Plantas empleadas como combustible en el Espacio Natural de Arribes del Duero (Salamanca-Zamora, Espana).
The most widespread use of wood is as fuel. The domination of fire has been the basis of technological advances from the appearance of metallurgy until the present; accordingly, plant fuels are an essential energy resource for human communities, in particular in rural settings (Blanco 2000).
In the past, these natural resources were crucial for heating homes, for cooking and baking bread in distant Iberian rural areas, such as the Arribes del Duero--henceforth the ARD--(provinces of Salamanca and Zamora in western Spain), where it is still possible to see people in the streets carrying a manuzo (bundle/sheaf) of branches under their arms or putting hornija (wood or bundles of wood for heating ovens) in the woodshed.
Although the advent of butane gas and electricity has to a large extent replaced this traditional use of plants, there is a series of plant species whose use is essential (or has been in the recent past) for life in the ARD, since such plants serve to meet part of the basic needs of the inhabitants. As in neighbouring geographic areas (Blanco 1998, Blanco et al. 2000, Tapia Martin & Pierna Chamorro 2010), those most appreciated are chosen owing to a series of physical properties, in particular their calorific potential, and they have been exploited sustainably for centuries.
Thus, the aims of the present work were as follows: (i) to document and analyze the traditional knowledge and use of different plant species as a resource for setting home fires, for lighting, and as fuel for different purposes (hearths, ovens, forges, etc) and the elaboration of charcoal by people from the ARD; (ii) to contribute to the dissemination of the results within the scientific community in order to open a door to research in other disciplines; and (iii) to contribute to the knowledge and conservational possibilities of plant biodiversity, bearing in mind that biological diversity is also related to the use and applications of natural resources.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Study area. Although the works cited above include a broad description of the study area (e.g. Gonzalez et al. 2010, 2011), it is worth noting that the territory of the ARD forms the administrative border between Spain and Portugal along a stretch of some 120 km (40[grados]50'-41[grados]35' N, 6[grados]00'-6[grados]41'W; Fig. 1), and was declared a Natural Park in 2002 and is listed in the Sites of Community Importance proposed by Spain to become integrated in the European Natura 2000 network. It should also be noted that the peculiar climatology of the area makes it a singular space on the Iberian Peninsula, with a mild mean annual temperature (mean 11[grados]C) and a relatively high precipitation (about 700 mm/year) (Calonge-Cano 1990). From the geomorphological point of view, the ARD is an extensive peneplain (plateau) featuring the deep valleys of the Duero river and its network of tributaries (call the "arribes"). The differences in altitude are seen in great plant diversity, characterized by the extensive abundance of typically Mediterranean plant species and crops that are not usually found at this latitude on the peneplain, such as olive groves, vineyards and almond trees (Amich et al. 2004, Santos et al. 2006, Amich & Bernardos 2008).
The economy is mainly based on the primary sector, livestock-raising being preponderant over crop-growing (Calabuig 2008), and the area is characterized by a strong demographic regression, which started half-way through the last century, with losses of almost 60% of the local population, a high ageing rate (almost 40% of people over 65) and a very low population density (8.6 inhabitants/[km.sup.2]) (Morales & Caballero 2003). This rural community has undergone changes in recent decades, although they have been very slow to take effect. People have subsisted under survival conditions, and for generations have only seen a few, and then slow, alterations to their customary way of life. Thus, many villages have taken a long time to climb out of a subsistence routine, which formerly allowed the inhabitants to generate almost everything necessary for their survival.
Methodology. The incidence and socio-economic context of the use of plants as fuel was studied as part of an ethnobotanical survey carried out in the ARD, conducted from 2005 to 2009. Key informants (80 people), with a sound traditional knowledge (TK) of useful plants, who were born in the region and long-time residents were interviewed. Ethnobotanical data were collected in 116 individual semi-structured interviews conducted with selected informants representing different social groups within the ARD rural community (44 men and 36 women; age range, 45-98 years; mean age, 72). They were from 18 localities shown in Fig. 1: 6 in the province of Zamora (localities 1-6) and 12 in the province of Salamanca (localities 7-18). Open questions were asked about the use of "fuel plants" to gain insight into past and present use.
In the analysis of the data we employed the index of cultural importance (CI) proposed by Tardio & Pardo-de-Santayana (2008), which allows the relative value of each useful plant species to be calculated. First we summed the use-reports (UR) of species s within a certain use-category ([u.sub.i]) for all the informants (from [i.sub.l] to [i.sub.N]), and divided this by the total number of informants (N). We then summed the previously calculated quotients for each use-category, from [u.sub.l] to [u.sub.NC]:
[CI.sub.s] = [[u.sub.NC].suma de (u=[u.sub.1])] [[i.sub.N].suma de (i=[i.sub.1])] [UR.sub.ui]/N
This varied between 0 and the total number of use-categories (NC), in this case 1.
To evaluate how informants' TK varied in relation to socio-demographic characteristics, we performed an Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA), taking "UR" as the variable to model (number of use-reports provided by each informant) and using the XLSTAT 2009 program. Likewise, as explanatory variables we took the two items of personal data requested: "age" and "gender" (qualitative values of m = male or f = female).
Regarding plant taxonomy and nomenclature we followed Flora iberica (Castroviejo 1986-2012) for the families included therein and Flora Europaea (Tutin et al. 1964-1993) for the remaining ones, except for Rhamnus lycioides subsp. laderoi Rivas Mart. & J. M. Pizarro in Intern. J. Geobot. Res. 1: 58. 2011. Voucher specimens were deposited at SALA, the Herbarium of the Salamanca University, Spain. In the case of some species for which no voucher was available, a digital photography number (PHO) is included.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The inhabitants of the ARD, use, or have used in the recent past, 39 vascular plants (included in 19 botanical families) as fuel. Table 1 lists the plant species cited by at least three informants and includes core ethnobotanical information about these useful plants. Most of the species cited are ligneous plants (34 species, 87% of the total). The taxa obtained were mainly wild (87%) and comprised approximately 3.5% of the ca. 1,100 species of vascular plants known in the territory of the ARD.
Among the botanical families best represented in the study are Fabaceae, with 7 species (18%), Cistaceae, with 5 species (13%), and Fagaceae, with 4 species (10%); representing a total of 41%. The two most important taxa within the TK of the ARD are Quercus ilex L. subsp. ballota (Desf.) Samp. (Cl=0.90) and Cytisus multiflorus (L'Her.) Sweet (Cl=0.84). Another seven species also had a value equal to or higher than 0.50 for the Cl: that is, they were mentioned by at least half of the informants (Fig. 2).
The informants interviewed provided a total of 945 UR (average 12 UR/informant; max. = 29). The results of the exploratory analysis conducted regarding the TK amassed by the different informants in terms of their characteristics show that 43% of the variability of the TK can be explained in terms of age and gender ([R.sup.2] adj. = 0.435). The remaining variability was due to certain effects (other explanatory variables) that were not or could not be measured during the study. Attending to the Analysis of Variance results, it may be concluded with a certain degree of confidence that the two explanatory variables do bring a significant amount of information to the model ([F.sub.2,]77 =31.404, P < 0.0001, confidence interval = 95%). Table 2 gives details of the model. Only the age parameter was found to have a significant effect. According to our data, women provided less information than men in this particular study. These data are consistent with those obtained in studies addressing the consumption of edible wild plants and the use of certain plants for industrial and artisanal purposes (Gonzalez et al. 2011, Gonzalez & Amich 2012). We believe that some socioeconomic effects might be involved.
Setting fires (twigs and tinder). To set fires at home, as well as newspaper or cardboard the inhabitants hoard twigs or the branches of certain bushes able to catch fire easily. The species most appreciated are broom (Cytisus sp. pl.), and in all localities studied it is used to light fires, and gum rockrose (Cistus ladanifer L.), whose stems, branches and even the whole plant have been used to light hearth fires. To kindle fires, other species of importance such as the bushes known locally as ardevieja (Halimium umbellatum subsp. viscosum (Willk.) O. Bolos & Vigo, and Echinospartum ibericum Rivas Mart., Sanchez Mata & Sancho). They would be gathered once dry; hence the term "arde cuando esta vieja" (lit.: "she burns when she's old"). Tinder (yesca) refers to the flammable material that has traditionally been used to set hearth fires. It consists of a bundle of dry vegetable fibres that catch fire easily upon contact with sparks generated by hitting two stones together or striking flint against iron. In the ARD we documented the use of the small bush Phagnalon saxatile (L.) Cass, which is abundant on sunny walls and rocky places; this was dried and beaten flat; of Helichrysum stoechas (L.) Moench and poplar marrow (Populus nigra L.). Informants who had been shepherds (now retired) used to use the dry stems of Ferula communis L. to light fires outdoors when there was a lot of wind and keep them burning when it was raining.
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
Wood (hearths, ovens, etc). Traditionally, the main combustible element has been wood, which is abundant in the ARD, where the inhabitants have used both the sub-products of forest clearing and the wood from trees used specifically for such purposes. To heat bread ovens, both in baker's shops and in homes in which there was a family oven, bushy species with good combustion properties were used; that is the different species of Cistaceae and Fabaceae documented and Osyris alba L. All these plants were collected daily. Once the oven had acquired the right temperature the ash was swept out and the dough was placed in the oven. Sometimes, the small branches of certain arboreal species were used for such purposes; for example, twigs from Quercus faginea Lam. or Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. Also of cultural importance in the ARD community is the use of broom and piorno (Genista hystrix Lange) as fuel for heating the winepress and for heating stills, a popular way used to obtain home-made aguardiente (similar to Italian grappa). To combat the rigours of winter it used to be essential to have wood for home heating. Some types of wood have considerable calorific potential (oak, holm-oak, etc) and are hence those most appreciated. Holm-oak wood (Q. ilex subsp. ballota) is very much appreciated and considered to be the best. Other tree species that provide "good quality wood" are: Quercus suber L., Celtis australis L., Ulmus minor Mill., Pistacia terebinthus L. and Arbutus unedo L. Sometimes the inhabitants of the ARD used the wood of Rhamnus lycioides subsp. laderoi and Phillyrea angustifolia L.
Land use is distributed in concentric bands around the various localities. The closest to these are vegetable-growing plots and cortinas (enclosed areas devoted to the cultivation of forage plants), which form a mosaic of privately owned plots. The second band comprises the tierras, or open communal fields or meadows for public use, whose right to exploitation is decided on by drawing lots. Finally there is the monte, for use by all of the inhabitants, and, on flatter lands there are the dehesas, which are private properties located at the limits of the municipal territory where free-range livestock-raising is the norm (Prada Llorente 2005, Garcia Feced et al. 2007). The monte (~woodland) is used in common by the inhabitants. Its legal status is defined as "a public utility possession" and has been used by the community since time immemorial. The wood of different species is distributed among inhabitants based on different lots. Cutting firewood, once sorted into equally among all residents of the settlement or houses, is the responsibility of each resident (Prada Llorente 2005).
Pine wood was and still is used in the ARD for almost everything. However it does not have such an important use as in other parts of central-western Spain (see Blanco 1998, Blanco et al. 2007). As fuel, the wood from Pinus halepensis Mill. and P pinaster Aiton has been used, but only locally. A group of bushes such as Cytisus multiflorus, C. scoparius (L.) Link, Cistus ladanifer, Genista hystrix or Echinospartum ibericum used to be employed as the major source of heating when better quality wood was scarce. Some species such as Spanish white broom (C. multiflorus), which is very abundant thanks to territorial management, used to be very scarce. A few years ago it was extremely difficult to find patches of broom and when they were present they were protected as a valuable piece of property and as an important resource for many different purposes. This led to swapping in some villages where these bushes were gathered to exchange them, for example at the baker's. However, they also involved disputes and even theft.
As a fuel for heaters, what is known as brujo is used. Brujo refers to the residues of olives after pressing them for oil (this source is available in large amounts). Also used are pinecones from Pinus pinea L. and the woody parts (endocarp) of almonds. It is worth noting, from the social point of view, the extended use of certain plant elements to obtain embers with which to roast meat: in particular a favourite element is the wood obtained from pruning olive trees (Olea europaea L.) and cutting back old vines and their shoots (Vitis vinifera L.).
Lighting. Fire, as well as being a source of heat, also provides light and, although a long time ago, it was a basic means to gain access to light at night-time. Some plants served to provide lighting and as a source of fire for setting other objects alight. Thus, the dry stems of Asphodelus albus Mill. were used to light candles or as torches to transport fire, since they burn easily and are consumed very slowly. In the kitchens of some localities the inhabitants of the ARD used to use branches of Juniperus oxyedrus L.
Charcoal. Until a few years ago, the elaboration of charcoal from wood was a generalized practice throughout the ARD territory. As in other rural zones of Spain (see Marcos Martin 1989), the process essentially consists of an incomplete combustion of wood, which turns into a much lighter combustible material with very high calorific potential. The types of wood valued for making charcoal vary, but basically holm-oak and oak Quercus pyrenaica are used, which on the peneplain are often found forming dehesas--savannah-like grasslands with occasional stands of trees--(Santos et al. 2006, Garcia Feced et al. 2007, Calabuig 2008). In these cases, their cover has a rounded crown, not very tall, shaped through human intervention, which involves the pruning of large branches every 10 or 12 years. These are used to make the charcoal, leaving a few main branches on the trees, which every 3 or 4 years are pruned and the chupones (shoots from the roots) are removed, together with the thinner branches (Tapia Martin & Pierna Chamorro 2010). To a lesser extent, wood from Q. faginea has been used, and in the villages where Celtis australis was abundant in the past the inhabitants used to make an excellent charcoal out of this species. Strawberry tree wood was used to obtain a highly calorific charcoal for use in forges. The thinner twigs and branches are used to make cisco, a fine charcoal mainly used in braseros (flat braziers fitted under the skirts of a (generally) round table). The plant most valued for this is Cistus ladanifer, whose charcoal reaches very high temperatures and a better yield is obtained with this species than with others using the same amount of source wood (Gallego & Gallego 2008). In the past, cisco was also made from other species of rockrose, in particular Cistus albidus L., C. populifolius L. and C. salviifolius L., and by burning thin branches of holm-oak and oaks, branches of Crataegus monogyna Jacq., of espino negro (Rhamnus lycioides subsp. laderoi), of Pistacia terebinthus; and even the thicker branches of bramble (Rubus ulmifolius Schott s.l.).
Other uses. Regarding the plant-derived fuels used in the ARD, here we wish to mention the use of different species to singe the bristles of pigs during the traditional matanza (home slaughter), although this is becoming increasing less frequent owing to the widespread use of butane torches and also the gradual abandonment of the laborious process slaughtering pigs at home. Rye straw (Secale cereale L.), the dry fronds of Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn and, to a lesser extent, the dry aerial parts of Chondrilla juncea L. are strewn in bundles over the carcass and set alight, thus singeing away the bristles. Another method used is to cover the carcass with broom branches or piornos and then set them alight. Finally, Helichrysum stoechas is still used by some beekeepers in the ARD to obtain smoke to make bees drowsy when their hives are being attended to.
Wood is one of the best fuels; it is the most natural one and has traditionally been used by humans. In recent years, it has been replaced by fossil fuels (heating oil, natural gas, butane, etc). However, we must be aware that these are non-renewable resources, such that sooner or later (depending on the different studies) they will run out. By contrast, wood, and plant resources in general, only require years to be renewed. Taking as a model the TK of the inhabitants of the ARD, a good idea would be the return to the use and exploitation of wood as a natural resource, for example as fuel for heating. In all cases (studied here), the land was exploited sustainably owing to the need the preserve it usefulness in the medium- and long-term.
We are grateful to all people interviewed in this study.
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Jose Antonio Gonzalez, Menica Garcia-Barriuso, Ruben Ramirez-Rodriguez, Sonia Bernardos and Francisco Amich (1)
(1) Duero-Douro Ethnobiological Resources Investigation Group (GRIRED), University of Salamanca, E-37071 Salamanca, Spain. email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
Recibido: 2 octubre 2012. Aceptado: 19 octubre 2012.
Table 1 Vascular plants reported as fuel in the rural community of the Arribes del Duero (W Spain). (1) Status: W: wild (including naturalized); C: cultivated. FC: frequency of citation; Cl: cultural importance index Families and Status Local name species (voucher or (1) digital photograph number) PTERIDOPSIDA (= FILICOPSIDA) Hypolepydaceae Pteridium aquilinum W Helecho, fenecho, (L.) Kuhn in Kerst jenecho (SALA 15601) CONIFEROPSIDA Cupressaceae Juniperus oxycedrus L. W Enebro, nebro, (SALA 102358) jimbro, jimbrio, jimbre, jumbrio, joimbre, joimbrero, enjumbre, enjumbrio Pinaceae Pinus sp. pi. (P. hadepensis C Pino, pinal Mill., P. pinaster Aiton, P. pinea L.) (e.g., SALA 16167) MAGNOLIOPSIDA Anacardiaceae Pistacia terebinthus W Cornicabra, cuemicabra, L. (SALA 17395) comipedrera, comapedrera, cuernas, jediguera, jidiguera, fidiguera, geriguera, geregosera, fedegosa Apiaceae Ferula communis W Canaleja, canaheja, L. (SALA 41179) canajeja, cana tufona, cana de burro Asteraceae Chondrilla juncea W Ajunjera, aj injera, L. (PHO 47) ajonjera, ajujera, jinjerina, jinjerinas, gengerinas, baleo, balaguera, baleguera, baliadera, baleras Helichrysum stoechas W Manzanilla fina, (L.) Moench manzanilla real, (SALA 17069) tomilleja, meaperros, siempreviva, flor de San Juan, perpetua Phagnalon saxatile W Yesca, hierba de la (L.) Cass yesca, hierba de la (SALA 15200) mecha, diezca Cistaceae Cistus albidus W Jara blanca, ardivieja L. (SALA 16886) Cistus ladanifer W Jara, jara pringosa, L. (SALA 18145) jara negra Cistuspopulifolius W Jara macho, jara cerval L. (SALA 16888) Cistus salviifolius W Revieja, jarilla, L. (SALA 16891) jaguarzo morisco Halimium umbellatum Ardevieja, ardivieja, subsp. Viscosum W chaguarzo, chaguazo, (Willk.) 0. Bolos & chagarzo, jaguarzo, Vigo (SALA 18149) jaguarcio, faguarcio, Jarilla Ericaceae Arbutus unedo W Madrono, madronera, L. (SALA 16324) madronal Fabaceae Adenocarpus W Codeso, escoba, complicatus (L.) escobajo J. Gay in Durieu (SALA 19094) Cytisus multiflorus W Escoba blanca (L'Her.) Sweet (SALA 19214) Cytisus scoparius W Escoba negra, escoba (L.) Link verde, escoba (SALA 19202) rubia, escoba tamariz, escoba bermeja, retama negra Cytisus striatus W Escoba amarilla, (Hill) Rothm. escobon, piorno (SALA 16667) Echinospartum ibericum W Ardevieja, ardivieja, Rivas Mart., cambrion, cambronera, Sanchez Mata & escambrion, piorno, Sancho (SALA 19135) bolaga Genista hystrix W Piorno, bolaga, aliaga, Lange (SALA 19033) abrojo, escobajos Retama sphaerocarpa W Retama, piorno blanco, (L.) Boiss. tamariz (SALA 16638) Fagaceae Querais faginea W Quejigo, cajigo, roble Lam. (SALA 16309) Querais ilex L. W Encina, ancina, subsp. Ballota carrasco, carrasca (Desf.) Samp. (SALA 16331) Querais pyrenaica W Roble, rebollo, Willd. (PHO 4) melojo, roble marojo Querais suber W Alcornoque, corchero, L. (SALA 17519) sobrero, sobreiro, jebrero, jebrera, zofrero, zufreiro Oleaceae Fraxinus angustifolia W Fresno, freixo NM (SALA 17874) Olea europaea C(W) Olivo, oliva, L. (SALA 17872) olivera Phillyrea angustifolia W Olivilla, labiernago L. (SALA 17870) Rhamnaceae Rhamnus lycioides W subsp. Laderoi Rivas Espinera negro Mart. & J.M. Pizarro (SALA 76319) Rosaceae Crataegus monogyna W Espino, espinero, Jacq. (SALA 15394) espinera, espino albar, majuelo, escambrion, galapero Prunus dulcis (Mill.) C Almendro, almendral, D. A. Webb almendrera (SALA 15392) Rubus ulmifolius W Zarza, zarzal, Schott s. 1. zarcera, zarzamora (SALA 17950) Salicaceae Populus nigra W Chopo, chopa, chopo L. (PHO 211) del pais Santalaceae Osyris alba W Punteros, escoba L. (SALA 15864) barredera, escoba rubial pequena, retama loca Ulmaceae Celtis australis L. W Hojaranzo, ojaranzo, (SALA 134759) jaranzo, lodon, lodonero, dolonero, almez Ulmus minor W Negrillo, olmo Mill. (PHO 70) Vitaceae Vitis vinifera L. C Vid, parra (PHO 13 /15) LILIOPSIDA Liliaceae Asphodelus albus W Gamon, gamona, Mill. (SALA 17696) gamonita, gamoneto Poaceae Recale cereale C Centeno L. (PHO 92) Families and Part used FC Cl species (voucher or digital photograph number) PTERIDOPSIDA (= FILICOPSIDA) Hypolepydaceae Pteridium aquilinum Frond 34 0.42 (L.) Kuhn in Kerst (SALA 15601) CONIFEROPSIDA Cupressaceae Juniperus oxycedrus L. (SALA 102358) Branch 5 0.06 Pinaceae Pinus sp. pi. (P. hadepensis Wood, female Mill., P. pinaster inflorescence 10 0.12 Aiton, P. pinea L.) (e.g., SALA 16167) MAGNOLIOPSIDA Anacardiaceae Pistacia terebinthus L. (SALA 17395) Wood, branch 11 0.14 Apiaceae Ferula communis L. (SALA 41179) Stem (dried) 4 0.05 Asteraceae Chondrilla juncea L. (PHO 47) Aerial part 10 0.12 Helichrysum stoechas (L.) Moench Branch 14 0.17 (SALA 17069) Phagnalon saxatile Aerial part 33 0.41 (L.) Cass (dried) (SALA 15200) Cistaceae Cistus albidus Branch 10 0.12 L. (SALA 16886) Cistus ladanifer Stem, branch 34 0.42 L. (SALA 18145) Cistuspopulifolius Branch 5 0.06 L. (SALA 16888) Cistus salviifolius Branch 43 0.54 L. (SALA 16891) Halimium umbellatum subsp. Viscosum Branch 47 0.59 (Willk.) 0. Bolos & Vigo (SALA 18149) Ericaceae Arbutus unedo Wood 17 0.21 L. (SALA 16324) Fabaceae Adenocarpus Branch 9 0.11 complicatus (L.) J. Gay in Durieu (SALA 19094) Cytisus multiflorus Branch 67 0.84 (L'Her.) Sweet (SALA 19214) Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link Branch 48 0.60 (SALA 19202) Cytisus striatus Branch 20 0.25 (Hill) Rothm. (SALA 16667) Echinospartum ibericum Rivas Mart., Sanchez Mata & Stem, branch 12 0.15 Sancho (SALA 19135) Genista hystrix Branch 38 0.47 Lange (SALA 19033) Retama sphaerocarpa Branch 10 0.12 (L.) Boiss. (SALA 16638) Fagaceae Querais faginea Wood, branch, 26 0.32 Lam. (SALA 16309) twig Querais ilex L. Wood, branch, 72 0.90 subsp. Ballota twig (Desf.) Samp. (SALA 16331) Querais pyrenaica Wood, branch, 51 0.64 Willd. (PHO 4) twig Querais suber L. (SALA 17519) Wood 22 0.27 Oleaceae Fraxinus angustifolia Wood, twig, 3 0.04 NM (SALA 17874) branch Olea europaea Branch, young L. (SALA 17872) shoot, 31 0.39 fruits (waste) Phillyrea angustifolia Branch 21 0.26 L. (SALA 17870) Rhamnaceae Rhamnus lycioides subsp. Laderoi Rivas Branch 3 0.04 Mart. & J.M. Pizarro (SALA 76319) Rosaceae Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (SALA 15394) Wood 6 0.07 Prunus dulcis (Mill.) Fruit 38 0.47 D. A. Webb (endocarp) (SALA 15392) Rubus ulmifolius Branch 3 0.04 Schott s. 1. (SALA 17950) Salicaceae Populus nigra Marrow 9 0.11 L. (PHO 211) Santalaceae Osyris alba Branch 8 0.10 L. (SALA 15864) Ulmaceae Celtis australis L. (SALA 134759) Wood, branch 14 0.17 Ulmus minor Wood, branch 16 0.20 Mill. (PHO 70) Vitaceae Vitis vinifera L. Stem, branch 40 0.50 (PHO 13 /15) LILIOPSIDA Liliaceae Asphodelus albus Stem 40 0.50 Mill. (SALA 17696) Poaceae Recale cereale Stem (straw) 61 0.76 L. (PHO 92) Table 2 ANCOVA results for the traditional ecological knowledge and model parameters Parameter Value SD Student's t Pr > t Intercept -18.547 3.868 -4.795 <0.0001 Age 0.414 0.053 7.828 <0.0001 Gender-m 1.409 1.074 1.312 0.1930 Gender-f 0.000 0.000 -- --
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|Author:||Antonio Gonzalez, Jose; Garcia-Barriuso, Monica; Ramirez-Rodriguez, Ruben; Bernardos, Sonia; Amich,|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2013|
|Previous Article:||Analisis palinologico de mieles comerciales monoflorales.|
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