Pleasure & politics: Cranach's the judgement of Paris: the Kimbell recently acquired an extremely well preserved Judgement of Paris by Lucas Cranach the Elder. Nancy E. Edwards explores the painting's meaning and investigates the possibility that it was made for Hendrik III, Count of Nassau-Breda, whose portrait by Gossaert is also in the museum.
In 2004 the Kimbell Art Museum purchased a panel painting of the Judgement of Paris by Lucas Cranach the Elder, datable c. 1512-14 (Fig. 2). The painting's condition is testimony to the artist's superb technique: in near pristine state, it has all its glazes and modelling intact, allowing us to appreciate Cranach's masterful execution of details, such as the eyelashes of the horse, the minute figures in the background approaching the castle and his winged-serpent signature device in the lower left. The panel's whereabouts are unknown before its acquisition by the leading German portrait painter of the late 19th century, Franz von Lenbach (1836-1904), who collected old master paintings. (1) There is, however, an intriguing possibility that it was once owned by Hendrik III, Count of NassauBreda (1483-1538), whose portrait by Jan Gossaert is also in the Kimbell's collection (Fig. 1).
Cranach's painting was influenced by accounts of the Trojan War in medieval narratives, particularly Guido delle Colonne's Historia Destructionis Troiae (1287, German translation 1477). (2) In this account, Paris--son of King Priam of Troy--tethers his horse and falls into a deep sleep after losing his way in the groves of Venus during a hunting expedition. The messenger god Mercury appears to him in his dream and presents the three goddesses, demanding that he select the fairest, but Paris requests that they disrobe first. The goddesses offer bribes: Juno promises wealth and power, Minerva offers military prowess, and Venus pledges the love of the most beautiful woman on earth. Paris, whose stunned expression denotes both his dream-state and the difficulty of his choice, wears a red robe over a set of armour and an ostrich-plumed hat. The fantastic Mercury, depicted in the medieval tradition as a sage, sports ornate armour with a winged helmet. He holds a crystal sphere encircled by a golden band inscribed with the letters AMORT.X.N. Recalling the imperial orb, this fragile globe suggests the momentousness of Paris's decision for the fate of the ancient world. The ambiguous letters evoke both 'amor' (love) and perhaps 'mortalis' (subject to death), possibly alluding to Paris's fatal choice of Venus, and his abduction of the most beautiful woman--Helen, wife of King Menelaus of Sparta--that led to the destruction of Troy.
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The lithe goddesses--whose nudity is accentuated by golden chains, fine hairnets and diaphanous veils--are portrayed with Cranach's distinctive melange of innocence and sensuousness. The goddess at right demurely rubs her feet together as she turns toward the viewer with blushed cheeks. At left, another beauty more aggressively makes her plea to Paris. Without attributes, the goddesses are--perhaps intentionally--difficult to identify individually and are made to appear equally attractive.
The Kimbell panel is the earliest of Cranach's dozen or more surviving renditions of the subject. (3) The theme of the Judgement of Paris was still rare in northern painting at this date, although it had great currency in literature, as well as the graphic and decorative arts. (4) Cranach is among the first painters to have taken up the subject, and consequently it has been presumed that a work on this subject that is recorded in 1517 in Hendrik III' palace in Brussels was painted by Cranach; given the early date, it could be identified with the Kimbell work. How might this Netherlandish statesman have acquired a work by the German painter, and what might it have meant to him?
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Hendrik III inherited the title of Count of Nassau from his uncle Englebert III, whose estates included Breda in the duchy of Brabant, in 1504. (5) Hendrik's rank is confirmed by his election to the highly exclusive Order of the Golden Fleece in 1505; Gossaert depicts him wearing the order's pendant, hanging from a black ribbon. After his son Philip the Fair died prematurely, Emperor Maximilian installed his daughter Margaret of Austria as regent of the Netherlands for her young nephew Charles (later Emperor Charles v). Hendrik was a member of the Great Council at her court in Mechelin and assumed a major role in the education of Charles, who later appointed him chamberlain. He took a leading role in the campaigns against Guelders and France and was named captain-general of the Netherlands. A member of Charles's Privy Council, in 1515 he was created stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, and Franche Comte He successfully negotiated the betrothal of Charles to Renee of France, daughter of Louis XII of France, a diplomatic success, although the marriage did not take place. Hendrik married three times to great--and incremental--advantage, marriages brokered as reward for his devoted service to the Hapsburgs. He married Francoise Louise of Savoy in 1503; second, Claudia of Chalon, Princess of Orange, in 1515; and in 1524, during his service at the imperial court in Spain from 1522 to 1530, he married Mencia de Mendoza, Marchioness of Zenete and a Spanish heiress to great wealth and property (Figs. 4 and 5).
Hendrik's principal residences were Breda Castle, which he renovated in a renaissance style, the first of its kind in the Netherlands, and the palace in Brussels. The treasures housed in the Brussels palace were famously described by Antonio de Beatis, who visited in 1517, on a journey with Cardinal Luigi d'Aragona from Italy: 'In it are very beautiful pictures, among them a Hercules with Deianeira, with good-sized nude figures, and the tale of Paris with the three goddesses perfectly executed.' He also described a picture with 'bizarre things ... men and women, whites and blacks, engaged in all sorts of different activities and poses ... things that are so pleasing and fantastic that it is impossible to describe them properly to those who have not seen them.' (6) De Beatis had encountered one of the most astounding paintings of all time, Hieronymus Bosch's Garden of Earthly Delights (Fig. 3). Bosch's patrons included nobles in Hendrik's circle, such as Philip of Burgundy and Margaret of Austria. It is possible that the work, whose date is unknown, was commissioned by Hendrik's uncle, whose estate he inherited. In any event, recent studies provide us with a fuller appreciation of Hendrik as a noteworthy collector and architectural patron, although there is scant documentary evidence for the works of art he owned, compared to such formidable collectors as Margaret of Austria or Mencia de Mendoza, who was a significant patron in her own right. (7)
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Mencia de Mendoza (1508-54) left a large number of inventories of her considerable possessions. (8) It has been suggested that a panel described in the 1548 inventory of her palace in Valencia depicts a Judgement of Paris--'another painting of the three goddesses with a red doublet (?.) painted in a green background with many pearls on the head' ('Item otra pintura de las tres diosas con un corpersico colorado pintada en campo verde y sobre la cabeza muchas perlas tiene de alto dos palmos y medio y de ancho media vara.'). (9) However, careful reading of this document in the context of entries in earlier inventories that also list a painting of 'three goddesses' suggests that the painting represents the Three Graces, especially as Paris is not mentioned. (10) The Three Graces, too, was a popular subject for Cranach.
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Hendrik's heir, Rend of Chalon, also succeeded to the principality of Orange upon the death of his maternal uncle. After Rene's early death in 1544, his estates passed to his cousin William I (the Silent). Following the outbreak of the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule, William removed many of his belongings from various properties, including Breda Castle, and probably the Nassau palace at Brussels as well. However, The Judgement of Paris admired by Antonio de Beatis likely remained in the Nassau palace, together with Bosch's triptych and Hercules and Deianeira. An inventory drawn up by officials in 1568 lists only a few works in 'la grande gallerie': a large painting with the Judgement of Paris, a large painting by Hieronymus Bosch and another large painting of a giant and a giantess. (11) Bosch's triptych, among other items, was confiscated by the Duke of Alba and eventually passed to the Prado Museum. The subsequent history of The Judgement of Paris is difficult to determine, but possibly it remained in the palace. An inventory of 1618, following the death of William the Silent's eldest son and heir, Philip William, records both a large and small painting of The Judgement of Paris. (12) However, William had sold much of the remaining collection to support the rebellion, and these may have been works owned by his successors.
No large painting of the Judgement of Paris from as early as 1517 has come to light that we can link with the work in the Nassau palace in Brussels. Cranach remains a candidate to have created the work, and the Kimbell painting--with Cranach's later variant works--allows us to have an idea of the painting in Hendrik's collection. However, the possibility that Gossaert painted the Count's Judgement of Paris should be considered. Historians have reasonably assumed that Gossaert painted the Hercules and Deianeira in the Brussels gallery; a small-scale version of this rare subject, in the Barber Institute of Fine Arts, Birmingham, is inscribed with the date 1517. (13) Gossaert's innovative Neptune and Amphitrite (Gemaldegalerie, Staatliche Museen, Berlin), painted around 1516 for Philip of Burgundy, is an early example of monumental, mythological nudes in the Netherlands. The late Burgundian courts were a crucible for this new interest in the heroic, erotic nude, influenced by antiquity. (14) Two drawings of The Judgement of Paris have been attributed to Gossaert or his school: a roundel (National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh) datable to 1510 or later; and an ornate drawing on blue prepared paper (Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna), not by the master's hand, that may have served as a model for a silversmith, for a print or for the depiction of decorative objects within Gossaert's own paintings. (15)
The Judgement of Paris was especially popular as a theme of tableaux vivants at Burgundian festive entries, and was often associated with marriage. (16) Chronicles describing the entries circulated far beyond Burgundy. A rare manuscript illustrates the 1496 joyeuse entree of Joanna of Aragon-Castile into Brussels, soon after her marriage to Philip the Fair, with 60 watercolour drawings explicated by Latin texts. The city honoured Joanna with lavish display and praise on this festive occasion. She was received by church and civic representatives along the processory route, and tableaux vivants were enacted on stages with Old Testament, mythological and allegorical scenes, many featuring heroines of exemplary virtue. (17) Among the last tableaux was the Judgement of Paris (Fig. 7). The text explains that the three goddesses (who paraded nude) each promise Paris gifts, but Joanna surpasses them all, since she offers Philip all three gifts. (18) Entertainments--thematic inversions featuring jesters, foolish monks and the like--provided levity and contributed to the event's overall success.
Indeed, the Judgement of Paris was subject to such inversion: Charles the Bold's 1468 entry into Paris included a tableau with a fat Venus, thin Juno and hunchbacked Pallas. (19) When Philip the Fair was crowned regent of the Netherlands at Antwerp in 1494, the chronicler Jean Molinet reported that 'The stand at which the people looked most fondly was the tale of the three goddesses seen nude, with living women'. (20) Nudity aside, this tableau likely made the point that the new prince would be counted on to make the prudent choice, of virtue over pleasure.
In early Christian allegorical tradition, Paris stood for Justice. Accordingly, the Judgment of Paris was a fitting subject for the instruction or flattery of princes. Frederick the Wise, Elector of Saxony, participated in the celebratory jousts associated with this event while he was serving the Hapsburg court, and presumably enjoyed the three goddesses tableau as much as anyone--an experience to be considered in discussing the popularity of this subject in the work of Cranach, who became his court artist at Wittenberg in 1504. (21)
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Cranach's woodcut The Judgement of Paris (Fig. 6), predating the Kimbell panel, bears the electoral and ducal arms of Saxony and the date 1508. Cranach went to the Low Countries in 1508 in the entourage of Emperor Maximilian to the court of his daughter Margaret of Austria, guardian of his young grandson Charles (later Charles v), whose portrait Cranach reportedly painted. Frederick sent a gift of Cranach's picture of a boar that he had killed when hunting (a favourite pastime of both the emperor and elector). It has been suggested that Cranach's print of the Judgement of Paris was also presented to the Hapsburg on behalf of Cranach's patron. (22)
A sizable literature has addressed the iconographic ramifications of the subject of the Judgement of Paris for Cranach and his patrons. (23) As a poetic conceit, various princely families, including the Hapsburgs and Wettins (the family of Frederick the Wise), traced their lineage to the Trojans. (24) The Judgment of Paris was also a popular theme in the scholastic, humanist circles that Cranach frequented. Latin plays and texts intended for students construed the Judgment as the choice between Pleasure and Virtue, taking the occasion to warn against the perilous powers of Venus. In his 1503 graduation address at the newly founded Wittenberg University, Nikolaus Marschalk referred to the influential interpretation by the late-antique Latin allegorist Fulgentius of the Judgment of Paris as the choice between the 'vita triplex', consisting of the 'vita contemplativa' (Minerva), the 'vita activa' (Juno) or the 'vita voluptuaria' (Venus). Marschalk warned against Paris's disastrous choice in favour of Venus. (25) As we have seen, the subject was often associated with marriage, and its topicality for marriage alliances and dynastic succession should be considered in accounting for the popularity of the subject, since the dilemma of choosing (or negotiating) the best bride was of the utmost consequence for the nobility of this period.
[FIGURE 7 OMITTED]
In courtly circles, gifts were often given on diplomatic occasions and such events as birth and marriage. They were both given and received by those in the highest social level and involved reciprocity, including financial and titulary rewards for loyal service. The nobility also demonstrated their discriminating taste by giving pleasing and important works. (26) In a letter of 6 May 1520, Hendrik writes about political matters and also thanks Frederick the Wise for sending him some pictures by Cranach, among them a 'beautiful Lucretia'. There were problems with the shipment of two other works, which Hendrik had not seen. (27) This exchange notably follows the 1519 election of Charles as Emperor, who after a lengthy process prevailed over Francis I of France. Frederick had refused to back either candidate, and criticised his fellow electors for selling votes. Bribes were certainly offered by both monarchs to the electors, but other factors determined the election. Charles's final negotiations addressed territorial interests and protection from invasion, among other concerns. Indeed, just before Charles's election, Frederick himself appears to have been offered the crown, but declined the post--because of his health, age, modesty or perhaps because Saxony's interests were best served with the election of Charles. (28) Count Hendrik was a principal player in securing Charles's election, and the gift of Cranach's Lucretia may be seen in terms of his political relationship with Frederick, as well as their bond as connoisseurs and collectors.
Possibly, Frederick also sent Hendrick a Judgement of Pads by Cranach some time before 1517 and perhaps even in connection with Hendrik's second marriage. As discussed above, Gossaert, who was probably the first artist in the Netherlands to produce large-scale mythological works with nudes, certainly might have painted the work. Hanging together with Hercules and Deianeira--which presumably showed the blood-soaked, poisoned cloak that the dying centaur Nessus told Hercules' wife was a love potion, in due course causing the hero's death--The Judgement of Paris illustrates Weibermacht, the Power of Women, wherein the attractions of a beautiful woman weaken a strong man or hero, leading to humiliating or tragic results. (29) These subjects, ostensibly warnings against luxuria, were often, but not exclusively, associated with marriages. We can well imagine Hendrik III'S The Judgement of Paris (not to mention The Garden of Earthly Delights) eliciting a fair share of witty riposte by the Count, Frederick the Wise and their circle of noblemen.
The original owner of the Kimbell Judgement of Pads remains unknown, but the popularity of the subject in Cranach's oeuvre indicates that there were many ready recipients of his paintings of the subject, most likely German nobles. Its iconography is richly layered, with various associations: genealogical, nuptial, philosophical and moral. It would have appealed to a sophisticated collector who could expostulate on ancient ancestry, recondite philosophies and high moral dilemmas. It would have appealed to the connoisseur who prized Cranach's superb technique, his invention in creating this dream world and his wit. In this winsome little panel, Cranach teases both Paris and the viewer with a tough choice. The goddesses, who offer power, wisdom and love, are nearly indistinguishable, and equally enticing in their beauty. Any way we look at it, we have chosen pleasure.
(1) Rosel Gollek, 'Lenbach als Kunstsammler', in Rosel Gollek and Winfried Ranke (eds.), Franz von Lenbach 1836-1904, exh. cat., Stadtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus, Munich, 1987, pp. 123 and 170.
(2) Guido delle Colonne, Historia Destructionis Troiae, trans. Mary Elizabeth Meek, Bloomington and London, 1974, pp. 59-61.
(3) Max J. Friedlander and Jakob Rosenberg, The Paintings of Lucas Cranach (revised edition), Ithica, 1978, nos. 38, 118, 252-58, 409, 409a, 409b.
(4) Inge El-Himoud-Sperlich, 'Das Urteil des Paris: Studien zur Bildtradition des Themas ira 16.Jh,' Phi) dissertation, Ludwig-Maximilians -Universitat, Munich, 1977.
(5) For Hendrik III, see F.A. Brekelmans, in J. Duverger (ed.), Nationaal Biografisch Woordenboek, vol. IX, Brussels, 1981, col. 334-39, and G.W.C. van Wezel, Het paleis van Hendrik III, graaf van Nassau te Breda, Zwolle, 1999, with further bibliography. For his portraits, see Ariane Mensger, Jan Gossaert: Dee niederlandische Kunst zu Beginn der Neuzeit, Berlin, 2002, pp. 196-99 and Thomas Kren and Scot McKendrick (eds.), Illuminating the Renaissance: The Triumph of FLemish Manuscript Painting in Europe, exh. cat., The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, Royal Academy, London, 2003, pp. 465 66.
(6) Ludwig Pastor, Dee Reise des Kardinals Luigi d' Aragona durch Deutschland, die Niederlande, Frankreich und Oberitalien, 1517-1518: Reschriehen yon Antonio de Beatis, Freiburg, 1908, pp. 116-17, and E.H. Gombrich, 'The Earliest Description of Bosch's Garden of Delight', Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, vol. XXX, 1967, pp. 403-406; also see Hans Belting, Hieronymus Bosch: Garden of Earthly Delights, Munich, 2002, pp. 71-84. For Albrecht Diirer's visit to Nassau palace: Hans Rupprich (ed.), Albrecht Durer, Schriftlicher Nachlass, Berlin, 1956, vol. 1, p. 155, and Gerd Unverfehrt, Da sah ich viel kostliche Dinge: Albrecht Durers Paise in die Niederlande, Gottingen, 2007, pp. 70-75.
(7) Wezel, op. cit.
(8) I would like to thank Mari-Tere Alvarez of the Mencia de Mendoza Research Project at the Fisher Gallery, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, for providing documentation and assistance with the inventories from the Archivo del Palau, Barcelona.
(9) Leg. 125-34. Document provided by the Mencia de Mendoza Research Project at the Fisher Gallery, University of Southern California, Los Angeles. I am grateful to Salvador Salort for this transcription. Noelia Garcia Perez, Arte, poder y genero en d Renacimiento espanol El patronazgo artistico de Mencia de Mendoza, Murcia, 2006, provides two different transcriptions for the painting of the three goddesses (pp. 239 and 451, n. 490), transcribing 'corpersico' (which apparently refers to a garment) as 'campesino' and "campesico'; she improbably identifies the entry with Juan de Juanes's Judgement of Paris (Civici Musei e Gallerie di Storia e Arte, Udine), which dates c. 1550 and cannot be linked to the early inventories.
(10) Garcia Perez (lot. cit., pp. 449-51, n. 483) transcribes an inventory of 1533 (Leg. 119-45) that itemises 'otra de las tres dichas de la galleria de bruselas'; it also lists two related paintings, each depicting a goddess, from the Brussels gallery. The term 'dichas' rather than 'diosas' may refer to the Three Graces, who were associated with joyfulness. To complicate matters further, an inventory of June 1535, itemising goods to be transported from Jadraque castle to the Lowlands lists two paintings, each of a single goddess, that have been copied from the one that used to be in the Brussels gallery. For these documents (Leg. 122-15), see Th. M. Roest van Limburg, Een Spaansche Gravin van Nassau. Menda de Mendoza, Markiezin van Zenete, Gravin van Nassau (1508-1554), Leiden, 1908, pp. 91-94. Caution is in order without further study of the inventories, including Leg. 122 5, dated August 1533.
(11) Sophie Wilhelmina and Albertine Drossaers (eds.), Inventarissen van de Inboedels in de Verblijven van de Oranjes en daarmede gelijk te stellen stukken 1567- 1795, s'Gravenhage, 1974, vot. I, p. 27: 'Ung grand tableau contenant Judicium Paridis'.
(12) Ibid., p. 126.
(13) See Mensger, op. cit., pp. 110 13.
(14) Larry Silver, 'Figure nude, historic e poesie: Jan Gossaert and the Renaissance Nude in the Netherlands', Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek, vol. XXXVII, 1986, pp. 1-40, and Eric Jan Sluijter, 'Emulating Sensual Beauty: Representations of Danae from Gossaert to Rembrandt', Simiolus, vol. XXXVII, 1999, pp. 4-45.
(15) Timothy B. Husband, et al., The Luminous Image: Painted Glass Roundels in the Lowlands, 1480-1560, exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, pp. 130G2, and Peter van Brink, et al., ExtravaAnt! A Forgotten Chapter of Antwerp Painting 1500-1530, exh. cat., Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten, Antwerp, and Bonnefanten-museum, Maastricht, 2006, pp. 4445 and 51-53.
(16) Scot McKendrick, "The Great History of Troy: A Reassessmem of the Development of a Secular Theme in Late Medieval Art', Journal of the Warburg and Courtland Institues, vol, LIV, 1991, p. 80, n. 262.
(17) Paul Wescher, Beschreibendes Verzeichnis der Miniaturen--Handschriften und Einzelblatter--des Kupferslichkabinetts der Staatlichen Museen Berlin, Leipzig, 1931, pp. 179 81; Wire Blockmans and Esther Donckers, 'Self-Representation of Court and City in Flanders and Brabant in the Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Centuries', in W. P. Blockmans and A. Janse (eds.), Showing Status: Representation of Social Position in the Late Middle Ages, Turnhout, 1999, pp. 81-111.
(18) El Himoud-Sperlich, op. cir., pp. 19 and 65-67.
(19) Johan Huizinga, The Waning of the Middle Ages, trans. E Hopman, London, 1924, ed. 1970, p. 290.
(20) Georges Doutrepont and Omer Jodogne (eds.), Chroniques de Jean Molinet, Brussels, 1935, vol. II, p. 398.
(21) For Frederick's attendance, see Thomas E Campbell, et al., Tapestry in the Renaissance: Art and Magnificence, exh. cat., Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 2002, p. 135.
(22) Dieter Koepplin and Tilman Falk, Lukas Cranach: Gemalde, Zeichnungen, Druckgraphik (2 vols.), exh. cat., Kunstmuseum Basel, 1974-76, vol. I, p. 242, and Dieter Koepplin, Neue Werke von Lukas Cranach und ein altes Bild einer polnischer Schlacht--von Hans Krell?, Basel, 2003, pp. 62-63.
(23) See Koepplin and Falk, op. cit., especially vol. II, pp. 613-29, and Koepplin, Neue Werke, op. cit., pp. 51-56. Also Gottfried Biedermann, 'Die 'Paris-Urteile' Lukas Cranachs d. A', Pantheon, vol. XXXIX, no. 4,1981, pp. 310-13, and Helmut Nickel, 'The Judgment of Paris by Lucas Cranach the Elder: Nature, Allegory, and Alchemy', Metropolitan Museum journal, vol. XVI, 1981, pp. 117 29.
(24) Edgar Bierende, Lucas Cranach d. A. und der deutsche Humanismus: Tafelmalerei im Kontext von Rhetotik, Chroniken und Furstenspiegeln, Munich, 2002, pp. 195-212.
(25) Franz Matsche, 'Humanistische Ethik am Beispiel der mythologischen Darstellungen yon Lucas Cranach', in Winfried Eberhard and Alfred A. Strnad (eds.), Humanismus und Renaissance in Ostmitteleuropa vor der Reformation (Fotschungen und Quellen zur Kitchen-und Kuhurgeschichte Ostdeutschlands, vol. 28), Cologne, Weimar, and Vienna, 1996, pp. 29 70; Jorg Robert, 'Die Wahrheit hinter dem Schleier. Lucas Cranachs heidnische Gotter und die humanistische Mythenallegorese', in Werner Schade (ed.), Lucas Cranach: Glaube, Mythologie und Moderne, exh. cat., Bucerius Kunst Forum Hamburg, 2003, pp. 102-15.
(26) Dagmar Eichberger, 'The Culture of Gifts: a courtly phenomenon from a female perspective', in D. Eichberger, (ed.), Women of Distinction: Margaret of York, Margaret of Austria, exh. cat., Mechelen, 2005, pp. 287-95.
(27) Otto Meinardus, Der Katzenelnhogische Erbfolgestreit: Geschichtliche Darstellung his zum Tode des Grafen Heinrich von Nassau (1538), Nassau Oranische Correspondenzen), Wiesbaden, 1899, vol. 1, pt. 1, p. 7. Hendrik's remark that 'in time, Lucas would yet prove himself to be a great master' should be read in the context of the unseen paintings.
(28) Ingetraut Ludolphy, Friedrich der Weise, Kurfust von Sachsen 1463-1525, Gottingen, 1984, pp. 204 24, and Henry J. Cohn, 'Did Bribes Induce the German Electors to Choose Charles v as Emperor in 1519?', German History, vol. XIX, no. 1, 2001, pp. 1-27.
(29) Susan L. Smith, The Power of Women: A Topos in Medieval Art and Literature, Philadelphia, 1995.
Nancy E. Edwards is Curator of European Art and Head of Academic Services at the Kimbell Art Museum.
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|Title Annotation:||Kimbell Art Museum|
|Author:||Edwards, Nancy E.|
|Date:||Oct 1, 2007|
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