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Plants used in traditional treatment against diarrhea in Turkey.

INTRODUCTION

Diarrhea is defined as loose stools, increased stool frequency, or urgency by patients. Although most patients use this term to describe changes in consistency (loose or watery stool), diarrhea can be considered as urgency or high stool frequency. In fact, with normal consistency, frequent defecation is often referred to as pseudodiarrhea; for this reason, an abnormal stool form and frequency should not be used to describe diarrhea. Most diarrheal episodes in developed countries are acute and self-limited and are usually caused by infections. In immunocompetent patients, acute contagious diarrhea typically resolves within 4 weeks (most often within 1 week). Therefore, chronic diarrhea is defined as that lasting longer than 4 weeks. It is estimated that 1%-5% of adults suffer from chronic diarrhea. In immunocompetent patients in developed countries, chronic diarrhea is not usually contagious (Lawrence et al. 2017).

Acute bloody diarrhea in children and adults is a difficult diagnostic problem. Acute bloody stools have different spectra between adults and children, but there are overlapping causes (infectious colitis and less frequently intussusception). Identification of patients with infectious causes is mandatory, so that they are suitably treated with antimicrobials and so that infection control measures can be fulfilled (Lori et al. 2009).

Detection of the cause of this disorder may be a problem, because there are many enteric pathogens that cause acute bloody diarrhea and several noninfectious gastrointestinal disorders; these are interpreted as loose, bloody stools, mostly diarrhea (Lori et al. 2009).

There is a battle between the host microbiology of normal flora and the exterminating microbes. Symptomatic infections for the host when invaded can alter the bowel barrier and absorptive functions, or can quickly cause a number of problems that can lead to lethal dehydration, diarrhea, toxic megacolon or shock. Asymptomatic infections may go unnoticed, but they have durable results for children's growth and development. Most are acquired through contaminated food or water; however, only few pathogens (such as Shigella, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, rotaviruses, or noroviruses) can cause infection (Pawlowski et al. 2009).

Rotavirus is the leading cause of diarrhea hospitalization among children in the world. In 2003, a world-wide estimate of rotavirus-related deaths was published, based on a review of published literature on deaths from diarrhea and rotavirus hospitalizations in children from 1986 to 1999. Studies published between 1986 and 1999 showed that rotavirus causes [approximately equal to]22% (range 17%-28%) of diarrheal hospitalizations in childhood. From 2000 to 2004, this rate increased to 39% (range 29%-45%). Application of this ratio to the recent World Health Organization estimates of diarrhea-related childhood deaths gave a predicted 611,000 (range 454,000-705,000) rotavirusrelated deaths (Parashar et al. 2006).

In mass tourism, traveler's diarrhea is one of the most common health problems in long-distance journeys. Globally, there are 40 million cases per year. For this reason, travelers to risky areas should be informed in advance of what measures they should take in case of acute diarrhea and which medicines to include in the first aid kit (Jelinek et al. 2017).

The first choice of treatment of acute uncomplicated traveler's diarrhea - more than 90% of all cases - is the secretion inhibitor racecadotril. Usual practice, which recommends the antimotility drug loperamide as the first option, should be rethought in favor of the last active ingredient racecadotril. Antibiotics should be used only in complicated cases. Generally, anticipation of a large number of passengers demanding antibiotic treatment should be impaired. Other therapeutic measures currently available for the treatment of acute diarrhea while traveling play a minor role (Jelinek et al. 2017).

Several studies have shown that antibiotics can reduce the rates of diarrhea in travelers to resource-limited countries. However, preventive antibiotic therapy is not recommended because of its side effects and so, if necessary, rapid-acting, single-dose antimicrobial therapy is used. In some studies, probiotics have shown benefit (Pawlowski et al. 2009).

There are a lot of kinds of diarrhea shown in this study and the drugs used for the treatment of diarrhea have many side effects. Medicinal plants have traditionally been used for the treatment of diarrhea for many decades.

In this study, we have compiled 133 taxa used in traditional treatments of diarrhea in Turkey. The aim is to give information about scientific and local names of these taxa, families, used parts and usage in diarrhea (Table 1).

MATERIALS AND METHODS

In this study, a thesis search was carried ot at the National Higher Education Center alongside an analysis of ethnobotanical studies conducted in various parts of Turkey with selecting regional plants used for the treatment of diarrhea.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Plants have always been an important source for not only nutrition but also therapeutic use against a considerable number of human diseases. Recent phytochemical studies on medical plants have supported the effectiveness of folkloric medicines. Since ancient times, plants have been used for curing various diseases and infections (Singh et al. 2017).

Turkey has an extraordinary plant diversity and varies by region. Its flora consists of about 10,000 vascular plants and approximately one third of its flora (34.4 %) is endemic to the country (Demirci and Ozhatay 2012; Gurdal and Kultur 2013). Recently, the use of ethnobotanical information obtained from medicinal plant research has gained attention all around the world. For this reason, numerous ethnobotanical studies have recently been published and much has been written about medicinal plants in our country (Gurdal and Kultur 2013). Since these medicinal plants have been used in folk medicine by the public for many years, the information about how to use these plants in the treatment of illnesses has been passed down for generations.

In this study, we compiled 133 plant species used in folk medicine for the treatment of diarrhea in Turkey from the ethnobotanical studies and the theses published at the National Higher Education Center between the years of 2002-2018.

Accordingly, this study reveals that Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch., Parietaria judaica L., Punica granatum L., Rubus canescens DC. var. glabratus (Godron) Davis and Meikle, Vitex agnus-castus L, shown as a in the table, are used for the treatment against diarrhea in both humans and animals.

Moreover, some species such as Helleborus orientalis L., Inula viscosa(L) Aiton, Phlomis pungens Willd. var. hirta Velen, Pinus brutia Ten., Taraxacum androssovii Schischk., Taraxacum fedtschenkoi Hand.-Mazz., Taraxacum macrolepium Schischk., Viscum album L. which are marked as b in the Table 1 are only used for the treatment of diarrhea in animals.

In Figure 1, there is a graph of the main families used in the treatment of diarrhea in Turkey. The plants used for the treatment of diarrhea are mainly from Rosaceae, Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Fabaceae, Anacardiaceae, Orchidaceae, Cupressaceae, Fagaceae and Solanaceae families (Figure 1). The plants of these families mainly take bioactive molecule groups in their different parts such as fruit, seed, root, aerial parts (Bilaloglu and Harmanar 1999).

Phytomedicines have a significant role, both as traditional home remedies and as galenic preparations, in the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea. Three groups of preparations are particularly important: tannin-containing herbs, pectins, and a special strain of live dried yeast (Schulz et al. 2004).

Since diarrhea may occur because of fungal, bacterial, viral, and non-infectious causes and many of the plants reported in this study contain pharmaceutically bioactive compounds, including flavones, flavonoids, phenolic acids, tannins, anthocyanin compounds, volatile oil, minerals, vitamins, and polysaccharides (Bilaloglu and Harmandar 1999). In these molecule groups, tannins especially are medicinally significant because of their astringent properties. Inwardly tannins are administered in cases of diarrhea, intestinal catarrh and as an antidote in cases of heavy metal poisoning (Adhikari and Kundu 2017). They can provide short-term healing and anti-inflammatory effects on the gut wall, though they are likely to rapidly reduce in transit through the tract unless they are in a slowly dispersing solid form. Effects on the bowel, can be significant if the symptom is a reflex consequence of irritation in the gastric or upper enteric passages. The use of tannins is not to be recommended as a long-term solution. Because when they are used as long-term therapy, they can cause constipation, iron deficiency anemia and malnutrition. Therefore long-term therapy with high doses of tannins is to be avoided (Bone and Mills 2013). In this study, Potentilla, Quercus, Camellia, Vaccinium and Alchemilla sp. are known as plant remedies traditionally used for tannin constituents (Schulz et al. 2004; Bone and Mills 2013).

For centuries, physicians have used preparations containing flavonoids as basic physiologically active components and lay healers attempt to treat human diseases (Cushnie and Lamb 2005). Up till today, plant-derived flavonoids have showed numerous biological activities, including antiallergic, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, antiviral, anti-proliferative, anti-mutagenic, antithrombotic, anticarcinogenic, hepatoprotective, oestrogenic, insecticidal, and antioxidant activities (Cushnie and Lamb 2005; Orhan et al. 2010). Flavonoid containing poultices, infusions, spices and balms have been used in many cultures based on ethnomedicinal use for centuries (Cushnie and Lamb 2011). As stated above, there are many kinds of diarrhea and some are caused by infections. In this way, flavonoids in terms of having antimicrobial activities might show a strong ability to cure the pathogenesis. As a result, flavonoids can also be used as a drug to treat diarrhea.

Consequently, these compounds should be investigated in order to determine the main component which is effective against diarrhea and produce natural-based and effective drugs used for this common disease with fewer side effects than chemical drugs. We assume that this study would lead to the development and optimization of new antidiarrheal drugs with no side effects.

Peer-review: Externally peer-reviewed.

Author Contributions: Concept - S.K., A.S.; Design - S.K., A.S.; Supervision - A.S.; Resource - S.K., A.S.; Materials - S.K., A.S.; Data Collection andior Processing - S.K., A.S.; Analysis andior Interpretation - S.K., A.S.; Literature Search - S.K.; Writing - S.K., A.S.; Critical Reviews - S.K., A.S.

Conflict of Interest: The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

Financial Disclosure: The authors declared that this study has received no financial support.

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Secil Karahuseyin (1,2)[iD], Aynur Sari (1*)[iD]

(1) Department of Pharmacognosy, istanbul University, Faculty of Pharmacy, istanbul, Turkey

(2) Department of Pharmacognosy, Cukurova University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Adana, Turkey

ORCID IDs of the authors: A.S. 0000-0001-8116-7053; S.K.0000-0002-3515-2974.

Cite this article as: Karahuseyin S, Sari A (2019). Plants used in traditional treatment against diarrhea in Turkey. Istanbul J Pharm 49(1): 33-44.

Address for Correspondence:

Aynur Sari, e-mail: aynur@istanbul.edu.tr

Received: 11.03.2018

Accepted: 12.02.2019

DOI: 10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2019.404211
Table 1. List of the plants used in traditional treatment against
diarrhea in Turkey

Botanical                   Family           Local
name                                         name

Achillea aleppica           Asteraceae       Civanpercemi
DC.
subsp.
aleppica
(a) Achillea wilhelmsii     Asteraceae       Ayvadere, Kedicirnagi, Kedi
C. Koch.                                     Tirnagi, Tilki otu
Ailanthus altissima         Simaroubaceae    Ossuruk agaci
(P Mill.)
Swingle
Alchemillasp.               Rosaceae         Aslanpencesi, Dutya
Alhagi                      Fabaceae         Xirnuf
maurorum
Medik.
Alhagi                      Fabaceae         Hurnif, Ceti, Coban calisi
pseudoalhagi
(Bieb.)
Desv.
Allium                      Liliaceae        Sarimsak
sativum L.
Alyssum                     Brassicaceae     Keselmahmut
pateri
Nydr.
subsp.
pateri
Anacamptis                  Orchidaceae      Sahlep, Salep cicegi
pyramidalis
(L.) Rich.
Anthemis                    Asteraceae       Papatya
cretica
L. subsp.
pontica
(Willd.)
Grierson
Artemisia                   Asteraceae       Aciyavsan
absinthium L.
Arum conophalloides         Araceae          Yilan bicagi
Kotschy
ex Schott
Arum                        Araceae          ilan purculagi, Kabargan,
dioscoriddis SM.                             Olum koru, Yilan purculagi
Berbers                     Berberidaceae    Karamuk, Karamik, Kizilcik
crataegina
DC.
Berbers                     Berberidaceae    Karamuk, Kadintuzlugu
vulgaris L.
Camellia sinensis(L.)       Theaceae         Siyah cay
Kuntze
Capparis                    Capparaceae      Gebere, Kebere
spinosa
L. var.
aegyptia
(Lam.)
Boiss.
Cardiospermum               Sapindaceae      Balon sarmasigi, Japon
helicacabum L.                               feneri
Celtis tournefortii         Ulmaceae         Derdogan
Lam.
Centaurea                   Asteraceae       Sermnik
pterocaula
Trautv.
Centaurea solstitialis      Asteraceae       ishal dikeni
L. subsp.
solstitialis
Cerasus avium               Rosaceae         Kiraz
(L.) Moench
Ceratonia                   Fabaceae         Buynuz, Harip, Harnup,
siliqua L.                                   Keciboynuzu, Kecibuynuzu
Ceterach                    Aspleniaceae     Altin otu, Mayasil otu
officinarum DC.
Chenopodium                 Chenopodiaceae   Kedi uzumu, Kus uzumu
foliosum Aschers
Cicer arietinum L.          Fabaceae         Nohut
Cistus creticus L.          Cistaceae        Pamuk otu
Citrus limonL.              Rutaceae         Limon, Limon agaci
Convolvulus                 Convolvulaceae   Basirik (Bagirsak) otu,
arvensis L.                                  Mahmude otu
Cornus mas L.               Cornaceae        Kizilcik, Kiren, Zaye
Crataegus                   Rosaceae         Alic, Eksi musmula, Keci
monogyna                                     alici, Kiz elmasi, Kocakari
Jacq. subsp.                                 hurmasi
monogyna
Cupressus                   Cupressaceae     Mezarlik selvisi, Selvi
sempervirens L.
Cydonia                     Rosaceae         Ayva
oblonga
Miller
Cyperus                     Cyperaceae       Topalak otu
rotundus L.
Diospyros                   Ebenaceae        Laz hurmasi, Kara hurma
lotus L.
Elaeagnus                   Elaeagnaceae     igde
angustifolia L.
Erica manipuliflora         Ericaceae        Funda, Puren, Supurge otu
Salisb.
Eriobotrya japonica         Rosaceae         Malta erigi, Musmula
(Thunb.) Lindly
Euphorbia                   Euphorbiaceae    Hekletis, Sutlegen otu
denticulata Lam.
Fagus oriental's            Fagaceae         Dogu kayini
Lipsky
Ficus carica L. subsp.      Moraceae         incir
carica
Glaucium                    Papaveraceae     Gelincik
leiocarpum
Boiss.
Gundelia tournefortii L.    Asteraceae       Kenger
Helichrysum                 Asteraceae       Altin otu Leaf
arenarium (L.)
Moench.
Helichrysum plicatum        Asteraceae       Ari Cicegi, Olmez Cicek,
DC. subsp. plicatum                          Yayla Cicegi
(b) Helleborus              Ranunculaceae    Bohca, Bohca otu, Cop otu,
orientalis L.                                Copleme
Hordeum                     Poaceae          Arpa
vulgare L.
Hypericum                   Hypericaceae     Kantaron, Kucuk Kantaron
cerastoides (Spach)
N. Robson
Hypericum                   Hypericaceae     Mide otu, Yara otu
scabrum L.
(b) Inula viscosa (L.)      Asteraceae       Khiskes, Micve, Yerce,
Aiton                                        Zimbit
Juglans                     Juglandaceae     Ceviz
regia L.
Juniperus                   Cupressaceae     Andiz
drupacea L.
Juniperus                   Cupressaceae     Ardic
oxycedrus L.
Jurinella moschus           Asteraceae       Gazangulpu, Kazankulpu
(Habl.) Bobrov
subsp.
pinnatisecta
(Boiss.)
Danin and PH.Davis
Lysimachia vulgaris         Primulaceae      Giya baluk
(L.) Pohl
Malva neglecta              Malvaceae        Ebegumeci, Ebemkomeci
Wallr.
Matricaria chamomilla       Asteraceae       Papatya
L. var. recutita (L.)
Grierson
Melissa officinalis L.      Lamiaceae        Ogul otu
Mentha longifolia (L.)      Lamiaceae        Bung, Pung, Yarpiz, Yarpuz
Hudson subsp. longifolia
Mentha x piperita L.        Lamiaceae        Bunk, Mentol nane, Kedi
                                             nanesi, Tibbi nane
Mespilus germanica L.       Rosaceae         Besbiyik, Dongel, Musmula,
                                             Tongel
Morus alba L.               Moraceae         Akdut, Beyaz dut, Dut
Musa sapientum L.           Musaceae         Muz
Myrtus communis L.          Myrtaceae        Mersin, Murt
Olea europaea L.var         Oleaceae         Zeytin
sylvestris(Mill.) Lehr
Opuntia ficus-indica        Cactaceae        Frenk inciri, Kaynana dili,
(L.) Mill.                                   Tin sabir
Orchis coriophora L.        Orchidaceae      Sahlep
Orchis palustris Jacq.      Orchidaceae      Sahlep
Orchis punctulata           Orchidaceae      Sahlep
Steven ex Lindley
Origanum onites L.          Lamiaceae        Beyaz kekik, Deli kekik,
                                             Esek kekigi, Guve otu,
                                             Karakekik, Kekik
Paliurus spinachristi       Rhamnaceae       Calti
Miller
Papaver somniferum          Papaveraceae     Afyon, Afyon cicegi,
L.var. somniferum                            Hashas, Hashas kozagi,
                                             Yelegen mavi
(a) Parietaria judaica L.   Urticaceae       Duvar reyhani, Yapisik ot
(b) Phlomis pungens         Lamiaceae        Ayikulagi, Calba
Willd.var.
hirta Velen
(b) Pinus brutia            Pinaceae         Cam, Kizilcam
Ten.
Pinus nigra                 Pinaceae         Cam gidisi, Karacam
Aitonsubsp.
pallasiana (Lamb.)
Holmboe
Pinus pinea L.              Pinaceae         Fistik cami
Pistacia eurycarpa Yalt     Anacardiaceae    Menengec
Pistacia terebinthus L.     Anacardiaceae    Menengic
Pistacia vera L.            Anacardiaceae    Kaliki-fistiga
Plantago lanceolata L.      Plantaginaceae   Sinir otu, Sinirli ot
Plantago major L.           Plantaginaceae   Damar otu, Kara kabarcik,
subsp. major                                 Sigilli ot, Sinir otu,
                                             Sinirli ot
Platanus orientals L.       Platanaceae      Cinar Kavak
Populus tremula L.          Salicaceae       Bodur kavak
Potentilla recta L.         Rosaceae         Aci hayit, Besparmak otu
Potentilla reptans L.       Rosaceae         Besparmak otu
Prosopis farcta             Fabaceae         Ceti, Hishas
(Banks and Sol.)
J.FMacbr
Prunus cerasus L.           Rosaceae         Visne
Prunus divaricata           Rosaceae         Dag erigi, Gakka, Kus erigi
Ledeb.
Prunus x domestica L.       Rosaceae         Erik
Prunus persica              Rosaceae         Seftali
(L.) Batsch.
Prunus spinosa L.           Rosaceae         Dag erigi
(a) Punica granatum L.      Punicaceae       Hennar Hinar Nar
Pyrus amygdaliformis        Rosaceae         Ahlat, Cakal armudu, Corduk
Vill. subsp.                                 armudu, Del armut, Yaban
amygdaliformis                               armudu
Pyrus elaeagnifolia         Rosaceae         Dag armudu, Yabani armut
Pall. subsp.
elaeagnifolia
Pyrus elaeagnifolia         Rosaceae         Ahlat, Ahlet, Deli armut,
Pall. subsp. kotschyana                      Tas armut
(Boiss.) Browicz.
Pyrus syriaca Boiss.        Rosaceae         Cakal armut, Dag armudu,
var. syriaca                                 Yaban armudu
Quercus coccifera L.        Fagaceae         Kermes mesesi, Piynar
Quercus ithaburensis        Fagaceae         Mese palamudu
subsp. macrolepis
(Kotschy) Hedge
and Yalt.
Rhus coriaria L.            Anacardiaceae    Simak, Sumak
Rosa canina L.              Rosaceae         Itburnu, itgulu, Kusburnu,
                                             Okuzgozu
Rosa damascenaMill.         Rosaceae         Gul
(a) Rubus canescens         Rosaceae         Bogurtlen, Kapina, Karamik
DC. var. glabratus
(Gordon) Davis and
Meikle
Rubus sanctus Schreb.       Rosaceae         Bogurtlen
Rumex acetosella L.         Polygonaceae     Eksilik, Kuzukulagi
Rumex crispus L.            Polygonaceae     Eksi ot, Gicirgicir Labada
Rumex patientia L.          Polygonaceae     Ebelik, Kalmuk cayi,
                                             Labada, Tirsika karan,
                                             Yilkikulak
Salvia tomentosa Mill.      Lamiaceae        Bogac otu, Boscapula, Ellik
                                             otu, Sanci otu, Sabila,
                                             Salpa, Yaki otu
Sanguisorba minor           Rosaceae         Amel otu, Cayir dugmesi,
Scop. subsp. magnolii                        Kara gomdurme, Kelek otu
(Spach) Briq.
Scolymus hispanicus L.      Asteraceae       Altin dikeni, Saridiken
Secale cereale L.           Poaceae          Cavdar
Sideritis tmolea            Lamiaceae        Sari cicekli yaki otu
PH. Davis
Silene vulgaris             Caryophyllaceae  Cirvinik
(Moench) Garcke.
var. vulgaris
Solanum nigrum L.           Solanaceae       Kopek sirkeni
Solanum tuberosum L.        Solanaceae       Gumpir, Kitola, Kumpir,
                                             Patates, Patati
Sorbus aucuparia L.         Rosaceae         Kus uvezi
Sorbus domestica L.         Rosaceae         Huvez
(b) Taraxacum               Asteraceae       Acigici, Hapsuruk otu, Zeze
androssovii Schischk.
Taraxacum farinosum         Asteraceae       Hindiba, Karahindiba
Hausskn. and Bornm.
ex Hand.-Mazz.
(b) Taraxacum               Asteraceae       Acigici, Hapsuruk otu, Zeze
fedtschenkoi Hand.-Mazz.
(b) Taraxacum               Asteraceae       Acigici, Hapsuruk otu, Zeze
macrolepium
Schischk.
Teucrium chamaedrys         Lamiaceae        Bodur Mahmut, Bodurca
L. subsp. chamaedrys                         Mahmut, Cuce Mahmut
Teucrium polium L.          Lamiaceae        Aci Yavsan, Egzama otu,
                                             Kirmizi ballibaba, Mayasil
                                             otu, Meryemkot, Oglan otu
Tribulus terrestris L.      Zygophyllaceae   Cakir dikeni, Coban
                                             cokerten, Demir diken, Deve
                                             cokerten
Trifoliumpratense L.        Fabaceae         Yonca
Triticum sp.                Poaceae          Bugday
Urtica dioica L.            Urticaceae       Isirgan otu
Vaccinium                   Ericaceae        Ayi uzumu, Lifos, Likarba
arctostaphylos L.
Viburnum lantana L.         Caprifoliaceae   Germeso, Germisek
Vicia faba L.               Fabaceae         Bakla, Pakla
(b) Viscum album L.         Loranthaceae     Okse otu
(a) Vitex agnus-castus L.   Verbenaceae      Hayit
Vitis vinifera L.           Vitaceae         Uzum, Asma, Tevek

Botanical                   Plant parts        Preparation,
name                        used               administration and use

Achillea aleppica           Aerial             Dec.,
DC.                         parts              Int.
subsp.
aleppica
(a) Achillea wilhelmsii     Aerial             + Milk,
C. Koch.                    parts              Dec. or Inf., Int
                                               Crushed, Ext. Dec., Int.
                                               Inf., Int.
Ailanthus altissima         Branches           Dec., Int.
(P Mill.)
Swingle
Alchemillasp.               Aerial parts,      Inf.,
                            Flower             Int.
Alhagi                      Fruit              Raw, Int.
maurorum
Medik.
Alhagi                      Fruit              Dried Fruits Eaten
pseudoalhagi                                   Crushed, Int.
(Bieb.)
Desv.
Allium                      Bulb               +Yoghurt, Fac.
sativum L.
Alyssum                     Aerial             Dec.,
pateri                      parts              Int.
Nydr.
subsp.
pateri
Anacamptis                  Root               Dec., Int.
pyramidalis
(L.) Rich.
Anthemis                    Capitulum          Inf., Int.
cretica
L. subsp.
pontica
(Willd.)
Grierson
Artemisia                   Leaf               Take as a pill, Int.
absinthium L.
Arum conophalloides         Seed               Raw, Swallowed
Kotschy
ex Schott
Arum                                           Cooked, Int.
dioscoriddis SM.
Berbers                     Flowering and      Dec.,
crataegina                  Fruity Branches    Int.
DC.                         Fruit              Raw, Int.
Berbers                     Fruit              Raw, Int.
vulgaris L.
Camellia sinensis(L.)       Leaf               Inf., Int. Raw or Inf.,
Kuntze                                         Int.
Capparis                    Gemma              Swallowed
spinosa
L. var.
aegyptia
(Lam.)
Boiss.
Cardiospermum               Young              Dec., Int.
helicacabum L.              Shoots
Celtis tournefortii         Fruit              Raw, Int.
Lam.
Centaurea                   Leaf               Dec., Int.
pterocaula
Trautv.
Centaurea solstitialis      Aerial parts       Inf., Int.
L. subsp.
solstitialis
Cerasus avium               Stem and           Dec., Int.
(L.) Moench                 Branch Bark
Ceratonia                   Fruit              Raw, Int. Jam, Int. Mac.,
siliqua L.                                     Int.
Ceterach                    Aerial parts       Cooked, Int. Dec., Int.
officinarum DC.
Chenopodium                 Aerial parts       Inf., Int.
foliosum Aschers
Cicer arietinum L.          Seed               Cooked, Int.
Cistus creticus L.          Leaf               Dec., Int.
Citrus limonL.              Fruit              Juice, Int.
Convolvulus                 Branches           Dec., Int.
arvensis L.                 and
                            Leaves
Cornus mas L.               Fruit              Raw, Int. Syrup, Int.
                                               Dec., Int. Inf., Int.
Crataegus                   Fruit              Eaten
monogyna                    Leaf,              Inf., Int.
Jacq. subsp.                Flower
monogyna
Cupressus                   Cone               Dec., Int.
sempervirens L.
Cydonia                     Leaf               Inf., Int.
oblonga                     Seed               Dec., Int.
Miller                      Flower             Dec., Int. Inf., Int.
Cyperus                     Root               Crushed, Ext.
rotundus L.
Diospyros                   Leaf               Inf., Int.
lotus L.
Elaeagnus                   Seed               Dec., Int.
angustifolia L.             Fruit              Eaten
                            Leaf               Inf., Int.
Erica manipuliflora         Young              Dec., Int.
Salisb.                     Shoots
Eriobotrya japonica         Leaf               Inf., Int. Dec., Int.
(Thunb.) Lindly
Euphorbia                   Latex              Int.
denticulata Lam.
Fagus oriental's            Stem Bark          Dec., Int.
Lipsky
Ficus carica L. subsp.      Leaf               Raw, Int. Dec., Int.
carica
Glaucium                    Flower             Inf., Int. Dec., Int.
leiocarpum
Boiss.
Gundelia tournefortii L.    Root               Latex, Eaten Inf., Int.
Helichrysum                 Capitulum,         2015)
arenarium (L.)
Moench.
Helichrysum plicatum        Aerial parts       Inf., Int.
DC. subsp. plicatum         Flowering          Inf., Int.
                            Branches
(b) Helleborus              Leaf, Rhizome      Eaten
orientalis L.
Hordeum                     Spike              Inf., Int.
vulgare L.                  Whole plant        Inf., Int.
Hypericum                   Aerial parts       Dec., Int.
cerastoides (Spach)
N. Robson
Hypericum                   Aerial parts       Inf., Int.
scabrum L.
(b) Inula viscosa (L.)      Leaf               Eaten
Aiton
Juglans                     Seed               Inf., Int.
regia L.                    Leaf               Dec., Int.
                            Fruit              Dec., Int.
                            Bark
Juniperus                   Tar                +Water Int.
drupacea L.
Juniperus                   Leaf,
oxycedrus L.                Branches
Jurinella moschus           Whole plant        Dec., Int.
(Habl.) Bobrov
subsp.
pinnatisecta
(Boiss.)
Danin and PH.Davis
Lysimachia vulgaris         Leaf               Dec., Int.
(L.) Pohl
Malva neglecta              Aerial parts       Dec., Int.
Wallr.
Matricaria chamomilla       Aerial parts       Inf., Int.
L. var. recutita (L.)       (Without Flower)
Grierson
Melissa officinalis L.      Leaf and           Inf., Int.
                            Young Shoots
Mentha longifolia (L.)      Leaf               Inf., Int
Hudson subsp. longifolia
Mentha x piperita L.        Aerial parts       Dec., Int.
Mespilus germanica L.       Leaf               Inf., Int.
                            Fruit              Dec., Int. Eaten
Morus alba L.               Leaf               Inf., Int.
Musa sapientum L.           Fruit              Eaten
Myrtus communis L.          Leaf               Dec., Int. Inf., Int.
Olea europaea L.var         Leaf and           Inf., Int.
sylvestris(Mill.) Lehr      Stem Bark
Opuntia ficus-indica        Fruit              Eaten
(L.) Mill.
Orchis coriophora L.        Root               Dec., Int.
Orchis palustris Jacq.      Root               Dec., Int.
Orchis punctulata           Root               Dec., Int.
Steven ex Lindley
Origanum onites L.          Aerial parts       Cooked with +Monk's
                            Leaf               pepper, Thyme, Flour,
                                               Water, Ext. Inf. or Dec.,
                                               Int. Aromatic Water, Int.
                                               Inf., Int.
Paliurus spinachristi       Fruit              Inf., Int.
Miller
Papaver somniferum          Fruit Bark         Dec., Int.
L.var. somniferum
(a) Parietaria judaica L.   Aerial parts       Inf., Int. Eaten
(b) Phlomis pungens         Aerial parts       Eaten
Willd.var.
hirta Velen
(b) Pinus brutia            Dried Stem Bark    Crushed, Int.
Ten.                        and Mastic
Pinus nigra                 Tar                Ext.
Aitonsubsp.
pallasiana (Lamb.)
Holmboe
Pinus pinea L.              Branches           Dec., Int.
Pistacia eurycarpa Yalt     Fruit              Eaten
Pistacia terebinthus L.     Fruit
Pistacia vera L.            Fruit Bark         Dec., Int.
Plantago lanceolata L.      Seed               Int. Dec., Int.
Plantago major L.           Flower             Dec., Int.
subsp. major                Seed               Dec., Int. +Yoghurt, Int.
Platanus orientals L.       Fruit              Dec., Int.
                            Leaf               Inf., Int.
                            Stem Bark          Dec., Int. Dec., Int.
Populus tremula L.          Stem Bark          Dec., Int.
Potentilla recta L.         Root               Dec., Int.
Potentilla reptans L.       Leaf               Dec., Int.
Prosopis farcta             Fruit              Eaten
(Banks and Sol.)            Root               Dec., Int.
J.FMacbr
Prunus cerasus L.           Fruit              Juice, Int. Eaten
Prunus divaricata           Fruit              Juice, Int.
Ledeb.
Prunus x domestica L.       Fruit              Boiled with Turkish
                                               Coffee, Int.
Prunus persica              Fruit              Eaten
(L.) Batsch.                Flower             Inf., Int.
Prunus spinosa L.           Fruit              Eaten
(a) Punica granatum L.      Fruit              Juice, Int.
                            Seed               Cooked in Cinder, Ext.
                            Fruit Bark         Eaten Crushed, Int.
Pyrus amygdaliformis        Leaf               Dec., Int.
Vill. subsp.                Fruit              Eaten
amygdaliformis
Pyrus elaeagnifolia         Fruit              Eaten
Pall. subsp.
elaeagnifolia
Pyrus elaeagnifolia         ImmatureFruit      Raw, Eaten
Pall. subsp. kotschyana     Flower             Inf., Int.
(Boiss.) Browicz.
Pyrus syriaca Boiss.        Fruit              Eaten
var. syriaca
Quercus coccifera L.        Gall               Dec., Int.
Quercus ithaburensis        Gall               Eaten
subsp. macrolepis
(Kotschy) Hedge
and Yalt.
Rhus coriaria L.            Fruit              Eaten
                            Seed               Inf., Int.
                            Leaf               Dec., Int. Dec., Int.
                                               Mac., Int.
Rosa canina L.              Fruit              Dec., Int. Inf., Int.
                                               Eaten Marmalade, Int.
Rosa damascenaMill.         Flower             Inf., Int.
(a) Rubus canescens         Root               Dec., Int. Eaten
DC. var. glabratus
(Gordon) Davis and
Meikle
Rubus sanctus Schreb.       Root               Dec., Int.
Rumex acetosella L.         Leaf               Eaten
Rumex crispus L.            Root               Dec., Int.
                            Leaf               Inf., Int.
                            Seed               Eaten
Rumex patientia L.          Leaf               Dec., Int.
                            Root               Inf., Int.
Salvia tomentosa Mill.      Aerial parts       Inf., Int.
Sanguisorba minor           Aerial parts       Raw, Eaten
Scop. subsp. magnolii
(Spach) Briq.
Scolymus hispanicus L.      Leaf, Capitulum    Dec. Int.
Secale cereale L.           Seed               Inf., Int.
Sideritis tmolea            Aerial parts       Inf., Int.
PH. Davis                   with Flower
Silene vulgaris             Aerial parts       Dec., Int.
(Moench) Garcke.
var. vulgaris
Solanum nigrum L.           Fruit              Cooked with +Thyme,
                                               Monk's pepper Flour
                                               Water, Ext.
Solanum tuberosum L.        Tuber              Cooked, Int.
Sorbus aucuparia L.         Fruit              Jam
Sorbus domestica L.         Fruit              Eaten
(b) Taraxacum               Capitulum          Dec., Int.
androssovii Schischk.
Taraxacum farinosum         Leaf               Inf., Int.
Hausskn. and Bornm.
ex Hand.-Mazz.
(b) Taraxacum               Capitulum          Dec., Int.
fedtschenkoi Hand.-Mazz.
(b) Taraxacum               Capitulum          Dec., Int.
macrolepium
Schischk.
Teucrium chamaedrys         Aerial parts       Dec., Int.
L. subsp. chamaedrys        Leaf               Inf., Int. Dec., Int.
Teucrium polium L.          Aerial parts       Dec., Int.
                            Leaf and Flower    Inf., Int.
                            Leaf               Boiled with Molasses,
                                               Ext. Inf., Int. Inf.,
                                               Int.
Tribulus terrestris L.      Fruit              Dec., Int. Inf., Int.
Trifoliumpratense L.        Aerial Parts       Dec., Int.
Triticum sp.                Seed               Flour, Int.
Urtica dioica L.            Leaf with Seed     Dec., Int.
Vaccinium                   Leaf               Dec., Int.
arctostaphylos L.
Viburnum lantana L.         Fruit              Dec., Int.
Vicia faba L.               Seed               Eaten
(b) Viscum album L.         Leaf               Dec., Int.
(a) Vitex agnus-castus L.   Seed               Dec., Int.
                            Branches           Swallowed, Int. Crushed,
                                               Int. Poultice, Ext.
Vitis vinifera L.           Fruit              Juice, Int.

Botanical                   Reference
name

Achillea aleppica           (Dogan 2014)
DC.
subsp.
aleppica
(a) Achillea wilhelmsii     (Oral 2007) (Senkardes 2014) (Tuzlaci 2016)
C. Koch.
Ailanthus altissima         (Gunes et al. 2017)
(P Mill.)
Swingle
Alchemillasp.               (Karagoz and Serteser 2017)
Alhagi                      (Dalar et al. 2018)
maurorum
Medik.
Alhagi                      (Korkut 2006; Gencay 2007) (Tuzlaci 2016)
pseudoalhagi
(Bieb.)
Desv.
Allium                      (Uysal 2008)
sativum L.
Alyssum
pateri
Nydr.                       (Kaval et al. 2014; Tuzlaci 2016) (Dogan
subsp.                      2014; Tuzlaci 2016)
pateri
Anacamptis
pyramidalis
(L.) Rich.
Anthemis                    (Tutenocakli 2014)
cretica
L. subsp.
pontica
(Willd.)
Grierson
Artemisia                   (Yildirim 2015)
absinthium L.
Arum conophalloides         (Gunes et al. 2017)
Kotschy
ex Schott
Arum                        (Yildirim 2015)
dioscoriddis SM.
Berbers                     (Ozkan 2002; Tuzlaci 2016) (Yesil and Akalin
crataegina                  2009; Vural 2008)
DC.
Berbers                     (Korkmaz and Karakus 2013)
vulgaris L.
Camellia sinensis(L.)       (Sarac et al. 2013; Tuzlaci 2016) (Uysal
Kuntze                      2008)
Capparis                    (Kazan 2007)
spinosa
L. var.
aegyptia
(Lam.)
Boiss.
Cardiospermum               (Guzel et al 2015)
helicacabum L.
Celtis tournefortii         (Dogan 2014; Tuzlaci 2016)
Lam.
Centaurea                   (Kaval et al. 2014)
pterocaula
Trautv.
Centaurea solstitialis      (Senkardes 2014; Tuzlaci 2016)
L. subsp.
solstitialis
Cerasus avium               (Kural 2012; Tuzlaci 2016)
(L.) Moench
Ceratonia                   (Bulut 2006; Tuzlaci 2016; Gurdal and Kultur
siliqua L.                  2013; Yildirim 2015)
Ceterach                    (Guzel et al. 2015) (Bulut 2006; Tuzlaci
officinarum DC.             2016)
Chenopodium                 (Dogan 2014; Senkardes 2014; Tuzlaci and
foliosum Aschers            Senkardes 2011; Tuzlaci 2016)
Cicer arietinum L.          (Uysal 2008; Tuzlaci 2016)
Cistus creticus L.          (Onar 2006; Tuzlaci 2016)
Citrus limonL.              (Sargin et al. 2013)
Convolvulus                 (Gunes et al. 2017)
arvensis L.
Cornus mas L.               (Kocyigit and Ozhatay 2006; Ayan 2015;
                            Tuzlaci 2016) (Polat 2010; Korkmaz and
                            Karakurt 2014) (Karci 2013) (Guler et al.
                            2015)
Crataegus                   (Sargin et al. 2013) (Furkan 2016)
monogyna
Jacq. subsp.
monogyna
Cupressus                   (Uysal 2008; Tuzlaci 2016)
sempervirens L.
Cydonia                     (Sargin et al. 2013)
oblonga                     (Gunes et al. 2017; Uysal 2008; Metin 2009;
Miller                      Kayabasi 2011; Deniz 2008; Kincal 2018;
                            Tuzlaci 2016) (Uysal 2008; Yuzbasioglu 2010;
                            Tuzlaci 2016) (Yildirim 2015)
Cyperus                     (Uysal 2008)
rotundus L.
Diospyros                   (Sarac et al.2013; Tuzlaci 2016)
lotus L.
Elaeagnus                   (Altundag 2009) (Guzel et al 2015; Korkmaz
angustifolia L.             and Karakurt 2014) (Polat 2010)
Erica manipuliflora         (Bulut 2006)
Salisb.
Eriobotrya japonica         (Uysal 2008)
(Thunb.) Lindly             (Tuzlaci 2016)
Euphorbia                   (Kaval et al. 2014;
denticulata Lam.            Tuzlaci 2016)
Fagus oriental's            (Kural 2012)
Lipsky
Ficus carica L. subsp.      (Alkac 2013)
carica                      (Tuzlaci 2016)
Glaucium                    (Dogan 2014)
leiocarpum                  (Tuzlaci 2016)
Boiss.
Gundelia tournefortii L.    (Hayta et al. 2014;
                            Cakilcioglu and
                            Turkoglu 2010)
Helichrysum                 (Akan and
arenarium (L.)              Sade
Moench.
Helichrysum plicatum        (Arisan 2010)
DC. subsp. plicatum         (Altundag 2009)
(b) Helleborus              (Kizilarslan and Ozhatay 2012)
orientalis L.
Hordeum                     (Sargin et al. 2013)
vulgare L.                  (Korkmaz and Karakurt 2014)
Hypericum                   (Kizilarslan and Ozhatay 2012; Tuzlaci 2016)
cerastoides (Spach)
N. Robson
Hypericum                   (Dogan 2014; Tuzlaci 2016)
scabrum L.
(b) Inula viscosa (L.)      (Guzel et al. 2015)
Aiton
Juglans                     (Aktan 2011)
regia L.                    (Senkardes 2014; Tuzlaci 2016)
                            (Sargin et al. 2013)
Juniperus                   (Orhan 2011)
drupacea L.
Juniperus                   (Orhan 2011)
oxycedrus L.
Jurinella moschus           (Altundag 2009)
(Habl.) Bobrov
subsp.
pinnatisecta
(Boiss.)
Danin and PH.Davis
Lysimachia vulgaris         (Dalar et al. 2018)
(L.) Pohl
Malva neglecta              (Altundag 2009)
Wallr.
Matricaria chamomilla       (Sargin et al. 2013)
L. var. recutita (L.)
Grierson
Melissa officinalis L.      (Bulut 2006; Tuzlaci 2016)
Mentha longifolia (L.)      (Altundag 2009; Tuzlaci 2016)
Hudson subsp. longifolia
Mentha x piperita L.        (Akan and Sade 2015)
Mespilus germanica L.       (Karci 2013)
                            (Onar 2006; Tuzlaci 2016)
                            (Bulut 2006; Kural 2012; Guler et al. 2015;
                            Tuzlaci 2016)
Morus alba L.               (Sargin et al. 2013)
Musa sapientum L.           (Uysal 2008; Tuzlaci 2016)
Myrtus communis L.          (Gunes et al. 2017)
                            (Tuzlaci 2016)
Olea europaea L.var         (Bulut 2006)
sylvestris(Mill.) Lehr
Opuntia ficus-indica        (Guzel et al 2015; Guler et al. 2015)
(L.) Mill.
Orchis coriophora L.        (Dogan 2014; Tuzlaci 2016)
Orchis palustris Jacq.      (Dogan 2014; Tuzlaci 2016)
Orchis punctulata           (Dogan 2014; Tuzlaci 2016)
Steven ex Lindley
Origanum onites L.          (Uysal 2008)
                            (Gurdal and Kultur 2013; Tuzlaci 2016)
                            (Tutenocakli 2014)
Paliurus spinachristi       (Bulut and Tuzlaci 2009)
Miller
Papaver somniferum          (Sargin et al. 2013; Tuzlaci 2016)
L.var. somniferum
(a) Parietaria judaica L.   (Tuzlaci and Senkardes 2011)
(b) Phlomis pungens         (Vural 2008)
Willd.var.
hirta Velen
(b) Pinus brutia            (Gunes et al. 2017)
Ten.
Pinus nigra                 (Arisan 2010)
Aitonsubsp.
pallasiana (Lamb.)
Holmboe
Pinus pinea L.              (Kokcu 2015)
Pistacia eurycarpa Yalt     (Dogan 2014; Tuzlaci 2016)
Pistacia terebinthus L.     (Akan and Sade 2015)
Pistacia vera L.            (Dagli 2015)
Plantago lanceolata L.      (Genc and Ozhatay 2006)
                            (Kolac 2018)
Plantago major L.           (Genc and Ozhatay 2006)
subsp. major
                            (Karatas 2007)
                            (Kizilarslan and Ozhatay 2012)
Platanus orientals L.       (Bulut and Tuzlaci 2009; Kokcu 2015; Tuzlaci
                            2016)
                            (Kocyigit and Ozhatay 2006)
                            (Vural 2008)
                            (Polat 2010)
Populus tremula L.          (Dogan 2014; Tuzlaci 2016)
Potentilla recta L.         (Deniz 2008)
Potentilla reptans L.       (Yilmaz 2011; Ozturk 2006;
                            Tuzlaci 2016)
Prosopis farcta             (Gencay 2007; Tuzlaci 2016)
(Banks and Sol.)
J.FMacbr                    (Balos and Akan 2007)
Prunus cerasus L.           (Korkmaz and Karakurt 2014)
                            (Metin 2009)
Prunus divaricata           (Korkmaz and Karakurt 2014)
Ledeb.
Prunus x domestica L.       (Kolac 2018)
Prunus persica              (Korkmaz and Karakus 2013; Metin 2009; Kolac
(L.) Batsch.                2018)
                            (Kolac 2018)
Prunus spinosa L.           (Esen 2008)
(a) Punica granatum L.      (Gencay 2007)
                            (Uysal 2008)
                            (Guzel et al 2015)
                            (Balos and Akan 2007)
Pyrus amygdaliformis        (Uysal 2008)
Vill. subsp.                (Deniz 2008; Tuzlaci 2016)
amygdaliformis
Pyrus elaeagnifolia         (Tuzlaci and Senkardes 2011; Tsetsekos 2006;
Pall. subsp.                Guldas 2009; Keskin 2011)
elaeagnifolia
Pyrus elaeagnifolia         (Korkmaz and Karakurt 2014; Tuzlaci 2016)
Pall. subsp. kotschyana
(Boiss.) Browicz.
                            (Yildirim 2015)
Pyrus syriaca Boiss.        (Furkan 2016; Tuzlaci 2016)
var. syriaca
Quercus coccifera L.        (Metin 2009; Cilden 2011)
Quercus ithaburensis        (Akan and Sade 2015; Tuzlaci 2016)
subsp. macrolepis
(Kotschy) Hedge
and Yalt.
Rhus coriaria L.            (Guldas 2009)
                            (Balos and Akan 2007)
                            (Metin 2009)
                            (Metin 2009)
                            (Furkan 2016)
Rosa canina L.              (Sargin et al. 2013; Karatas 2007)
                            (Gunes et al. 2017)
                            (Karagoz and Serteser 2017)
                            (Karagoz and Serteser 2017;
                            Keskin 2011; Tuzlaci 2016)
Rosa damascenaMill.         (Guler et al. 2015; Tuzlaci 2016)
(a) Rubus canescens         (Genc and Ozhatay 2006; Tuzlaci 2016)
DC. var. glabratus
(Gordon) Davis and          (Kayabasi 2011)
Meikle
Rubus sanctus Schreb.       (Uysal 2008)
Rumex acetosella L.         (Guler et al. 2015)
Rumex crispus L.            (Oral 2007)
                            (Oral 2007)
                            (Kokcu 2015)
Rumex patientia L.          (Uysal 2008)
                            (Yesil and
                            Akalin 2009)
Salvia tomentosa Mill.      (Sargin et al. 2013)
Sanguisorba minor           (Furkan 2016)
Scop. subsp. magnolii
(Spach) Briq.
Scolymus hispanicus L.      (Metin 2009)
Secale cereale L.           (Yildirim 2015)
Sideritis tmolea            (Sargin et al. 2013)
PH. Davis
Silene vulgaris             (Dogan 2014; Tuzlaci 2016)
(Moench) Garcke.
var. vulgaris
Solanum nigrum L.           (Uysal 2008)
Solanum tuberosum L.        (Uysal 2008;
                            Korkmaz and Karakus 2013; Karakurt 2014;
                            Ayandin 2010; Saday 2009; Yildirim 2015;
                            Tuzlaci 2016; Kincal 2018; Kolac 2018)
Sorbus aucuparia L.         (Kural 2012)
Sorbus domestica L.         (Kokcu 2015)
(b) Taraxacum               (Altundag 2009)
androssovii Schischk.
Taraxacum farinosum         (Gunes et al. 2017)
Hausskn. and Bornm.
ex Hand.-Mazz.
(b) Taraxacum               (Altundag 2009)
fedtschenkoi Hand.-Mazz.
(b) Taraxacum               (Altundag 2009)
macrolepium
Schischk.
Teucrium chamaedrys         (Oral 2007)
L. subsp. chamaedrys        (Oral 2007)
                            (Alkac 2013)
Teucrium polium L.          (Han and Bulut 2015)
                            (Akan and Sade 2015; Tuzlaci 2016)
                            (Metin 2009)
                            (Bulut 2006)
                            (Tetik et al. 2013)
Tribulus terrestris L.      (Dogan 2014; Tuzlaci 2016)
                            (Tetik et al. 2013)
Trifoliumpratense L.        (Hayta et al. 2014; Tuzlaci 2016)
Triticum sp.                (Gunbatan et al. 2016)
Urtica dioica L.            (Uysal 2008)
Vaccinium                   (Kural 2012)
arctostaphylos L.
Viburnum lantana L.         (Altundag 2009; Tuzlaci 2016)
Vicia faba L.               (Yildirim 2015)
(b) Viscum album L.         (Sarag et al. 2013)
(a) Vitex agnus-castus L.   (Sargin et al. 2013)
                            (Polat 2010; Tuzlaci 2016)
                            (Uysal 2008)
                            (Gurdal and Kultur 2013)
Vitis vinifera L.           (Furkan 2016)

Int: Internal, Dec: Decoction, Ext: External, Fac: Fruits are crushed,
Inf: Infusion, Mac: Maceration
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Author:Karahuseyin, Secil; Sari, Aynur
Publication:Journal of the Faculty of Pharmacy of Istanbul University
Date:Apr 1, 2019
Words:6794
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