceous species in different observation plots was increasing from 27 [+ or -] 2.4 (at a distance of 0.5-1.0 km from the plant) to 33 [+ or -] 2.8 (5.5-6.0 km). The number of bryophyte species at the closest to the plant distance is 13 [+ or -] 2.3, the number of undergrowth tree and shrub species--13 [+ or -] 3.5.
4. At the farthest distance from the pollution source the total number of bryophyte species decreased to 10+3.0. The undergrowth species structure corresponded to the control, where it species comprised about 21.7% of the total number of ground vegetation species.
5. The main indicator species of the reference peaty Myrtillo-oxalidosa site type Vaccinium myrtillus L. and Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. appeared only at farthest distances, while nearby the plant more frequently occurred species typical for more fertile site types, such as Rubus idaeus L., Rubus caesius L., Epilobium angustifolium L., Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop., Poaceae sp. herbs.
6. In the vicinity of the most intensive pollution, such herbal species as Calamagrostis canescens (Weber) Roth, Oxalis acetosella L. and Rubus saxatilis L., Galium mollugo L., Fragaria vesca L., Rubus idaeus L., Galium mollugo L., Epilobium angustifolium L., Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop. in all vegetation study sites are widespread and prevalent. Nearby the cement factory attributable to calcicole plants Campylium stelatum (Hedw.) Lange et C.E.O. Jensen and Campylium sommerfeltii (Myrin) Lange were found.
7. Total coverage of all ground vegetation species varied from 35.5 [+ or -] 1.9% at the closest to the pollution source distance to 19.6 [+ or -] 2.1% at the 3.0-3.5 km distance from the plant. It is significantly less comparing to control (51.9 [+ or -] 2.2%).
8. Projection coverage of bryophytes was increasing moving away from the plant and at a distance of 5.5-6.0 km it was the highest (35.2 [+ or -] 3.3%) among all study sites.
9. At the farthest distance from "Akmenes cementas", typical for this forest type mosses Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) Schimp., Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus (Hedw.) Warnst. were observed; their projection coverage has increased with the increasing distance from the cement factory.
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Dept of Environmental Sciences, Vytautas Magnus University, Vileikos g. 8, LT-44404 Kaunas, Lithuania
Submitted 10 Oct. 2010; accepted 23 Feb. 2011
Vida STRAVINSKIENE. Dr Habil, Prof. Dept of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Nature Sciences, Vytautas Magnus University (VMU), Lithuania. Employment: professor (2001), Associate Professor (1998). Publications: author of 1 scientific monograph, 6 textbooks and study-guides, over 100 scientific publications. Research interests: ecology and environmental sciences, dendrochronology, assessment of anthropogenic impact on natural and urban ecosystems, forest and urban greenery monitoring, biotesting.
Table 1. Dendrometric characteristics of forest stands at the study sites in the vicinity of "Akmenes cementas" and control Observation plot (distance from Species Age, Mean Mean the plant), km composition years height, m diameter, cm I (0.5-1.0) 10P 70 20 22 II (3.0-3.5) 10P+B 75 23 24 III (5.5-6.0) 9P1B 65 21 21 Control (10.0-12.0) 9P1B 70 24 24 Observation plot (distance from Stoking Site Direction the plant), km level class from the plant I (0.5-1.0) 0.7 III East II (3.0-3.5) 0.7 III East III (5.5-6.0) 0.7 III East Control (10.0-12.0) 0.7 III South-west Note: P--Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), B--downy birch (Betulapubescens Ehrh.) Table 2. Mean abundance and projection coverage of vegetation in vicinity of "Akmenes cementas"t Number of species Distance from the plant, km Herbaceous Bryophytes 0.5-1.0 27 [+ or -] 2.4 13 [+ or -] 2.3 3.0-3.5 32 [+ or -] 2.7 10 [+ or -] 3.2 5.5-6.0 33 [+ or -] 2.8 10 [+ or -] 3.0 Control 26 [+ or -] 2.7 10 [+ or -] 2.6 Number of species Distance from the plant, km Undergrowth All species 0.5-1.0 13 [+ or -] 3.5 53 [+ or -] 2.7 3.0-3.5 12 [+ or -] 3.0 54 [+ or -] 2.9 5.5-6.0 10 [+ or -] 2.4 53 [+ or -] 2.7 Control 10 [+ or -] 2.6 46 [+ or -] 2.6 Projection coverage, % Distance from the plant, km Herbaceous Bryophytes 0.5-1.0 22.2 [+ or -] 2.9 14.6 [+ or -] 2.3 3.0-3.5 12.8 [+ or -] 2.7 17.2 [+ or -] 3.0 5.5-6.0 12.7 [+ or -] 3.1 35.2 [+ or -] 3.3 Control 22.1 [+ or -] 3.2 28.6 [+ or -] 2.7 Projection coverage, % Distance from the plant, km Undergrowth All species 0.5-1.0 5.2 [+ or -] 0.7 35.5 [+ or -] 1.9 3.0-3.5 2.2 [+ or -] 0.4 19.6 [+ or -] 2.1 5.5-6.0 3.1 [+ or -] 0.7 32.8 [+ or -] 2.4 Control 3.6 [+ or -] 0.8 51.9 [+ or -] 2.2 Table 3. Herbaceous plant species and their projection coverage (%) at different distances from the pollution source and control forest stand (an average data from 36 vegetation sample quadrates at each distance and control) Projection coverage (%) at distance from the factory, km Species 0.5-1.0 3.0-3.5 5.5-6.0 Control Aegopodium podagraria L. 0.04 0.03 0.00 0.00 Angelica sylvestris L. 0.00 0.13 0.00 0.00 Athyrium filix-femina (L.) 0.00 0.03 0.04 0.00 Roth Calamagrostis canescens 13.00 0.15 0.05 0.10 (F. H. Wigg.) Roth Carex digitata L. 0.83 0.00 0.01 0.69 Carex elongata L. 0.13 0.58 0.00 0.00 Carex lasiocarpa Ehrh. 0.00 0.00 0.23 0.31 Cerastium holosteoides Fr) 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.00 Chamerion angustifolium (L.) 0.08 0.20 0.08 0.00 Holub Circeae alpina L. 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.00 Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop. 0.23 0.13 0.03 0.00 Dactylis glomerata L. 0.00 0.00 0.48 0.00 Deschampsia cespitosa (L.) 0.03 0.00 0.38 0.23 P.Beauv. Elymus caninus L. 0.03 0.03 0.00 0.03 Epilobium angustifolium L. 0.43 0.53 0.09 0.27 Epilobium montanum L. 0.00 0.08 0.10 0.10 Epilobium palustre L. 0.00 0.03 0.49 0.52 Festuca gigantea (L.) Vill. 0.03 0.05 0.18 0.00 Fragaria vesca L. 0.78 4.00 0.53 0.01 Galium boreale L. 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 Galium mollugo L. 0.13 0.13 0.20 0.10 Geum rivale L. 0.15 0.10 0.00 0.00 Hieracium vulgatum Fr. 0.00 0.07 0.00 0.00 Hypochaeris maculata L. 0.00 0.08 0.00 0.00 Luzulapilosa (L.) Willd. 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.14 Lycopus europaeus L. 0.09 0.00 0.00 0.00 Maianthemum bifolium (L.) 0.03 0.00 0.05 1.10 F.W.Schmidt Malaxis monopfyllos (L.) Sw.) 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.00 Moehringia trinervia (L.) 0.00 0.00 0.23 0.27 Clairv. Moneses uniflora (L.) A.Gray 0.00 0.00 0.57 0.00 Mycelis muralis (L.) Dumort. 0.08 0.20 1.63 0.00 Nardus stricta L. 0.00 0.15 2.05 0.00 Orthilia secunda (L.) House 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.00 Oxalis acetosella L. 3.28 0.08 0.03 6.50 Paris quadrifolia L. 0.09 0.00 0.02 0.00 Poa trivialis L. 0.00 0.00 0.15 0.10 Platanthera bifolia (L.) Rich. 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.00 Ranunculus repens L. 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.39 Rubus caesius L. 0.13 1.75 0.00 0.00 Rubus idaeus L. 2.30 1.58 1.13 0.10 Rubus saxatilis L. 1.09 0.33 0.00 2.40 Solanum dulcamara L. 0.09 0.00 0.00 0.00 Sonchus oleraceus L. 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 Stellaria graminea L. 0.00 0.00 0.90 0.10 Taraxacum officinale F.H.Wigg. 0.05 0.15 0.18 0.00 Torilis japonica (Houtt.) DC.) 0.00 0.07 0.00 0.14 Trientalis europaea L. 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.39 Tussilago farfara L. 0.03 0.10 0.30 0.00 Urtica dioica L. 0.03 0.35 0.00 0.35 Vaccinium myrtillus L. 0.00 0.00 0.55 6.20 Vaccinium uliginosum L. 0.09 0.03 0.00 0.02 Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. 0.00 0.93 0.40 0.70 Valeriana officinalis L. 0.00 0.00 0.08 0.00 Veronica chamaedrys L. 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.12 Viola canina L. 0.00 0.40 0.00 0.00 Table 4. Undergrowth (trees and shrubs) species and their projection coverage (%) at different distances from the pollution source and control forest stand (an average data from 36 vegetation sample quadrates at each distance and control) Projection coverage (%) at distance from the factory, km Control Species 0.5-1.0 3.0-3.5 5.5-6.0 Betula pendula Roth 2.09 0.12 0.70 0.12 Corylus avellana L. 0.14 0.15 0.69 0.61 Crataegus monogyna Jacq. 0.08 0.00 0.00 0.00 Euonymus verrucosus Scop. 0.00 0.08 0.00 0.07 Frangula alnus Mill. 0.00 0.11 0.09 1.03 Fraxinus excelsior L. 0.00 0.00 0.08 0.00 Picea abies (L.) Karst. 1.09 0.41 0.00 0.00 Pinus sylvestris L. 0.13 0.67 0.51 0.45 Populus tremula L. 0.07 0.00 0.15 0.00 Quercus robur L. 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.00 Rhamnus cathartica L. 0.05 0.09 0.00 0.03 Ribes nigrum L. 0.23 0.00 0.00 0.08 Rosa canina . 0.00 0.08 0.00 0.00 Salix caprea L. 0.07 0.00 0.17 0.00 Salix cinerea L. 1.12 0.12 0.00 0.14 Salix myrsinifolia Salisb. 0.00 0.00 0.47 0.00 Sorbus aucuparia L. 0.06 0.19 0.09 1.00 Viburnum opulus L. 0.02 0.05 0.00 0.07 Table 5. Briophyte species and their projection coverage (%) at different distances from the pollution source and in control forest stand (an average data from 36 vegetation sample quadrates at each distance and control) Projection coverage (%) at distance from the factory, km Control Species 0.5-1.0 3.0-3.5 5.5-6.0 Brachythecium curtum (Lindb.) 0.08 0.00 0.00 0.00 Lange et C.E.O.Jensen Brachythecium mildeanum 0.00 0.00 0.78 0.00 (Schimp.) Schimp. ex Milde Bryum capillare Hedw.) 4.03 0.08 0.18 0.10 Calliergonella cuspidata 5.03 0.10 0.00 0.00 (Hedw.) Loeske Campylium sommerfeltii 0.93 0.00 0.00 0.00 (Myrin) Lange Campylium stellatum (Hedw.) 1.10 0.00 0.00 1.00 Lange et C.E.O.Jensen Dicranum montanum Hedw. 0.00 0.10 0.00 0.00 Eurhynchium pulchellum 0.58 4.28 10.25 4.00 (Hedw.) Jenn. Eurhynchium striatum 0.03 0.63 0.15 0.00 (Hedw.) Schimp. Fissidens osmundoides Hedw. 0.03 0.03 3.25 7.80 Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) 0.00 1.65 0.38 0.10 Schimp. Plagiomnium affine (Blandow) 0.00 0.10 0.18 0.00 T.J.Kop. Plagiomnium cuspidatum (Hedw.) 0.93 0.00 0.65 0.00 T.J.Kop. Plagiomnium undulatum (Hedw.) 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 T.J.Kop. Plagiothecium Schimp. 0.04 0.00 0.00 7.10 Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) 0.08 0.08 0.00 0.00 Mitt. Pseudoschleropodium purum 0.00 0.00 0.58 1.90 (Hedw.) M.Fleisch. Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus 0.00 0.00 0.08 0.00 (Hedw.) Warnst. Thuidium philibertii Limpr. 0.02 0.01 0.78 0.00
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|Publication:||Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management|
|Date:||Jun 1, 2011|
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