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Plantas medicinales utilizadas en Peru para el tratamiento de enfermedades respiratorias.

Medicinal plants used in Peru for the treatment of respiratory disorders

Introduction

The WHO reports that respiratory illnesses are of high importance as a cause of death and morbidity at a global scale in Peru respiratory problems are a major cause for infant deaths (WHO 2006).

Traditional Medicine is used globally and is rapidly growing in economic importance. In developing countries, Traditional Medicine is often the only accessible and affordable treatment available. The WHO reports that Traditional Medicine is the primary health care system for important percentage of the population in developing countries. In Latin America, the WHO Regional Office for the Americas (AMRO/PAHO) reports that 71% of the population in Chile and 40% of the population in Colombia has used Traditional Medicine. In many Asian countries Traditional Medicine is widely used, even though Western medicine is often readily available. In Japan, 60 - 70% of allopathic doctors prescribe traditional medicines for their patients.

Complementary Alternative Medicine is also becoming more and more popular in many developed countries. Forty-two percent of the population in the US have used Complementary Alternative Medicine at least once (WHO 1998), and a national survey reported the use of at least one of 16 alternative therapies increased from 34% in 1990 to 42% in 1997 (UNCCD 2000). The number of visits to providers of Complementary Alternative Medicine (CAM) now exceeds by far the number of visits to all primary care physicians in the US (WHO 1999a, 2002b).

The expenses for the use of Traditional and Complementary Alternative Medicine are exponentially growing in many parts of the world. The 1997 out-of-pocket Complementary Alternative Medicine expenditure was estimated at US$ 2,700 million in the USA. The world market for herbal medicines based on traditional knowledge is now estimated at US$ 60,000 million (Breevort 1998).

Northern Peru is believed to be the center of the Central Andean Health Axis (Camino 1992), and traditional medicinal practices in this region are still an important component of everyday life (Bussmann & Sharon 2006, Bussmann 2006, De Feo 1992, Joralemon & Sharon 1993, Polia 1988, Sharon 1978, 1980, 1994, 2000, Sharon & Bussmann 2006). Traditional Medicine is also gaining more and more respect by national governments and health providers. Peru's National Program in Complementary Medicine and the Pan American Health Organization recently compared Complementary Medicine to allopathic medicine in clinics and hospitals operating within the Peruvian Social Security System (EsSalud/ Organizacion Panamericana de Salud 2000). According to WHO (2002b), the sustainable cultivation and harvesting of medicinal species is one of the most important challenges for the next few years.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

The present study attempts to give an overview on medicinal plant species employed in traditional therapies in Northern Peru to treat respiratory problems, and compare this use to the western scientific evidence regarding their efficacy.

Materials and methods

Plant collections

Plants in Peru were collected in the field, in markets, and at the homes of traditional healers (curanderos) in Northern Peru (Fig. 1) in August-September 2001, July-August 2002, July-August 2003, June-August 2004, July-August 2005, July-August 2006, June-August 2007, June-August 2008, March-April 2009 and June-August 2009. A total of 116 informants (healers and market venders) in the Trujillo and Chiclayo area were interviewed using structured questionnaires. The informants were always provided with fresh plant material, either collected with them, by them, or available at their market stands. The questionnaires did not include any reference as to disease concepts, plant parts or preparations. In contrast, the participants were only asked simple questions along the lines "What is this plant used for, which part, which quantity, how is it prepared, are any other plants added to the mixture." All questions were asked in the same order. All informants were of Mestizo origin, and spoke only Spanish as their native language. The study covered the four existing medicinal plant markets of the region, and included all venders present. All interviews were conducted with the same set of participants. The specimens are registered under the collection series "RBU/PL", "ISA", "GER", "JULS", "EHCHL", "VFCHL", "TRUBH", and "TRUVANERICA", depending on the year of fieldwork and collection location. Surveys were conducted in Spanish by fluent speakers. Surveyors would approach healers, collectors and market vendors and explain the premise for the study, including the goal of conservation of medicinal plants in the area.

Vouchers of all specimens were deposited at the Herbario Truxillensis (HUT, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo), and Herbario Antenor Orrego (HAO, Universidad Privada Antenor Orrego Trujillo). In order to recognize Peru's rights under the Convention on Biological Diversity, most notably with regard to the conservation of genetic resources in the framework of a study treating medicinal plants, the identification of the plant material was conducted entirely in Peru. No plant material was exported in any form whatsoever.

Nomenclature

The nomenclature of plant families, genera, and species follows the catalogue of Brako and Zarucchi (1993) and Jergensen and Leon-Yanez (1999). The nomenclature was compared to the TROPICOS database. Species were identified using the available volumes of the Flora of Peru (McBride 1936-1981), as well as Jergensen & Ulloa Ulloa (1994), Pestalozzi (1998) and Ulloa Ulloa & Jergensen (1993), and the available volumes of the Flora of Ecuador (Sparre & Harling 1978-2009), and reference material in the herbaria HUT, HAO, QCA, LOJA and QCNE.

Results

A total of 91 plant species belonging to 82 genera and 48 families were documented and identified as respiratory system herbal remedies in Northern Peru. Most species used were Asteraceae (15 species, 16.67%), followed by Lamiaceae and Fabaceae (8.89% and 5.56%). Most other families contributed only one species each to the pharmacopoeia (Table 1). A complete overview of all plants encountered, including data on use-recipes and preparation, is given in Appendix 1. The most important families are clearly similarly well represented in comparison to the overall medicinal flora, although some other medicinally important families (e.g. Euphorbiaceae, Lycopodiaceae, Cucurbitaceae) are completely missing from the respiratory portfolio (Table 2) (Bussmann & Sharon 2006).

The majority of respiratory disorder herbal preparations were prepared from the leaves of plants (27.69%), while the whole plant (18.46%), flowers (13.85%) and stems (17.69%) were used less frequently (Table 3, Bussmann & Sharon 2006). This indicates that the local healers count on a very well developed knowledge about the properties of different plant parts. In almost 55% of the cases fresh plant material was used to prepare remedies, which differs little from the average herbal preparation mode in Northern Peru. About 86% of the remedies were applied orally, while the remaining ones were applied topically. Over half of all remedies were prepared as mixtures of multiple ingredients by boiling plant material either in water or in sugarcane spirit.

Discussion

Respiratory disorders are so common globally, and over-the counter remedies, both allopathic and complementary, so frequently sold, that much effort has been put into the verification of traditional remedies. Almost 50% of the plants found in the respiratory pharmacopoeia of Northern Peru, or their congeners have been studied for their medicinal properties. The original hypothesis that many species employed for respiratory illnesses would be non-native, introduced to treat diseases that were originally also introduced by colonialists, did not hold however. Quite contrarily, many remedies for respiratory ailments are native to the study area (Bussmann & Sharon 2006). From this perspective it is surprising to see how many species have actually been studied at least preliminarily. Biella et al. (2008) report on the activity in an extract of Alternanthera. Braga et al. (2007) worked on Schinus molle. Other examples include Apium graveolens (Atta & Alkofahni 1998), Acmella (Hoeltz et al. 2002), Clibadium (Perez-Garcia et al. 2001), Eupatorium (Jaric et al. 2007), Flaveria (Bardon et al. 2007), Perezia (Enriquez et al. 1980), Senecio (Uzun et al. 2004), Tagetes (Caceres et al. 1991), Alnus and Sambucus (Turner & Hebda 1990), Jacaranda (Gachet & Schuhly 2000), Raphanus (Ishtiaq et al. 2007), Cordia (Molina-Salinas 2007), Scabiosa (Abad et al. 1996), Bursera (Kumarasamy et al. 2002), Erythroxulum (Weiil 1978), Myroxylon (Linares & Bye 1987), Prosopis (Hebbar et al. 2004), Lanandula (Hajahashemi et al. 2003; Uzun et al. 2004), Cinchona (Rojas et al. 2006), Juglans (Cruz-Vega et al. 2008), Uncaria (Deharo et al. 2004; Heitzmann et al. 2005), Cymbopogon and Cinnamomum (Giron et al. 1991; Wannissorn et al. 2005), Plantago and Eucalyptus (Andrade-Cetto 2008; Rakover et al. 2008), Malva and Alcea (Carmona et al. 2005), Dracaena (Mothana et al. 2006), Allium (Petkov 1986; Bielroy 2004; Al Momani et al. 2007), Rubus (Rvra & Obon 1995; Ritch-Krc et al. 1996), Stachys (Duarte et al. 2005), Satureja (Caceres et al. 1991; Redic 2007), Salvia (Ali-Shatayeh et al. 2000) and Thymus (Jaric et al. 2007).

Conclusions

Respiratory tract infections continue to be a major health challenge worldwide especially due to the increasingly fast development of resistance to the drugs currently in use. Many plant species are traditionally used for respiratory illness treatment, and some have been investigated for their efficacy with positive results. An often-limiting factor to these investigations is lack of comprehensive ethnobotanical data to help choose plant candidates for potency/efficacy tests. Since the plant parts utilized in preparation of remedies are reported in this survey, it serves as an indication of species that may need further ecological assessment on their regeneration status.

The results of this study show that both indigenous and introduced species are used for the treatment of respiratory system disorders. The information gained on frequently used traditional remedies might give some leads for future targets for further analysis in order to develop new drugs. However, more detailed scientific studies are desperately needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the remedies employed traditionally.
Appendix 1. Species encountered and used in Northern Peru for
resopiratory system disorders.

Family/Genus/
Species              Indigenous name   Plant part used       Admin.

ACANTHACEAE

Aphelandra           Espina de hoja     Whole plant,          Oral
cirsioides                                  dried
Lindau

AMARANTHACEAE

Alternanthera        Hierba del oso,    Whole plant,          Oral
brasiliana (L.)         Veronica       fresh or dried
Kuntze                  (Hembra),
                      Moradilla de
                          cerro

ANACARDIACEAE

Mangifera                 Mango         Leaves, dried         Oral
indica L.

Schinus molle          Molle, Moy      Flowers, Leaves      Topical
L.                                       and Stems,
                                            fresh

APIACEAE

Apium                Apio cimarron,     Whole plant,          Oral
graveolens L.             Apio              fresh

ASPHODELACEAE

Aloe vera (L.)       Sabila, Zabila,    Leaves, fresh         Oral
Burm f.              Aloe, Hojas de
                      sabila, Aloe
                          vera

ASTERACEAE

Acmella cf.               Ufla           Root, dried          Oral
ciliata
(H.B.K.) Cas.

Ambrosia                Altamisa,        Leaves and           Oral
peruviana                Marco,         Stems, fresh
Willd.                  Artamisa,
                     Manzanilla del
                     muerto, Ajenjo,
                      Llatama negra
                     malera, Llatama
                       roja malera

Chuquiragua            Amaro amaro      Whole plant,          Oral
weberbaueri                            fresh or dried
Tovar

Clibadium cf.         Flor de novia    Flowers, Leaves      Topical
sylvestre                                and Stems,
(Aubl.) Baill.                         fresh or dried

Cronquistianthus       Clavelillo,     Flowers, Leaves        Oral
lavandulifolius      Espino de hoja,     and Stems,
DC.                    Pulmonaria      fresh or dried

Diplostephium            Parrano       Flowers, fresh         Oral
gynoxyoides
Cuatr.

Eupatorium            Asma Chilca,      Leaves, fresh    1. Topcial 2.
gayanum Wedd.         Asma (Chica)                            Oral

Flaveria               Mata Gusano     Flowers, Leaves        Oral
bidentis (L.)                            and Stems,
Kuntze                                 fresh or dried

Oritrophium            Huamanripa,      Whole plant,          Oral
peruvianum            China linda,     fresh or dried
(Lam.) Cuatrec.      Wina wina, Vira
                      vira, Hierba
                        del sol,
                        Oronamo,
                      Maguanmarica,
                       Hierba del
                         lucero

Perezia                Corzonera,       Whole plant,          Oral
multiflora (H.        Escorcionera,    fresh or dried
& B.) Lessing          Escorzonera

Picrosia               Achicoria,       Whole plant,          Oral
longifolia D.           Chicoria            fresh
Don

Senecio                Vira Vira,       Whole plant,       1. Oral 2.
canescens            Oreja de conejo        fresh           Topical
(H.B.K.)
Cuatrecasas

Senecio               Huamanrripa,      Whole plant,          Oral
tephrosioides           Genciana            fresh
Turcz.

Tagetes                Culantrillo      Whole plant,          Oral
elliptica Sm.            serrano       fresh or dried

Tagetes erecta         Flores del        Flowers and          Oral
L.                   muerto, Clavel     Leaves, fresh
                     chino, Flor de
                         muerto

BETULACEAE

Alnus acuminata       Aliso blanco       Bark, fresh          Oral
H.B.K.                (Liso), Aliso
                        colorado
                       (Arrugado)

BIGNONIACEAE

Jacaranda               Arabisca,        Leaves and           Oral
acutifolia H. &         Yarabisca      Stems, fresh or
B.                                          dried

BORAGINACEAE

Borrago                  Borraja        Whole plant,          Oral
officinalis L.                         fresh or dried

Cordia               Ajos giro, Ajos   Bark and Stems,        Oral
alliodora (R. &        quiro, Ajo           dried
P.) Oken                  sacha

BRASSICACEAE

Raphanus                Rabanito        Tuber, fresh          Oral
sativus L.

Rorippa                  Berros          Whole plant          Oral
nasturtium-                             except root,
aquaticum (L.)                         fresh or dried
Hayek

BURSERACEAE

Bursera                Palo santo,      Small Stems,          Oral
graveolens            Palo de santo    Bark and Wood,
(H.B.K.) Triana                             dried
& Planchon

CAPPARIDACEAE

Capparis                 Simuro,         1. Flowers,     1. Oral 2, 3.
crotonoides          Bichayo, Simulo    fresh 2., 3.        Topical
H.B.K.                                  Leaves, fresh

CAPRIFOLIAEAE

Sambucus                 Sauco,          1. Leaves,           Oral
peruviana              Saucotillo        Flowers and
H.B.K.                                 Stems, fresh or
                                          dried 2.
                                         Flowers and
                                        Leaves, fresh

CHENOPODIACEAE

Chenopodium               Paico          Leaves and           Oral
ambrosioides L.                         Stems, fresh

CHLORANTHACEAE

Hedyosmum              Masamoche,        Bark, dried          Oral
racemosum (R. &         Asancito,
P.) G. Don.             Asarcito,
                       Asarquiro,
                         Choleta

CONVOLVULACEAE

Ipomoea                 Huanarpo        Whole plant,          Oral
pauciflora M.                               fresh
Martens &
Galeotti

CYPERACEAE

Scirpus               Balsa, Totora     Whole plant,          Oral
californicus                                dried
(C.A. Meyer)
Steudel subsp.
tatora (Kunth)
T. Koyama

DIPSACACEAE

Scabiosa                Ambarina,      Flowers, fresh         Oral
atropurpurea L.      Ambarina negra,
                         Flor de
                        ambarina,
                       Ambarindas

ERICACEAE

Gaultheria               Mullaca        Whole plant,          Oral
erecta Vent.            mistura,       fresh or dried
                        Mullaca,
                      Mullaca real

Gaultheria             Toromaique,      Whole plant,        Topical
reticulata            Toro maique,          fresh
H.B.K.                 Toromaike,
                      Maique, Maque
                        candela,
                       Toro maique
                     amarillo, Toro
                      maique verde,
                     Gavilan maique
                        amarillo,
                     Gavilan maique
                          verde

ERYTHROXYLACEAE

Erythroxylon              Coca          Leaves, dried         Oral
coca Lam.

FABACEAE

Dolichos lablab      Frijol chileno     Fruits, fresh         Oral
L.

Medicago sativa          Alfalfa         Flowers and          Oral
L.                                       Flowers and
                                        Leaves, fresh

Melilotus alba         Alfalfilla       Seeds, dried          Oral
Medikus

Myroxylon             Quina quina,      Seeds, dried     1., 3. Oral 2.
balsamum (L.)           Kina kina                            Topica
Harms.

Prosopis                Algarrobo       Seeds, dried          Oral
pallida (H. &
B. ex Willd.)
H.B.K.

GERANIACEAE

Erodium                 Agujilla        Whole plant,          Oral
cicutarium (L.)          blanca,            fresh
L'Herit.                Auguilla,
                         Augilla

JUGLANDACEAE

Juglans                   Nogal         Leaves, fresh         Oral
neotropica
Diels

LAMIACEAE

Lavandula               Alucema,          Flowers,            Oral
angustifolia            Alhucema,       Leaves, Stems
Miller                   Labanda         and Seeds,
                                            dried

Lepechinia           Salvia, Salvia     Whole plant,          Oral
meyenii                   real         fresh or dried
(Walpers)
Epling

Salvia discolor         Palmeras        Stems, fresh          Oral
H.B.K.                  (Chica),
                        Llatama,
                         Yatama

Salvia                   Salvia         Whole plant,          Oral
officinalis L.                         fresh or dried

Salvia                Salvia negra     Root and Stems,        Oral
sagitatta R. &                         fresh or dried
P.

Satureja                Panizara,       Leaves, fresh         Oral
pulchella               Panisara          or dried
(H.B.K.)
Briquet

Stachys lanata          Veronica        Whola plant,          Oral
Jacq.                    (Macho)            dried

Thymus vulgaris          Tomillo        Leaves, Stems         Oral
L.                                      and Flowers,
                                       fresh or dried

LAURACEAE

Cinnamonum               Canela          Bark, dried          Oral
verum J. Presl.

LILIACEAE

Allium odorum        Cebolla china,     Whole plant,          Oral
L.                       Cebolla            fresh

Allium sativum             Ajo          Clove, fresh          Oral
L.

Dracaena              Flor dracena       Leaves and           Oral
fragrans Ker                           Stems, fresh or
Gawl.                                       dried

MALESHERBIACEAE

Malesherbia             Veronica        Whole plant,          Oral
ardens Macbr.                          fresh or dried

MALVACEAE

Alcea rosea           Malva Blanca,      Whole plant          Oral
(L.) Cavanilles       Malva Morada      except Stems,
                                            fresh

Malva                  Malva Rosa,      Leaves, fresh      1. Oral 2.
parviflora L.          Malva Real                           Topical

MORACEAE

Brosmium              Palo Sangre,     Wood and Bark,         Oral
rubescens              Palo de la      fresh or dried
Taubert              Sangre, Ablita

MYRISTICACEAE

Myristica             Nuez Moscada,     Seeds, dried          Oral
fragrans L.             Ajonjoli

MYRTACEAE

Eucalyptus              Alcanfor,        1. Leaves,        1. Oral 2.
globulus                Eucalipto         dried 2.          Topical
Labill.                 Serrano,        Leaves, fresh
                        Eucalipto         or dried

OLACACEAE

Heisteria              Chuchuasi,      Bark, fresh or         Oral
acuminata (H. &        Chuchuhuasi          dried
B.) Engler

ONAGRACEAE

Fuchsia               Conchalalay,       Leaves and         Topical
ayavacensis            Conchalalay     Stems, fresh or
H.B.K.                  colorado            dried

PHYTOLACCACEAE

Gallesia               Palo de ajo      Stems, dried          Oral
integrifolia
(Spreng.)
Harms.

PIPERACEAE

Piper aduncum           Yerba del        1. Leaves,        1. Oral 2.
L.                      Soldado,       fresh or dried       Topical
                        Tilonga,         2. Leaves,
                      Matico, Mogo-         fresh
                          Mogo

Piper nigrum L.      Pimienta negra     Seeds, dried          Oral

PLANTAGINACEAE

Plantago                 Llanten         Root, fresh          Oral
linearis H.B.K.         serrano,
                      Llanten de la
                          costa

Plantago major           Llanten       Seeds, fresh or        Oral
L.                                          dried

POACEAE

Cymbopogon           Cedron, Hierba     Leaves, Roots         Oral
citratus (DC.)        Luisa, Maria       and Stems,
Stapf.                    Luisa        fresh or dried

Uncaria               Una de gato,       Leaves and      Oral, Topical
tomentosa                Uncaria       Stems, fresh or
(Willdenow ex        tormentosa, Una        dried
Roemer &              de gato de la
Schultes) DC.             selva

Zea mays L.          Espiga de maiz,    Seeds, dried          Oral
                     Chuno de maiz,
                          Maiz

RANUNCULACEAE

Laccopetalum           Huamanripa,      Leaves, fresh         Oral
giganteum            Pacra, Flor de       or dried
(Wedd.) Ulbrich         guarmarya

ROSACEAE

Rubus robustus         Zarzamora,        Flowers and          Oral
C. Presl.            Moyaca, Zarza,     Leaves, fresh
                     Zarza parrilla,      or dried
                      Mora, Cushai

RUBIACEAE

Cinchona               Cascarilla,     1. Flowers and         Oral
officinalis L.         Quinuagiro       Leaves, dried
                                           2. Bark

SALICACEAE

Salix chilensis           Sauce         Leaves, fresh    1. Topical 2.
Molina                                                        Oral

SCROPHULARIACEAE

Escobedia                Azafran       Flowers, dried         Oral
grandiflora
(L.f.) Kuntze

Galvesia             Curil, Macacha    Flowers, Leaves        Oral
fruticosa J.                             and Stems,
Gmelin                                 fresh or dried

SOLANACEAE

Cestrum               Hierba santa,     Leaves, fresh         Oral
auriculatum             Agrasejo          or dried
L'Herit

Solanum               Hierba mora,      Fruits fresh        Topical
americanum             Hierba del
Mill.                susto, Baja del
                     espanto, Semora

Solanum               Chuno de papa     Tuber, dried          Oral
tuberosum L.

TILIACEAE

Tilia                     Tilo           Flowers and          Oral
platyphyllos                            Leaves, fresh
Scop.

ULMACEAE

Celtis loxense         Palo huaco,     Bark, Stems and        Oral
C.C. Berg              Palo blanco      Leaves, dried

VERBENACEAE

Clerodendron sp.       Brochamelia     Flowers, fresh         Oral
                                          or dried

Lantana                Mastrando,        Leaves and           Oral
scabiosaefolia          Mastrante      Stems, fresh or
H.B.K.                                      dried

Lippia               Poleo del inca      Leaves and           Oral
integrifolia                            Stems, fresh
(Grieseb.)
Hieron

Verbena                 Verbena,        Whole plant,          Oral
littoralis               Berbena       fresh or dried
H.B.K.

VITACEAE

Vitis vinifera             Uva          Fruits, dried         Oral
L.

ZINGIBERACEAE

Zingiber              Kion, Quion,       Root, fresh          Oral
officinale              Gengibre,
Roscoe                  Gengible

NON PLANT MATERIAL

                        Polen de        Insect feces          Oral
                      Zapote, Polen
                        de Espina
                     Negra, Polen de
                     Arboles, Polen
                       de Ciachon
                     (Insect feces)

Family/Genus/
Species                                 Preparation

ACANTHACEAE

Aphelandra           2 Tbsp with 1 L boiled water, 3 cups per day, 3-4
cirsioides                                 days.
Lindau

AMARANTHACEAE

Alternanthera              5-10 g per 1 L water, mix with Muyaca,
brasiliana (L.)        Huamanrripa, Brochamelia. 4 cups per day, 1-2
Kuntze                                     weeks.

ANACARDIACEAE

Mangifera                Boil 5 Mango Leaves with 10 Moy Leaves, 10
indica L.            Eucalyptus Leaves, 5 Stems buds of Pajaro Bobo and
                      1 Limon (all dried Leaves) in 1l of water for 30
                      minutes. Drink cold, 2 tablespoons 2 a day for 3
                                           days.

Schinus molle        Macerate material in alcohol and spray on patient
L.                   at nighttime. Once daily for five days as poultice
                       or rub the patient's body with plant material
                      while bathing in the mixture. Advise the patient
                            to rest and to avoid going outdoors.

APIACEAE

Apium                   Boil 1 L water, then add 10 g Apio Cimarron.
graveolens L.              Combine with Manzanilla, Mejorana, and
                       Culantrillo. Drink 4 cups per day for 1 week.

ASPHODELACEAE

Aloe vera (L.)        1 kg of herb, 1-2 kg of Honey, and three Tbsp of
Burm f.               Pisco. Open the leaf longitudinally and exctract
                     the iodine secretion and the internal gel from the

                      inside of the leaf. Consume the iodine secretion
                       and the gel. 1-2 cups per day for a week to a
                      month. Leaf can also be macerated in a bottle of
                                          alcohol.

ASTERACEAE

Acmella cf.          Boil 100 g of Ufla root and 100 g of Menta in 1 L
ciliata                      of water for 10 minutes.  Patient
(H.B.K.) Cas.            should drink lukewarm solution. 2 times a
                                      day for 3 days.

Ambrosia             Boil 1 L water 2 min, then mix water with a total
peruviana               of 10 g of Manzanilla, Borraja, Madre Selva,
Willd.                Toronjil, Hinojo and Chancas de Comida for nerve
                     disorders. Use Boldo, Malva, and Linaza for liver
                       ailments. Use Matico, Borraja, Eucalipto, Vira
                      vira, and Brochamelia for Bronchitis. Cover and
                     let sit for 2/3 minutes. Drink lukewarm, 3/4 cups
                     a day for a month. Colds: Boil 1/2 L of water with
                      50 g of Altamiz and 10 g of Sauce, Chicoria, and
                     Pajaro Bobo for 10 minutes. 2 tablespoons every 8
                                     hours for 8 days.

Chuquiragua            Boil 10g in 1 L of water for 3-4 minutes with
weberbaueri          Eucalyptus, Matico, Mullaca, Muna, Flor de Overo.
Tovar                    Take one cup 3-4 times a day for a month.

Clibadium cf.          1 bundle, 20 drops of perfume per 3 L boiling
sylvestre                        water. 3 baths per month.
(Aubl.) Baill.

Cronquistianthus       Add 10 g of plant material, Matico, Zarzamora,
lavandulifolius      Nogal, Salvia, Borraja, Llatama, Vira Vira. with 1
DC.                    L of water. Boil the mixture for 3-4 minutes.
                                 Drink 1 L daily, 3 months.

Diplostephium            Boil 10 Flowers of Parrano and 4 Leaves of
gynoxyoides             Chicoria in 1/2 cup of water for 2 minutes.
Cuatr.               Patient should drink hot solution. 3 tablespoons 3
                                  times a day for 5 days.

Eupatorium           1. 200 g with Balsamo de Buddha. Use as poultice,
gayanum Wedd.         2 times per month. 2. 5 g per 1 L mix with Tilo,
                       Huamanripa, Borraja, Nogal. 4 cups per day, 10
                                           days.

Flaveria              Boil 1 L water, then add 10 g Mata Gusano. Drink
bidentis (L.)          3-4 times per day for 1-2 weeks, or as needed.
Kuntze

Oritrophium          Add 10 g of plant material per 1 L, boil 3 min. 3
peruvianum                cups per day, as needed. Drink lukewarm.
(Lam.) Cuatrec.

Perezia                 Boil 1 L water, then add 10 g Escorcionera.
multiflora (H.        Combine with Matico, Eucalyptus, Veronica, Vira
& B.) Lessing          vira, Nogal, Huamanripa, Tilo and Zarzamora. 3
                       cups per day for 15 days. Patient should drink
                                       cold solution.

Picrosia             Boil 10-50 g of Chicoria and Verbena, Canchalagua,
longifolia D.          Chochocon per 1l water, 1l daily, 15-30 days.
Don                    Alternatively chop and extract juice of 200 g
                       fresh material, drink 1 glass daily, no longer
                          than a week. Overdosing can harm vision.

Senecio              1. 10 g diced herb in boiling water, combine with
canescens            Borraja, Eucalyptus, Corzonera, Borraja, Cerraja,
(H.B.K.)              Polen de Hierbas, Manzanilla, Toronjil, Congona,
Cuatrecasas          Poleo, Claveles, Juan Alonso, Espina de hoja, and
                      Alcanfor. Drink 3 cups per day, 1 month. 2. Use
                        same mixture for steam baths and inhalation.

Senecio              Boil 1 cup of water, then add 10 g of Huamanrripa,
tephrosioides         combined with Veronica, Vira vira, Brochamelia,
Turcz.                and other herbs. Drink 3 cups per day, 15 days.

Tagetes              50 g of the plant and 1 cup of water and boil for
elliptica Sm.         5 minutes. Drink cold, 1/4 cup a day for 8 days.

Tagetes erecta       Take 3 to 4 Flowers and boil in 1 L of water along
L.                     with 10 g of a mixture of Toronjil, Pimpinela,
                     Poleo, Manzanilla. Drink 3 to 4 glasses a day for
                                          1 month.

BETULACEAE

Alnus acuminata          Boil 10 minutes, 2 Tbsp per cup to get the
H.B.K.                      extract, Take 1 Tbsp every 4 hours.

BIGNONIACEAE

Jacaranda            10 g per 1 L boiling water, boil 2-3 min. Drink 3
acutifolia H. &                   cups per day, as needed.
B.

BORAGINACEAE

Borrago               10 g herb with 1 L boiling water, boiled for 3-5
officinalis L.         minutes, combined with Vira Vira. Drink three
                      times per day or 1 L per day, as long as needed.

Cordia                 Add 1 bottle of Abuelo wine with 10 g of plant
alliodora (R. &         material and 20 g of Chuchuhasi, Cascarilla,
P.) Oken              Honey, Pollen, Tutuma. Let the mixture sit for 1
                     week. Drink the mixture. Patient should not leave
                      the house while taking treatment. Adults take 1
                     small cup. Children take 1 teaspoon. Patients take
                     the medication 3-4 times a day until the bottle is
                                         finished.

BRASSICACEAE

Raphanus               1/4 kg of sugar, add 1/2 kg of Rabanito cut in
sativus L.            pieces. Boil with a scallion with no water. The
                          syrup becomes a drink for the patient. 1
                            Tablespoon evey 6 hours for 1 month.

Rorippa              Oral fresh as needed or crush and drink juice with
nasturtium-          Alfalfa. Make a soup with the nape of the neck of
aquaticum (L.)         the sheep and boil. Add potatoes and veggies.
Hayek                Alternatively boil 1 L of water with Berros, plus
                      10 g total of Malva, Pie de Perro, Unquia, Amor
                       Seco, Chacur, Pajablanca, Flor de Arena, Puren
                      Rosa, and other herbs. Boil for 3 to 4 minutes.
                           Drink 3 to 4 times a day for 1 month.

BURSERACEAE

Bursera              Boil 1l of water, then add 2 pieces of about 5-10
graveolens           g of the Palo Santo, boil for 5 minutes. Cover and
(H.B.K.) Triana        let it sit for 3 minutes. Drink hot, 1 little
& Planchon                  glass 3 times a day for 2 days only.

CAPPARIDACEAE

Capparis             1. Boil 10 Flowers buds in 1-2 cup of water for 2
crotonoides           minutes. Patient should drink warm solution and
H.B.K.                stay inside the house during treatment. 1 cup a
                       day for 8 days. 2. Crush 20 Leaves of Bichayo.
                      Place crushed Leaves on affected area and masage
                     the area with it. Patient should not go out during
                     treatment. 3. Add 20 g of plant material into 4-5
                       L of water. Boil the mixture for 5-6 minutes.
                     Bathe with the tizana. Do not ingest the mixture.
                                 Bath 2-3 times, as needed.

CAPRIFOLIAEAE

Sambucus             1. 5-20 g per 1 L, boil for 1 min, as tea, combine
peruviana            with Llonque. 3 times per week, up to 1 L per day
H.B.K.               if needed, or until fever passes. Take while cold.
                      Rub with Llonque. 2. Boil 1 L of water, then add
                       10 g of Sauco. Add Manzanilla, Hinojo, Coleo,
                      Ajenjo, Toronjil, Pimpinela and Claveles. Cover
                       and let it sit for 2-3 minutes. Patient should
                     drink warm solution, 3-4 cups per day for 1 month.

CHENOPODIACEAE

Chenopodium           Add 10 g of plant material with 1-2 L of water.
ambrosioides L.        Drink hot, 1 cup, 2-3 times a day for 1 week.

CHLORANTHACEAE

Hedyosmum            Use outside of Bark. 8-10 g per 2l water, boil 20
racemosum (R. &       min. drink as needed. Alternatively 30 g per two
P.) G. Don.              bottles of alcohol mixed with Chuchuwasi,
                     Cascarilla, 7 Raices, and Huayacanes then allow to
                     sit for 8 days. Drink as needed, but do not drink
                                 before it has sat 8 days.

CONVOLVULACEAE

Ipomoea               Put together in a bottle of canazo (Yonque) 20 g
pauciflora M.          of the plant material plus 20 g of Cascarilla,
Martens &            Diego Lope, Hualtaco. Let it sit for 8 days. Drink
Galeotti             temperate 1 small cup once a day or as needed (max
                                       2 days only).

CYPERACEAE

Scirpus              1/2 cup of water add 10 g of Totora, 10 g of Saze
californicus         and boil for 3 minutes. Drink cold, 1/2 cup a day
(C.A. Meyer)                            for 8 days.
Steudel subsp.
tatora (Kunth)
T. Koyama

DIPSACACEAE

Scabiosa             Boil 1 L of water with 20 g of the plant material
atropurpurea L.      and Estilo, Veronica, Hierba del toro, Moradilla,
                     Lancetilla, Hierba de la rabia. Drink hot Drink 3
                         times a day as long as the disease lasts.

ERICACEAE

Gaultheria                 1 L of water and add 10 g of Mullaca.
erecta Vent.                     Humanarripa, Escorceonera,
                             Eucalyptus, Matico, Veronica, and
                           others. Drink 1 cup 3 times a day for
                                          1 month.

Gaultheria                 20-30 minutes boil for 50 g per 7 L of
reticulata                    water and mix with other Maiques
H.B.K.                      (7 varieties), 10 g each of: Mishia
                               Blanca, Mishia colambo, Mishia
                             galga, Mishia morada, Mishia roja,
                               Mishia rosada and Toro maique.
                             Recite a prayer. Bath, 3 times per
                               week. Bathe the patient in the
                               mixture while rubbing him/her
                           with the herbs. Afterwards, rinse the
                            patient in water, and allow him/her
                                         to air dry

ERYTHROXYLACEAE

Erythroxylon                 Add 5 g of the leaf with 1 cup of
coca Lam.                     water. Boil the mixture for 3-4
                            minutes, then let it cool. Gargle 3
                            times a day for 2 days. Drink 1 cup
                           before bed for 2-3 days. Alternatively
                             wash and chew about 5 g of Leaves
                                         at a time.
FABACEAE

Dolichos lablab              Boil for 10 minutes 1/2 kg of the
L.                        plant material in 1l of water. Drink it
                            at room temperature. 1/2 cup 2 times
                                     a day for 8 days.

Medicago sativa                Blend Leaves and Flowers with
L.                           water. Drain, and obtain extract.
                             Drink extract. Honey can be added,
                            if desired. Take 1 glass of extract,
                                        twice a day.

Melilotus alba             Boil for 10 minutes 100 g of the plant
Medikus                      material in 1/2 L of water. Drink
                             cold, 1/2 a cup. Once a day for 8
                                           days.

Myroxylon                   1. Grind 20 Seeds, mixed with Seeds
balsamum (L.)               from a specific seven other plants:
Harms.                        Ashango, Pucho, Amala, Ishpingo,
                              Mozcada, Cabalonga and put in a
                            bottle of wine and and amacerar for
                            8 days. Drink 3 small cups per day.
                             2. Boil 20 Seeds per 5 L water for
                             20-30 min with Ishpingo, Ashango,
                             Pucho, Amala, Raucho, Tokio, Nuez
                           Moscada, Pepa de Cedron (use only the
                             Seeds of these herbs) with 1 L of
                            90 proof alcohol and add 2 pieces of
                            tobacco, 2 pieces of Ajo Macho, 10 g
                            of Quina Quina, 2 Leaves of Pacra, 1
                            branch of both Eucalyptus and Maye.
                            Do not leave bath outside, take bath
                             every other day. 3 times per week.
                            3. 3 Seeds, toasted and crushed, per
                             1 cup of water. Drink 1/2 cup for
                                adults, 1 tsp for children.

Prosopis               Boil 10 kg of Algarrobo Fruit and Seeds for 3
pallida (H. &        hours in medium to high heat until thickened. Turn
B. ex Willd.)         off fire and let sit until cool, then drain and
H.B.K.               place syrup in bottle. Drink 2 Tbsp per small cup,
                            3 times per day as long as you wish.

GERANIACEAE

Erodium                 Boil 1 Tbsp Sap per 1 L of water, mixed with
cicutarium (L.)       Ambarindas, Hierba del Toro and Sanguinaria. 1 L
L'Herit.                            per day, 1-3 months.

JUGLANDACEAE

Juglans                  10 g per 1 L, boil water for 3-5 min. For
neotropica           Bronchitis: mix with Matico, Enredadera, Borraja.
Diels                          3 glasses per day, 1 L daily.

LAMIACEAE

Lavandula             Do not use roots. Boil 1 L of water, then add a
angustifolia            total of 10 g of Labanda, Romero, Claveles,
Miller                   Hinojo, Toronjil, Anjenjo, Manzanilla, and
                       Pinpinela for 2 minutes. Patient should drink
                     lukewarm solution. 1 cup 3 to 4 times a day for 1
                                           month.

Lepechinia            Boil 30 g per 1 L water. Take with meals, three
meyenii                               times per day.
(Walpers)
Epling

Salvia discolor               Three Leaves per cup. do not mix
H.B.K.                      with other herbs. One cup a day for
                                          a week.

Salvia                 In 1 L of water boil 10 g of the plant for 3-5
officinalis L.          min. It can be mixed with Matico, Nogal and
                     Eucalyptus. Drink hot, 1 cup 3 to 4 times a day as
                                  needed. Up to one month.

Salvia                 10 g per 1 L water, drink 3 times per day, as
sagitatta R. &                            needed
P.

Satureja                  Add 50 g of plant material with Culein,
pulchella            Manzanilla, Chancas de Comidas or Muna in 1/2 cup
(H.B.K.)              of water. Boil the mixture for 3 minutes. Drink
Briquet               the mixture cold. Take 1/8 cup once a day, for 3
                                           days.

Stachys lanata        Boil 10 g Veronica Macho with 1 L water. Combine
Jacq.                 with Salvia, Matico, and Muyaca. Drink before or
                          after meals. 3 cups per day for 15 days.

Thymus vulgaris        Boil 5 g per 1 L water. Drink 3 times per day.
L.

LAURACEAE

Cinnamonum             1 L of water, 1 garlic clove, 10 g of Matico,
verum J. Presl.      Veronica, Brochamelia, Vira vira, 3 g of Cinnamon.
                     Boil for 3 to 4 minutes. Drink warm, 3 to 4 times
                      a day as needed. After rituals drink cold a day
                     after rituals occurance. Preferably in the morning
                     during breakfast. As much as the patient feels is
                                          needed.

LILIACEAE

Allium odorum        Dice 15 onions in a bowl. Add a glass of water and
L.                   1/4 kg of white sugar. Add a piece of ginger (can
                       also add hen fat). Boil and stir until thick.
                     Drink syrup at all temeratures, 1 spoonful every 6
                         hours for 1 week. Juice can also be drunk
                                         naturally.

Allium sativum         Add 3 garlic cloves, 1 Chinese onion, Matico,
L.                   Corcionera, Eucalypto, Vira Vira, white sugar and
                     1/2 L of water or cow milk into a pot and boil for
                     3 minutes. Drink warm, 2 tablespoons twice a day,
                             for 1 week. Can also be eaten raw.

Dracaena                10 g per 1 L water and boil. 3 cups per day,
fragrans Ker                      according to treatment.
Gawl.

MALESHERBIACEAE

Malesherbia          Boil 5 g per 1 L, combine with Contilo, Arabisca,
ardens Macbr.        and Huamanripa. Drink Three times per day to total
                                         1 L daily.

MALVACEAE

Alcea rosea            10 g per 1 L water. Use Flowers for cough and
(L.) Cavanilles        hemorrhages. Drink 3 times per day, as needed.

Malva                1. Combine 1 L of water with 10 g of Pie de Perro,
parviflora L.        Chacuro, Verbena, Cola de Caballo, Amor Seco, and
                       Unaza. Also add 3-4 Leaves of Malva. Boil the
                        mixture for 3 minutes. Patient should drink
                      lukewarm solution. Take 1 cup, 3-4 times a day,
                      for 1 month. 2. Can also be applied as poultice.

MORACEAE

Brosmium             7 roots or 50 g per 1 bottle of Whiskey or Tequila
rubescens             mixed with Chuchuwasi, Cascarilla. Drink during
Taubert                   meals, two times per day for 8-10 days.

MYRISTICACEAE

Myristica            Grind Seeds and boil in 1 L water 1 Seeds to make
fragrans L.             4 glasses. Drink 4 cups per day, 7-15 days.
                      Alternatively macerate Nuez Moscada with 10 g of
                      Ajonjoli with 1 bottle of Abuelo wine, 10 g each
                       of Palo Sangre, Palo Huaco, bee honey, Pacra,
                     Huanarpo Macho, bee pollen, Huevo de Angelote and
                     Para Para. Take 1 cup in the mornings, middays and
                             evenings until bottle is finished.

MYRTACEAE

Eucalyptus              1. Boiled, cover the head with steam for 15
globulus               minutes. Boil 10 g in 1l water, combined with
Labill.               Manzanilla, Matico, Nogal, Ajos Giro and Chilca.
                       Inhale 1 time per week, 3-4 times a month. 2.
                       Bath, 500 g Eucalipto boiled with with Chilca,
                     Palo Santo, Romero, Ajos Giro. 2 times a month, do
                        not use too much because plant is very hot,
                       patient must be naked and covered with a sheet
                      over his head, then sitting to absorb the vapor
                       for 20 minutes. Stay inside home for 24 hours
                       after the bath. 1 every 30 days. 2 times only.

OLACACEAE

Heisteria                Crush Bark and put in 1 bottle of wine to
acuminata (H. &       macerate. Drink 1 cup 3 times a day for 15 days,
B.) Engler            stop for 15 days, then start treatment again for
                                       15 more days.

ONAGRACEAE

Fuchsia                5 g mixed with Sauco, Nogal, Salvia, Anasquero
ayavacensis          grande and 7 Espiritus with 3 L boiled water. Boil
H.B.K.                    for 1 hour, then let cool down to tepid
                        temperature (lukewarm). 2 Banos per week in
                      agreement with what La Mesa indicates or twice a
                                           month.

PHYTOLACCACEAE

Gallesia             Boil 20 g of Palo de Ajo with 1/2 cup of water for
integrifolia          2 minutes. Drink cold, 1/8 cup a day for 8 days.
(Spreng.)
Harms.

PIPERACEAE

Piper aduncum         1. Boil 5-10 Leaves per 1 L of water for 3-5 min
L.                    mixed with Salvia real, Escorsionera, Viravira,
                      Borraja, and Asma chilca. Drink 1 L daily for 15
                     days. 2. Boil 50 g per 8 L for 10 minutes combined
                     with Eucaliptus, Laurel, Verbena, Altamisa. Bathe
                     twice a week. Alternativel Grind and pulverize 200
                        g of the plant material. Apply the powder on
                     affected areas. Apply once a day, until the wound
                                         is healed.

Piper nigrum L.          Add plant material, Asma Chilca, Borraja,
                         Escorcionera, Muyaca, Vira Vira, Veronica,
                     Cinnamon and a portion of Garlic. Make the mixture
                     concentrated by boiling for 5 minutes. Drink hot.
                          Take 1 cup, 2 times a day, for 2 weeks.

PLANTAGINACEAE

Plantago              Boil 2 roots per 1 L water for three minutes and
linearis H.B.K.      combined with Matico, Nogal, Vira vira, Eucalipto.
                              Drink 4 times a day, as needed.

Plantago major        10 g or 1 Tbsp per 1 L of water, one cup in the
L.                    morning, at noon and one in the evening, before
                                          eating.

POACEAE

Cymbopogon            Boil 1 L of water, then add 5 g of Hierba Luisa.
citratus (DC.)       Let sit for 2 to 3 minutes. Add a little Tequila.
Stapf.                  Stems have more alkaloids and more strength.
                       Patient should drink hot solution. May consume
                                with food best at breakfast.

Uncaria              Grind material. Better used dried. Boil 10 g per 1
tomentosa               L water, 10 min combined with Chanca Piedra,
(Willdenow ex          Linaza, Boldo, Flor de Overo, Bolsa de Pastor.
Roemer &              Drink 1 L daily, three times per day for 15 days
Schultes) DC.         at least or as needed. Drink lukewarm. Solution
                       can also be used in a poultice. Wash wound and
                                    apply soaked Leaves.

Zea mays L.              1/2 L of water, 1/2 kg of corn, a bunch of
                     Chancaca and boil for 5 to 10 minutes (until corn
                      is cooked). Hot servings (reheat if not fresh).
                      Once eaten, stay in room, do not come out to rid
                           the chills. 2 times a day for 2 days.

RANUNCULACEAE

Laccopetalum          2 small Leaves per 1/2 L water, boil. Drink 1 L
giganteum                         per day, until 3 months.
(Wedd.) Ulbrich

ROSACEAE

Rubus robustus         3 Flower buds per cup boiled water, mixed with
C. Presl.             Llatama. Drink 1 L per day, 1 month. Can also be
                                          inhaled.

RUBIACEAE

Cinchona              1. 1 Tbsp per 1 L boiling water, mixed with Flor
officinalis L.        Blanca, Grama Dulce and Rose essence, 1 L daily
                      for 2 months or more. 2. Boil 50 g of Cascarilla
                      in 1 cup of water for 10 minutes. Drink lukewarm
                             1/4 cup 1 time a day for 15 days.

SALICACEAE

Salix chilensis      1. Smash Leaves for juice, apply as enema once. Do
Molina                 not ingest. Use only when the patient is very
                        sick. 2. Boil 10 g of Sauce and 10 Fruits of
                     Capuli in 1 L of water for 30 minutes. Drink warm,
                      1/2 small cup every time the patient has chills.

SCROPHULARIACEAE

Escobedia               Boil 1/2 L of water for 3 mins with 20 g of
grandiflora          Azafran. Drink hot, 1 cup in the morning, 1 cup in
(L.f.) Kuntze                      the night for a week.

Galvesia              In 1 L of water add 10 g of the Flowers and the
fruticosa J.           Stems plus Zarzamora and Matico, Nogal. 3 to 4
Gmelin                            times a day for 2 weeks.

SOLANACEAE

Cestrum              5 g per 1 L with Corpus Way, Carqueja, and Flor de
auriculatum                      Overo. Drink 1 L per day.
L'Herit

Solanum                Crush 20 fruits to extract juice, 2 drops per
americanum                                nostril.
Mill.

Solanum                1/2 kg of Chuno de Papa in 1/2 L of water. Add
tuberosum L.          Chancaca, Angamacha, Valeriana Estrella and boil
                       for 10 to 15 minutes or until the starch comes
                       out. Remove it from the flame. Serve hot as a
                     pudding or a candy 3 times a day for 2 days within
                     10 days of the baby's birth. The preparation makes
                     a kind of candy and should be served hot. Oral it
                     while blowing on it because it should be consumed
                      freshly cooked. Take the last dose in bed so not
                                 to go outside in the cold.

TILIACEAE

Tilia                  Boil 1 L of water, then add 10g of Sauco. Add
platyphyllos            Manzanilla, Hinojo, Coleo, Ajenjo, Toronjil,
Scop.                 Pimpinela and Claveles. Cover and let it sit for
                      2-3 minutes. Patient should drink warm solution,
                               3-4 cups per day for 1 month.

ULMACEAE

Celtis loxense          Add plant material, Palo Sangre, Chuchuasi,
C.C. Berg             Huanaco, Huevo Angelote, Pacra, Pollen, Miel de
                      Palo, Honey, Chuchuwasi, Cascarilla and Huanarpo
                     Macho into a mixture with 1 bottle of Abuelo wine
                       or Tequila. Let mixture sit for 1 week. Drink
                        cold, 1 small wine glass 3 times a day until
                         bottle is finished. Patient can repeat the
                                         treatment.

VERBENACEAE

Clerodendron sp.     1 L of water and add 10 g of the herb. Boil for 3
                     to 5 minutes. Can be mixed with 10 g of Huamanripa
                       and Veronica. Drink 1 cup 3 times a day for 2
                      weeks. Toz Ferina indicates a condition, where a
                       baby can't breathe and turns blue and makes a
                                   "rooster like" noise.

Lantana                 20-100 g per 1 L water, boil 3 min. mix with
scabiosaefolia       Canchalagua, Culantrillo, Purenrosa, Panisara, and
H.B.K.                Salvia Real. 1 L per day, 3 days. Patient should
                      drink lukewarm solution. This treatment is only
                                         for women.

Lippia                     5 g per 1L water, 1 L daily, 1 month.
integrifolia
(Grieseb.)
Hieron

Verbena               Boil 30 g per 1 L for 3 min., mix with Cerraja,
littoralis           Moradilla, and Verdolaga. 2 glasses per day for 4
H.B.K.                days. Take one in the morning and one at night.

VITACEAE

Vitis vinifera        Add 1-2 L of fresh milk with 10 g of dried grape
L.                   (raisin). Boil the mixture for 3-4 minutes. Drink
                       hot. Take 1 glass, 3 times a day for 2 weeks.

ZINGIBERACEAE

Zingiber               Cut Kion into small pieces. Add 10 g of this,
officinale           along with Matico, Nogal and Veronica. Boil in 1/
Roscoe                 2 L of water. Take 1 cup, 3 times a day for 1
                                           week.

NON PLANT MATERIAL

                     Insect larvae bore into the root of the tree. Use
                      the feces of the larvae ('pollen'). 4 g per 1 L
                     water. Is very strong, so use a small amount. 1 L
                                       daily, 1 month

Family/Genus/
Species                         Use                     Coll. #

ACANTHACEAE

Aphelandra                  Bronchitis                   ISA40
cirsioides
Lindau

AMARANTHACEAE

Alternanthera           Bronchitis, Asthma        RBU/PL275, JULS11,
brasiliana (L.)                                     EHCHL78, ISA83
Kuntze

ANACARDIACEAE

Mangifera               Bronchitis, Colds,               GER49
indica L.              Inflammation (chest)

Schinus molle        Bronchitis, Cough, Cold,     EHCHL123, JULS196,
L.                            Chills                     GER13

APIACEAE

Apium                       Bronchitis          JULS21, ISA79, ISA116,
graveolens L.                                          EHCHL106

ASPHODELACEAE

Aloe vera (L.)       Cough, Bronchitis, Asthma      JULS274, GER22,
Burm f.                                            EHCHL165, VFCHL10

ASTERACEAE

Acmella cf.               Cold with high                 GER7
ciliata                        mucus
(H.B.K.) Cas.

Ambrosia              Bronchitis, Colds womb    JULS108, TRUBH18, RBU/
peruviana                                       PL370, TRUBH15, JULS90,
Willd.                                               GER9, GER110

Chuquiragua          Cough, Bronchitis, Asthma     JULS99, EHCHL131
weberbaueri
Tovar

Clibadium cf.                  Cold                     EHCHL80
sylvestre
(Aubl.) Baill.

Cronquistianthus     Cough, Bronchitis, Cold,    ISA5, JULS233, GER163
lavandulifolius      Asthma, Pulmonary disease
DC.

Diplostephium        Cold, Inflammation of the           GER5
gynoxyoides                    lungs
Cuatr.

Eupatorium           Cough, Bronchitis, Asthma    RBU/PL276, EHCHL164
gayanum Wedd.

Flaveria                 Cough, Bronchitis              JULS68
bidentis (L.)
Kuntze

Oritrophium             Asthma, Bronchitis,        JULS58, EHCHL126,
peruvianum                   Pneumonia             TRUBH29, TRUBH26,
(Lam.) Cuatrec.                                  ISA96, TRUVan/Erica2,
                                                        GER166

Perezia              Cough, Bronchitis, Asthma    RBU/PL323, JULS16,
multiflora (H.                                      EHCHL52, GER160
& B.) Lessing

Picrosia               Bronchitis, Pneumonia    EHCHL116, JULS6, GER21
longifolia D.
Don

Senecio              Bronchitis, Asthma, Cough   TRUBH8, JULS14, RBU/
canescens                                        PL322, EHCHL104, 24,
(H.B.K.)                                        ISA108, GER158, TRUVan/
Cuatrecasas                                            Erica12,

Senecio                 Bronchitis, Asthma,             JULS12
tephrosioides                Pneumonia
Turcz.

Tagetes                  Colds, Bronchitis              GER184
elliptica Sm.

Tagetes erecta                 Cough              EHCHL141, JULS156,
L.                                                      GER112

BETULACEAE

Alnus acuminata                Cold             ISA18, ISA17, RBU/PL292
H.B.K.

BIGNONIACEAE

Jacaranda               Cough, Bronchitis,             RBU/PL326
acutifolia H. &           Asthma, Phlegm
B.

BORAGINACEAE

Borrago              Bronchitis, Lungs, Cough,   ISA112, JULS24, RBU/
officinalis L.                 Cold                 PL300, EHCHL58

Cordia                      Bronchitis              ISA74, JULS281
alliodora (R. &
P.) Oken

BRASSICACEAE

Raphanus                    Bronchitis              JULS238, GER202
sativus L.

Rorippa                     Bronchitis            RBU/PL367, EHCHL25,
nasturtium-                                             JULS113
aquaticum (L.)
Hayek

BURSERACEAE

Bursera               Cough, Flu, Bronchitis,   ISA143, JULS210, GER34
graveolens                     Cold
(H.B.K.) Triana
& Planchon

CAPPARIDACEAE

Capparis             1. Bronchitis 2. Cold 3.        GER4, JULS250
crotonoides                    Colds
H.B.K.

CAPRIFOLIAEAE

Sambucus             1. Bronchitis, 2. Fright    EHCHL140, RBU/PL291,
peruviana              /Susto, Fever, Yellow    VFCHL44, ISA131, ISA87,
H.B.K.                 Fever 2. Cough, Cold        JULS246, EHCHL110

CHENOPODIACEAE

Chenopodium                    Cough             EHCHL112, RBU/PL280,
ambrosioides L.                                    EHCHL53, JULS206

CHLORANTHACEAE

Hedyosmum             Bronchitis, Cold, Cough     EHCHL147, RBU/PL377
racemosum (R. &
P.) G. Don.

CONVOLVULACEAE

Ipomoea                    Chills, Colds                GER222
pauciflora M.
Martens &
Galeotti

CYPERACEAE

Scirpus                        Colds                JULS111, GER169
californicus
(C.A. Meyer)
Steudel subsp.
tatora (Kunth)
T. Koyama

DIPSACACEAE

Scabiosa               Whooping cough, Cold,    JULS100, EHCHL111, RBU/
atropurpurea L.         Cough, Bronchitis,           PL372, ISA50
                         Compulsive cough

ERICACEAE

Gaultheria                  Bronchitis,                JULS288,
erecta Vent.                  Asthma                    JULS198

Gaultheria                     Cold,                   EHCHL57,
reticulata                  Bronchitics                JULS259,
H.B.K.                                                RBU/PL293,
                                                       EHCHL171,
                                                       EHCHL51,
                                                        GER81,
                                                        GER241,
                                                      GER57 GER57

ERYTHROXYLACEAE

Erythroxylon               Cold, Cough,                JULS144,
coca Lam.                  Inflammation              GER201 GER201
                           of the throat

FABACEAE

Dolichos lablab            Protects the                 GER235
L.                             lungs

Medicago sativa             Bronchitis                  JULS96,
L.                                                       GER42

Melilotus alba             Tuberculosis,                GER223
Medikus                       Colds,
                            Respiratory
                            infections

Myroxylon                  1. Bronchitis               JULS287,
balsamum (L.)              2. Bronchitis              RBU/PL382,
Harms.                       3. Cough,                 EHCHL151,
                            Bronchitis,                VFCHL46,
                              Asthma                     GER91

Prosopis               1. Cough, Bronchitis,         JULS97, GER8
pallida (H. &         Nutritional Supplement
B. ex Willd.)
H.B.K.

GERANIACEAE

Erodium                     Bronchitis               ISA110, ISA54
cicutarium (L.)           blood pressure
L'Herit.

JUGLANDACEAE

Juglans              Cough, Bronchitis, Asthma        RBU/PL273,
neotropica                                       ISA67, EHCHL4, ISA123
Diels

LAMIACEAE

Lavandula                      Cold                 GER113, JULS177
angustifolia
Miller

Lepechinia                  Bronchitis            RBU/PL303, VFCHL17,
meyenii                                                  ISA91
(Walpers)
Epling

Salvia discolor                Cough                    ISA93,
H.B.K.                                               ISA151(93a),
                                                         ISA25

Salvia                   Cough, Bronchitis              JULS241
officinalis L.

Salvia                     Cough, Asthma               RBU/PL318
sagitatta R. &
P.

Satureja                    Bronchitis,                 GER148,
pulchella                     Asthma                    JULS43
(H.B.K.)
Briquet

Stachys lanata              Bronchitis,                 JULS13
Jacq.                         Asthma

Thymus vulgaris                Cough                   EHCHL169
L.

LAURACEAE

Cinnamonum                  Bronchitis              JULS122, GER101
verum J. Presl.

LILIACEAE

Allium odorum            Bronchitis, Asthm          JULS129, GER36
L.

Allium sativum        Cough, Bronchitis, Cold        JULS92, GER37
L.

Dracaena             Cough, Bronchitis, Asthma         RBU/PL334
fragrans Ker
Gawl.

MALESHERBIACEAE

Malesherbia          Cold, Cough, Bronchitis,          EHCHL139
ardens Macbr.                 Asthma

MALVACEAE

Alcea rosea                    Cough                JULS78, JULS79
(L.) Cavanilles

Malva                   Cough, Bronchitis,              JULS189
parviflora L.           Coughing with blood

MORACEAE

Brosmium                    Bronchitis              JULS209, ISA49,
rubescens                                          EHCHL64, 62, RBU/
Taubert                                              PL311, GER86

MYRISTICACEAE

Myristica            Cough, Asthma, Bronchitis   RBU/PL385, EHCHL155,
fragrans L.                                         JULS292, GER197

MYRTACEAE

Eucalyptus                1. Bronchitis,            ISA130, JULS61,
globulus             Respiration, Cold, Cough,     VFCHL35, JULS153,
Labill.                Sinusitis, Asthma 2.         GER14, EHCHL12
                               Cold,

OLACACEAE

Heisteria                   Cold, Cough           RBU/PL287, JULS138,
acuminata (H. &                                         GER164
B.) Engler

ONAGRACEAE

Fuchsia                        Cold                   ISA82, ISA1
ayavacensis
H.B.K.

PHYTOLACCACEAE

Gallesia                Bronchitis, Asthma              GER116
integrifolia
(Spreng.)
Harms.

PIPERACEAE

Piper aduncum         1. Cold, Cough, Wounds,     VFCHL26, RBU/PL277,
L.                      Bronchitis, Chills,     TRUVan/Erica24, JULS15,
                          Tuberculosis 2.           GER141, JULS199
                     Bronchitis, Colic (women

Piper nigrum L.             Bronchitis                  JULS227

PLANTAGINACEAE

Plantago                 Cough, Bronchitis      JULS35, JULS86, GER133
linearis H.B.K.

Plantago major           Bronchitis, Cough         VFCHL50, EHCHL11,
L.                                                  TRUVan/Erica13

POACEAE

Cymbopogon               Cold, Cough, Flu          EHCHL16, VFCHL30,
citratus (DC.)                                      JULS181, GER25
Stapf.

Uncaria                 Bronchitis, Asthma        VFCHL11, RBU/PL263,
tomentosa                                         EHCHL103, JULS275,
(Willdenow ex                                           GER230
Roemer &
Schultes) DC.

Zea mays L.          Chills, Pain in the lungs  JULS69, JULS139, GER31,
                                                        GER186

RANUNCULACEAE

Laccopetalum            Cough, Bronchitis,       VFCHL53, GER162, RBU/
giganteum                Asthma, Flu, Cold          PL321, EHCHL42,
(Wedd.) Ulbrich                                        JULS284,

ROSACEAE

Rubus robustus           Cough, Bronchitis        EHCHL132(a), ISA41,
C. Presl.                                           ISA48, JULS47,
                                                      EHCHL132(b)

RUBIACEAE

Cinchona                 1. Cough 2. Colds        RBU/PL314, JULS127,
officinalis L.                                       ISA19, GER167

SALICACEAE

Salix chilensis                Colds            TRUBH25, JULS82, GER39
Molina

SCROPHULARIACEAE

Escobedia             Bronchitis, Pneumonia,            JULS110
grandiflora              Chills (general)
(L.f.) Kuntze

Galvesia             Cold, Bronchitis, Asthma      VFCHL37, JULS289
fruticosa J.
Gmelin

SOLANACEAE

Cestrum                  Cough, Bronchitis        JULS166, RBU/PL281,
auriculatum                                        EHCHL172, ISA122,
L'Herit                                            GER174, EHCHL102

Solanum                Sinusitis, Flu, Cold        EHCHL125, JULS76,
americanum                                      EHCHL87, GER85, GER159
Mill.

Solanum               Bronchitis, Respiratory      JULS140, JULS141
tuberosum L.                 problems

TILIACEAE

Tilia                       Cough, Cold                 JULS257
platyphyllos
Scop.

ULMACEAE

Celtis loxense              Bronchitis             JULS208, EHCHL65,
C.C. Berg                                             GER87, ISA7

VERBENACEAE

Clerodendron sp.        Bronchitis, Asthma,             JULS115
                          Whooping cough

Lantana                        Cold                  VFCHL51, GER6
scabiosaefolia
H.B.K.

Lippia                   Cold, Bronchitis               EHCHL76
integrifolia
(Grieseb.)
Hieron

Verbena                        Colds              RBU/PL369, JULS77,
littoralis                                         EHCHL69, VFCHL28,
H.B.K.                                                  GER138

VITACEAE

Vitis vinifera              Bronchitis                  JULS266
L.

ZINGIBERACEAE

Zingiber              Cold, Cough, Bronchitis       JULS237, GER206
officinale
Roscoe

NON PLANT MATERIAL

                        Bronchitis, Asthma,             ISA124
                           Tuberculosis


Acknowledgements

The presented study was financed through MIRT/MHIRT (Minority Health Disparity International Research and Training) a grant from the National Institutes of Health (Fund: 54112B MHIRT Program, Grant: G0000613). Fieldwork for this project was supported through the assistance of a large number of MIRT/MHIRT students and volunteers. Thanks to all of them. None of the work would have been possible without the invaluable collaboration of Douglas Sharon and our Peruvian colleagues, especially curanderas Julia Calderon, Isabel Chinguel, and Olinda Pintado, curanderos German Santisteban and Leoncio Carrion, and herbalists Manuel Bejarano, Elmer Cruz, and Ivan Cruz. Thanks also go to Eric Rodriguez (Herbarium Truxillense, HUT) and Abundio Sagastegui, Segundo Leiva, and Mario Zapata (Herbario Antenor Orrego, HAO) for the use of their facilities and their assistance in plant identification.

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Presentado: 01/06/2010

Aceptado: 22/11/2010

Publicado online: 21/01/2011

Rainer W. Bussmann * and Ashley Glenn

William L. Brown Center, Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166-0299, USA, Office phone: +1-314-577-9503, Fax: +1-314-577-0800.

Email Rainer Bussmann: rainer. bussmann@mobot.org,

* corresponding author
Table 1. Plants used for respiratory health in Northern Peru

Family                 Genera      Species         %

Asteraceae               13           15         16.50
Lamiaceae                6            8           8.80
Fabaceae                 5            5           5.50
Verbenaceae              4            4           4.40
Poaceae                  3            3           3.30
Liliaceae                2            3           3.30
Solanaceae               2            3           3.30
Anacardiaceae            2            2           2.20
Boraginaceae             2            2           2.20
Brassicaceae             2            2           2.20
Malvaceae                2            2           2.20
Scrophularaceae          2            2           2.20
Ericaceae                1            2           2.20
Piperaceae               1            2           2.20
Plantaginaceae           1            2           2.20
Acanthaceae              1            1           1.10
Amaranthaceae            1            1           1.10
Apiaceae                 1            1           1.10
Asphodelaceae            1            1           1.10
Betulaceae               1            1           1.10
Bignoniaceae             1            1           1.10
Burseraceae              1            1           1.10
Capparidaceae            1            1           1.10
Caprifoliaceae           1            1           1.10
Chenopodiaceae           1            1           1.10
Chloranthaceae           1            1           1.10
Convolvulaceae           1            1           1.10
Cyperaceae               1            1           1.10
Dipsacaceae              1            1           1.10
Erythroxylaceae          1            1           1.10
Geraniaceae              1            1           1.10
Juglandaceae             1            1           1.10
Lauraceae                1            1           1.10
Malesherbiaceae          1            1           1.10
Moraceae                 1            1           1.10
Myristicaceae            1            1           1.10
Myrtaceae                1            1           1.10
Olacaceae                1            1           1.10
Onagraceae               1            1           1.10
Phytolaccaceae           1            1           1.10
Ranunculaceae            1            1           1.10
Rosaceae                 1            1           1.10
Rubiaceae                1            1           1.10
Salicaceae               1            1           1.10
Tiliaceae                1            1           1.10
Ulmaceae                 1            1           1.10
Vitaceae                 1            1           1.10
Zingiberaceae            1            1           1.10
Non Plant Material       1            1           1.10

TOTAL                    82           91         100.10

Table 2. Comparison of respiratory treatments to the ten most
important plant families of the medicinal flora of Northern Peru
(after Bussmann & Sharon 2006)

     Plant used in               Medicinal Flora of
  respiratory treatments           Northern Peru

Family               %       Family               %

Asteraceae         16.67     Asteraceae         13.64
Fabaceae            5.56     Fabaceae            6.82
Lamiaceae           8.89     Lamiaceae           4.87
Solanaceae          3.33     Solanaceae          4.09
Euphorbiaceae        0       Euphorbiaceae       2.33
Poaceae             3.33     Poaceae             2.33
Apiaceae            1.11     Apiaceae            2.14
Lycopodiaceae        0       Lycopodiaceae       1.95
Cucurbitaceae        0       Cucurbitaceae       1.75
Rosaceae            1.11     Rosaceae            1.75

Table 3. Part of medicinal plant used in Peru for the treatment of
respiratory disorders.

Plant part           %        #

Leaves             27.69      36
Whole plant        18.46      24
Stems              17.69      23
Flowers            13.85      18
Seeds               6.15      8
Bark                5.38      7
Root                2.31      3
Fruit               2.31      3
Wood                1.54      2
Bulb                0.77      1
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