Printer Friendly

Plants of the Annonaceae traditionally used as antimalarials: a review/Plantas da familia Annonaceae tradicionalmente usadas como antimalaricos: uma revisao.

INTRODUCTION

Malaria and the Annonaceae family: The annual death of thousands of people worldwide due to malaria has made this disease one of the major problems in world health. This has motivated the development of research into new alternatives for the control and cure of this disease. Evidence for this is the diverse number of publications on screenings based on traditional medicine in Africa, India and South America regions where malaria is endemic and on the search for natural products derived from plants. Phytochemical studies are also important in this context for revealing natural products which may later be developed into new drugs. New antimalarials are needed because Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, the two main parasites responsible for malaria infections in humans, are becoming resistant to the two major classes of effective drugs, namely quinoline and artemisinin antimalarials. One of the main problems in malaria control is that this disease is endemic to generally poor and underdeveloped countries in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. These regions and their problems are not in general of major interest to the economically more developed countries. In this sense, part of the population which inhabits areas where malaria is endemic does not have access to efficient health services and sometimes the only source of therapeutic treatment is based on plants. Among the families which stand out due to their broad traditional uses against malaria is Annonaceae (order Magnoliales). This family is distributed pantropically and comprises approximately 123 genera and 2,100 species (MABBERLEY, 2008) of trees, shrubs and lianas. The antiprotozoal activity of Annonaceae species in traditional treatments of malaria, Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) and leishmaniasis is associated with secondary metabolite alkaloids, acetogenins, sterols and terpenes found in different parts of these plants (OCAMPO & OCAMPO, 2006). This review covers ethnobotanic reports on Annonaceous species used traditionally to treat malaria and related symptoms (high and intermittent fevers, chills, headaches, body pain, liver ailments) and ethnopharmacologic studies demonstrating in vitro activity of extracts of plants of this family against Plasmodium falciparum (median inhibition concentrations, [IC.sub.50] < 1.5 [micro]g/mL) and other malaria parasites.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Information on publications in the scientific literature was obtained using the SciFinder Scholar (2007) program and the input phrase "Antimalarials from Plants" which produced a list of publications from 1942 (first publication) to June, 2011. A list of 765 abstracts was initially obtained and further refined by restricting plants to the Annonaceae family. In similar fashion, references were found on the Scielo, PubMed, ScienceDirect and ISI Web of Science websites using the input phrase "antimalarials plants Annonaceae" in January, 2013 . Also, online searches were performed at different sites and at libraries at the Federal University of Amazonas in Manaus, Brazil, National Institute for Amazon Research in Manaus and University of La Amazonia in Colombia. The data were organized in a spreadsheet. Information registered in the spreadsheet included species names, geographical distribution, regions where the plant is used, preparation methods and parts of the plant used as antimalarials, as febrifuges, for headaches, liver problems, etc.. Also, where available, data on in vitro median inhibitory concentrations ([IC.sub.50]) and in vivo activities against Plasmodium spp. used in literature studies were included.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Traditional uses of Annonaceae: Different ethnic groups have used species of Annonaceae as a therapeutic source to combat malaria. While some species are not useful for the treatment of malaria per se they are used to treat the symptoms. In the present study, 63 species belonging to 27 genera were found in literature studies. In general, these plant species were used to treat the disease or its symptoms in countries in the Amazon region (northern South America); Africa, Central America, India and Malaysia (see Table 1). Eleven antimalarial species each for the genera Annona and Xylopia made these the most represented of the Annonaceae family. These genera have a pantropical distribution. They also are known to produce antimalarial alkaloids (FISCHER et al., 2004; GARAVITO et al., 2006).

The genus Annona: Well-known for its edible fruit. Annona muricata is the most widely used species worldwide in traditional medicine, as foodstuff and in the cosmetic industry. A. muricata was by far the most commonly cited Annonaceous plant for the treatment of malaria, fevers, liver ailments and headaches. Nineteen literature sources made reference to the use of roots, bark, fruit and leaves of this species in the preparation of therapeutic remedies among the peoples of India, Madagascar, Indonesia, Costa Rica, Barbados and a few countries from Africa and South America. Of the nineteen sources of literature reporting the use of A. muricata, twelve indicated use against fever and five reported specific use against malaria. The only reported use of this species for the curing of liver problems was by Hidalgo (2003) who observed the use of the bark of this species among the traditional riverine populations in the Brazilian Amazon. Also, populations along the Pacific coast of Colombia place leaves on the forehead of the sick person for the treatment of the headaches caused by malaria infections (BLAIR & MADRIGAL, 2005). In Colombia, decoctions are prepared from fresh or dry leaves of A. muricata and drank to treat the feverish state brought on by malaria infections (GOMEZ-ESTRADA et al., 2011).

Annona squamosa: This species is known by the local name Sita phol and is cultivated in communities in Northeastern India. The fresh leaves of this plant are used together with Ocimum americanum and O. gratissimum (Lamiaceae) for the treatment of malaria in different communities found in Africa (KAOU et al., 2008). This species has other uses related to the control of malaria (and other insect-born diseases) such as repellency against Culicidae, Muscidae and Dictyoptera.

Xylopia: The medicinal properties and usefulness for the control of agricultural pests, mites, insects and nematodes of species of this genus have been studied (PONTES et al., 2007). Nine species are specifically used to treat malaria and two are used specifically to treat fevers among the local populations of Cameroon Colombia, Brazil, Peru and French Guiana. Generally, the fruit, bark and other aerial parts are used in the preparation of the traditional remedies made from plants of this genus. In Cameroon Xylopia aethiopica, commonly named Ethiopian Pepper is the only species of this genus claimed to be useful for the treatment of malaria and other diseases. For treatment of malaria, a decoction is prepared from a teaspoon of bark crushed in a liter of water and then drank. For the treatment of fevers, the same procedure is applied to the dry fruit (TSABANG et al., 2011). Also against fever, Grenand et al. (1987) reported the use of Xylopia frutescens among the Wayapi Indians of French Guiana. Xylopia aromatica is also reported to be useful for the treatment of malaria by local populations in the region around the Brazilian Federal Capital, Brasilia (MESQUITA et al., 2007).

Other genera: 43 additional species representing 23 genera of Annonaceae have been reported in the literature for the treatment of fevers, malaria and headaches, although none of these were indicated for the treatment of liver problems related to malaria. In the Colombian Amazon region, the Tikuna use a decoction of the bark of Cymbopetalum brasiliense for the treatment of fevers (SCHULTES & RAFFAUF, 1994) and a decoction of the external bark of Duguetia duckei is used by Tiriyo communities in the Brazilian state of Para (CAVALCANTE & FRIKEL, 1973). Guatteria discolor bark is used in a bath among the Wayapi Indians of French Guiana for the same purpose (GRENAND et al., 1987). Schultes and Raffauf (1994) reported the use of the bark of Guatteria schunkevigoi among the local populations in the Napo region of Ecuador. In the procedure described, the bark is ground and mixed with water and rubbed on the body to combat fevers. The same method is used for the preparation of Guatteria discolor among the Wayapi populations in French Guiana, though in this case the Wayapi decoct the bark (GRENAND et al., 1987). In Cameroon, a decoction of the stem bark (500 g) of Duguetia staudtii obtained by scraping the bark with a large knife, or leaves (100 g) soaked in water for 20 min are used in the preparation of a drink which is taken to treat headaches. Similarly, a decoction of leaves (100 g) in water (3 L, 20 min) is used for bathing the head (TSABANG et al., 2011). Desmos teijsmanii and Monodora tenuifolia are used to treat similar aches in Malaysia and Cameroon, respectively (KULIP, 2003; TSABANG et al., 2011).

Preparations and plant parts utilized in traditional remedies: Different plant parts and methods of preparation are utilized in traditional therapies involving Annonaceous plants. Some methods of preparation are reported more frequently than others. Also, some authors do not provide information on the methods of preparation. Other authors provide varying degrees of information on these preparations. Most of the sources consulted presented information on preparations involving plant materials that were vague regarding the dosages and the duration of the treatment involving Annonaceae-derived botanicals. The bark is the part of Annonaceae plants which is most often reported in the literature containing descriptions of the preparation of traditional remedies, followed by the leaves and then fruit. The seeds and roots were cited only twice each as being used for remedies. Flowers were used in only one preparation, that involving Cananga odorata, for the treatment of malaria infections. Infusions and decoctions are the methods of preparation of the remedies used in the most common treatments. Administration by mouth is by far the most common route used for Annonaceae traditional remedies.

Lannuzel et al. (2002) suggest that alkaloids from A. muricata can modulate the function and the survival of dopaminergic nerve cells in vitro. There are indications that annonacine, found in large quantities in A. muricata, can diminish the levels of ATP in (mesencephalic-derived) dopaminergic cells of rat embryos (LANNUZEL et al., 2003).

Some traditional formulations of Annonaceae plants involve the addition of other plant species. Thus, the roots of Annona muricata are boiled together with those of Blumea balsamifera (Asteraceae), Cymbopogon citratus and Imperata cylindrica (Poaceae) and the aromatic vapor is used to heat the body of people who suffer from high fevers in kadazandusun communities in Malaysia (FASIHUDDIN & GHAZALLY, 2003). Topical applications in the form of baths, although less frequently used, are advised for the treatment of fevers and headaches (as indicated above). Another form of treatment involves the vapours of baths with Annona ambotay and A. haematantha (GRENAND et al., 1987). In French Guiana, the Wayapi Indians use Annona ambotay leaves and bark crushed, grated and rubbed on the body. They also boiled this plant in a pot and placed the boiled mixture beneath a hammock as vapour bath for the treatment of fever (GRENAND et al., 1987).

Chemical diversity of Annonaceae and scientific evidence for antimalarial activity: The Annonaceae exhibit important biological activity in general. Many different secondary metabolites have been reported in Annonaceae. These include acetogenins, sterols, sesquiterpene lactones, quinones and alkaloids. In the literature, one finds reports on the use of plants of this family against diseases such as cancer (OBERLIES et al., 1997). In Table 2, the results of studies on the in vitro activity of Annonaceous plant extracts against Plasmodium falciparum are summarized. Active extracts ([IC.sub.50] < 5 [micro]g/mL) from the following species have been described: Annona coriacea ([IC.sub.50] = 4.4 [micro]g/mL); Hexalobus crispiflorus ([IC.sub.50]=2.0 [micro]g/mL); Polyalthia debilis ([IC.sub.50] = 1.4 [micro]g/mL); Uvariopsis congensis ([IC.sub.50] = 2.8 [micro]g/mL); Xylopia aromatica ([IC.sub.50] < 1 [micro]g/ mL) and Xylopia emarginata ([IC.sub.50] = 3.3 [micro]g/mL) (Table 2). Fischer et al. (2004) reported the in vitro antimalarial activity of crude extracts and alkaloidcontaining fractions from six species of Annonaceae (Annona coriacea, Duguetia lanceolata, Duguetia furfuracea, Guatteria australis, Xylopia brasiliensis and Xylopia emarginata) (Table 2). The most active antimalarial fractions ([IC.sub.50] < 5 [micro]g/mL) were those of Annona coriacea ([IC.sub.50] = 1.6 [micro]g/mL, against the K1 strain of P. falciparum), Duguetia lanceolata ([IC.sub.50] = 2 and 5 [micro]g/mL, against the K1 and Palo Alto strains of P. falciparum, respectively), Duguetia furfuracea ([IC.sub.50] = 4.8 [micro]g/mL, against the Palo Alto strain of P. falciparum) and Guatteria australis ([IC.sub.50] = 0.3 and 1.8 [micro]g/mL, against the K1 and Palo Alto strains of P. falciparum, respectively).

The in vitro antimalarial activity of essential oils (Table 2) has been attributed to sesquiterpenes which are among the major components. Boyom et al. (2003) reported that the essential oil obtained from the bark of Duguetia confine (cited as Pachypodanthium confine) was approximately 88% sesquiterpenes and 0.64% aromatic substances. Also, these authors found that the essential oil obtained from the bark of Xylopia aethiopica contained ca. 45% sesquiterpenes and the essential oil extracted from the bark of Xylopia phloiodora contained approximately 88% sesquiterpenes and 3% aromatic compounds. The essential oil of Cleistopholis patens contained 81% sesquiterpenes and the major components of the bark essential oil were: a-copaene, d-cadinene, and germacrene D; the major components of the leaf essential oil were: b-caryophyllene, germacrene D, and germacrene B (BOYOM et al., 2011). The genus Uvaria has undergone extensive study related to its in vitro antimalarial activity making it arguably the most studied among Annonaceae genera for this kind of biological activity (Table 1). Nkunya et al. (1991) described a study of nine species of Uvaria in which the following antimalarial substances were isolated: uvaretin, diuvaretin and (8',9'-dihydroxy)-3-farnesylindole ([IC.sub.50] = 3.5, 4.2 and 2.7 [micro]g/mL, respectively, against the K1 strain of P falciparum. In their review on natural products from traditionally used antimalarial plants, Bero and Quetin-Leclercq (2011) reported that the antiplasmodial substance (+)-3-acetylaltholactone was isolated from the extracts of the flowers of Goniothalamus laoticus Ban and exhibited in vitro activity against the K1 strain of P falciparum ([IC.sub.50] = 9.5 [micro]M). In vivo activity was observed for another Annonaceous species, Annickia chlorantha (cited as Enantia chlorantha), which is found in Nigeria and other parts of West Africa. The aqueous extracts of this plant were administered intraperitoneally and cleared chloroquine-resistant P yoelii nigeriensis infections from the blood of albino mice in a dose-dependant manner (KIMBI E FAGBENRO-BEYIOKU, 1996).

Geographic distribution: The reports on the use of Annonaceae for combatting malaria infections and symptoms of this disease are all from pantropical areas and are obviously the fruit of local experiences in countries where malaria is endemic. Most of the reports available are concentrated in traditional populations of South America and some African countries. The use of species of Annonaceae and other families is directly related to their natural distribution. One example is species of the genus Annona. These species are now found throughout the tropics and are used by peoples in Africa, Central and South America, India and several Caribbean countries. Another example is species of Xylopia used among the populations of Brazil, Cameroon, Colombia, French Guiana, Peru, and Togo. Interestingly, the genus Guatteria has a Neotropical distribution and is restricted in use to traditional populations in the Amazonian regions of Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Guyana. In Brazil in particular, there is a broad use of plants from the Annonaceae represented by seven species in five genera. Overall, the genus Annona is represented by ten species and is by far the most important antimalarial genus of this family.

CONCLUSION

The Annonaceae family is rich in potential as a source of chemical entities for the development of novel antimalarial drugs. Several species belonging to this family have been well studied and have provided active antimalarial substances. On the other hand, a large number of species traditionally used to treat malaria from this family have not been studied so far, thus no chemical or pharmacological data are available. Intensification of research in the area of natural products chemistry together with screening for antimalarial activity could provide the lead compounds necessary for new drug development, a result which is awaited by the populations of endemic areas all over the world.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors thank the Herbarium at the Universidade de La Amazonia in Colombia for the use of bibliographic materials. Funding was provided by grants from the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPQ, National Malaria Network and Bionorth Program), the Amazonas State Research Support Foundation (FAPEAM, PRONEX). G. F., R. B. S. L. and A. M. P. would like to recognize the following scholarships received from CNPq: DTI, GD (383557/2010-0), (554317/2010-9) and PQ (311.649/2011-4), respectively.

REFERENCES

AJAIYEOBA, E.O.; ABIODUN O.O.; FALADE, M.O; OGBOLE N.O.; ASHIDI, J.S.; HAPPI, C.T.; AKINBOYE, D.O. In vitro cytotoxicity studies of 20 plants used in Nigerian antimalarial ethnomedicine. Phytomedicine, Chicago, v.13, p.295-298, 2006.

ARAUJO-MURAKAMI, A.; ZENTENO RUIZ, F.S. Bosques de los Andes orientales de Bolivia y sus especies utiles. In: MORAES, M.R.; 0LLGAARD, B.; KVIST, L.P.; BORCHSENIUS, F.; BALSLEV, H. (Ed). Botanica economica de los Andes Centrales. La Paz: Universidad Mayor de San Andres, 2006. p. 146-161.

ASASE, A.; AKWETEY, G.A.; ACHEL, D.G. Ethnopharmacological use of herbal remedies for the treatment of malaria in the Dangme West District of Ghana. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Limerick, v.129, p.367-376, 2010.

ASASE, A.; OPPONG-MENSAH, G. Traditional antimalarial phytotherapy remedies in herbal markets in southern Ghana. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Limerick, v.126, p.492-499, 2009.

ASASE, A.; OTENG-YEBOAH, A.A.; ODAMTTEN, G.T.; SIMMONDS, M.S.J. Ethnobotanical study of some Ghanaian antimalarial plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Limerick, v.99, p.273-279, 2005.

BAGAVAN, A.; RAHUMAN, A.A.; KAUSHIK, N.K.; SAHAL, D. In vitro antimalarial activity of medicinal plant extracts against Plasmodium falciparum. Parasitology Research, New York, v.108, n.1, p.15-22, 2011.

BERO, J.; QUETIN-LECLERCQ, J. Natural products published in 2009 from plants traditionally used to treat malaria. Planta Medica, Antwerp, v.77, n.6, p.631-640, 2011.

BERTANI, S.; BOURDY, G.; LANDAU, I.; ROBINSON, J.C.; ESTERRE, P.H.; DEHARO, E. Evaluation of French Guiana traditional antimalarial remedies. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Limerick, v.98, p.45-54, 2005.

BLAIR, S.; MADRIGAL, B. Plantas antimalaricas de Tumaco: Costa Pacifica Colombiana. Medellin: Editorial Universidad de Antioquia, 2005. p.266-270.

BOYOM, F.F.; NGOUANA, V.; KEMGNE, E.A.M.; ZOLLO, P.H.A.; MENUT, C.; BESSIERE, J.M.; GUT, J.; ROSENTHAL, PJ. Antiplasmodial volatile extracts from Cleistopholis patens Engler & Diels and Uvariastrum pierreanum Engl. & Diels (Annonaceae) growing in Cameroon. Parasitology Research, New York, v.108, n.5, p.1211-1217, 2011.

BOYOM, F.F.; NGOUANA, V.; ZOLLO, P.H.A.; MENUT, C.; BESSIERE, J.M.; GUT, J.; ROSENTHAL, PJ. Composition and antiplasmodial activities of essential oils from some Cameroonian medicinal plants. Phytochemistry, Oxford, v.64, n.7, p.1269-1275, 2003.

BRUSCHI, P.; MORGANTI, M.; MANCINI, M.; SIGNORINI, M.A. Traditional healers and lay people: A qualitative and quantitative approach to local knowledge on medicinal plants in Muda (Mozambique). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Limerick, v.138, p.543- 563, 2011.

CACERES, A.; LOPEZ, B.; GONZALEZ, S.; BERGER, I.; TADA, I.; MAKI, J. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections.

I. Screening of activity to bacteria, fungi and American trypanosomes of 13 native plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Limerick, v.62, p.195-202, 1998.

CAVALCANTE, P.B.; FRIKEL, P. A farmacopeia Tiriypo. MPEG, Belem. 1973 apud MILLIKEN, 1997b.

CLAVO, P.; ZOYLA, M.; SEIJAS, C.; ZULLY, P.; ALEGRE, O.J. Plantas medicinales: usadas por mujeres nativas y mestizas en la Region Ucayali. Pucallpa, 2003. p.124 apud IIAP -Instituto de Investigaciones de La Amazonia Peruana. Base de datos plantas medicinales, 2010.

DEHARO, E.; GINSBURG, H. Analysis of additivity and synergism in the anti-plasmodial effect of purified compounds from plant extracts. Malaria Journal, United Kingdom, v.10, n.1, S.5, 2011.

DI STASI, L.C.; HIRUMA, C.C.; GUIMARAES, E.M.; SANTOS, C.M. Medicinal plants popularly used in Brazilian Amazon. Fitoterapia, Milano, v.5, n.6, p.529-540, 1994 apud MILLIKEN, 1997b.

DUKE, J.; VASQUEZ, R.V. Amazonian Ethnobotanical dictionary. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1994. 215p.

FASIHUDDIN B.A.; GHAZALLY, I. Medicinal plants used by Kadazandusun communities around Crocker range. Asian Review of Biodiversity and Environmental Conservation. 2003. Disponivel em: <http://www.arbec.com.my/pdf/art1janmar03.pdf>. Acesso em: 20 dez. 2012.

FERNANDEZ, C. Plantas comestibles de Centroamerica. Santo Domingo de Heredia: Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, 2009. 360p.

FISCHER, D.C.H.; GUALDA, N.C.A.; BACHIEGA, D.; CARVALHO, C.S.; LUPO, F.N.; BONOTTO, S.V.; ALVES, M.O.; YOGI, A.; DI SANTI, S.M.; AVILA, P.E.; KIRCHGATTER, K; HRIHOROWITSCH, P.R.M. In vitro screening for antiplasmodial activity of isoquinoline alkaloids from Brazilian plant species. Acta Tropica, Miami, v.92, n.3, p.261-266, 2004.

GARAVITO, G., RINCON, J., ARTEAGA, L., HATA, Y., BOURDY, G., GIMENEZ, A.; PINZON, R.; DEHARO, E. Antimalarial activity of some Colombian medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Limerick, v.107, p.460-462, 2006.

GATHIRWA, J.W.; RUKUNGA, G.M; MWITARI, P.G; MWIKWABE, N.M; KIMANI, C.W; MUTHAURA, C.N; KIBOI, D.M; NYANGACHA, R.M; OMAR, S.A. Traditional herbal antimalarial therapy in Kilifi district, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Lausanne, v.134, n.2, p.434-42, 2011.

GBEASSOR, M., KEDJAGNI, A.Y., KOUMAGLO, K.; SOUZA C., AGBO, K.; AKLIKOKOU, K.; AMEGHO, K.A. In vitro antimalarial activity of six medicinal plants. Phytotherapy Research, London, v.4, n.3, p.115-117,1990 apud MILLIKEN, 1997b.

GOMEZ-ESTRADA, H.; DIAZ-CASTILLO, F.; FRANCO-OSPINA, L.; MERCADO-CAMARGO, J.; GUZMAN-LEDEZMA, J.; MEDINA., J.; GAITAN-IBARRA, R. Folk medicine in the northern coast of Colombia: an overview. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, London, v.7, n.27, 2011. Disponivel em: <www.ethnobiomed.com/content/7/1/27>.

GOMEZ-ESTRADA, H.; GERMOSEN-ROBINEAU, L.; NOSSIN, E. Estudio etnofarmacologico de las plantas medicinales usadas en el Caribe colombiano. In: LISET, G.; SANCHEZ, R. Dialogo de saberes: plantas medicinales, salud y cosmovisiones. Bogota: Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Amazonia; ARFO Editores e Impresos, 2009. p. 135-156.

GRENAND, P.; MORETTI C.; JACQUEMIN, H. Pharmacopees traditionnelles en Guyane. Marseille: IRD ORSTOM, 1987. 569 p.

HECKEL, E. Les plantes medicinales et toxiques de la Guiane Francaise acon. France, 1897 apud MILLIKEN, 1997b.

HIDALGO, A.F. Plantas de uso popular para o tratamento da malaria e males associados da area de influencia do rio Solimoes e regiao de Manaus - AM. 2003. 202 f. Tese (Doutorado) - Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas - Universidade Estadual Paulista, 2003.

HODGE, W.H.; TAYLOR. D. The ethnobotany of the Island Caribs of Dominica .Economic Botany, Lawrence v.12, n.2, p.513-644, 1957 apud MILLIKEN, 1997b.

HOUT, S.; CHEA, A.; BUN, S.; ELIAS, R.; GASQUET, M.; TIMON-DAVID, P.; BALANSARD, G.; AZAS, N. Screening of selected indigenous plants of Cambodia for antiplasmodial activity Sotheara. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Limerick, v.107, p.12-18, 2006.

ICHINO, C.; SOONTHORNCHAREONNON, N.; CHUAKUL, W.; KIYOHARA, H.; ISHIYAMA, A.; SEKIGUCHI, H.; NAMATAME, M.; OTOGURO, K.; OMURA, S.; YAMADA, H. Screening of thai medicinal plant extracts and their active constituents for in vitro antimalarial activity. Phytotherapy Research, London, v.20, n.4, p.307-309, 2006.

JOY, P.P.; THOMAS, J.; MATHEW, S.; BABY P. SKARIA. Medicinal Plants. Kerala Agricultural University Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Research Station, 1998. Disponivel em: <http:// www.armchairpatriot.com/HardCorePrepper/ Medicinal%20Plants.pdf>. Acesso em: 12 out. 2012.

KAOU, M.,A.; MAHIOU-LEDDET, V.; HUTTER, S.; INOUDDINE, S.A., HASSANI, S.; YAHAYA, I.; AZAS, N.; OLLIVIER, E. Antimalarial activity of crude extracts from nine African medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Limerick, v.116, p.74-83, 2008.

KIMBI, H.K.; FAGBENRO-BEYIOKU, A.F. Efficacy of Cymbopogon giganteus and Enantia chlorantha against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis. East African Medical Journal, Kenya, v.73, n.10, p.636-637, 1996.

KONADU, K. Indigenous medicine and knowledge in African society. London: Routledge, 2007. 240 p.

KOUDOUVO, K.; KAROU, D.S.; KOKOU, K.; ESSIEN, K.; AKLIKOKOU, I.A.; GLITHO, SIMPORE, J.; SANOGO, R.; SOUZA, J.; GBEASSOR., M. An ethnobotanical study of antimalarial plants in Togo Maritime Region. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Limerick, v.134, p.183-190, 2011.

KRIEF, S.; HUFFMAN, M.A.; SEVENET, T.; HLADIK, C.; GRELLIER, P.; LOISEAU, P.M.; WRANGHAM, R. Bioactive properties of plant species ingested by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Kibale National Park, Uganda. American Journal of Primatology, New York, v.68, n.1, p.51-71, 2006.

KULIP, J. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea, Wales, v.10, n.1, p.81-98, 2003

KUMARI, P.; GOPAL S.S. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the Taungya community in Terai Arc Landscape, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Limerick, v.123, p.167-176, 2009.

LANNUZEL, A.; MICHEL, P.P; CAPARROSLEFEBVRE, D.; ABAUL, J.; HOCQUEMILLER, R.; RUBERG, M. Toxicity of Annonaceae for dopaminergic neurons: potential role in atypical Parkinsonism in Guadeloupe. Movement Disorders, Washington, v.17, p.84-90, 2002.

LANNUZEL, A.; MICHEL, P.P.; HOGLINGER G.U.; CHAMPY, P.; JOUSSET, A.; MEDJA, F.; LOMBES, A.; DARIOS, F.; GLEYE, C.; LAURENS, A.; HOCQUEMILLER, R.; HIRSCH, E.C.; RUBERG, M. The mitochondrial complex I inhibitor annonacin is toxic to mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons by impairment of energy metabolism. Neuroscience, Oxford, v.121, n.2, p.287-296, 2003.

LEAMAN, D.J.; ARNASON, J.T.; YUSUF, R.; SANGAT-ROEMANTYO, H.; SOEDJITO, H.; ANGERHOFER, C.K.; PEZZUTO, J.M. Malaria remedies of the Kenyah of the Apo Kayan, East Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo: A quantitative assessment of local consensus as an indicator of biological efficacy. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Orlando, v.49, p.1-16, 1995.

LEKANA-DOUKI, J.B.; BONGUI, J.B.; OYEGUE LIABAGUI, S.L.; ZANG EDOU, S.E.; ZATRA, R.; BISVIGOU, U.; DRUILHE, P.; LEBIBI, J.; TOURE NDOUO, F.S.; KOMBILA, M.M. In vitro antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of nine plants traditionally used in Gabon. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Orlando, v.133, p.1103-1108, 2011.

LONGUEFOSSE, J. L. Plantes medicinales de la Caraibe. Trinite: Gondwana Editions, 2003. v.2.

MABBERLEY, D.J. Plant-book. 3rd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008. 1021p.

MENAN, H.; BANZOUZI, J.T.; HOCQUETTE, A.; PELISSIER, Y; BLACHE, Y; KONE, M.; MALLIE, M.; ASSI, L.A.; VALENTIN, A. Antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of plants used in West African traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Orlando, v.105, p.131-136, 2006.

MESQUITA, M.L.; GRELLIER, P.; MAMBU L.; PAULA J.E.; ESPINDOLA, L.S. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of Brazilian Cerrado plants used as traditional remedies. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Orlando, v.110, p.165-170, 2007.

MILLIKEN, W. Traditional anti-malarial medicine in Roraima, Brazil. Economic Botany, Lawrence, v.51, n.3, p.212-237, 1997a.

MILLIKEN, W. Plants for malaria. Plants for fever. Medicinal species in Latin America--a bibliographic survey. United Kingdom: Whitsrable Litho, 1997b. p.116.

MONTES GIRALDO, J.J. Vegetales y otras sustancias usadas como remedies. Bogota: Instituto Caro y Cuervo, 1981 apud MILLIKEN, 1997b.

MORS, W.B.; RIZZINI, C.T.; PEREIRA, N.A. Medicinal plants of Brazil. Algonac: Reference Publications, 2000. 501p.

MORTON, J. F. Atlas of medicinal plants of Middle America. C.C. Thomas, Springfield, Ill, 1981. 1420 p. apud MILLIKEN, 1997b.

MUGANZA, D.M.; FRUTH, B.I.; LAMI, J.N.; MESIA, G.K.; KAMBU, O.K.; TONA, G.L.; KANYANGA, R.C.; COS, P.: MAES, L.; APERS, S.; PIETERS, L. In vitro antiprotozoal and cytotoxic activity of 33 ethnopharmacologically selected medicinal plants from Democratic Republic of Congo. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Limerick, v.141, p.301-308, 2012.

MUHAMMAD, I.; DUNBAR, D.C.; TAKAMATSU, S.; WALKER, L.A.; CLARK, A.M. Antimalarial cytotoxic and antifungal alkaloids from Duguetia hadrantha. Journal of Natural Products, Dawners Grove, v.64, p.559-562, 2001.

MUTHAURA, C.N.; RUKUNGA, G.M.; CHHABRA, S.C.; MUNGAI, G.M.; NJAGI, E. N.Traditional antimalarial phytotherapy remedies used by the Kwale community of the Kenyan Coast. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Limerick, v.114, p.377-386, 2007.

NADKARNI, K.M.; NADKARNI, A.K. (Ed.). Indian materia medica. 3rd ed. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan Private, 1955. v.1, 115p.

NDENECHO, N.E. Ethnobotanic resources of tropical montane forests: indigenous uses of plants in the Cameroon Highland ecoregion. Mankon Bamenda: African Books Collective, 2011. 230p.

NKUNYA, M.H.H.; WEENEN, H.; BRAY, D.H.; MGANI, Q.A.; MWASUMBI, L.B. Antimalarial activity of Tanzanian plants. 3. Antimalarial activity of Tanzanian plants and their active constituents: the genus Uvaria. Planta Medica, Antwerp, v.57, n.4, p.341-3, 1991.

NOVY, J. Medicinal plants of the eastern region of Madagascar. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Limerick, v.55, p. 119-126, 1997.

OBERLIES, N.H.; CROY, V.L.; HARRISON, M.L.; MCLAUGHLIN, J.L. The Annonaceous acetogenin bullatacin is cytotoxic against multidrug-resistant human mammary adenocarcinoma cells. Cancer Letters, Oxford, v.115, p.73-9, 1997.

OCAMPO, D.S.; OCAMPO, C. Bioactividad de la familia Annonaceae. Revista Universidad de Caldas, Colombia, p.135-155, 2006.

ODUGBEMI, T. A. textbook of medicinal plants from Nigeria. Nigeria: University of Lagos Press, 2008. 588p.

OKPEKON, T.; YOLOU, S.; GLEYE, C.; ROBLOT, F.; LOISEAU, P.; BORIES, C.; GRELLIER, P.; FRAPPIER, F.; LAURENS, A.; HOCQUEMILLER, R. Antiparasitic activities of medicinal plants used in Ivory Coast. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Limerick, v.90, p.91-97, 2004.

PIO CORREA, M. Dicionario das plantas uteis do Brasil e das exoticas cultivadas. Rio de Janeiro: Imprensa Nacional, 1926-1978. v. 1-6, 646p.

PONTES, W.J.; OLIVEIRA, J.C.S.; CAMARA, C.A.G.; GONDIM JUNIOR, M.G.C.; OLIVEIRA, J.V.; SCHWARTZ, M.O.E. Atividade acaricida dos oleos essencias de folhas e frutos de Xylopia sericea sobre o acaro rajado (Tetranychus urticae Koch). Quimica Nova, Sao Paulo, v.30, n.4, p. 838-841, 2007.

RAIBURN, D. Let's get natural with herbs: the most complete A-Z reference guide to utilizing herbs for health and beauty. Madison: Okzar Mountain Publishing, 2007.

RUPPRECHT, J.K.; HUI, YH.; MCLAUGHLIN, J.L. Annonaceous acetogenins: a review. Journal of Natural Products, Dawners Grove, v.53, p. 237-278, 1990.

RUTTER, R.A. Catalogo de plantas utiles de la Amazonia Peruana. Peru: Instituto Linguistico de Verano, Pucallpa, 1990 apud MILLIKEN, 1997b.

SAFFORD, L.; MALTBY, E. Guidelines for integrated planning and management of tropical lowland peatlands: with special reference to Southeast Assia. United Kingdom: IUCN, 1998.

SCHULTES, R.E.; RAFFAUF, R.F. El bejuco del alma, los medicos tradicionales de la Amazonia Colombiana, sus plantas y rituales. Antioquia: Banco de la Republica: Ediciones Uniandes y Editorial Universidad de Antioquia, 1994. 284 p.

TSABANG, N.; FOKOU, P.V; TCHOKOUAHA, L.R.; NOGUEM, B.; BAKARNGA-VIA I.; NGUEPI, M.S.; NKONGMENECK, B.A.; BOYOM, F.F. Ethnopharmacological survey of Annonaceae medicinal plants used to treat malaria in four areas of Camerron. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Limerick, v.139, n.1, p.171-180, 2011.

GINA FRAUSIN (2), RENATA BRAGA SOUZA LIMA (3), ARI DE FREITAS HIDALGO (4), PAUL MAAS (5), ADRIAN MARTIN POHLIT (6)

(1) (Trabalho 184-13) - Recebido em: 21-02-2013. Aceito para publicacao em: 31-07-2013. V Congresso Internacional & Encontro Brasileiro sobre Annonaceae: do gene a exportacao (19 a 23 de Agosto).

(2) Research Network on Chemical Compounds from Plants of Ethnopharmacological Origin for Malaria Control in the States of Amazonas and Acre, Brazil/CNPq [Rede de Pesquisa de Compostos Quimicos Vegetais para o Controle de Malaria a partir da Etnofarmacologia nos Estados do Amazonas e Acre, Brasil/CNPq]. E-mail: ginafrausin@gmail.com

(3) Doctoral Fellow/Brazilian National Research Council (CNPq), Scholar, Graduate Program in Biotechnology, Federal University of Amazonas, Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. E-mail: renatabsl@hotmail.com

(4) Associate Professor, Federal University of Amazonas, Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. E-mail: afreitash@gmail.com

(5) Retired professor of Botany, Netherlands Centre for Biodiversity Natruralis. Biosystematics Group, Wageningen University, Generaal Foulkesweg 37, 6703 BL Wageningen, the Netherlands. E-mail: paul.maas@wur.nl

(6) Senior Research Scientist and productivity in Research/ CNPq, Scholar at the National Institute for Amazon Research, Avenida Andre Araujo, 2936, Petro-polis, Caixa Postal 2223, CEP 69080-971, Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. E-mail: ampohlit@inpa.gov.br
TABLE 1--Data on the antimalarial and related uses of
Annonaceae plant species.

Species            Local Name             Region           Use

Aimickia           Yellow Moambe          Cameroon/        M
chlorantha                                Cameroon
(Oliv.) Setten                            highland
& Maas

Annona ambotay     --                     French Guiana,   F
Aubl.                                     Wayapi Indians

Annona             --                     Latin America    F
cherimola Mill.

Annona             Araticum               Brazil           M
crassiflora                               (Brasilia)
Mart.

                   Araticum-catinga       Brazil           IF

Annona foetida     Araticum-da-caatinga   Brazil (Bahia)   M
Mart.

Annona glabra      Mamain                 Caribbean        F
L.

Annona glabra      Pond Apple             --               M
L.

Annona             --                     French Guiana,   F
haematantha Miq                           Wayapi Indians

Annona muricata    Hampun kapal           Malaysia,        F
L.                                        Kadazan-Dusun
                                          communities

                   Guanabana              Colombia         H

Annona muricata    Guanabana              Colombia         F
L.

                   --                     Brazil (Amazon   F
                                          Region)

Annona muricata    --                     --               M
L.

                   --                     French Guiana    F

Annona muricata    --                     Dominica, used   F
L.                                        by Caribs

                   --                     Colombia         M
                                          (Valle del
                                          Cauca)

Annona muricata    --                     Barbados;        F
L.                                        Grenadines;
                                          Costa Rica;
                                          Bahamas

Annona muricata    --                     Brazil           F
L.                                        (Alagoas)

Annona muricata    Guanabana/Soursop                       F
L.

Annona muricata    Graviola-do-norte      Brazil           F
L.

Annona muricata    Yevounyigli            Togo             M
L.

Annona muricata                           Cameroon         M
L.

Annona muricata                           Nigeria          F
L.

Annona muricata                           India (Bombay)   F
L.

Annona muricata    Graviola               Brazil           L
L.                                        (Amazonas)

Annona muricata    Dian beleda'           Indonesia        Spleen,
L.                                        (Kenyah,         F
                                          Borneo)

Annona muricata    --                     E Madagascar     M
L.

Annona purpurea    Matimba / Guanabana    Colombia         F
Moc. & Sesse ex    engorda                (Caribbean
Dunal                                     region)

Annona purpurea    --                     Mexico           F
Moc. & Sesse ex
Dunal

Annona purpurea    Sincuya, Sincuyo (El   Mexico           F
Moc. & Sesse ex    Salvador, Chicuya,
Dunal              Sincoya (Nicaragua)

Annona             --                     --               F
reticulata L.

Annona             Araticum, Ata,         Brazil           F
reticulata L.      Condessa,
                   Fruta-de-condessa,
                   Milolo, Pinha

Annona             --                     Brazil           IF
reticulata L.

Annona             Coracao-de-boi         Brazil           F
reticulata L.

Annona                                    Guatemala        F w /
reticulata L.                                              chills,
                                                           M

Annona             --                     Africa           M
senegalensis
Pers.

Annona             Wild soursop           Cameroon         M
senegalensis       (English); Kedahan
Pers.              (Yambetta)

Annona             --                     Cameroon
senegalensis
Pers.

Annona             --                     Nigeria
senegalensis
Pers.

Annona             Muroro                 Mozambique       F
senegalensis
Pers.

Annona squamosa    Pomme-Cannelle         Caribbean        L
L.

Annona squamosa    --                     Bahamas          F
L.

Annona squamosa    Anona                  --               F
L.

Annona squamosa    Mkonokono              Africa           M
L.

Annona squamosa    Sugar apple            Cameroon         M
L.                 (English); Kedahan
                   (Yambetta)

Anonidium          Ebome; Npole Wapo'o    Cameroon         F
mannii (Oliv.)     (Pygmies Bakola),
Engl. & Diels      Ebome Afan (Ewondo
                   and Bulu)

Cananga            Clike Sraeng           Cambodia,        F
latifolia Finet                           Kampong Speu
& Gagnep.

Cananga odorata    --                     --               M
(Lam.) Hook. f.
& Thomson

Cardiopetalum      Imbirinha              Brazil           M
calophyllum                               (Brasilia)
Schltdl.

Cleistopholis      Wombo (Pygmies         Cameroon         F
glauca Pierre      Bakola), Avom
ex Engl. &         (Ewondo and Bulu)
Diels

Cleistopholis      --                     Nigeria          F
patens (Benth.)
Engl. & Diels

Cleistopholis      Salt-and-oil tree      Cameroon         F
patens (Benth.)    (English); Wombo
Engl. & Diels      (Pygmies Bakola),
                   Avom (Ewondo and
                   Bulu)

Cleistopholis      Engo ni ntsini         S Ghana          M
patens (Benth.)
Engl. & Diels

Cleistopholis      Sobu; Wombo (Pygmies   Cameroon         F
staudtii Engl.     Bakola), Avom
& Diels            (Ewondo and Bulu)

Cymbopetalum       --                     Colombia         F
brasiliense                               (Amazonas),
(Veil.) Benth.                            Tikuna Indians
ex Baill.

Dennettia          --                     Nigeria          M
tripetala
Bak.f.

Desmos             Molisun Rumungkut      Malaysia         H
tevsmannii         (Ti)
(Boerl.) Merr.

Duguetia duckei    --                     Brazil (Para),   F
R.E. Fr.                                  Tiriyo Indians

Duguetia           Pinha-de-guara         Brazil           M
furfuracea (A.                            (Brasilia)
St.-Hil.) Saff.

Duguetia           pindaiva, pindabuna                     M
lanceolata A.
St.-Hil.

Duguetia           --                     Bolivia,         F
spixiana Mart.                            Madidi

Duguetia           Ntom; Ntoma (Pygmies
staudtii (Engl.    Bakola), Ntom
& Diels)           (Ewondo and Bulu)
Chatrou

Pachypodanthium                           Cameroon         H
mannii (you
mean Anonidium
mannii, I
presume)

Annickia                                  Nigeria
chlorantha
(Oliv.) Setten
& Maas

Fissistigma        --                     Asia             F
rigidum Merr.

Greenwayodendron   --                     Ghana            M
sp.

Guatteria          Envira-fofa            French Guiana,   F
discolor R.E.                             Wayapi Indians
Fr.                                       Colombia

Guatteria          --                     (Amazonas),      M
megalophylla                              Witoto Indians
Diels

Guatteria          --                     Ecuador (Napo)   F
schunkevigoi
D.R. Simpson

Guatteria sp. 1    --                     Ecuador,         M, F
                                          Quichua
                                          Indians

Guatteria sp.2     --                     Brazil           M
                                          (Roraima,
                                          Yanomami or
                                          Watoriki

                   --                     Nigeria          F

Hexalobus          Owe; Lefondja          Cameroon         F
crispiflorus A.    (Pygmies Bakola),
Rich.              Avom (Ewondo and
                   Bulu)

Isolona            --                     Nigeria          F
campanulata
Engl. & Diels

Isolona hexaloba   Nding; Lesondje        Cameroon         F
(Pierre) Engl.     (Pygmies akola),
                   Nding or Nom Ntom
                   (Ewondo)

Isolona hexaloba   Bodzungu               Democratic       M
(Pierre) Engl.                            Republic of
                                          Congo

Monanthotaxis      --                     --               M
sp.

Monodora           yellow-flowered; Pio   Cameroon         F
brevipes Benth.    (Pygmies Bakola),
                   Nom Akwi grandes
                   feuilles (Ewondo)
                   Calabash

Monodora           nufmeg; Bongo          Cameroon         F
myristica          (Yambetta), Akwi
(Gaertn.) Dunal    (Ewondo)

Monodora           --                     SE Gabon,        F, H
myristica                                 Epila
(Gaertn.) Dunal

Monodora           M'Kpo (Attie),         Ivory Coast      M
myristica          Abidjan district
(Gaertn.) Dunal

Monodora           Ebome osso (Ewondo)    Cameroon         H
tenuifolia
Benth.; Monodora
with thin leaves

Polyalthia         --                     India            F
longifolia                                                 (chronic)
(Sonn.) Thwaites

                   --                     --               F

Greenwayodendron   Otungui; Ntounga       Cameroon         M
suaveolens         (Pygmies Bakola)
(Engl. & Diels)
Verdc.

Greenwayodendron   Bodzinda               Democratic       M
suaveolens                                Republic of
(Engl. & Diels)                           Congo
Verdc.

Polyceratocarpus   Nosonaback             Cameroon         M
sp.                (Yambetta)

Pseudoxandra                              French Guiana    M
cuspidata Maas

Annona sylvatica   Araticum-da-mata       Brazil cerrado   F
A. St.-Hil.                               region

Unonopsis          Icoja, tortuga caspi   Peru             M
floribunda Diels

Unonopsis          Envira-surucucu        French Guiana,   M
guatterioides                             Wayapi Indians
(A. DC.) R.E.
Fr.

Unonopsis          --                     Peru             M
spectabilis
Diels

Uvaria afzelii     --                     Ivory Coast      M
G.F.                                      (Costa de
Scott-Elliot                              Marfil)

Uvaria afzelii     Okpap (Adjoukrou),     Ivory Coast      M
G.F.               Abidjan district
Scott-Elliot

Uvaria             --                     Nigeria          F
angolensis Welw.
ex Oliv.

Uvaria chamae P.   Agbanan                Togo             M
Beauv.

Uvaria             Mguma (Swa)            Kenya,           M
scheffleri Diels                          Coast-Kwale

Uvaria sp. 1       Nosonaback             Cameroon         M
                   (Yambetta)
                   (Yambetta)

Xylopia            Ethiopian pepper;      Cameroon         F
aethiopica         Akwi (Ewondo)
(Dunal) A. Rich.

                   Esso                   Togo             M

Xylopia                                   Colombia
aromatica (Lam.)
Mart.

Xylopia            Pimenta-de macaco      Brazil           M
aromatica (Lam.)                          (Brasilia)
Mart.

Xylopia            Pindaiba-do-brejo      Brazil           M
emarginata Mart.                          (Brasilia)

Xylopia            --                     French Guiana,   F
frutescens Aubl.                          Wayapi Indians

Xylopia            --                     Peru             F
aromatica (Lam.)
Mart. (syn.
Xylopia
grandiflora A.
St.-Hil.)

Xylopia            Sedhiou pepper;        Cameroon         F
hypolampra         Nkanla (Pygmies
Mildbr.            Bakola), Nom Akwi
                   (Ewondo)

Xylopia            --                     French Guiana,   F
cayennensis Maas                          Wayapi Indians
(syn. Xylopia
longifolia A.
DC.)

Xylopia            Ashako; Odjobi         Cameroon         F
parviflora         (Ewondo)
Spruce

Xylopia spp.       --                     Colombia         M
                                          (Boyaca)

Xylopia staudtii   Odjwe; Nkanla          Cameroon         F
Engl. & Diels      (Pygmies Bakola),
                   Nom Akwi (Ewondo)

Xylopia            --                     Peru             F
aromatica (Lam.)

Mart. (syn.        Fruta-de-burro         Brazil           F
Xylopia
xylopioides)

Species            Part used    Preparation       Source

Aimickia           SB, other    SB removed by     Tsabang et al.
chlorantha         plants       scraping          (2011);
(Oliv.) Setten                  w/machete;        Ndenecho,
& Maas                          decoc. 500 g      (2011)
                                SB, 3 L
                                [H.sub.2]O, 20
                                min.

Annona ambotay     Lv, Bk       Lv, Bk crashed,   Grenand et al.
Aubl.                           grated, rubbed    (1987)
                                on body or
                                boiled & placed
                                beneath hammock
                                as vapour bath

Annona             Bk           Powered Bk        Milliken,
cherimola Mill.                                   (1997b)

Annona             --           --                Mesquita et al.
crassiflora                                       (2007)
Mart.

                   Bk, Lv       External use      Pio Correa,
                                                  (1926-1978)

Annona foetida     Bk, Lv       Bk, Lv extern,    Mors et al.
Mart.                           use as            (2000)
                                antirheumatic;
                                decoction for
                                malaria

Annona glabra      Lv           --                Longuefosse,
L.                                                (2003)

Annona glabra      Sd, Bk,      --                Rupprecht et
L.                 Rt, Fr                         al. (1990)

Annona             Lv, Bk       Bk, Lv crushed,   Grenand et al.
haematantha Miq                 grated, rubbed    (1987)
                                on body;
                                boiled, placed
                                beneath hammock
                                as vapour bath

Annona muricata    St, Rt       Rt + Rt of        Fasihuddin &
L.                              Blumea            Ghazally (2003)
                                balsamifera,
                                Cymbopogon
                                citrates +
                                Imperata
                                cylindrica
                                boiled.
                                Aromatic St
                                used to warm
                                body.

                   Lv           Lv on forehead    Blair &
                                                  Madrigal.
                                                  (2005)

Annona muricata    Lv           Fresh or dry      Gomez-Estrada
L.                              Lv, decoc.,       et al. (2011)
                                drink

                   Fr           Juice drink       Di Stasi et al.
                                                  (1994) apud
                                                  Milliken
                                                  (1997b)
                                                  Gbeassor et al.

Annona muricata    Lv           Lv EtOH ext.      (1990) apud
L.                              active against    Milliken
                                Pf in vitro ()    (1997b)

                   Fr           Fr eaten          Heckel(1897)
                                                  apud Milliken
                                                  (1997b)

Annona muricata    Lv           Lv infus. drink   Hodge and
L.                                                Taylor (1957)
                                                  apud Milliken
                                                  (1997b)

                   --           --                Montes Giraldo
                                                  (1981) apud
                                                  Milliken
                                                  (1997b)

Annona muricata    Fr, Lv       Lv decoc.,        Morton (1981)
L.                              boiled Fr         apud Milliken
                                juice, drink      (1997b)

Annona muricata    Fr           Fr juice, drink   Milliken
L.                              daily             (1997b).

Annona muricata    Lv           --                Duke & Vasquez,
L.                                                (1994)

Annona muricata    Fr           Juice             Pio Correa
L.                                                (1926-1978)

Annona muricata    Lv           Maceration,       Koudouvo et al.
L.                              drink             (2011)

Annona muricata    Lv           Decoc. handful    Tsabang et al.
L.                              Lv, 3 L           (2011)
                                [H.sub.2]O, 20
                                min, drink

Annona muricata    --                             Odugbemi (2008)
L.

Annona muricata    Ripe Fr      refreshing        Nadkami &
L.                              drink made from   Nadkami (1955)
                                pulp for fever

Annona muricata    Bk           --                Hidalgo (2003)
L.

Annona muricata    Lv           Rubifacient +     Leamanet al.
L.                              petrol            (1995)

Annona muricata    Lv           Tea, infusion     Novy (1997)
L.

Annona purpurea    Lv           Lv devotion       Gomez-Estrada
Moc. & Sesse ex                 baths for fever   et al. (2009)
Dunal

Annona purpurea    Fr           juice drink       Morton (1981)
Moc. & Sesse ex                                   apud Milliken
Dunal                                             (1997b)

Annona purpurea    Fr           juice for         Fernandez
Moc. & Sesse ex                 fever, chills     (2009)
Dunal

Annona             Fr           --                Raibum (2007)
reticulata L.

Annona             Sd           Seeds for         Mors et al.
reticulata L.                   febrifuge         (2000)

Annona             Lv           Lv decoc. drink   Morton (1981)
reticulata L.                                     apud Milliken
                                                  (1997b)

Annona             Sd           --                Pio Correa
reticulata L.                                     (1926-1978)

Annona             Lv           --                Caceres et al.
reticulata L.                                     (1998)

Annona             --           --                Konadu (2007)
senegalensis
Pers.

Annona             Rt, SB       Decoc. 500 g      Tsabang et al.
senegalensis                    Rt, SB, 3 L       (2011)
Pers.                           [H.sub.2]O, 20
                                min, drink

Annona             Young        Decoc. 100 g      Tsabang et al.
senegalensis       leafy St     young Lv w/100    (2011)
Pers.                           gyoung
                                Piptostigma
                                thonningii Lv,
                                100 g Senna
                                alata Lv, 100 g
                                Chrysanthellum
                                americana, 100
                                g Lippia
                                multiflora, 300
                                g Terminalia
                                glaucescens,
                                300 g Nauclea
                                latifolia Rt,
                                St, 100 g of
                                Ocimum
                                gratissimum,5 L
                                [H.sub.2]O.
                                Boil decoc.
                                down to 3 L.
                                Nauclea
                                latifolia Rt
                                should be
                                harvested at
                                sunrise or
                                sunset

Annona             Lv           --                Ajaiyeoba et
senegalensis                                      al. (2006)
Pers.

Annona             Bk, Lv, Rt   Decoc., drink     Bruschi et al.
senegalensis                                      (2011)
Pers.

Annona squamosa    Lv           Infus.            Longuefosse
L.                                                (2003)

Annona squamosa    Lv           Lv decoc.,        Morton (1981)
L.                              drink             apud Milliken
                                                  (1997b).

Annona squamosa    --           --                Duke and
L.                                                Vasquez (1994)

Annona squamosa    Lv           Fresh Lv decoc.   Kaou et al.
L.                                                (2008)

Annona squamosa    Lv           Decoc. 150 g      Tsabang et al.
L.                              Lv, 3 L           (2011)
                                [H.sub.2]O, 20
                                min, drink

Anonidium          SB           Decoc. 500 g SB   Tsabang et al.
mannii (Oliv.)                  by scraping w/    (2011)
Engl. & Diels                   machete, 3 L
                                [H.sub.2]O,
                                evapor. to 2/3,
                                drink

Cananga            Bk, St       --                Hout et al.
latifolia Finet                                   (2006)
& Gagnep.

Cananga odorata    FI Oil       --                Joy et al.
(Lam.) Hook. f.                                   (1998)
& Thomson

Cardiopetalum      --           --                Mesquita et al.
calophyllum                                       (2007)
Schltdl.

Cleistopholis      SB           Decoc. 500 g SB   Tsabang et al.
glauca Pierre                   obtained by       (2011)
ex Engl. &                      scraping
Diels                           w/machete, 2 L
                                [H.sub.2]O, 24
                                h; 100 g Lv, 3
                                L [H.sub.2]O,
                                20 min

Cleistopholis      --           --                Odugbemi (2008)
patens (Benth.)
Engl. & Diels

Cleistopholis      SB           Decoc. 500 g SB   Tsabang et al.
patens (Benth.)                 obtained by       (2011)
Engl. & Diels                   scraping w/
                                machete, 2 L
                                [H.sub.2]O, 24
                                h; 100 g Lv, 3
                                L [H.sub.2]O,
                                20 min, drink

Cleistopholis      St           Decoc., drink     Asase et al.
patens (Benth.)                                   (2009)
Engl. & Diels

Cleistopholis      SB           Decoc. 500 g SB   Tsabang et al.
staudtii Engl.                  obtained by       (2011)
& Diels                         scraping w/
                                machete, 2 L
                                H,0 24 h; 100 g
                                Lv, 3 L H20, 20
                                Tsabang et al.
                                (2011) min,
                                drink

Cymbopetalum       Bk           Decoc. drink      Schultes and
brasiliense                     for weakness      Raffauf (1994)
(Veil.) Benth.                  after fever
ex Baill.

Dennettia          --           --                Odugbemi (2008)
tripetala
Bak.f.

Desmos                          Decoc. of Lv      Kulip (2003)
tevsmannii
(Boerl.) Merr.

Duguetia duckei    Bk           Decoc. Bk,        Cavalcante and
R.E. Fr.                        extern. bath      Frikel (1973)
                                                  apud Milliken
                                                  (1997b)

Duguetia           --           --                Mesquita et al.
furfuracea (A.                                    (2007)
St.-Hil.) Saff.

Duguetia                                          Muhammad et al.
lanceolata A.                                     (2001)
St.-Hil.

Duguetia                        --                Araujo-Murakami
spixiana Mart.                                    et al. (2006)

Duguetia                        Macer. 500 g
staudtii (Engl.                 SB, 3 L
& Diels)                        [H.sub.2]O,
Chatrou                         under sunlight,
                                6 h. drink;
                                Drink 250 mL
                                every 12 h;
                                Decoc. 500 g

Pachypodanthium    SB           SB obtained by    Tsabang et al.
mannii (you                     scraping          (2011)
mean Anonidium                  w/machete, or
mannii, I                       100 g Lv, 3 L
presume)                        [H.sub.2]O, 20
                                min, head bath;
                                drink 250 mL
                                decoc. 2x/day.
                                15 days.

Annickia           Bk                             Ajaiyeoba et
chlorantha                                        al. (2006)
(Oliv.) Setten
& Maas

Fissistigma        --           Drink of woody    Safford and
rigidum Merr.                   climber           Maltby (1998)

Greenwayodendron   Lv           Boil Lv, drink    Asase et al.
sp.                             1 cup decoc.      (2010)
                                (adults), 1/2
                                cup for
                                children,
                                3x/day until
                                recovered

Guatteria          Bk           Bk decoc.,        Grenand et al.
discolor R.E.                   extern bath       (1987)
Fr.

Guatteria          Lv           Lv decoc. drink   Schultes and
megalophylla                                      Raffauf (1994)
Diels

Guatteria          Bk           Crashed Bk in     Schultes and
schunkevigoi                    [H.sub.2]O        Raffauf (1994)
D.R. Simpson                    rubbed on body

Guatteria sp. 1    Bk           Bk ext. drink     Milliken
                                                  (1997b)

Guatteria sp.2     Bk           Bk ext. drink,    Milliken
                                causes            (1997a)
                                dizziness;
                                boiled Bk
                                shavings
                                applied as
                                compress to
                                swollen spleen

                                --                Odugbemi (2008)

Hexalobus          SB           Decoc. 500 g SB   Tsabang et al.
crispiflorus A.                 obtained by       (2011)
Rich.                           scraping w/
                                machete, or 100
                                g Lv, 3 L
                                [H.sub.2]O, 20
                                min, drink

Isolona                                           Odugbemi (2008)
campanulata
Engl. & Diels

Isolona hexaloba   SB           Infus.500 g SB    Tsabang et al.
(Pierre) Engl.                  obtained by       (2011)
                                scraping w/
                                machete, 2L,
                                [H.sub.2]O,
                                24h, drink

Isolona hexaloba   SB           Decoc., drink     Muganza et al.
(Pierre) Engl.                                    (2012)

Monanthotaxis                   --                Asase et al.
sp.                                               (2005)

Monodora           SB Fr, Sd    Decoc. 1 tspn     Tsabang et al.
brevipes Benth.                 SB and/or 1       (2011)
                                tspn SB powder,
                                250 ml,
                                [H.sub.2]O,
                                Drink

                                Infus. 1 tspn
                                ground, dry Sd
                                powder, 250 mL
                                [H.sub.2]O

Monodora           SB, Fr       Decoc. 1 kg SB,   Tsabang et al.
myristica          powder       4 L [H.sub.2]O,   (2011)
(Gaertn.) Dunal                 20 min, drink;
                                Infus. 1 kg Sd
                                powder, 4 L
                                [H.sub.2]O, as
                                purge every 2
                                days

Monodora           --           Infus.--H: Lv     Lekana-Douki et
myristica                       used              al. (2011)
(Gaertn.) Dunal

Monodora           Rt, Sd, SB   --                Okpekon et al.
myristica                                         (2004)
(Gaertn.) Dunal

Monodora           SB           Decoc. 500 g SB   Tsabang et al.
tenuifolia                      powder, 3 L       (2011)
Benth.; Monodora                [H.sub.2]O, 20
with thin leaves                min, drink

Polyalthia         Bk           Bk powder, 2 x    Kumari and
longifolia                      L twice a day     Gopal (2009)
(Sonn.) Thwaites

                   Bk           --                Joy et al.
                                                  (1998)

Greenwayodendron   SB           Decoc. 500 g SB   Tsabang et al.
suaveolens                      collected by      (2011)
(Engl. & Diels)                 scraping w/
Verdc.                          machete, 3 L
                                [H.sub.2]O, 20
                                min, drink

                   Fr           Decoc. 1
                                serrated Fr, 2
                                L [H.sub.2]O,
                                15 min, drink

Greenwayodendron   RB           Decoc., drink     Muganza et al.
suaveolens                                        (2012)
(Engl. & Diels)
Verdc.

Polyceratocarpus   RB           Decoc. 500 g SB   Tsabang et al.
sp.                             collected by      (2011)
                                scraping w/
                                machete, 3 L
                                [H.sub.2]O,
                                evap. to 1/2,
                                drink

Pseudoxandra       IB           200 g IB in 500   Bertani et al.
cuspidata Maas                  mL cold           (2005)
                                [H.sub.2]O, 100
                                [degrees]C, 15
                                min, cool

Annona sylvatica   Lv           Lv as bechic      Mors et al.
A. St.-Hil.                                       (2000)

Unonopsis                                         Clavo et al.
floribunda Diels                                  (2003) apud
                                                  IIAP (2010)

Unonopsis          Bk           Decoc.,           Grenand et al.
guatterioides                   external bath     (1987)
(A. DC.) R.E.
Fr.

Unonopsis          Bk                             Duke and
spectabilis                                       Vasquez (1994)
Diels

Uvaria afzelii     Rt           --                Menan et al.
G.F.                                              (2006)
Scott-Elliot

Uvaria afzelii     Lv, Rt, SB   --                Okpekon et al.
G.F.                                              (2004)
Scott-Elliot

Uvaria                                            Odugbemi (2008)
angolensis Welw.
ex Oliv.

Uvaria chamae P.   Lv           Decoc., drink     Koudouvo et al
Beauv.                                            (2011)

Uvaria             RB, Lv       Decoc., hot       Muthaura et al.
scheffleri Diels                [H.sub.2]O ext.   (2007)

Uvaria sp. 1       SB           SB collected by   Tsabang et al.
                                scraping          (2011)
                                w/machete,
                                decoc. 500 g
                                SB, 3 L
                                [H.sub.2]O,
                                evap. to 1/2,
                                drink

Xylopia            Fr, SB       Decoc. 1 tspn     Tsabang et al.
aethiopica                      crashed, dried    (2011)
(Dunal) A. Rich.                SB, 1 L
                                [H.sub.2]O,
                                drinkl tspn
                                crashed dried
                                Fr, 1 L
                                [H.sub.2]O,
                                drink

                   Fr           Macer., drink     Koudouvo et al
                                                  (2011)

Xylopia            AP                             Garavito et al.
aromatica (Lam.)                                  (2006)
Mart.

Xylopia            --           --                Mesquita et al.
aromatica (Lam.)                                  (2007)
Mart.

Xylopia            --           --                Mesquita et al.
emarginata Mart.                                  (2007)

Xylopia            Bk           --                Grenand et al.
frutescens Aubl.                                  (1987)

Xylopia            --           --                Rutter (1990)
aromatica (Lam.)                                  apud Milliken
Mart. (syn.                                       (1997b)
Xylopia
grandiflora A.
St.-Hil.)

Xylopia            Fr, SB       Decoc. 1 tspn     Tsabang et al.
hypolampra                      crashed, dried    (2011)
Mildbr.                         SB, 0.5 L
                                [H.sub.2]O,
                                drink

Xylopia            Bk           --                Grenand et al.
cayennensis Maas                                  (1987)
(syn. Xylopia
longifolia A.
DC.)

Xylopia            Fr, SB       Decoc. 1 kg SB    Tsabang et al.
parviflora                      in 3L             (2011)
Spruce                          [H.sub.2]O, 20
                                min, drink

                                Infus. 1 tspn
                                crashed dried
                                Fr, 250 mL
                                [H.sub.2]O,
                                drink

Xylopia spp.       --           --                Montes Giraldo
                                                  (1981) apud
                                                  Milliken
                                                  (1997b).

Xylopia staudtii   Fr           Macer. 1 tspn     Tsabang et al.
Engl. & Diels                   crashed dried     (2011)
                                Fr, 500 mL
                                [H.sub.2]O,
                                drink

Xylopia                         --                Rutter (1990)
aromatica (Lam.)                                  apud Milliken
                                                  (1997b)

Mart. (syn.        Bk           --                Pio Correa
Xylopia                                           (1926-1978)
xylopioides)

Abbreviations: Bk--bark, decoc.--decoction, ext.--extract,
extern.--external, F--fever, Fr--fruit, H--headache, IB--inner bark,
IF--intermittent fever, infus.--infusion, L- liver, Lv--leaves,
M--malaria, macer.--maceration, RB--rootbark, Rt--roots,
SB--stembark, Sd--seed, St--stem, tspn--teaspoon.

TABLE 2--In vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium
falciparum strains by extracts of Annonaceae spp. used in the
treatment of malaria.

Species         Part   Extract   [IC.sub.50]     Pf       Source
                                 ([micro]g/mL)   strain

Annona          L      EtOH      22.3            K1       Fischer et
coriacea                                                  al. (2004)
Mart.                            4.4             PA

Annona          L      EtOAc     33              3D7      Bagavan et
squamosa L.                                               al. (2011)
                       MeOH      100.0

                       EtOAc     20.0            Dd2

                       MeOH      82.0

Cleistopholis   B      EO (HD)   9.2             W2       Boyom et
patens                                                    al. (2011)
(Benth.)        L                15.2
Engl. & Diels

Duguetia        L      EtOH      65.9            K1       Fischer et
furfuracea                                                al. (2004)
(A. St.-Hil.)                    12.4            PA
Saff

Duguetia        L      EtOH      10.1            K1
lanceolata A.
St.-Hil.                         7.2             PA

Goniothalamus   --     EtOH      6.3             K1       Ichino et
marcanii                                                  al. (2006)
Craib

Guatteria       L      EtOH      32.7            K1       Fischer et
australis A.                                              al. (2004)
St.-Hil.                         7.4             PA

Hexalobus       B      EO (HD)   2.0             W2       Boyom et
crispiflorus                                              al. (2003)
A. Rich.

Monodora        --     MeOH      1<              FCB &    Lekana-
myristica                        [IC.sub.50]     W2       Douki
(Gaertn.)                        <10                      et al.
Dunal                                                     (2011)
                       DCM       10<             FCB &
                                 [IC.sub.50]     W2
                                 <40

Monodora        B      EtOAc     21.6                     Krief et
myristica                                                 al. (2006)
(Gaertn.)       B      MeOH      25.6
Dunal
                L      EtOAc     72.2

                L      MeOH      37.4

Duguetia        B      EO (HD)   16.6            W2       Boyom et
confinis                                                  al. (2003)
(Engl. &
Diels)
Chatrou

Polvalthia      --     --        1.35            K1       Deharo and
debilis Finet                                             Ginsburg
& Gagnep.                                                 (2011)

Polyalthia             EtOH      10.0            K1       Ichino et
viridis Craib                                             al. (2006)

Uvaria          --     --        < 10            D6 &     Gathirwa
acuminata                                        W2       et al.
Oliv.                                                     (2011)

Uvaria          L,     Pet.      5 <             K1       Nkunya et
dependens       S,     Eth.,     [IC.sub.10]              al. (1991)
Engl. & Diels   RB     DCM,      < 500
                       MeOH

Uvaria          L,     Pet.      5 <             K1
faulknerae      S,     Eth.,     [IC.sub.10]
Verde.          RB     DCM,      < 500
                       MeOH

Uvaria kirkii   L,     Pet.      5 <             K1
Oliv. ex        S,     Eth.,     [IC.sub.10]
Hook. f.        RB     DCM,      < 500
                       MeOH

Uvaria          L,     Pet.      5 <             K1
leptoclados     S,     Eth.,     [IC.sub.10]
Oliv.           RB     DCM,      < 500
                       MeOH

Uvaria lucida   S      Pet.      5 <             K1
Bojer ex               Eth.,     [IC.sub.50]
Benth.                 DCM,      < 9
                       MeOH

Uvaria          RB     Pet.      5 <             K1
scheffleri             Eth.,     [IC.sub.50]
Diels                  DCM,      < 9
                       MeOH

Uvaria          L,     Pet.      5 <             K1
tanzaniae       S,     Eth.,     [IC.sub.50]
Verde.          RB     DCM,      < 500
                       MeOH

Uvariastrum     B      EO (HD)   6.1             W2       Boyom et
pierreanum                                                al. (2011)
Engl. & Diels   L                14.0

Uvariopsis      B      EtOAc     4.1                      Krief et
congensis                                                 al. (2006)
Robyns &               MeOH      2.8
Ghesq.
                L      EtOAc     14.7

                       MeOH      15.1

Xylopia         B      EO (HD)   17.8            W2       Boyom et
aethiopica                                                al. (2003)
(Dunal) A.
Rich.

Xylopia         AP     EtOH      < 1                      Garavito
aromatica                                                 et al.
(Lam.) Mart.                                              (2006)

Xylopia         L      EtOH      52.6            K1       Fischer et
brasiliensis                                              al. (2004)
Spreng.                          332.6           PA

Xylopia         L      EtOH      43.1            K1
emarginata
Mart.                            3.3             PA

Xylopia         B      EO (HD)   17.9            W2       Boyom et
phloiodora                                                al. (2003)
Mildbr.

Abbreviations: AP--aerial part, B--bark, DCM--dichloromethane,
EO--essential oil, EtOAc--ethyl acetate, EtOH--ethyl alcohol,
HD--hydrodistillation, [IC.sub.50]--median inhibitory concentration,
L--leaves, MeOH--methyl alcohol, Pet. Eth.--petroleum ether,
Pf--Plasmodium falciparum, RB--root bark, S--stems.
COPYRIGHT 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Fruticultura
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2014 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

 
Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:texto en ingles
Author:Frausin, Gina; Lima, Renata Braga Souza; Hidalgo, Ari De Freitas; Maas, Paul; Pohlit, Adrian Martin
Publication:Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura
Date:Feb 1, 2014
Words:8522
Previous Article:Rooting cuttings of sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.) with indolebutyric acid/Enraizamento de estacas de pinheira (Annona squamosa L.) com acido...
Next Article:Rubus spp.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2018 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters