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Pleistocene proboscidean sites in Michigan: new records and an update on published sites.

Editor's Comments. Laura Abraczinskas is presently the Collection Manager of the Natural History Divison of the Michigan State University Museum. The paper to follow was part of her masters thesis in zoology at Michigan State University. This is the most recent comprehensive update on the distribution of mastodonts and mammoths in Michigan. The report details new records and provided corrections to old ones. The author verified 211 mastodonts from 41 counties; 49 mammoths from 25 counties; and 11 proboscidean indeterminate sites from nine counties. All of these sites occur in the southern half of the Lower Peninsula, south of the Mason-Quimby Line. The portion of this paper that deals with the history of the study of fossil proboscideans in Michigan is noteworthy.

ABSTRACT

Proboscideans from the Pleistocene of Michigan are the American mastodont (Mammut americanum) and mammoth (Mammuthus spp.). Proboscidean material that cannot be identified to genus is designated Proboscidea Indeterminate. New proboscidean records reported to the Michigan State University Museum include six mastodonts, two mammoths, and six Proboscidea Indeterminate. A re-examination of the Michigan proboscidean literature shows that certain records have been cited repeatedly with different site names, resulting in numerous duplications. After tracing these records through the literature, new totals of Michigan proboscideans were computed. This streamlined set of records and the new records from the Michigan State University Museum bring the total number to 211 mastodonts from 41 counties; 49 mammoths from 25 counties; and 11 Proboscidea Indeterminate sites from nine counties. Presently, all known Michigan proboscidean sites occur in the southern half of the Lower Peninsula.

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INTRODUCTION

The earliest recorded proboscidean find in Michigan was an American mastodont tooth found in 1834 or 1835 along Rice Creek in Calhoun County (Skeels 1962). A few years later, mammoth remains were recovered near the bank of the Paw Paw River in Van Buren County (Lanman 1839). MacAlpin (1940) believed this was a mastodont. Since the recording of these finds, people have continued to recover bones and teeth of Pleistocene proboscideans in the area that is now Michigan.

Several researchers have published reports on locality records and the distribution of proboscideans in Michigan (Dice 1920; Hay 1923; MacAlpin 1940; Skeels 1962; Holman et al. 1986; Holman 1988; Holman et al. 1988; Shoshani 1989). All known Michigan proboscidean sites occur in the southern half of the Lower Peninsula below a line termed the Mason-Quimby line (Holman 1975, 1988, 1991; Holman et al. 1988) (Figure 1). Michigan records of extinct Pleistocene vertebrates are all located south of this line (Holman 1991).

Records of proboscidean finds in Michigan are numerous. Early records were reported by Dice (1920), Fox (n.d.), Hay (1923), Hubbard (1840, 1841), Lane (1902, 1906), Lanman (1839), MacCurdy (1920), and Winchell (1861, 1864). MacAlpin (1940) condensed the above citations and museum records and published a census of mastodont (Mammut americanum) records from 1839 to 1939. Skeels (1962) updated MacAlpin (1940) and reported records of both mastodonts and mammoths from letters, news articles, and museum entries. This was the first compilation of mammoth (Mammuthus spp.) records in Michigan. The site listings of Dice (1920), Fox (n.d.), Hay (1923), Lane (1902, 1906), Sherzer (1927), and Winchell (1861) were incorporated into Skeels' (1962) publication.

Researchers from Michigan museums and other institutions published additional records of proboscidean finds. Hatt (1965b) listed fossil Proboscidea from the Cranbrook Institute of Science. Frankforter (1966) reported new proboscidean records from the Grand Rapids Public Museum. Wilson (1967) published records of Pleistocene vertebrates in Michigan and listed additional proboscidean finds. Holman et al. (1986) provided an update to Wilson (1967), a comprehensive work including a wealth of information on new proboscidean sites as well as pollen spectra and radiocarbon dates. Included were updates on sites previously reported by Skeels (1962) and Wilson (1967). Shoshani (1989) provided an update to Holman et al. (1986) and listed recently recovered material and identified a previously recorded "Proboscidea Indeterminate" specimen as a mastodont.

A problem in the Michigan proboscidean literature is that certain sites have been cited repeatedly with different names, resulting in numerous duplications. MacAlpin (1940) and Skeels (1962), for example, have duplicated reports on museum specimens. Also, failure to document original sources has resulted in the same site being counted more than once, some as many as five times! In addition, duplications occurred when localities were inexactly estimated by one researcher, and then exactly recorded by another. Thus, locality information on Michigan proboscideans needed to be reexamined and each site traced through the literature to obtain an accurate total number of proboscidean finds in Michigan.

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METHODS

Identification of Material

Proboscidean material in the Michigan State University Museum, as well as new specimens brought in for identification, were studied, and all mastodont and mammoth teeth identified. Mastodont tooth placement was determined by using the methods of Hay (1912), with the symbols of Osborn (1936) to indicate specific teeth. Mastodont teeth were measured following the techniques of Saunders (1977). Mammoth teeth were measured with techniques of Maglio (1973). Skeletal elements were identified by utilizing comparative material from the Michigan State University Museum Vertebrate Paleontology Collection (MSUVP), the Indiana State Museum and Memorials Pleistocene Vertebrate Collections (ISM), and the publications of Hay (1912), Olsen (1972), Osborn (1936, 1942), and Warren (1852). Fragmentary skeletal material (including tusks) that could not be identified as Mammut americanum or Mammuthus spp. was designated Proboscidea Indeterminate.

Michigan Proboscidean Locality Data

Published proboscidean sites were traced through the literature. Plat books, county atlases, and historical county records were used to locate specific site data when the names of land owners were published (e.g., Hay 1923; Lane 1902, 1906). Romig (1986) was used to locate names of Michigan places that have changed or disappeared from maps since the publication of early records. A database of Michigan records was compiled and duplications noted. Compiled lists of all known Michigan mastodont, mammoth and Proboscidea Indeterminate sites are presented in Appendices A, B, and C, respectively.

Format of Records

The following records listed under Michigan counties, arranged alphabetically, update the summary of Shoshani (1989) and use the format established by Holman et al. (1986). In several cases, previously published proboscidean records have been re-discussed if more information has become available. Records for material in the Michigan State University Museum Vertebrate Paleontology Division and for new specimens are fully listed. Sites with minor updated information are partially listed, with references to the primary citations. Relevant components of each heading are described below.

Site Name: When bones are discovered on public property, sites are named after an associated geographical feature, and sites discovered on private property are usually named after the owner.

Township Name: Current survey township names for Michigan counties were obtained from McKee (1984). In cases where townships have been incorporated into expanded city limits and do not appear on current maps, older plat books or atlases were used to locate townships. In instances where sites were located within limits of cities, only the city name is listed.

Section Number and Coordinates: The section number follows the township name, with quarter sections designated if available. For sites described as distance in miles from a certain town or landmark, the section number was estimated and the locality designated as "approximate." Tier (T.) and Range (R.) coordinates of the Political Land Survey System were obtained from McKee (1984), or county atlases and plat books.

Age: The age of the site is designated on the basis of radiocarbon dates (with laboratory reference number included) or stratigraphic occurrence.

Material: Skeletal elements and teeth from each site are described, and known museum numbers provided. Names of persons who discovered specimens, the situation in which the material was recovered, and the date of collection are included.

Remarks: Remarks include the present location of the fossils as well as any additional clarifying comments.

Literature: All known associated literature including journal papers, certain news articles, and personal communication citations are listed.

Classification

The classification presented in this paper follows Simpson (1945) and Olsen (1972) for the American mastodont, and Simpson (1945) and Maglio (1973) for the mammoth.

SYSTEMATIC PALEONTOLOGY

The proboscideans that lived in Michigan during the Pleistocene are the American mastodont (Mammut americanum) and mammoth (Mammuthus spp.). The vernacular name for Mammut americanum is "mastodont," which stems from the Greek mast (nipple or breast) and odont (tooth) and literally means "nipple or breast tooth." This term describes the paired cusps on the occlusal surface of each tooth. These paired cusps are termed lophs or ridge crests and are composed of dentine, covered by enamel. The substance cementum is found between the lophs. Many researchers refer to Mammut americanum as a "mastodon" but the more precise term "mastodont" is preferred and will be used throughout this paper.

Mammoth teeth are easily distinguished from those of the mastodont. They consist of a series of compressed plates of dentine surrounded by a layer of enamel and held together with cementum. Dental characteristics of the third upper molars ([M.sup.3]) have traditionally formed the basis of North American mammoth taxonomy. These characteristics include thickness of enamel, lamellar frequency, and plate number.

Mammoths in Michigan have been given varying names in the literature: Elephas primigenius (Case et al. 1935; Hay 1923; Fox n.d.); Elephas columbi (Dice 1920; Hay 1923); Mammuthus columbi (Agenbroad 1984); Mammuthus jeffersonii (Frankforter 1966; Hatt 1965b; Holman et al. 1986; Holman 1988; Holman et al. 1988; Skeels 1962; Wilson 1967); and Mammuthus sp. (Holman 1991; Shoshani 1989). Between 1962 and 1988, researchers in Michigan museums and institutions referred to mammoths recovered in Michigan as Jefferson mammoths (Mammuthus jeffersonii). Currently, the systematics of North American mammoth species is in a state of uncertainty, and researchers hold varying views on the validity of mammoth species names.

Kurten and Anderson (1980) provisionally recognize four North American mammoth species or "stages" (Mammuthus meridionalis, Mammuthus columbi, Mammuthus jeffersonii, and Mammuthus primigenius) as a series of successional populations. Kurten and Anderson (1980) refer to Osborn's (1922, 1942) Mammuthus jeffersonii as being the more progressive evolutionary form and Mammuthus columbi as an intermediate form, and they consider Mammuthus imperator to be synonymous with Mammuthus columbi. They based this arrangement on the idea that Osborn's (1942) name change of Mammuthus columbi to Mammuthus jeffersonii had been ignored.

Others (e.g., Agenbroad 1984; Graham 1986; Maglio 1973) recognize three North American species of mammoth: Mammuthus meridionalis, Mammuthus imperator, Mammuthus columbi, and the Wisconsinan immigrant, Mammuthus primigenius. They also consider Mammuthus jeffersonii to be a synonym of Mammuthus columbi. Maglio described events related to the confusion surrounding the names Mammuthus columbi and Mammuthus jeffersonii, and presented a solution:
 The great confusion associated with the name M. columbi resulted in
 part from Falconer's inadequate holotype specimen and from Osborn's
 (1922) selection of two neotype specimens (AMNH 13707) both of which
 are very close to M. imperator, if not actually identical to it.
 Osborn concluded that the holotypes of imperator and columbi were
 probably conspecific, although in later publications he retained both
 names. For the more progressive elephant material that had previously
 been referred to M. columbi, Osborn proposed the specific name
 jeffersonii. Although Osborn was correct in considering Falconer's
 original holotype specimen as inadequate for species diagnosis, there
 is little evidence that his neotype accurately reflects the true
 characters of the original. Thus it is probably best at present to
 retain Leidy's name imperator for the more primitive of these mammoths
 and Falconer's name columbi for the more progressive stages. This also
 conforms with the most common usage of these names. (Maglio 1973, 62)


Mammuthus "jeffersonii" is not recognized as a valid species by Graham but merely as a chronoclinal and/or a geoclinal variant of Mammuthus columbi. However, it should be considered a valid biological species if contemporaneous and sympatric populations of Mammuthus columbi and Mammuthus "jeffersonii" can be documented (Graham 1986).

The dental features of Mammuthus "jeffersonii" so closely parallel those of Mammuthus primigenius that they cannot be separated solely on the basis of dental characters (Maglio 1973). Because it is difficult to assign mammoth species names to isolated teeth or bones, as measurements often overlap (Kurten and Anderson 1980; Maglio 1973), researchers often refer to mammoths as Mammuthus sp. or Mammuthus spp. According to BIOSIS (1978, C6) the abbreviation "sp." is for "1 species (not named)," and "spp." stands for "more than 1 species (not named)." The fact that records of Mammuthus primigenius are known from several of the Great Lakes states and Ontario, Canada (Agenbroad 1984), raises the possibility of Mammuthus primigenius occurring in Michigan during the Pleistocene. A systematic study of North American mammoth taxonomy has yet to be carried out, thus the name Mammuthus spp. will be used for Michigan mammoths discussed in this paper.

CLASS MAMMALIA Linnaeus, 1758

ORDER PROBOSCIDEA Illiger, 1811

FAMILY MAMMUTIDAE Cabrera, 1929

GENUS MAMMUT Blumenbach, 1799

Mammut Americanum (Kerr, 1792) American mastodont

UPDATE OF MICHIGAN MAMMUT AMERICANUM RECORDS

ALLEGAN COUNTY

1. Keith Site, near Plainwell, Gunplain Township, SE 1/4, NW 1/4, NW 1/4 of Section 10, T. 1 N., R. 11 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: (MSUVP 1112) right [M.sub.1], many vertebrae, ribs, sacrum, and many fragments found at a depth of 1.68 meters (5.5 feet) in marl by Mr. Dale Keith while digging a drainage ditch in September, 1945. Remarks: This site was originally published by Skeels (1962) who listed an additional lower jaw with teeth and many foot bones that presently cannot be located. An extensive file, including maps and photos of the site and the lower jaw (Figure 2) is located in the Michigan State University Museum Vertebrate Paleontology Division records. Several of the thoracic vertebrae exhibit uneven wear on the zygapophyseal facets (Figures 3 and 4). Literature: Skeels (1962).

2. Fleser Site, four miles west of Door, Salem Township, approximately Section 24, T. 4 N., R. 13 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: jawbone with teeth secured by Frank Fleser and others around 1900. Remarks: This site was reported by Hay (1923, 83), Lane (1902, 253), and MacAlpin (1940, 485) as "four miles west of Door." According to the Illustrated Atlas of Allegan County (1895, 45), Mr. Fleser owned land in Section 24 of T. 4 N., R. 13 W., which is exactly four miles west of Door. Assuming that Mr. Fleser found the mastodont jaw on his property, this site is in Section 24 of T. 4 N., R. 13 W. Literature: Hay (1923); Lane (1902); MacAlpin (1940).

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BERRIEN COUNTY

1. Eau Claire, Pipestone Township, Section 32, T. 5 S., R. 17 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: (MSUVP 1277) right [M.sup.2], left [M.sub.2] with part of lower left jaw ramus collected at Eau Claire by B. L. Comstock on August 17, 1896. Remarks: According to the State Agricultural College Museum Ledger, "six molars, part of lower jaw, and other bones from B. L. Comstock; collected at Eau Claire, August 17, 1896." Only the two molars and part of the lower jaw remain in the Michigan State University Museum Vertebrate Paleontology Collection. The whereabouts of the four additional teeth and the other bones is unknown. Dice (1920, 19) stated that "... about 1897 the teeth of a mastodon were dug up by a dredge within the village limits of Eau Claire. Their disposition is unknown." Fox (n.d., 3) reported that "... about 1897 the teeth of a mastodon, (number unknown) were dug up by a dredge within the village limits of Eau Claire. The teeth were taken to Benton Harbor and for a time exhibited in a store there. Their final disposition is unknown." It is highly probable that MSUVP 1277 was reported by Dice (1920) and Fox (n.d.). Hay (1923), Lane (1902), and MacAlpin (1940) have briefly reported on this specimen. Hay (1923, 83) remarked that "the teeth are extraordinarily large...." Literature: Dice (1920); Fox (n.d.); Hay (1923); Lane (1902); MacAlpin (1940).

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2. Terre Coupe (Dayton), NE 1/4 of Section 7, T. 8 S., R. 18 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: right lower jaw ramus with a supernumerary molar ([M.sub.4]) collected at Terre Coupe by A. H. Taylor in 1854. Remarks: This site has been reported in Hay (1923), Lapham (1855), Warren (1855) and Winchell (1864), but section and township information were not provided. Hay (1923, 83) stated that "this place has disappeared from the maps; but it is said to have been situated on the railroad, 11 miles west of Niles, not far east of Galien." Terre Coupe was located in the NW 1/4 of Section 7, T. 8 S. R. 18 W. (Atlas and Plat Book of Berrien County, Michigan 1929, 43) and was renamed Dayton between 1853 and 1860 (Fox 1924; Romig 1986). I believe this specimen is the same as that reported by MacAlpin (1940, 486) as "Galien, approximately Section 1, T. 8 S., R. 19 W." MacAlpin's (1940) approximation is adjacent to the actual site location. Literature: Hay (1923); Lapham (1855); MacAlpin (1940); Warren (1855); Winchell (1864).

EATON COUNTY

1. Narrow Lake Site, Brookfield Township, approximately Section 33, T. 1 N., R. 4 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: right [M.sub.2] collected by Mr. Ozeltine in 1918. Remarks: The material was "... found in marl while digging a channel to Narrow Lake" (M. Malkin, personal communication, 9 May 1991). MacAlpin (1940, 486) reported that "teeth and bones" were found at this site. Mildred Malkin of Haslett, Michigan is in possession of the right [M.sub.2], and received it from Loren Ozeltine (grandson of the person who found it) on February 6, 1968. The whereabouts of the remaining material, originally reported in MacAlpin (1940), is unknown. Literature: MacAlpin (1940); Mildred Malkin, personal communication, 9 May 1991, when the mastodont tooth from Narrow Lake was brought to the Michigan State University Museum for identification.

2. Cummings Farm Site, near Bellevue, Bellevue Township, SW 1/4 of Section 5, T. 1 N., R. 6 W. (Atlas of Eaton County, Michigan 1874, 31). Age: late Pleistocene. Material: bones, including a femur, tusk, and four upper teeth. Remarks: Hay (1923, 81) reported that mastodont remains were "... found on the farm of Mr. Charles Cummings. It [the animal] was a large one, the femur having a length of 3 feet 10 inches and one tusk was over 12 feet in length. Four teeth belonged to the upper jaw. The remains must have been found before 1879." The bones were found "in 1876 in a piece of swamp near his home" (Portrait and Biographical Album of Barry and Eaton Counties, Michigan 1891, 459). MacAlpin (1940) listed a tusk, teeth and bones of a mastodont from Bellevue, in Section 28, T. 1 N., R. 6 W. Because of proximity, and the nearly identical descriptions, I believe these Bellevue sites reported by Hay (1923) and MacAlpin (1940) to be the same. It appears that MacAlpin (1940) assigned the section number corresponding to the town of Bellevue, instead of the Cummings farm. Literature: Hay (1923); MacAlpin (1940).

3. Van Neste Farm Site, near Mulliken, Roxand Township, NE 1/4 of NE 1/4 of Section 6 or NW 1/4 of NW 1/4 of Section 5, T. 4 N., R. 5 W. (Farm Plat Book, Eaton County, Michigan 1957, 17). Age: late Pleistocene. Material: (MSUVP 1290) left lower jaw ramus with [M.sub.2] and [M.sub.3], with many fragments of ribs and vertebrae, found in July, 1959 by Mr. Van Neste, and excavated by R. Carroll, V. Hogg, and H. Klippell on July 9, 1959. Remarks: Skeels (1962) reported this specimen as Michigan State University Museum No. 1130, found 2 miles west and 1 mile north of Mulliken, Ionia County. The site is located in Eaton County, not Ionia County as originally reported. The specimen is currently on exhibit at the Michigan State University Museum. Literature: Skeels (1962).

4. Parker Site, near Mulliken, Roxand Township, SW 1/4 of Section 20, T. 4 N., R. 5 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: (MSUVP 1269) right [M.sup.2] and proximal left humerus collected by Tom Nelson on October 31, 1966. Remarks: This site was reported in Holman et al. (1986). Additional parts of the skeleton are present at the Alma College Department of Biology. The material in the Michigan State University Museum Vertebrate Paleontology Collection was received from Mr. Keith Warner on November 1, 1966. Literature: Holman et al. (1986).

GENESEE COUNTY

1. Johnson Site, Richfield Township, Section 9, T. 8 N., R. 8 E. Age: 12,500 [+ or -] 500 ybp (Shoshani 1989). Material: Material and excavation details are listed in Holman et al. (1986) and Shoshani (1989). Remarks: This site was reported as Section 9, T. 7 N., R. 8E. by Holman et al. (1986) and Shoshani (1989). The actual locality is Section 9, T. 8 N., R. 8 E. (Land Atlas and Plat Book, Genesee County, Michigan 1979, 25). Literature: Fisher (1984b); Holman et al. (1986); Shoshani (1989).

2. Cullen Site, near Davison, Richfield Township, NW 1/4 of Section 34, T. 8 N., R 8 E. (Atlas of Genesee County, Michigan 1889, 85). Age: late Pleistocene. Material: left femur collected by Mr. A. B. Cullen. Remarks: Hay (1923) and MacAlpin (1940) reported this site but the section and township data were not included. Literature: Hay (1923); MacAlpin (1940).

HILLSDALE COUNTY

1. Stafford Farm, near Church, Wheatland Township, NE 1/4 of Section 27, T. 6 S. R. 1 W. (Plat Book of Hillsdale County, Michigan 1894, 21). Age: late Pleistocene. Material: skull, lower jaws, 1 tusk, proximal part of other tusk, 7 cervical vertebrae, 17 thoracic vertebrae, 3 lumbars, sacrum, 11 caudals, 30 ribs, part of sternum, pelvis, right forelimb, and numerous foot bones found in 1901 in a swamp, and acquired by the United States National Museum. Remarks: This site has been reported by Gilmore (1906), Hay (1923), Lane (1902), and MacAlpin (1940). Gilmore (1906, 610) and Hay (1923, 80) have referred to this site as "the farm of Levi Wood" Since this name does not appear on the plat maps, Wood may have been the collector of the specimen, rather than the owner of the farm. MacAlpin (1940) estimated this site to be approximately in Section 21, T. 6 S., R. 1 W. Literature: Gilmore (1906); Hay (1923); Lane (1902); MacAlpin (1940).

ISABELLA COUNTY

1. Near Mount Pleasant, Fremont Township, SW 1/4, SW 1/4 of Section 24, T. 13 N., R. 5 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: (MSUVP 1274) left [M.sub.1] (Figure 5) collected from muck on gravel by John Gott, November 1, 1938. Remarks: The specimen was briefly listed by MacAlpin (1940, 487) as "one tooth." A pelvis (UMMP 44432) was recovered from the same section of Fremont township and was reported in Holman et al. (1986). It is not known if MSUVP 1274 and UMMP 44432 are from the same individual. Literature: MacAlpin (1940).

KALAMAZOO COUNTY

1. Vanmiddlesworth Site, near Climax, Climax Township, Section 1, T. 3 S., R. 9 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: molar tooth. Remarks: The site was reported in Holman et al. (1986) as T. 2 S., R. 9 W. Climax Township is located in T. 3 S., R. 9 W. (Farm Atlas and Plat Book, Kalamazoo County, Michigan 1983, 16). Literature: Holman et al. (1986).

KENT COUNTY

1. Dutmer Site, at Cannonsburg, Cannon Township, SW 1/4 of Section 27, T. 8 N. R. 10 W. (Standard Atlas of Kent County, Michigan 1907,66). Age: late Pleistocene. Material: left [M.sub.3] found by Henry Dutmer. Remarks: Hay (1923,83) reported this specimen to be "in the Kent Scientific Museum at Grand Rapids ..." (currently The Grand Rapids Public Museum). MacAlpin (1940) estimated this site to be in Section 23 of Cannon Township. Literature: Hay (1923); MacAlpin (1940).

2. Shaw Farm Site, Tyrone Township, NE 1/4 of Section 6, T. 10 N., R. 12 W. (Land Atlas and Plat Book, Kent County, Michigan 1988, 35). Age: late Pleistocene. Material: two teeth and several bone fragments were found in April of 1988 while digging a drainage ditch. Remarks: This site was reported by Frankforter (1991), but section and township data were not provided. Literature: Frankforter (1991).

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LENAWEE COUNTY

1. Gregg Site, at Clinton, SE 1/4 of Section 7, T. 5 S., R. 4 E. (Atlas of Lenawee County, Michigan 1893,72). Age: late Pleistocene. Material: teeth and bones including foot bones. Remarks: Hay (1923, 81) and Lane (1902, 253) reported that "at Clinton, Lenawee County, Mr. P. B. Gragg [Gregg] had found several teeth and bones of a mastodon." MacAlpin (1940) reported that mastodont foot bones had been found at Clinton, in Section 7, T. 5 S., R. 4 E. Literature: Hay (1923); Lane (1902); MacAlpin (1940).

2. Decker Site, Northwest of Adrian, Adrian Township, Section 7, T. 6 S., R. 3 E. (New Historical Atlas of Lenawee County Michigan 1874, 69). Age: late Pleistocene. Material: cranium, 5 molars, tusks, scapulae, humeri, radius, carpals, metacarpals, 3 ribs, femora, tibiae, fibula, calcanea, tarsals, metatarsals, 2 caudal vertebrae. These elements were found two feet below the surface of a small peat bog (Winchell 1864) on the farm of Uri Decker. Remarks: This site was reported by Hay (1923), MacAlpin (1940) and Winchell (1864). Hay (1923, 40) incorrectly listed the Range as 4 East. MacAlpin (1940, 488) listed the locality as being "seven miles northeast" of Adrian but provided the correct section and township information. Hay (1923, 81) reported that "in the U. S. National Museum (No. 188) there is a lower jaw of a mastodon found ... in the same locality as the Decker mastodon." This lower jaw and the above-listed skeletal elements probably belong to the same animal. Winchell (1864, 223) stated that many years ago the place was known as a "deer lick." Literature: Hay (1923); MacAlpin (1940); Winchell (1864).

MONTCALM COUNTY

1. Hodges Site, near Stanton, Evergreen Township, in the SW 1/4 of Section 9, T. 10 N., R. 6 W. (Standard Atlas of Montcalm County, Michigan 1921, 27). Age: late Pleistocene. Material: teeth found in 1911 by L. C. Hodges. Remarks: Hay (1923, 82) reported that "Mr. L. C. Hodges, of Stanton, in 1911 found some mastodon teeth." MacAlpin (1940, 488) listed this site as being "in the NE corner of T. 10 N. R. 7 W." Literature: Hay (1923); MacAlpin (1940).

NEWAYGO COUNTY

1. Jolman Site, Sheridan Township, SW 1/4 Section 10, T. 12 N., R. 14 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: right scapula. Remarks: An incorrect range for Sheridan Township was given in Holman et al. (1986). The coordinates for Sheridan township are T. 12 N., R. 14 W. (McKee 1984, 83). Literature: Gilbert (1981); Holman et al. (1986).

OAKLAND COUNTY

1. Calwell Farm Site/Fenton, Rose Township, Section 6, T. 4 N., R. 7 E. (Atlas of Oakland County, Michigan 1872, 37). Age: late Pleistocene. Material: In 1862, a tooth was found on the farm of D. Calwell "in a marshy place" and was described as having "two prongs with the crown of the tooth pretty well worn down" (The Detroit Free Press, 9 January 1862, 1). Remarks: This site was listed in Winchell (1864, 224) as being from "Fentonville, Oakland County.". Section and township details were not provided. This is the same site reported by Hay (1923) and MacAlpin (1940) as being in Fenton, Genesee County. MacAlpin (1940) estimated this site to be in Section 36, T. 5 N., R. 7 E. Literature: Charles H. Martinez, Michigan Archaeological Society, personal communication in letter to J. A. Holman, 12 January 1982, with news article from The Detroit Free Press, 9 January 1862, 1; Hay (1923); MacAlpin (1940); Winchell (1864).

2. Green Site, near Eames, Orion Township, approximately Section 33, T. 4 N., R. 10 E. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: (UMMP 60454) partial scapula, pelvis, and vertebrae (Holman et al., 1986). Remarks: Holman et al. (1986, 450) listed this site as "near Eames, Pontiac Township, Section 33, T 3 N, R 9 E" This information is in error: Eames is located in Orion Township, not Pontiac Township, and T. 3 N., R. 9 E. designate Waterford Township (McKee 1984, 84). Essentially, information pointing to three different townships has been provided. I have been unable to find Nobi Green listed on a plat map of Oakland County, and will assume that this site is in Section 33 of Orion Township, T. 4 N., R. 10 E. next to Eames. Literature: Holman et al. (1986).

OCEANA COUNTY

1. Huls Site, near Rothbury, Grant Township, SW 1/4 of the SW 1/4 of Section 12, T. 13 N., R. 17 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: "palate fragment with R and L [M.sup.2] plus R and L [M.sup.3] and two ribs. Discovered by Adrian Huls, September 1963 ... in peat and mud" (Holman et al. 1986, 451). Remarks: This specimen was donated to the Muskegon County Museum in Muskegon, Michigan. It has been cataloged with Museum numbers X87.89.1 (skull) and X87.89.2-7 (photos). Literature: R. A. Gibson, personal communication in letter of 20 October 1988; Holman et al. (1986).

OTTAWA COUNTY

1. Jonio Farm Site, near Conklin, Chester Township, S 1/2, NW 1/4 of Section 19, T. 9 N., R. 13 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: (MSUVP 1289) tusks, humerus, foot bones, ribs, vertebrae, pelvis, and leg bones discovered by John Jonio in May of 1938, and excavated by the Grand Rapids Public Museum. Remarks: All bones were reported to have been found in muck on top of light-colored till. Material was donated to the MSU Museum by the Grand Rapids Public Museum on June 10, 1947, for the purpose of "filling out" a mastodont specimen that was to be articulated and mounted for an exhibit. This specimen was listed in the mastodont census of MacAlpin (1940, 488) as "about a hundred bones." I believe that this is the Kent County site referred to by Skeels (1962, 112) as "exact locality unknown. Parts of a skeleton. Specimens at the Michigan State University Museum." A label on the bones refers to the Grand Rapids Public Museum, Kent County, but the actual site where the bones were excavated is in Ottawa County. Literature: MacAlpin (1940); Skeels (1962)

SAGINAW COUNTY

1. Willis Farm, St. Charles Township, Section 6, T. 10 N., R 3 E. (Plat Book of Saginaw County, Michigan 1900, pages unnumbered). Age: late Pleistocene. Material: distal tusk, lower jaw, and ribs (Lane 1902). Remarks: Hay (1923, 84) and Lane (1902, 252) reported mastodont remains from the "Willis farm" but locality data were not provided. Literature: Hay (1923); Lane (1902).

2. Mauer Site, near Frankenmuth, Birch Run Township, Section 9, T. 10 N., R. 6 E. (Atlas and Plat Book, Saginaw County, Michigan 1974, 17). Age: late Pleistocene. Material: mandible with right third molar collected from the Raymond Mauer farm. Remarks: Reported by Holman et al. (1986,4 52) as "Frankenmuth Township, Section 9, T 10 N, R 6 E." Literature: Holman et al. (1986).

ST. JOSEPH COUNTY

1. Prairie Lake, Sherman Township, approximately Section 13, T. 7 S., R. 10 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: "two bones" (MacAlpin 1940, 489). Remarks: MacAlpin (1940, 489) lists this site as being in the "East 1/2 of T. 7 S., R. 10 W." (Sherman Township). Prairie Lake extends into Sherman Township in Sections 13 and 24, with the larger part being in Section 13 (Plat Book of St. Joseph County, Michigan 1930, pages unnumbered). Literature: MacAlpin (1940).

SHIAWASSEE COUNTY

1. Warren Site, near Bancroft, Shiawassee Township, Section 36, T. 6 N., R. 3 E. (Standard Atlas of Shiawassee County Michigan 1915, 55). Age: late Pleistocene. Material: tusk, teeth, ribs, and many other bones. Remarks: Lane (1906, 553) listed the remains as being found "near the line between Sections 36 and 25," but did not designate the actual section that the specimen was found in. An incorrect range coordinate was also given. Literature: Hay (1923); Lane (1906); MacAlpin (1940).

VAN BUREN COUNTY

1. Heuser Site, three miles east and one mile south of Hartford, Hartford Township, Section 24, T. 3 S., R. 16 W. (Farm Plat Book, Van Buren County, Michigan 1954, 14). Age: late Pleistocene. Material: (MSUVP 792) right [M.sup.2] and [M.sup.3] and several small skull fragments with sinuses, collected by Robert Heuser from a peat bog during June, 1958. Remarks: specimens were briefly reported by Skeels (1962, 114) as "Michigan State University Museum [number] 5296." The section number was not given. Literature: Skeels (1962).

2. Near Hartford, Hartford Township, T. 3 S., R. 16 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: (MSUVP 1285) a partial right scapula. Remarks: The specimen "was said to have been found while digging a farm pond," and was reported in Holman et al. (1986, 457) as Proboscidea Indeterminate. The specimen was compared with proboscidean material from the Indiana State Museum (ISM catalog number 71.3.39.13), and identified as Mammut americanum. Literature: Holman et al. (1986).

WASHTENAW COUNTY

1. Kuhl Site, near Ann Arbor, Lima Township, Section 33, T. 2 S., R. 4 E. (Triennial Atlas and Plat Book, Washtenaw County, Michigan 1970, 17). Age: late Pleistocene. Material: a list of skeletal elements (UMMP 59936) appears in Holman et al. (1986). Remarks: This site was cited by Holman et al. (1986,453) as "Scio Township, Section 33, T 2 S, R 4 E." The correct township is Lima. Literature: Holman et al. (1986).

2. Killin Gravel Pit Site, Ann Arbor, Scio Township, Section 25, T. 2 S., R. 5 E. (Land Atlas and Plat Book, Washtenaw County, Michigan 1981/1982, 28). Age: late Pleistocene. Material: (UMMP 61427) piece of tusk. Remarks: This site was cited by Holman et al. (1986, 453) as "Ann Arbor Township, Section 25, T 2 S, R 5 E." The correct township is Scio. Literature: Holman et al. (1986).

3. Darling Farm Site, seven miles southeast of Ypsilanti, Augusta Township, Section 12, T. 4 S., R. 7 E. (Combination Atlas Map of Washtenaw County Michigan 1874, 100). Age: late Pleistocene. Material: lower jaw with teeth, teeth of the upper jaw, parts of the cranium, vertebrae, ribs, and some limb bones found "on the farm of Albert Darling ... 7 miles southeast of Ypsilanti" (Hay 1923, 88). Remarks: Hay (1923) listed this site, but did not include section and township information. MacAlpin (1940, 490) estimated the location as "Section 1, T. 4 S., R. 7 E." Literature: Hay (1923); MacAlpin (1940); Russell and Leverett (1908).

WAYNE COUNTY

1. Shattuck Site, near Plymouth, Plymouth Township, approximately Section 26, T. 1 S., R. 8 E. (Illustrated Historical Atlas of the County of Wayne, Michigan 1876, 43). Age: late Pleistocene. Material: tusk and teeth (Hay 1923). Remarks: Both Hay (1923, 87) and Winchell (1861, 132) reported that Mr. Shattuck had exhumed a mastodont tusk and some teeth near Plymouth. Assuming that the specimen was found on his land, the locality of this site is listed above. Literature: Hay (1923); MacAlpin (1940); Winchell (1861).

NEW MICHIGAN MAMMUT AMERICANUM RECORDS

BARRY COUNTY

1. J. Beavers Site, Assyria Township, SE 1/4, NE 1/4, SE 1/4 of Section 28, T. 1 N., R. 7 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: a well-worn right [M.sub.1] (Figure 6) collected May 9, 1987, by James and John Beavers. Remarks: found on the surface of dredged pond matrix that was spread with a bulldozer. The specimen is currently at the Michigan State University Museum for examination.

EATON COUNTY

1. Vermontville Site, Vermontville Township, NE 1/4, SE 1/4, SW 1/4 of Section 14, T. 3 N., R. 6 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: three teeth found in the summer of 1945 by Dale Cotton and Milton Sprague. Remarks: Dale Cotton found one of the teeth (a third molar) while using a tractor to plow the land. Sometime later, Milton Sprague, who owns land adjacent to the corn plot where the tooth was found, recovered two additional teeth (one a second molar). The corn field is on the edge of what was once a large swamp. One tooth (the second molar) remains in possession of Theodore Sprague, who is Milton Sprague's son. One tooth was stolen and the whereabouts of the third tooth is unknown. Literature: Theodore Sprague, personal communication, letters of 5 April 1989, and 21 June 1989.

GRATIOT COUNTY

1. Lentz Site, Farm of Lee and Bertha Lentz, Pine River Township, NW 1/4, NW 1/4 of Section 19, T. 12 N., R. 3 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: left [M.sub.3] recovered in 1970 by Mr. Lentz while tiling, and a femur collected in 1941 in the same vicinity by Mr Lentz' father. Remarks: The femur is believed to be in possession of Anderson College, Anderson, Indiana. It was donated to them by Fred Lepperin. Literature: Ron Kapp, personal communication, letter of 30 March 1989.

KENT COUNTY

1. Plainfield Heights Site, Plainfield Township, SW 1/4 of Section 33, T. 8 N., R. 11 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: one tooth. Remarks: Found by Walter Morrow in August, 1989, in a peat bog. The tooth has since disintegrated. Literature: Walter Morrow, personal communication, 4 March 1991.

SANILAC COUNTY

1. Ellembaum Site, Ralph Ellembaum Farm, 10 miles south of Deckerville, approximately Section 20, T. 11 N., R. 15 E. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: (MSUVP 1268) left [M.sub.1] collected in June, 1962 by Ralph Ellembaum. Remarks: The tooth was turned over by a plow on the Ralph Ellembaum farm.

WASHTENAW COUNTY

1. Scio Farms Estates Site, Scio Township, SE 1/4, NW 1/4, SE 1/4 of Section 20, T. 2 S., R. 5 E. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: (MSUVP 1288) left scapula, 2 thoracic vertebrae, 1 lumbar vertebra, rib fragments, and many tusk fragments collected by Darrell Hughes in 1987. Remarks: The bones were collected from muck.

MAMMUT AMERICANUM TOOTH MEASUREMENTS

Both tusks and cheek teeth develop in American mastodonts. The tusks are second incisors and are composed of dentine. Tusks from the upper jaw (maxilla) are most prevalent, although specimens are occasionally found with short tusks in the lower jaw (mandible). Hay (1912) reported that mandibular tusks were probably indicative of male mastodonts. However, Haynes (1991) found mandibular tusks in both sexes. Six cheek teeth develop in each side of the upper and lower jaws. The first three of these teeth are milk teeth or deciduous premolars, and the last three are permanent molars. Osborn (1936) used the symbols Dp for deciduous premolars and M for molars, with a superscript numeral to indicate upper teeth, or a subscript numeral for lower teeth. The cheek teeth of the upper jaw are numerically designated as: D[p.sup.2], D[p.sup.3], D[p.sup.4], [M.sup.1], [M.sup.2], [M.sup.3]; and teeth of the lower jaw are: D[p.sub.2], D[p.sub.3], D[p.sub.4], [M.sub.1], [M.sub.2], [M.sub.3]. Some researchers utilize the scheme followed for modern elephants: M1, M2, M3, M4, M5, M6. This system makes reference to teeth according to their order of appearance, rather than their ancestry (Haynes 1991). When referring to both upper and lower teeth, both numerical designations are included (e.g., [M.sub.2.sup.2]). An R or L may be placed before the symbol to indicate a right or left tooth.

Each molar tooth has a number of paired cusps called transverse ridges, ridge crests or lophs. D[p.sub.2.sup.2] and D[p.sub.3.sup.3] have two ridge crests. D[p.sub.4.sup.4], [M.sub.1.sup.1], and [M.sub.2.sup.2] have three lophs. [M.sub.3.sup.3] have four lophs and a "vestigial heel" (Skeels 1962), or five lophs may be present. Saunders (1977) used terms to indicate specific lophs of mastodont teeth: Protoloph, Metaloph, Tritoloph, Tetartoloph, and Pentaloph indicate the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth lophs respectively. The suffix -id is added to indicate teeth of the lower jaw.

The Mammut americanum cheek teeth in the Vertebrate Paleontology division of the Michigan State University Museum were examined and measured in millimeters with Sylvac-Fowler electronic calipers. Tooth placement was determined using the methods of Hay (1912), and noted with Osborn's (1936) symbols. Techniques and terminology follow Saunders (1977) and include the application of Simpson's (1949) definitions of length and width (Table 1).

All Mammut americanum teeth in the Michigan State University Museum were determined to be permanent molars ([M.sub.1.sup.1], [M.sub.2.sup.2], or [M.sub.3.sup.3]). Hay (1912) noted that occasionally the last deciduous premolar is difficult to distinguish from the first permanent molar. MSUVP 1268 and MSUVP 1274 were provisionally placed as [M.sub.1] on the basis of measurement ranges of other Michigan mastodont teeth (Skeels 1962). Because MSUVP 1268 and MSUVP 1274 are isolated teeth, it is possible that one or both is D[p.sub.4], and not [M.sub.1]. MSUVP 1274 consists of a crown only (Figure 5). The pulp cavity is evident and no roots were preserved. Specimen MSUVP 1004 consists of a partial cranium (Holman 1979). According to the cranial and palatal features of female skulls in Osborn (1936), MSUVP 1004 appears to be a female. Because the Beavers Site tooth is not catalogued, it is unnumbered.

Class MAMMALIA Linnaeus, 1758

Order PROBOSCIDEA Illiger, 1811

Family ELEPHANTIDAE Gray, 1821

Genus MAMMUTHUS Burnett, 1830

MAMMUTHUS spp. mammoth

UPDATE OF MICHIGAN MAMMUTHUS SPP. RECORDS

ARENAC COUNTY

1. Van Horn Site, near Alger, Moffatt Township, SE 1/4, NE 1/4, NW 1/4 of Section 8, T. 20 N., R. 3 E. Age: 11,280[+ or -]70 ybp (Beta-32130) (Holman 1991). Material: (MSUVP 1219) left [M.sup.3], found by Chris Van Horn who stepped on the tooth while wading in a pond, and the proximal end of a rib, found in a spoil bank by Jerry Van Horn, in August, 1988. Remarks: Specimens were found when the landowners were expanding a pond, and bulldozing the spoil. The tooth was recovered from the west side of the pond, and the rib was found on the bank near the southwest end of the pond. On August 18, 1988, J. A. Holman, D. Parmley, and L. Abraczinskas, from the Michigan State University Museum, visited the site. The Van Horn family donated the specimens to the Michigan State University Museum. Literature: Holman (1991).

BERRIEN COUNTY

1. E. K. Warren Site, Two miles southeast of Three Oaks, Three Oaks Township, NE 1/4 of Section 24, T. 8 S., R. 20 W. (Atlas and Plat Book of Berrien County, Michigan 1929, 39). Age: late Pleistocene. Material: (MSUVP 1276) right and left [M.sup.3]; right and left [M.sub.3] (Figures 7 and 8) found by Ed Ingert on the Warren farm around 1900. Remarks: The teeth, along with a few other bones, were recovered while digging post holes. The specimens were originally deposited in the Chamberlain Memorial Museum. Upon the closing of this Museum, the teeth were cataloged into the Michigan State University Museum Collection, and are presently located in the Vertebrate Paleontology Collection. The whereabouts of the other bones is unknown. Dice (1920), Fox (n.d.), Hay (1923), Sherzer (1927), and Skeels (1962) briefly reported this site, but section and township information were not given. Literature: Dice (1920); Fox (n.d.); Hay (1923); Sherzer (1927); Skeels (1962).

EATON COUNTY

1. Fajnor Farm, near Eaton Rapids, on Wilcox Road, Brookfield Township, NW 1/4 of Section 11, T. 1 N., R. 4 W. (Plat Book of Eaton County, Michigan 1953, 7). Age: late Pleistocene. Material: (MSUVP 1282) partial molar found by Milton Fajnor in 1951 in debris piled up during the dredging of a ditch. Remarks: The specimen had been collected from a muck field. The site was briefly listed in Skeels (1962), but no section or township data were given. Literature: Skeels (1962).

INGHAM COUNTY

1. Near Leslie, three miles west of Leslie, approximately Section 24, T. 1 N., R. 2 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: (MSUVP 1218) right scapula, left femur, right tibia, and right ulna collected in 1960. Remarks: The specimen was found under peat in marl. This site was briefly reported in Skeels (1962). Literature: Skeels (1962).

JACKSON COUNTY

1. Locey Farm, southeast of Eaton Rapids, Tompkins Township, in Section 17, T. 1 S., R. 2 W. Age: 12,200[+ or -]700 ybp (M-507) based on associated wood (Crane and Griffin 1958). Material: (MSUVP 1283) lower jaws with right and left [M.sub.2] and [M.sub.3] (Figure 9), two lengths of a tusk, atlas, axis, cervical vertebrae, 7 thoracic vertebrae, 12 ribs, scapulae, proximal humerus, hyoids, 8 wrist or ankle bones, several fragments, and leg bones dug from a marl pit. The bones were collected by John W. Hope of the MSU Museum from November 1954 to October 1955. Remarks: This specimen was reported by Skeels (1962, 120) as "Michigan State University Museum No. 8238." Literature: Crane and Griffin (1958); Skeels (1962).

[FIGURE 7 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 8 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 9 OMITTED]

SAGINAW COUNTY

1. Pere Marquette Shaft No. 2, West Saginaw, Saginaw Township, Section 28, T. 12 N., R. 4 E. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: tooth found three feet below the surface. Remarks: Hay (1923), Lane (1902), and Skeels (1962) listed this site but did not include section and township information. According to Mills (1918, 451), the Pere Marquette Coal Company sunk a shaft "beyond the City limits between Gratiot and Brockway Streets. This mine was known as Pere Marquette No. 2." The mine was located in Section 28 of Saginaw Township. Literature: Hay (1923); Lane (1902); Skeels (1962).

SHIAWASSEE COUNTY

1. Dysinger Farm, near Perry, one mile away, Perry Township, Section 22, T. 5 N., R. 2 E. (Farm Plat Book, Shiawassee County, Michigan 1956, 3). Age: late Pleistocene. Material: (MSUVP 1281) partial Left [M.sub.3] collected by Floyd Dysinger in September of 1953, while spreading a ridge of dirt on a field. Remarks: A drainage ditch which parallels the field was dredged during the winter of 1951, and it is believed that the tooth was uncovered at that time. The site was briefly listed by Skeels (1962, 122) as "Michigan State University Museum No. 8115," but section and township data were not listed. Literature: Skeels (1962).

NEW MICHIGAN MAMMUTHUS SPP. RECORDS

BERRIEN COUNTY

1. Harbert Site, Approximately 1/4 mile east and 1/8 mile north of Harbert, Chikaming Township, in the SE 1/4, SE 1/4, SW 1/4 of Section 10, T. 7 S., R. 20 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: (MSUVP 1275) left [M.sub.2] found 20 feet below the surface of a gravel pit, on September 5, 1925. Remarks: The specimen was donated to the Chamberlain Memorial Museum of Three Oaks, in December of 1925, by Mrs. J. Frankfort. When the Chamberlain Memorial Museum closed, the specimen was cataloged into the Michigan State University Museum collection in 1952. Literature: News article in The Berrien County Record, December 2, 1924.

TUSCOLA COUNTY

1. Knight Site, near Marlette, 2 miles north and 3 miles west, Koylton Township, SW 1/4 of Section 22, T. 11 N., R. 11 E. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: (MSUVP 749) partial left scapula, rib fragments, partial fibula, pieces of tusk, and other fragments, collected by R. K. Knight on July 15, 1973. Remarks: The bones were said to have been collected from the surface.

MAMMUTHUS SPP. TOOTH MEASUREMENTS

Like the mastodont, mammoths have six teeth in each half of both the upper and lower jaws. The first three of these are milk or deciduous teeth and the last three are true molars. Mammoth teeth are composed of a series of compressed plates (called lamellae) of enamel covered dentine held together with cementum. The symbols used to denote mammoth teeth are the same as those used for the mastodont (Skeels 1962).

The Mammuthus spp. teeth in the Michigan State University Museum Vertebrate Paleontology Division were examined and measured with Sylvac-Fowler electronic calipers. Tooth placement was determined and noted with symbols (e.g., L[M.sup.3] for left third upper molar). The metrical procedure of Maglio (1973) was used to obtain measurements of length (L), width (W), height (H), plate number (P), lamellar frequency (LF), and enamel thickness (ET). The number of plates in the occluded portion of the tooth (NOP) was also recorded, after Richards (1984) (Table 2).

The length (L) measurement was taken perpendicular to the average lamellar plane. Width (W) was taken at the widest part of the tooth. The plate number at which this value was recorded appears as a superscript. Such references to individual plates are referred to as P1, P2, etc. when counted from the front, and PI, PII, etc. when the plates are counted from behind. The maximum crown height (H) is taken vertically along the plate from the enamel base to the highest point on its apex. The plate number is recorded as a superscript of this measurement. The plates were counted, and the lamellar frequency (LF) measured. This LF is a standard measurement of the average number of plates in a distance of 10 cm (= 100mm) along the anteroposterior axis of the tooth. The most accurate LF measurement is an average of the LF's taken at the bases and apices of the lingual and buccal surfaces of the tooth. The thickness of enamel (ET) was averaged from a series of 10 measurements from the crown. The number of plates on the occlusal surface (NOP) was counted and recorded. MSUVP 1283 consists of lower jaws with partially erupted [M.sub.3]s (Figure 9), and it was not possible to take all measurements.

PROBOSCIDEA INDETERMINATE

New Michigan Records

ALLEGAN COUNTY

1. Mathis Site, Otsego Township, SW 1/4, NW 1/4 of Section 1, T. 1 N., R. 12 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: distal part of a femur, found by Steve Mathis in 1987 while expanding a pond; pelvic fragment; and several small bone and tusk fragments were collected by J. A. Holman, G. Larson, and L. Abraczinskas on April 15, 1988. Remarks: This material was found on the surface of pond matrix that was spread with a bulldozer. The femur was damaged by the bulldozer. The specimen is currently at the Michigan State University Museum for examination.

INGHAM COUNTY

1. Wilcox Road Site, one half mile west of Aurelius Road on Wilcox Road, Delhi Township, Section 22, T. 3 N., R. 2 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: one broken tusk, and two bones collected by Lloyd Ketchum on September 23, 1965. Remarks: This locality information was obtained from Michigan State University Museum files. The whereabouts of this material is unknown.

JACKSON COUNTY

1. Near Jackson, six miles northwest, Sandstone Township, approximately Section 11, T. 2 S., R. 2 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: (MSUVP 1279) poorly preserved portion of tusk and several tusk fragments collected by Leon B. Walling on September 1, 1948. Remarks: This specimen was reported by Skeels (1962) as a broken mastodon tusk, Michigan State University Museum 7745. This partial tusk was identified here as Proboscidea Indeterminate due to its incomplete and fragmented condition.

KENT COUNTY

1. Gravel Pit at Grandville, approximately Section 17, T. 6 N., R. 12 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: (MSUVP 1267) poorly preserved portion of tusk uncovered by Clyde Denslow in November, 1950. Remarks: The specimen was uncovered with a hand shovel. The tusk is in the Michigan State University Museum Vertebrate Paleontology Collection.

2. Gravel Pit in Cannon Township, SE 1/4, NE 1/4 of Section 26, T. 8 N., R. 10 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: (MSUVP 1113) well-preserved portion of tusk excavated from sand in a gravel pit by Tom and Bernard Skipper in the summer of 1985. Remarks: The site was said to have been a gravel pit with a marsh next to it.

OTTAWA COUNTY

1. Cedar Road Site, Robinson Township, NE 1/4, SE 1/4 of Section 1, T. 7 N., R. 15 W. Age: late Pleistocene. Material: partial shaft of left femur (MSUVP 1286) collected by Austin Dobson in the fall of 1966. Remarks: The specimen is in the Michigan State University Museum Vertebrate Paleontology Collection.

SUMMARY OF MICHIGAN PROBOSCIDEAN RECORDS

The Michigan mammoth and Proboscidean Indeterminate records indicate that only one individual was recovered per site. For the mastodont sites, a few records indicate that more than one individual was recovered per site. These include: six specimens from Bakerstown Marsh, Berrien County (Dice 1920; Fox n.d.; Hay 1923; Lane 1902; MacAlpin 1940); possibly two individuals from the Paw Paw River Bed, Berrien County (Hay 1923; Hubbard 1840, 1841; MacAlpin 1940); possibly two specimens from the Johnson site, Genesee County (Shoshani 1989); parts of three specimens from south of Alma, Gratiot County (MacAlpin 1940); and two individuals from Henderson in Shiawassee County (Skeels 1962). The accuracy of these records has not been determined; some may reflect duplications of original reports, or material from one animal recovered by several persons. Until this is examined further, only one individual from each site will be counted.

After tracing the Michigan proboscidean records through the literature, and noting the numerous duplications, new totals of Michigan proboscideans were computed. This report includes 33 updated and six new mastodont sites; seven updated and two new mammoth sites; and six new Proboscidea Indeterminate sites. The new and updated records presented in this report and the list of Michigan Mammut americanum, Mammuthus spp., and Proboscidea Indeterminate sites in Appendices A, B, and C respectively, bring the total number of sites to: 211 mastodonts from 41 counties; 49 mammoths from 25 counties; and 11 Proboscidea Indeterminate records from nine counties.
APPENDIX A MICHIGAN MASTODONT DATA

COUNTY SITE NAME 1/4 1/4 1/4 SECTION TIER RANGE

Allegan Keith Site/ SE NW NW 10 1N 11W
 Plainwell
Allegan Gun River -- 1N 11W
Allegan N of South Haven 32 1N 16W
Allegan SW of Fennville 11* 2N 16W
Allegan Fleser Site/W of 24 4N 13W
 Door
Barry Beavers Site SE NE SE 28 1N 7W
Barry Hastings 16* 3N 8W
Barry Possibly Carlton -- 4N 8W
 Township
Bay Frankenlust SW 1 13N 4E
Bay Auburn/Williams SW 3 14N 3E
 Township
Berrien Watervliet Site NW NE 1 3S 17W
Berrien Hager Township SE NE 22 3S 18W
 Site
Berrien SE of Watervliet 1* 4S 17W
Berrien Adams Farm 9* 5S 17W
Berrien Eau Claire 32 5S 17W
Berrien Berndt Site 13 5S 19W
Berrien Baroda NE SE 17 6S 19W
Berrien S of Baroda/ 23* 6S 19W
 Beebe Farm
Berrien Snow 36 6S 19W
Berrien Bakerstown Marsh/ 3 8S 18W
 Buchanan
Berrien Terre Coupe/ NE 7 8S 18W
 Dayton/E of
 Galien
Berrien E of Three Oaks/ 1* 8S 20W
 Avery Marsh
Berrien Paw Paw River Bed -- -- --
Branch Quincy, in a -- 6S 5W
 Marl Lake
Branch Archer's Lake 5* 7S 5W
 Site
Branch Bronson Site 16 7S 8W
Calhoun Heisler Site SE NE NE 14 1S 4W
Calhoun Along Rice -- -- --
 Creek
Clinton Avery Road Site 2* 7N 2W
Eaton Narrow Lake/ 33* 1N 4W
 Ozeltine Site
Eaton Northeast of NW 11 1N 5W
 Olivet
Eaton Bellevue/ SW 5 1N 6W
 Cummings Farm
Eaton Vermontville Site NE SE SW 14 3N 6W
Eaton NW of Millet SW 21 4N 3W
Eaton Van Neste Farm NW NW 5 4N 5W
 Site
 or NE NE 6
Eaton Parker Site SW 20 4N 5W
Genesee Ray Road Site 35 6N 5E
Genesee Cole Site -- 6N 5E
Genesee Davison 4 7N 8E
Genesee Flushing Site NE 24 8N 5E
Genesee Johnson Site 9 8N 8E
Genesee Cullen Site/Near NW 34 8N 8E
 Davison
Genesee Richfield -- 8N 8E
 Township
Genesee Taylor Site 20 9N 7E
Genesee Otisville 30 9N 8E
Genesee Unknown locality -- -- --
 near Flint
Genesee Unknown locality -- -- --
 near Davison
Gladwin Unknown locality -- 17N 1,2W
 near Beavertown
Gratiot St. Louis, 3 mi 4* 11N 2W
 SE
Gratiot Ruskovic Site/N SW 5 11N 2W
 of Ithaca
Gratiot Smith Site SW NE 17 11N 2W
Gratiot South of Alma NE NE 3 11N 3W
Gratiot Shaffer Site 25 11N 4W
Gratiot Lentz Site NW NW 19 12N 3W
Gratiot Thaller Site SE NE NE 18 12N 4W
Gratiot Pitt Farm Site NW 22 12N 4W
Gratiot Riverdale 31 12N 4W
Hillsdale Church/Wood- NE 27 6S 1W
 Stafford Farm
Hillsdale Near Hemlock 5 7S 4W
 Lake
Huron Island near 10* 16N 9E
 Sebewaing
Ingham Sheathelm Site 19 2N 2E
Ingham Gulick Road Site 9 4N 1E
Ingham Unknown locality -- -- --
 W of Fowlerville
Ionia Crandell Site 9 5N 6W
Isabella Near Mt. Pleasant SW SW 24 13N 5W
 /Fremont Twp
Isabella Near Winn 24 13N 5W
Jackson Root State 8 2S 1E
 Prison Farm
Jackson Unknown locality -- 2S 1W
 on Portage Creek
Jackson Unknown locality -- 2,3S 1W
 near Jackson
Jackson Near Jackson 9 3S 1W
Kalamazoo West end of 30 or 31 1S 9W
 Sherman Lake
Kalamazoo Fort Custer 1 or 2 2S 9W
 Military
 Reservation
Kalamazoo Kalamazoo 3 2S 11W
Kalamazoo Valley Flat of -- 2S 11W
 Kalamazoo River
Kalamazoo Vanmiddlesworth 1 3S 9W
 Site
Kent NE Part of Bowne 11* 5N 9W
 Township
Kent Ross/Zuidema Farm 34 5N 12W
Kent Kramer/Buck Creek 29 6N 11W
 Drainage Ditch
Kent Smith Site 18 6N 12W
Kent Cannonsburg/ SW 27 8N 10W
 Dutmer Site
Kent Plainfield SW 33 8N 11W
 Heights Site
Kent Shaw Farm Site NE 6 10N 12W
Kent Unknown, N of -- -- --
 Grand Rapids
Lapeer Hadley 21 6N 9E
Lapeer Big Fish Lake 33 6N 9E
Lapeer Southeast of 14 7N 10E
 Lapeer
Lapeer Van Sickle Site 28 7N 10E
Lapeer Rappuhn Site NE SW 21 10N 11E
Lapeer Possibly near -- 10N 11E
 Clifford
Lenawee Gregg Site/ SE 7 5S 4E
 Clinton
Lenawee Tecumseh 33 5S 4E
Lenawee NE of Tecumseh 18 5S 5E
Lenawee Decker/NW of 7 6S 3E
 Adrian
Lenawee Cadmus Road Site 17 7S 1E
Lenawee Clayton SE 7 7S 2E
Lenawee Adrian 2 7S 3E
Lenawee Seneca Township 5 8S 2E
Lenawee Seneca 9* 8S 2E
Lenawee S of Weston 32 8S 3E
Livingston Putnam Township SW 36 1N 4E
Livingston Green Oak 11* 1N 6E
Livingston Four Lakes Drive 27 1N 6E
 Site
Livingston SW of Howell 3* 2N 4E
Livingston Adams Site 7 3N 4E
Livingston Shiawassee -- 3N 4E
 River/Howell Twp
Livingston Tyrone 27 4N 6E
Livingston Unknown locality -- 4N 6E
 in Tyrone Twp
Livingston Unknown locality -- -- --
 Near Fowlerville
Macomb S of Mt. Clemens 33* 2N 13E
Macomb Clinton R Valley NE 31 3N 12E
 /Leech Farm/Utica
Macomb Unknown locality -- -- --
 in Macomb Co.
Midland Midland Country 9 14N 2E
 Club
Midland Near Midland -- 14N 2E
Midland Unknown locality -- 14N 2E
 in Midland Twp
Monroe Oakville 3 5S 7E
Monroe Petersburg 3* 7S 6E
Montcalm Eldridge Site SW 15 10N 5W
Montcalm Stanton/Hodges SW 9 10N 6W
 Site
Montcalm Unknown Locality -- -- --
 near Stanton
Muskegon Unknown locality -- 9N 16W
 Fruitport Twp
Muskegon N of Moorland/ NE NE 16 10N 14W
 McKay Site
Newaygo Jolman Site SW 10 12N 14W
Newaygo Unknown locality -- 13N 12W
 near White Cloud
Newaygo NW of Fremont 7* 13N 14W
Oakland Near New Hudson 8 1N 7E
Oakland Bloomfield Hills 24 2N 10E
 Mastodont
Oakland Birmingham 32* 2N 11E
Oakland Troy Township NW 35 2N 11E
Oakland Troy Juvenile -- 2N 11E
 (CIS 892)
Oakland Groleau-White 23 3N 8E
 Lake Site
Oakland Mastodont of 4 3N 10E
 Pontiac
Oakland Pontiac Twp SW NE 15 3N 10E
 Juvenile
Oakland Calwell Farm 6 4N 7E
 Site/Fenton
Oakland Green Site/Near 33* 4N 10E
 Eames
Oakland Near Holly 27 or 32 5N 7E
Oakland Shelton Site SE SE 26 5N 9E
Oakland Mosher Site SW NW 18 5N 10E
Oceana Huls Site SW SW 12 13N 17W
Osceola Near Evart 23 17N 8W
Osceola Hersey NE 24 17N 10W
Ottawa E of Holland 31* 5N 14W
Ottawa Allendale SW 21 7N 14W
Ottawa Jonio Farm Site/ NW 19 9N 13W
 Conklin
Saginaw NE of Elsie SE SW 4 9N 1E
Saginaw Unknown locality -- 9N 1E
 in Chapin Twp
Saginaw Chesaning 9* 9N 3E
Saginaw Willis Farm 6 10N 3E
Saginaw Mauer Site 9 10N 6E
Saginaw NE of Birch Run 24* 10N 6E
Saginaw Frankenmuth SW 32 10N 6E
Saginaw S of Bridgeport 33* 11N 5E
Saginaw NW of Saginaw 20 13N 3E
Saginaw Near Freeland NW 29 13N 3E
Saginaw Unknown locality -- -- --
 near St. Charles
St. Claire N of St. Claire 2 5N 16E
St. Claire Lake Huron Shore 35* 7N 17E
 at Port Huron
St. Claire Unknown Locality -- -- --
 on Huron Shore
St. Joseph Blake Site 27 5S 9W
St. Joseph SE of Colon 24 6S 9W
St. Joseph Zeller Site 21 or 22 7S 9W
St. Joseph Prairie Lake 13* 7S 10W
Sanilac Marlette 5 10N 12E
Sanilac Elk Township Site 19 10N 14E
Sanilac Ellembaum Site 20* 11N 15E
Sanilac NE of Kingston 6* 12N 12E
Sanilac Bryce Site 2 12N 14E
Sanilac Argyle Township 2 13N 13E
 Site
Sanilac Unknown locality -- -- --
 near Crosswell
Sanilac Unknown Locality -- -- --
Shiawassee Vanagon Site 14 5N 3E
Shiawassee Unknown locality -- 5N 4E
 near Byron
Shiawassee Warren Site/ 36 6N 3E
 Bancroft
Shiawassee Owosso 24* 7N 2E
Shiawassee Venice/Johnson 21 7N 4E
 Site
Shiawassee Henderson 16 8N 2E
Shiawassee Near Corunna 24 8N 3E
Tuscola Gilford 26 13N 7E
Tuscola S of Cass City 21* 13N 11E
Tuscola Unknown Locality -- 14N 11E
 near Cass City
Van Buren Almena Township 33 2S 13W
Van Buren Shine Site 2 2S 16W
Van Buren NW of Hartford 6* 2S 16W
Van Buren Lawton 31* 3S 13W
Van Buren Paw Paw River 26* 3S 14W
 valley flat
Van Buren Pine Creek Site 17 3S 16W
Van Buren Heuser Site 24 3S 16W
Van Buren Near Hartford -- 3S 16W
Van Buren Powers Site NE SW 14 4S 14W
Van Buren Unkn locality -- -- --
 near PawPaw Lake
Van Buren Unknown locality -- -- --
 in County
Washtenaw Kuhl Site 33 2S 4E
Washtenaw Scio Farms SE NW SE 20 2S 5E
 Estates Site
Washtenaw Killin Gravel 25 2S 5E
 Pit Site
Washtenaw Freedom Township NE 4 3S 4E
Washtenaw Rogers Corners 9 3S 4E
Washtenaw Pleasant Lake 20 3S 4E
 Site
Washtenaw Lodi Township SW SW 17 3S 5E
Washtenaw Lodi Township 23 3S 5E
Washtenaw Saline 36* 3S 5E
Washtenaw Sakstrup Site 14 3S 6E
Washtenaw S of Saline 12* 4S 5E
Washtenaw SW of Saline 17* 4S 5E
Washtenaw W of Saline 19* 4S 5E
Washtenaw NE of Macon SW SE 33 4S 5E
Washtenaw SE of Ypsilanti/ 12 4S 7E
 Darling Farm
Washtenaw Near Milan 29 4S 7E
Wayne Hollis Site 15 1S 8E
Wayne Near Plymouth/ 26* 1S 8E
 Shattuck Site
Wayne Unknown Locality -- 3S 11E
 in T3S R11E
Wayne Trenton/Vreeland NW NE 12 4S 10E
 Farm/Monguegon
Wayne East of Flat Rock 34* 4S 10E

COUNTY SITE NAME MIN# REFERENCES

Allegan Keith Site/ 1 Skeels (1962), this paper
 Plainwell
Allegan Gun River 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Allegan N of South Haven 1 Skeels (1962)
Allegan SW of Fennville 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Allegan Fleser Site/W of 1 Hay (1923), MacAlpin (1940), Lane
 Door (1902), this paper
Barry Beavers Site 1 This paper
Barry Hastings 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Barry Possibly Carlton 1 MacAlpin (1940)
 Township
Bay Frankenlust 1 Lane (1902), MacAlpin (1940)
Bay Auburn/Williams 1 Hay (1923), Lane (1902, 1906),
 Township MacAlpin (1940)
Berrien Watervliet Site 1 Skeels (1962)
Berrien Hager Township 1 Skeels (1962)
 Site
Berrien SE of Watervliet 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Berrien Adams Farm 1 Skeels (1962)
Berrien Eau Claire 1 Dice (1920), Fox (nd), Hay (1923),
 Lane (1902), MacAlpin (1940), this
 paper
Berrien Berndt Site 1 Holman et al. (1986), Wilson (1967)
Berrien Baroda 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Berrien S of Baroda/ 1 Dice (1920), Fox (nd), Hay (1923),
 Beebe Farm MacAlpin (1940)

Berrien Snow 1 Dice (1920), Fox (nd), MacAlpin
 (1940)
Berrien Bakerstown Marsh/ 6? Dice (1920), Fox (nd), Hay (1923),
 Buchanan Lane (1902), MacAlpin (1940)
Berrien Terre Coupe/ 1 Hay (1923), Lapham (1855), MacAlpin
 Dayton/E of (1940), Warren (1855), Winchell
 Galien (1864), this paper
Berrien E of Three Oaks/ 1 Dice (1920), Fox (nd), MacAlpin
 Avery Marsh (1940)
Berrien Paw Paw River Bed 2? Hay (1923), Hubbard (1840, 1841),
 MacAlpin (1940)
Branch Quincy, in a 1 MacAlpin (1940)
 Marl Lake
Branch Archer's Lake 1 MacAlpin (1940)
 Site
Branch Bronson Site 1 Holman et al. (1986)
Calhoun Heisler Site 1 Bearss and Kapp (1987), Holman et
 al.(1986), Shoshoni (1989)
Calhoun Along Rice 1 Skeels (1962)
 Creek
Clinton Avery Road Site 1 Skeels (1962)
Eaton Narrow Lake/ 1 MacAlpin (1940), this paper
 Ozeltine Site
Eaton Northeast of 1 Hay (1923), Lane (1902), MacAlpin
 Olivet (1940)
Eaton Bellevue/ 1 Hay (1923), MacAlpin (1940), this
 Cummings Farm paper
Eaton Vermontville Site 1 this paper
Eaton NW of Millet 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Eaton Van Neste Farm 1 Skeels (1962), this paper
 Site
Eaton Parker Site 1 Holman et al. (1986), this paper
Genesee Ray Road Site 1 Holman et al. (1986), Wilson (1967)
Genesee Cole Site 1 Holman et al. (1986)
Genesee Davison 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Genesee Flushing Site 1 Skeels (1962)
Genesee Johnson Site 2? Fisher (1984b), Holman et al.
 (1986) Shoshani (1989), this paper
Genesee Cullen Site/Near 1 Hay (1923), MacAlpin (1940),
 Davison this paper
Genesee Richfield 1 Skeels (1962)
 Township
Genesee Taylor Site 1 Fisher (1984b), Holman et al.
 (1986)
Genesee Otisville 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Genesee Unknown locality 1 Skeels (1962)
 near Flint
Genesee Unknown locality 1 Skeels (1962)
 near Davison
Gladwin Unknown locality 1 MacAlpin (1940)
 near Beavertown
Gratiot St. Louis, 3 mi 1 Skeels (1962)
 SE
Gratiot Ruskovic Site/N 1 Holman et al. (1986), Skeels
 of Ithaca (1962)
Gratiot Smith Site 1 Hay (1923), Holman et al. (1986),
 MacAlpin (1940), MacCurdy (1920),
 Oltz and Kapp (1963), Skeels
 (1962)
Gratiot South of Alma 3? Hay (1923), MacAlpin (1940),
 MacCurdy (1920)
Gratiot Shaffer Site 1 Holman et al. (1986)
Gratiot Lentz Site 1 This paper
Gratiot Thaller Site 1 Held and Kapp (1969), Holman
 et al. (1986)
Gratiot Pitt Farm Site 1 Hay (1923), MacAlpin (1940),
 MacCurdy (1920), Oltz and Kapp
 (1963)
Gratiot Riverdale 1 Hay (1923), MacAlpin (1940)
Hillsdale Church/Wood- 1 Gilmore (1906), Hay (1923), Lane
 Stafford Farm (1902), MacAlpin (1940), this
 paper
Hillsdale Near Hemlock 1 Skeels (1962)
 Lake
Huron Island near 1 MacAlpin (1940)
 Sebewaing
Ingham Sheathelm Site 1 Holman et al. (1986), Holman
 (1986)
Ingham Gulick Road Site 1 Holman et al. (1986)
Ingham Unknown locality 1 Skeels (1962)
 W of Fowlerville
Ionia Crandell Site 1 Holman et al. (1986)
Isabella Near Mt. Pleasant 1 MacAlpin (1940), this paper
 /Fremont Twp
Isabella Near Winn 1 Holman et al. (1986)
Jackson Root State 1 MacAlpin (1940)
 Prison Farm
Jackson Unknown locality 1 MacAlpin (1940)
 on Portage Creek
Jackson Unknown locality 1 MacAlpin (1940)
 near Jackson
Jackson Near Jackson 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Kalamazoo West end of 1 Skeels (1962)
 Sherman Lake
Kalamazoo Fort Custer 1 Skeels (1962)
 Military
 Reservation
Kalamazoo Kalamazoo 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Kalamazoo Valley Flat of 1 MacAlpin (1940)
 Kalamazoo River
Kalamazoo Vanmiddleworth 1 Holman et al. (1986), this paper
 Site
Kent NE Part of Bowne 1 Skeels (1962)
 Township
Kent Ross/Zuidema Farm 1 Hatt (1965b), Lambie (1933),
 MacAlpin (1940)
Kent Kramer/Buck Creek 1 Frankforter (1966), Wilson (1967)
 Drainage Ditch
Kent Smith Site 1 Shoshoni (1989), Fisher (1990)
Kent Cannonsburg/ 1 Hay (1923), MacAlpin (1940), this
 Dutmer Site paper
Kent Plainfield 1 This paper
 Heights Site
Kent Shaw Farm Site 1 Frankforter (1991), this paper
Kent Unknown, N of 1 Skeels (1962)
 Grand Rapids
Lapeer Hadley 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Lapeer Big Fish lake 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Lapeer Southeast of 1 Skeels (1962)
 Lapeer
Lapeer Van Sickle Site 1 Fisher (1984b), Holman et al.
 (1986)
Lapeer Rappuhn Site 1 Hatt (1965b), Holman et al. (1986),
 Kapp (1985), Skeels (1962), Wittry
 (1965)
Lapeer Possibly near 1 MacAlpin (1940)
 Clifford
Lenawee Gregg Site/ 1 Hay (1923), Lane (1902), MacAlpin
 Clinton (1940), this paper
Lenawee Tecumseh 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Lenawee NE of Tecumseh 1 Skeels (1962)
Lenawee Decker/NW of 1 Hay (1923), MacAlpin (1940),
 Adrian Winchell (1864), this paper
Lenawee Cadmus Road Site 1 Holman et al. (1986)
Lenawee Clayton 1 Hay (1923), MacAlpin (1940)
Lenawee Adrian 1 MacAlpin (1940), Winchell (1864)
Lenawee Seneca Township 1 Skeels (1962)
Lenawee Seneca 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Lenawee S of Weston 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Livingston Putnam Township 1 Skeels (1962)
Livingston Green Oak 1 Hay (1923), MacAlpin (1940),
 Winchell (1861, 1864)
Livingston Four Lakes Drive 1 Holman et al. (1986)
 Site
Livingston SW of Howell 1 Hay (1923), MacAlpin (1940)
Livingston Adams Site 1 Holman et al. (1986), Holman (1979)
Livingston Shiawassee 1 Hay (1923), Lane (1902), MacAlpin
 River/Howell Twp (1940)
Livingston Tyrone 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Livingston Unknown locality 1 MacAlpin (1940)
 in Tyrone Twp
Livingston Unknown locality 1 Skeels (1962)
 Near Fowlerville
Macomb S of Mt. Clemens 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Macomb Clinton R Valley 1 Hay (1923), MacAlpin (1940),
 /Leech Farm/Utica Winchell (1864)
Macomb Unknown locality 1 Hubbard (1841), MacAlpin (1940)
 in Macomb Co.
Midland Midland Country 1 Skeels (1962)
 Club
Midland Near Midland 1 Holman et al. (1986)
Midland Unknown locality 1 MacAlpin (1940)
 in Midland Twp
Monroe Oakville 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Monroe Petersburg 1 Hay (1923), MacAlpin (1940),
 Winchell (1864)
Montcalm Eldridge Site 1 Shoshani (1989)
Montcalm Stanton/Hodges 1 Hay (1923), MacAlpin (1940), this
 Site paper
Montcalm Unknown Locality 1 Skeels (1962)
 near Stanton
Muskegon Unknown locality 1 MacAlpin (1940)
 Fruitport Twp
Muskegon N of Moorland 1 Frankforter (1966), Hay (1923),
 McKay Site Lane (1906), MacAlpin (1940),
 Wilson (1967)
Newaygo Jolman Site 1 Gilbert (1981), Holman et al.
 (1986), this paper
Newaygo Unknown locality 1 MacAlpin (1940)
 near White Clo
Newaygo NW of Fremont 1 Skeels (1962)
Oakland Near New Hudson 1 Fisher (1984b), Holman et al.
 (1986)
Oakland Bloomfield Hills 1 Case and Stanley (1935)
 Mastodont
Oakland Birmingham 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Oakland Troy Township 1 Hatt (1965b)
Oakland Troy Juvenile 1 Holman et al. (1986)
 (CIS 892)
Oakland Groleau-White 1 Holman et al. (1986), Dorr et al.
 Lake Site (1982)
Oakland Mastodont of 1 Hatt (1963, 1965b), Stoutamire and
 Pontiac Benninghoff (1964)
Oakland Pontiac Twp 1 Hatt (1965a,b)
 Juvenile
Oakland Calwell Farm 1 Hay (1923), MacAlpin (1940),
 Site/Fenton Winchell (1864), this paper
Oakland Green Site/Near 1 Holman et al. (1986), this paper
 Eames
Oakland Near Holly 1 Skeels (1962)
Oakland Shelton Site 1 Holman et al. (1986), Shoshani
 (1989) Shoshoni et al. (1989)
Oakland Mosher Site 1 Shoshani (1989)
Oceana Huls Site 1 Holman et al. (1986), this paper
Osceola Near Evart 1 Holman et al. (1986)
Osceola Hersey 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Ottawa E of Holland 1 Skeels (1962)
Ottawa Allendale 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Ottawa Jonio Farm Site/ 1 MacAlpin (1940), Skeels (1962),
 Conklin this paper
Saginaw NE of Elsie 1 Hay (1923), MacAlpin (1940)
Saginaw Unknown locality 1 MacAlpin (1940)
 in Chapin Twp
Saginaw Chesaning 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Saginaw Willis Farm 1 Hay (1923), Lane (1902), this
 paper
Saginaw Mauer Site 1 Holman et al. (1986), this paper
Saginaw NE of Birch Run 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Saginaw Frankenmuth 1 Skeels (1962)
Saginaw S of Bridgeport 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Saginaw NW of Saginaw 1 Hay (1923), Lane (1902),
 MacAlpin (1940)
Saginaw Near Freeland 1 Skeels (1962)
Saginaw Unknown locality 1 Skeels (1962)
 near St. Charles
St. Claire N of St. Claire 1 MacAlpin (1940)
St. Claire Lake Huron Shore 1 MacAlpin (1940)
 at Port Huron
St. Claire Unknown Locality 1 MacAlpin (1940)
 on Huron Shore
St. Joseph Blake Site 1 Holman et al. (1986)
St. Joseph SE of Colon 1 MacAlpin (1940)
St. Joseph Zeller Site 1 Holman et al. (1986)
St. Joseph Prairie Lake 1 MacAlpin (1940), this paper
Sanilac Marlette 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Sanilac Elk Township Site 1 Holman et al. (1986)
Sanilac Ellembaum Site 1 This paper
Sanilac NE of Kingston 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Sanilac Bryce Site 1 Holman et al. (1986), Weston and
Sanilac Argyle Township 1 Holman et al. (1986), Skeels (1962)
 Site
Sanilac Unknown locality 1 Skeels (1962)
 near Crosswell
Sanilac Unknown Locality 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Shiawassee Vanagon Site 1 Holman et al. (1986)
Shiawassee Unknown locality 1 Skeels (1962)
 near Byron
Shiawassee Warren Site/ 1 Hay (1923), Lane (1906), MacAlpin
 Bancroft (1940), this paper
Shiawassee Owosso 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Shiawassee Venice/Johnson 1 Hay (1923), MacAlpin (1940)
 Site
Shiawassee Henderson 2? Skeels (1962)
Shiawassee Near Corunna 1 Skeels (1962)
Tuscola Gilford 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Tuscola S of Cass City 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Tuscola Unknown Locality 1 MacAlpin (1940)
 near Cass City
Van Buren Almena Township 1 Skeels (1962)
Van Buren Shine Site 1 Holman et al. (1986)
Van Buren NW of Hartford 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Van Buren Lawton 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Van Buren Paw Paw River 1 MacAlpin (1940)
 valley flat
Van Buren Pine Creek Site 1 Holman et al. (1986)
Van Buren Heuser Site 1 Skeels (1962), this paper
Van Buren Near Hartford 1 Holman et al. (1986), this paper
Van Buren Powers Site 1 Garland and Cogswell (1985),
 Holman et al. (1986)
Van Buren Unkn locality 1 MacAlpin (1940)
 near PawPaw Lake
Van Buren Unknown locality 1 MacAlpin (1940)
 in County
Washtenaw Kuhl Site 1 Holman et al. (1986), this paper
Washtenaw Scio Farms 1 This paper
 Estates Site
Washtenaw Killin Gravel 1 Holman et al. (1986), this paper
 Pit Site
Washtenaw Freedom Township 1 Skeels (1962)
Washtenaw Rogers Corners 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Washtenaw Pleasant Lake 1 Fisher (1984a,b), Holman et al.
 Site (1986), Shipman et al. (1984)
Washtenaw Lodi Township 1 Skeels (1962)
Washtenaw Lodi Township 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Washtenaw Saline 1 Hay (1923), MacAlpin (1940)
Washtenaw Sakstrup Site 1 Holman et al. (1986)
Washtenaw S of Saline 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Washtenaw SW of Saline 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Washtenaw W of Saline 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Washtenaw NE of Macon 1 MacAlpin (1940)
Washtenaw SE of Ypsilanti/ 1 Hay (1923), MacAlpin (1940),
 Darling Farm Russell and Leverett (1908), this
 paper
Washtenaw Near Milan 1 Skeels (1962)
Wayne Hollis Site 1 Holman et al. (1986)
Wayne Near Plymouth/ 1 Hay (1923), MacAlpin (1940),
 Shattuck Site Winchell (1861), this paper
Wayne Unknown Locality 1 MacAlpin (1940)
 in T3S R11E
Wayne Trenton/Vreeland 1 Hay (1923), MacAlpin (1940),
 Farm/Monguegon Skeels (1962)
Wayne East of Flat Rock 1 Hatt (1965b)

* Approximate Locality
-- Missing Data

APPENDIX B: MICHIGAN MAMMOTH DATA

COUNTY SITE NAME 1/4 1/4 1/4 SECTION TIER RANGE

Arenac N of Au Gres 1* 19N 6E
Arenac Van Horn Site SE NE NW 8 20N 3E
Barry N of Assyria NW 15 1N 7W
Berrien Near Watervliet NE 17 3S 17W
Berrien Prillwitz Site 5 6S 17W
Berrien SW part of Lake -- 6S 19W
 Twp
Berrien Harbert Site SE SE SW 10 7S 20W
Berrien Bakerstown Marsh 3 8S 18W
Berrien Beeson-Holden NE 6 8S 19W
 Farm/Galien Twp
Berrien Warren Site NE 24 8S 20W
Berrien Berrien Co., -- -- --
 Unknown
 Locality
Cass Jones/Chapel NW 32 7S 13W
 Hill School
Eaton Eaton Rapids/Fry 10* 1N 3W
 Site
Eaton Fajnor Farm/Near NW 11 1N 4W
 Eaton Rapids
Eaton N of Grand -- -- --
 Ledge/Tabor Site
Eaton Unknown locality -- -- --
 near Charlotte
Genesee Lennon/Flint 31 7N 5E
 Site
Gladwin Unknown locality 6* 18N 1W
 near Gladwin
Gratiot W of Ithaca 2 10N 4W
Huron Sweeney Site 33 15N 12E
Ingham Near Leslie 24* 1N 2W
Ingham Mead Site NW NE 1 2N 1E 1
Ionia Hubbardston/Bed 12* 8N 5W
 of Fish Creek
Iosco Henry Site 18 22N 8E
Jackson Locey Farm 17 1S 2W
Jackson Betz Site 3 1S 3W
Jackson Northern Part of -- -- --
 Jackson County
Kent Plaster Creek/S 12* 6N 12W
 of Grand Rapids
Kent NE Grand Rapids, 9* 9N 9W
 15 mi.
Kent Rockford 36* 9N 11W
Kent Nine Mile Road/ -- -- --
 Grand Rapids
Lenawee E of Ridgeway 33* 5S 5E
Lenawee Seneca Twp Site 9 8S 2E
Livingston American 11* 1N 6E
 Aggregates
 Gravel Pit
Macomb Unknown locality -- -- --
Midland Bailer Site SW 22 16N 2W
Oakland N of New Hudson 33* 2N 7E
Oakland Andersonville 27* 4N 8E
 Gravel Pit
Ottawa Bass River Pit 25 7N 15W
 Site
Saginaw Pere Marquette 28 12N 4E
 Shaft #2
Shiawassee Dysinger Farm/ 22 5N 2E
 Near Perry
Shiawassee Three Miles S 26 5N 2E
 Morrice
Shiawassee Owosso 1895 City 13 7N 2E
 Limits
Tuscola Knight Site SW 22 11N 11E
Van Buren S of Mentha 1 2S 13W
Van Buren Johnson Site 1 2S 14W
Van Buren W of Decatur 22* 4S 15W
Washtenaw Chelsea/Sylvan 13 2S 3E
 Twp
Washtenaw Near Pleasant 26 3S 3E
 Lake Drain

COUNTY SITE NAME MIN# REFERENCES

Arenac N of Au Gres 1 Skeels (1962)
Arenac Van Horn Site 1 Holman (1991), this paper
Barry N of Assyria 1 Skeels (1962)
Berrien Near Watervliet 1 Holman et al. (1986), Wilson
Berrien Prillwitz Site 1 Green (1967), Holman et al.
 (1986),
Berrien SW part of Lake 1 Wilson (1967) (Skeels 1962)
 Twp
Berrien Harbert Site 1 This paper
Berrien Bakerstown Marsh 1 Hay (1923), Skeels (1962)
Berrien Beeson-Holden 1 Dice (1920), Fox (nd), Skeels
 Farm/Galien Twp (1962)
Berrien Warren Site 1 Dice (1920), Fox (nd), Hay (1923),
 Sherzer (1927), Skeels (1962),
 this paper
Berrien Berrien Co., 1 Dice (1920), Fox (nd), Skeels
 Unknown (1962)
 Locality
Cass Jones/Chapel 1 Case et al. (1935), Skeels (1962)
 Hill School
Eaton Eaton Rapids/Fry 1 Hay (1923), Lane (1906), Sherzer
 Site (1927), Skeels (1962)
Eaton Fajnor Farm/Near 1 Skeels (1962), this paper
 Eaton Rapids
Eaton N of Grand 1 Hay (1923), Lane (1902), Skeels
 Ledge/Tabor Site (1962)
Eaton Unknown locality 1 (Skeels 1962)
 near Charlotte
Genesee Lennon/Flint 1 Holman et al. (1986), Oltz and
 Site Kapp (1963)
Gladwin Unknown locality 1 Sherzer (1927), Skeels (1962)
 near Gladwin
Gratiot W of Ithaca 1 Skeels (1962)
Huron Sweeney Site 1 Holman et al. (1986), Weston and
 McMillion (1973)
Ingham Near Leslie 1 Skeels (1962), this paper
Ingham Mead Site 1 Holman (1979), Holman et al.
 (1986)
Ionia Hubbardston/Bed 1 (Skeels (1962)
 of Fish Creek
Iosco Henry Site 1 Holman et al. (1986)
Jackson Locey Farm 1 Crane and Griffin (1958), Skeels
 (1962), this paper
Jackson Betz Site 1 Holman et al. (1986)
Jackson Northern Part of 1 Sherzer (1927), Skeels (1962)
 Jackson County
Kent Plaster Creek/S 1 Skeels (1962)
 of Grand Rapids
Kent NE Grand Rapids, 1 Skeels (1962)
 15 mi.
Kent Rockford 1 Skeels (1962)
Kent Nine Mile Road/ 1 Skeels (1962)
 Grand Rapids
Lenawee E of Ridgeway 1 Skeels (1962)
Lenawee Seneca Twp Site 1 Holman et al. (1986)
Livingston American 1 Holman et al. (1986)
 Aggregates
 Gravel Pit
Macomb Unknown locality 1 Hay (1923), Lane (1902), Skeels
 (1962), Winchell (1861)
Midland Bailer Site 1 Kapp (1970), Holman et al. (1986)
Oakland N of New Hudson 1 Sherzer (1927), Skeels (1962)
Oakland Andersonville 1 Hatt (1963,1965b)
 Gravel Pit
Ottawa Bass River Pit 1 Frankforter (1966)
 Site
Saginaw Pere Marquette 1 Hay (1923), Lane (1902), Mills
 Shaft #2 (1918), Skeels (1962), this paper
Shiawassee Dysinger Farm/ 1 Skeels (1962), this paper
 Near Perry
Shiawassee Three Miles S 1 Skeels (1962)
 Morrice
Shiawassee Owosso 1895 City 1 Skeels (1962)
 Limits
Tuscola Knight Site 1 This paper
Van Buren S of Mentha 1 Skeels (1962)
Van Buren Johnson Site 1 Holman et al. (1986)
Van Buren W of Decatur 1 Skeels (1962)
Washtenaw Chelsea/Sylvan 1 Skeels (1962)
 Twp
Washtenaw Near Pleasant 1 Shoshani (1989)
 Lake Drain

* Approximate Locality
-- Missing Data

APPENDIX C MICHIGAN PROBOSCIDEA INDETERMINATE DATA

COUNTY SITE NAME 1/4 1/4 1/4 SECTION TIER RANGE

Allegan Mathis Site SW NW 1 1N 12W
Berrien Carmichael Site 25 3S 17W
Eaton 1-96 Site 21# 4N 3W
Ingham Wilcox Road Site 22 3N 2W
Jackson Near Jackson 11* 2S 2W
Kent Grandville 17* 6N 12W
 Gravel Pit
Kent Cannon Twp SE NE 26 8N 10W
 Gravel Pit
Montcalm Zamarron Site 11 10N 5W
Oakland Michaelson Site -- 3N 11E
Ottawa Cedar Road Site NE SE 1 7N 15W
Unknown CIS P.879 -- -- --

COUNTY SITE NAME ELEMENT(S) REFERENCES

Allegan Mathis Site Femur shaft This paper
Berrien Carmichael Site Tusk Holman et al. (1986)
Eaton 1-96 Site Rib Holman et al. (1986)
Ingham Wilcox Road Site Tusk This paper
Jackson Near Jackson Tusk Skeels(1962), this paper
Kent Grandville
 Gravel Pit Tusk This paper
Kent Cannon Twp
 Gravel Pit Tusk This paper
Montcalm Zamarron Site Femur Holman et al. (1986)
Oakland Michaelson Site Tusk Hatt(1965b)
Ottawa Cedar Road Site Femur shaft This paper
Unknown CIS P.879 Tusks Hatt(1965b)

* Approximate Locality
# MacAlpin (1940) lists a mastodont from this section
-- Missing Data

TABLE 1. Michigan State University Museum Mammut americanum Tooth
Measurements (in mm).

MSUVP# PLACEMENT (a) L (b) W (b) PROTOLOPH/-ID (c)

1269 R[M.sup.2] 112 95 92
1277 R[M.sup.2] 122 101 98e
1277 L[M.sub.2] 124 99e 81e
 792 R[M.sup.2] 115 98e 91e
 792 R[M.sup.3] 171 100 100
1272 R[M.sup.3] 151 94 93
1004 (d,f) R[M.sup.3] 154 92 92
1004 (d,f) L[M.sup.3] 161 90 90
1004 (d,f) R[M.sup.2] 104 81 77
1004 (d,f) L[M.sup.2] 104 82 77
Beavers R[M.sub.1] 84 69e 58e
1112 R[M.sub.1] 88 63e 61e
1268 L[M.sub.1] 90 69e 63e
1274 L[M.sub.1] 91 62 58
1290 (d) L[M.sub.2] 109 95 68
1290 (d) L[M.sub.3] 244+ 100+ 83+

MSUVP# METALOPH/-ID TRITOLOPH/-ID TETARTOLOPH/-ID PENTALOPH/-ID

1269 95 94
1277 101 99 (e)
1277 99e 99e
 792 98e 93e
 792 96 98e 77 27
1272 94 85 68
1004 (d,f) 84 81 73
1004 (d,f) 87 82 76
1004 (d,f) 76 81
1004 (d,f) 76 82
Beavers 68e 69e
1112 63e 57e
1268 69e 63e
1274 62 58
1290 (d) 85 95
1290 (d) 100+ 95+ 92 76

(a) R=right, L=left, tooth placement symbols after Osborn (1936);
(b) L = length, W = width after Simpson (1949); (c) loph terminology
after Saunders (1977), widths are given; (d) indicates a series of teeth
remaining in the jaw; (f) specimen described in Holman (1979);
+ = minimum measurement; e = estimated measurement

TABLE 2. Michigan State University Museum Mammuthus spp. Tooth
Measurements (in mm)

MSUVP # PLACEMENT L W H P LF ET

1276 R[M.sup.3] 305 [103.sup.P6] [164.sup.P14] 24 7.5 2
1276 L[M.sup.3] 301 [104.sup.P8] [183.sup.P15] 24 7.5 2
1276 R[M.sub.3] 351 [94.sup.P7] [145.sup.P16] 24 7 2
1276 L[M.sub.3] 344 [95.sup.P9] [140.sup.P15] 24 7 2
1219 (a) L[M.sup.3] 270 102 165 29 9 2
1275 L[M.sub.2] 197 [71.sup.P10] [115.sup.P14] 19 10 2
1001 R[M.sub.3] 325 [99.sup.P9] [146.sup.P13] 24 8 2
1283 (b) L[M.sub.3] -- [88.sup.P4] -- -- -- 3
1283 (b) R[M.sub.3] -- [87.sup.P5] -- -- -- 3

MSUVP # NOP

1276 14
1276 16
1276 15
1276 15
1219 (a) 14
1275 17
1001 19
1283 (b) 9
1283 (b) 10

L=length; W=width; H=height; P=plate number; LF=lamellar frequency;
ET=enamel thickness; NOP=number of plates on occluded portion of tooth
(a) = data after Holman (1991)
(b) = partially erupted teeth in jaw
(P) = plate number at which measurement was taken
--=missing data


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I wish to extend my deepest gratitude to Dr. J. Alan Holman, who initiated the basic concept of this research and contributed to all phases of the project. Mr. Ron Richards of the Indiana State Museum and Memorials kindly allowed me to utilize the Indiana State Museum proboscidean collection for comparison with Michigan material. Mark Swartz provided technical assistance with mapping and computer operations, and Joe Henig plotted data on the map. Walt Peebles and the Michigan State University Instructional Media Center provided photographic services. Library and information search assistance was provided by the staff of the Government Documents Division of the Library of Michigan; the staff of the Michigan State University Map Library; and the staff of the Michigan State University Geology Library.

I am especially grateful to the persons who called specific sites and information to the attention of the Michigan State University Museum: James and John Beavers, Richard Gibson, Darrell Hughes, the late Dr. Ronald Kapp, Mildred Malkin, Steve Mathis, Charles Martinez, Walter Morrow, Theodore Sprague, and Jerry Van Horn. I would like to thank them for their interest in bringing forth new information on Michigan's proboscidean sites. Daniel C. Fisher and Russell W. Graham reviewed the manuscript and offered many helpful comments.

Originally published in the Michigan Academician Vol. XXV, No. 4 (Summer 1993): 443-90

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LAURA MARIE ABRACZINSKAS

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