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Political Science.

American Jewish Attitudes Toward Israeli West Bank Policies. Peter W. Wielhouwer, Western Michigan University; Dawid Tatarczyk, Western Michigan University and Albion College

We examine Jewish Americans' attitudes toward Israel's general security posture and its policies toward the West Bank, including settlements and specific military actions in the 2008-09 Gaza War. As a subset of the larger American population, we anticipate Jewish Americans' policy attitudes regarding Israel to be structured similarly to those of the American public's foreign policy attitudes, while also varying based on differences in Jewish group identification and religious commitments. We find that medium-term beliefs and short-term attitudes have some determinants in common, but that there are also important differences. Long-term factors, such as religious affiliation and ideology, significantly influence Jewish Americans' medium-term beliefs (attitudes toward settlements, Israel's overall security posture, and whether the US should be involved in the Arab-Israeli conflict). Short-term opinions (approval of Israel's 2008-09 Gaza actions), however, are also strongly influenced by Jewish and Israel-identification, perceptions of the disproportionality of Israel's actions, and the actions' perceived impact on Israel's security. Testing further hypotheses based on Zaller's theory of opinion change resistance, we discuss the conditions under which long-term predispositions interact with recent considerations in policy opinion formation.

The Exurb Question: Differentiation of Voter Turnout and Partisan Lean. Hunter L. Koch, Saginaw Valley State University

Exurhan areas are generally defined as those which spring up through human development that is not ordinary to the normal expansion of urban civilization. However, two issues researchers have not been able to tackle are: (1) a method or classification by which exurban areas can be clearly identified for data mining purposes, and (2) the political nature of exurban areas and residents therein. To tackle these questions and provide the unknown answers, this study will look at data for the County of Saginaw in the State of Michigan for data driven answers. Saginaw County, Michigan is ideal for study because of: (1) a wide array of heterogeneity in the population, (2) a large amount of heterogeneity of land use and settlement patterns, (3) clearly identifiable patterns of localized political dominance by a major party, and (4) recent expansion of exurban development. In answering the first question, settlement patterns include: classic urban; classic suburban; modern exurban; bedroom communities; and classic rural. These classifications are upon sub-jurisdictions of Saginaw County using a standard model. The second question will be answered by taking the results of each of the five settlement patterns, and then overlaying demographic, social, and political data over top.

Friends in Low Places: Collaboration between Small Island Developing States and Non-Governmental Organizations at the 21st Conference of Parties. Connor Glick, Oakland University

Isolated and underdeveloped, Small Island Developing States (SIDS) face a unique challenge in the 21st century as global warming phenomena shape both the natural world and the global political landscape. SIDS minute global influence due to their lack of material power brings to mind the structuralist dilemma: how can SIDS affect major change in the international climate regime in time to save their countries from rising sea-level? Investigation of the performance of SIDS at United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change meetings shows that SIDS are able to get a significant part of their goals instituted into the agenda of the agreements, but how? Based on examination of the performance and activities of SIDS at the 21st Conference of Parties of the UNFCCC in Paris in 2015, this paper argues that collaboration with NGOs is one source of SIDS ability to influence the development of the global climate change regime. Building from this, the paper proposes a model for NGO and SIDS cooperation that both develops Keck and Sikkink's Transnational Advocacy Network concept by enumerating a relationship between actors within a TAN and explains the success of SIDS in directing the international climate regime.

Children's Participation Right. Michelet William, Andrews University

This paper presents an overview of the concept of children's participation from a rights perspective, using the United Nations Conventions on the Rights of the Child as a framework, and emphasizes the importance of children's active participation in decisions and actions that relate to their advancement and that of their community. Drawing on examples from a few countries, mainly Haiti, the paper proposes three basic rationales for children's participation: (1) historically, they are key actors of social and political changes, (2) their participation enhances order and stability, and (3) their participation enhances provision and protection rights. As right-holders, children should not be treated as mere recipients of ideas, policies or interventions generated unilaterally by professionals, but be part of the reflections and decisions that inform social policies aiming to improve their lives.

The Scope of Tolerance: Ameliorating Methodological and Substantive Tolerance Measurement Problems between the GSS and Content-Controlled Strategies. Marie A. Eisenstein, Indiana University Northwest

Using data from the 1984-2014 General Social Survey, this research aims to accomplish two things: methodologically, to make a secondary analysis of the GSS measure of political tolerance "backwards compatible" with and attuned to the methodological advantages of the content-controlled measurement strategy for political tolerance, and substantively, to assess whether tolerance is a general attitude, or whether people are "specialized intolerants." To accomplish this, we propose a "scope of tolerance" independent variable. Utilizing OLS regression, our results demonstrate it is possible to render the GSS "backwards compatible" and monitor the tolerance attitudes of mass publics over time. Substantively, political tolerance is a general attitude. Although the willingness to make distinctions among target groups is a variable that differs across respondents, people are not generally "specialized intolerants" and the multidimensional (versus unidimensional) analysis of tolerance/intolerance is generally unwarranted. Finally, our results suggest the dimensionality of political tolerance be considered a distinct variable.
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Title Annotation:American Jews, exurb politics, small island developing states and nongovernmental organization collaboration
Publication:Michigan Academician
Geographic Code:1U3MI
Date:Sep 22, 2018
Words:950
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