Plant-available manganese in bauxite residue sand amended with compost and residue mud.
Processing bauxite produces about 2 tonnes of caustic residue for every 3 tonnes of ore. Unlike other refineries, those operated by Alcoa of Australia (Alcoa) separate residue into coarse (>150 [micro]m) and fine (<150 [micro]m) fractions. The coarse fraction (residue sand) is used to form outer embankments to contain the fine (red mud) fraction in residue storage areas and it is the residue sand on which revegetation takes place. Rehabilitation of the outer residue sand embankments plays a key role in progressive closure of Alcoa's residue storage areas. However, establishing and maintaining a vegetation cover is restricted by the inherent highly alkaline, saline and sodic nature of residue sand.
This restriction is further compounded by the poor nutrient availability, and poor water-holding properties, of residue sand (Chen et al. 2010a, 2010b; Jones et al. 2010; Phillips and Chen 2010). Incorporation of organic amendments (biosolids, spent mushroom compost, green waste compost, and green waste-derived biochar) or fine-textured materials (residue mud, natural clay, and fly ash) has been found to increase the nutrient availability and water-holding capacity of residue sand, thereby improving its potential as a plant growth medium (Courtney et al. 2003, 2009; Courtney and Timpson 2005; Jones et al. 2010). Jones et al. (2010) found that the addition of residue mud to residue sand increased exchangeable sodium (Na), exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), pH, and the bicarbonate (HCO3) and Na concentrations of saturation paste extracts, while the addition of biosolids and poultry manure increased concentrations of extractable phosphorus (P), ammonium (NH4+), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), and iron (Fe).
Despite large inputs of Mn fertiliser, plants grown in residue sand often display Mn disorders (Gherardi and Rengel 2001, 2003; Thiyagarajan et al. 2009; Anderson et al. 2011). The adsorption characteristics of residue sand are dominated by Fe and aluminium (A1) oxides and hydrous oxides (Menzies et al. 2009; Thiyagarajan et al. 2009; Jones et al. 2010; Phillips and Chen 2010). These oxyhydroxides are well known to adsorb large quantities of multivalent cations such as Mn (Kinniburgh et al. 1976), particularly at high pH which favours Mn oxidation to [Mn.sup.2+] (Bartlett 1988; Fuller et al. 1982). Increased Mn extractability in residue sand following organic amendment (Jones et al. 2010) suggests that a proportion of this metal may be redistributed to sorption sites that may be more available for plant uptake.
Single, targeted extractions often provide little information on metal ffactionation in soils and sediments, whereas sequential extraction procedures can reveal important information on metal dynamics and availability (Tessier et al. 1979). To date, reported fractionation studies using residue sand are scarce (P, Chen et al. 2010b; Zn, Thiyagarajan et al. 2011). In compost-amended residue sand, Zn has been found to exist predominantly in the organically bound and carbonate-bound fractions in leached columns of residue sand amended with residue mud (Thiyagarajan et al. 2011). However, it is not known whether Mn is associated preferentially with any particular chemical fraction in residue sand.
The aims of this study were to determine (1) the forms of Mn in residue sand amended with composts or residue mud, and (2) whether the addition of residue mud to residue sand affects leaching losses of resident Mn.
Materials and methods
Sampling locations and materials used
Samples of residue sand and residue mud were collected from Alcoa's Pinjarra Refinery in Western Australia ($32 38.143 E115 54.789). Residue sand was collected from a residue sand embankment that had received 200 t gypsum/ha (incorporated to 1 m depth) to reduce sodicity and alkalinity, and 2.7t inorganic (di-ammonium phosphate based) fertiliser/ha to improve nutrient levels. The fertiliser included a Mn addition of 15kg/ha as MnS[O.sub.4]. Samples of residue sand were transported to the laboratory, air-dried, and sieved (2 mm). Sieved material was bulked, thoroughly mixed, and stored in plastic bags before use. The effect of mixing residue sand with organic and inorganic amendments was investigated using two separate experiments. Organic amendments were studied under static (incubation) conditions, whereas inorganic amendments were studied under dynamic (leaching) conditions. Subsamples of residue mud were amended with either seawater or carbon dioxide (i.e. carbonated) as outlined in Carter et al. (2008). Following amendment, the residue mud samples were air-dried and the larger aggregates crushed before passing through a 2-mm sieve. Material <2mm in size was used for subsequent analyses.
Effect of organic amendments on Mn fractionation
The following composted organic amendments were used in this study: commercial compost, piggery waste compost, and biosolids compost. Commercial compost was obtained from Compost Australia Ltd, Mandurah, WA, Australia. Piggery amendment was prepared by mixing (w/w dry basis) piggery effluent (52.7%), green waste (16.6%), mulch (22.2%), and sawdust (8.5%). Biosolids amendment was prepared by mixing biosolids (52.7%), green waste (16.6%), mulch (22.2%), and sawdust (8.5%). The piggery and biosolids mixtures were each placed in a concrete bed 2 by 1 m, covered with a plastic tarpaulin, and allowed to thermocompost for 14 days. Each organic amendment was turned manually on alternate days to ensure oxygenation. After 14 days, subsamples were air-dried and ground, and the material passing through 2-mm sieve was retained for analysis.
Each organic amendment was mixed with 100 g of<2 mm, air-dry residue sand at a rate of 0, 10, or 50 g/kg. The organic-amended residue sand was then wetted up with triple-deionised water and incubated at field capacity. Samples of organic-amended residue sand were collected after 1, 7, 15, and 30 days of incubation. All treatments were prepared in triplicate.
At each sampling time, organic-amended residue sands were analysed for plant-available Mn using 0.005 M diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA--triethanolamine (TEA)--calcium chloride extractant (pH adjusted to 7.3) (Lindsay and Norvell 1978). Samples were also analysed using the sequential extraction procedure of Benitez and Dubois (1999). Briefly, this was as follows:
Mn fractions Procedure Step 1: Exchangeable 1 g residue sand, 10 mL of 0.5 M Mg[Cl.sub.2] (pH 7) shaken end-over-end for 90 min, and centrifuged at 1019G for 15 min Step 2: Carbonate- Residue from step 1, 10 mL of 1 m ammonium bound acetate (pH 5.0), shaken end-over-end for 90 min, and centrifuged at 1019G for 15 min Step 3: Organically Residue from step 2, 10 mL of 0.1 M sodium bound pyrophosphate, shaken end-over-end for 90 min, and centrifuged at 1019G for 15 min
Following each extraction step, the supernatant was decanted into a glass beaker, evaporated to near dryness, diluted with 1 M nitric acid, and filtered. Each filtrate was analysed for Mn using inductively coupled atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES).
Mn leaching study
Residue sand used in the leaching study was initially mixed with gypsum (2% w/w basis) and di-ammonium phosphate based fertiliser (equivalent on a surface-area basis to 2.7 t/ha to simulate field practice), and hereafter is referred to as amended residue sand. Leaching columns were packed using the following seven treatments: control (amended residue sand only), amended residue sand mixed with seawater-amended residue mud at rates of 3% and 8% (w/w dry basis), amended residue sand mixed with carbonated residue mud at rates of 3% and 8% (w/w dry basis), and amended residue sand mixed with unamended residue mud at rates of 3% and 8% (w/w dry basis).
Leaching columns were constructed using polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe (150 mm i.d. by 500 mm long). The base of the pipe was sealed with a PVC end cap, and a short length of polypropylene tube was inserted to provide a drainage outlet. Washed quartz sand (800 g graded from 1.4 to 2 mm) was placed in the base of each column to allow unimpeded drainage from the sand column. Approximately 12 kg of each treatment was packed into a PVC column to achieve a relatively uniform bulk density of 1350kg/[m.sup.3]. Each column was slowly wetted up to field capacity by incremental additions of 250 mL distilled water (over a 5-day period).
Columns were leached intermittently by slowly adding ~320-400 mL of distilled water every 3 days (equivalent to one-sixth of one pore volume (PV)). Between each leaching event, the tops of the columns were sealed with polyethylene sheets to limit evaporation loss. Each column was leached with 3 PV of distilled water over a total of 18 leaching events, after which the columns were sectioned. The residue sand columns were sectioned into depth increments 0-5, 5 15, and 25~40 cm, air-dried, and stored in sealed plastic bags before analysis. Samples for each treatment before leaching, and from the three depth intervals, were analysed for extractable Mn using 0.005M DTPA (pH adjusted to 7.3; Lindsay and Norvell 1978).
Exchangeable calcium (Ca) and Na were extracted using 0.1 M N[H.sub.4]Cl/0.1 M Ba[Cl.sub.2] by shaking end-over-end for 2h at a 1 : 10 soil: solution ratio (Rayment and Higginson 1992). Samples were pre-washed using 60% ethanol to remove the majority of the solution cations to minimise their impact on final exchangeable cation concentrations. Calcium and Na were measured using ICP-AES. Electrical conductivity (EC) and pH were measured in distilled water (1 : 5 solids : water ratio) after end-over-end shaking for 1 h (Rayment and Higginson 1992). Organic carbon (C) content was determined after removing inorganic C using digestion acid mixture ([H.sub.2]S[O.sub.4]:FeS[O.sub.4]) and later by wet combustion based on the Walkley-Black method (Rayment and Higginson 1992).
Treatment effects were examined using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and means compared by least significant difference (l.s.d. at P = 0.05) (Analytical Software 1994) Linear regression analysis was calculated using Microsoft Excel.
Selected properties of residue sand and amendments
Residue sand was highly alkaline (pH >10), highly saline (EC >3 dS/m), and highly sodic (ESP >60%), with negligible organic C (0.08%) (Table 1). Unamended residue mud was highly alkaline (pH 12), highly saline (EC >9.6dS/m), and highly sodic (ESP >90%), with an organic C content of ~0.38%. Compared with unamended residue mud, seawater amendment significantly (P=0.036) reduced pH (pH 8.5), calcium carbonate (4.8%), exchangeable Na (10.2cmol/kg), and ESP (74%), but significantly increased EC (24.2dS/m). With the exception of DTPA-Mn (critical level 1 mg/kg), levels of extractable Zn, Fe and Cu were close to, or exceeded, the critical levels quoted by Lindsay and Norvell (1978) of 0.8, 4.5, and 0.2mg/kg, respectively (Table 1). Similar findings have been reported by Menzies and Fulton (2004) for residue sand and residue mud from the Alcan Gove Alumina Refinery in northern Australia.
All three composted organic amendments exhibited slightly acidic to neutral pH (6.57-7.15) (Table 2). The EC in commercial compost was about three-fold that of both the piggery and biosolids composts (7 v. ~2 dS/m). Organic C content was highest in commercial compost and least in the piggery waste compost. The highest concentration of available Mn was found in compost (248 mg/kg), and this was nearly double that found in the piggery compost (145 mg/kg) and 8-fold that in the biosolids compost (Table 2).
Effect of incubation time on organic-amended residue sand properties
In the absence of organic amendment, residue sand pH displayed very little change with time of incubation, remaining relatively stable at pH 10 (Table 3). Organic amendment at rates of 10 and 50t/ha produced very small but significant decreases in pH relative to the control (i.e. 0t/ha). The greater decreases in pH were observed at the rate of 50t/ha, and the extent of change increased with time of incubation (P=0.036).
Organic amendment significantly (P=0.107) increased organic C levels of residue sand, and the magnitude increased with increasing rate of addition (Fig. 1). For example, compost added at rates of 0, 10, and 50 t/ha produced organic C contents of 0.23, 0.50, and 0.88%, respectively. The increase in organic C followed the order: commercial compost > biosolids compost > piggery compost.
Effect of organic amendments and incubation time on Mn fractionation
Organic amendment increased DTPA-Mn relative to unamended residue sand, and gcncrally followed the order: commercial compost > piggery compost > biosolids compost. For example, commercial compost applied at rates of 0, 10, and 50t/ha produced DTPA-Mn concentrations of 0.06, 0.25, and 0.88 mg/kg, respectively (Table 4).
There were no obvious trends in DTPA-Mn concentrations with time of incubation; biosolids compost showed increased concentrations, piggery compost decreased concentrations, whereas commercial compost produced very little change in DTPA-Mn. The fractionation scheme by Benitez and Dubois (1999) showed that for individual fractions (i.e. exchangeable, carbonate, and organically bound), Mn concentrations did not significantly change with time of incubation (Fig. 2b). Fractionation did, however, reveal two important findings. First, the concentrations of DTPA-Mn were similar to those of exchangeable Mn, and second, the greatest proportion of extracted Mn resided in the carbonate fraction of organically amended residue sand. Linear regression analysis between exchangeable Mn (Exch-Mn) and DTPA-Mn concentrations produced the following relationship: DTPA-Mn=0.931 x Exch-Mn + 0.358 ([r.sup.2] = 0.84). Manganese fractionation revealed that significantly more Mn resided in the carbonate fraction than any other fraction (Fig. 2a).
Effect of leaching on DTPA-Mn in residue mud amended residue sand
Prior to leaching, DTPA-Mn in unamended residue sand tended to decrease following residue mud amendment (Table 5). The only exception was observed for seawater-amended residue mud, which displayed an increase in DTPA-Mn (3% rate) or no significant change (8% rate).
After leaching, DTPA-Mn concentrations increased in all treatments at both the 0-5 and 25-40 cm depths; however, these increases were most pronounced in residue sand amended with carbonated residue mud and least in the seawater-amended and unamended treatments (Table 5). For example, DTPA-Mn in residue sand amended with 3% carbonated residue mud increased from 0.04mg/kg before leaching to 0.35mg/kg after leaching in the 0-5cm depth interval. In contrast, DTPA-Mn in residue sand amended with 3% unamended residue mud increased from 0.04mg/kg before leaching to 0.07mg/kg after leaching in the 0-5cm depth interval. Comparison of means (l.s.d. (P=0.05)=0.044) found no significant difference in Mn between depths, suggesting limited leaching of Mn within the residue sand columns. Moreover, despite the small decrease in pH, and the increase in DTPA-extractable Mn, levels remained after leaching <1 mg/kg. This finding is consistent with the low Mn concentrations expected in the pore-water of highly alkaline soil material (Adams 1965).
Limiting properties of residue sand with and without amendments
The chemical properties of residue sand were similar to those reported by Anderson et al. (2011) and Thiyagarajan et al. (2009). Compared with unamended residue mud, seawater amendment significantly (P<0.05) reduced the pH (pH 8.5); similar reductions in residue mud pH following seawater neutralisation have been reported by McConchie et al. (1999), Menzies and Fulton (2004), Carter et al. (2008), and Menzies et al. (2009). These results clearly demonstrate that, on its own, residue sand presents an extremely hostile environment to plant establishment and sustained growth, and amendments that improve the nutritional status of this material to adequate levels for plant growth are required.
Factors affecting Mn availability
The pore-water of residue sand contains very high concentrations of carbonate (C[O.sub.3.sup.2-]), HC[O.sub.3.sup.-], and hydroxides (O[H.sup.-]), depending on its age and weathering stage (Phillips and Chen 2010). Consequently, residue sand has significant buffering capacity against changes in pH. It is likely that the acidity associated with the added organic materials was insufficient to consume this alkalinity; hence, little to no change in pH may be expected, particularly at the lower rates of organic matter addition. In pH-dependent leaching tests (Carter et al. 2008), ~0.15 mol [H.sup.+]/kg was required to reduce residue sand pH from ~11 to near neutrality (I. R. Phillips, unpublished data).
The concentration of available Mn in soil is generally more dependent on pH than on any other factor (Adams 1965). As pH increases, Mn can form sparingly soluble Mn oxide minerals, resulting in a 100-fold decrease in Mn activity for each unit increase in pH. Thus, in alkaline residue sand, plant-available Mn is expected to be low, and this is supported by DTPA-Mn concentrations being less than the critical value of 1 mg/kg. Clearly, none of the composts which supplied Mn was able to maintain adequate Mn levels under the highly alkaline pH of residue sands (Table 4).
The magnitude of increases in organic C following organic amendment observed here are consistent with previous findings following addition of 100 [m.sup.3]/ha of composted manure to residue sand (0.56% organic C; Banning et al. 2011) and 40 and 80t/ha of biosolids (0.80 and 1.5%, respectively; Jones et al. 2010).The DTPA-TEA soil test provides a measure of Mn plant availability (Lindsay and Norvell 1978), and this form of Mn would most likely be associated with the pore-water (soluble forms which include free [Mn.sup.2+] or [Mn.sup.2+] complexed with organic and inorganic ligands) and the cation exchange sites of inorganic minerals and organic matter (Ritchie 1989).
These findings are therefore consistent with previous studies which concluded that plant-available Mn concentrations are often well correlated with those measured in the water-soluble and exchangeable fractions (Adams 1965). Only a small proportion of total soil Mn commonly exists in readily available forms, and although some Mn may occur complexed with organic matter, this association is often weak (Zheljazkov and Warman 2004). Organically bound Mn concentrations were significantly greater than those in the exchangeable fraction, but significantly lower than those in the carbonate fraction.
This may have occurred for the following reasons. First, residue sand contains large amounts of soluble C[O.sub.3.sup.2-] , HC[O.sub.3.sup.-] , and O[H.sup.-] ions, which can complex with Mn to reduce its availability (Gherardi and Rengel 2001). Second, the addition of Ca either with the organic amendment or in gypsum can form CaC[O.sub.3] minerals such as calcite and aragonite (Doner and Lynn 1989). Manganese cations ([Mn.sup.2+]) can be chemisorbed onto calcite surfaces (McBride 1979) and co-precipitated during calcite formation (Pingitore et al. 1988).
The decline in DTPA-Mn may be due to increased Mn adsorption sites introduced with the residue mud. Increased adsorption may result through reaction with hydrous Fe and A1 oxides and calcite (McBride 1979; Doye and Duchesne 2003). An increase in red mud addition to residue sand may also contribute decreased extractable Mn, especially with unamended and carbonated red mud additions.
Implications for overcoming Mn deficiency in vegetation
Even at the highest rate of application, concentrations of DTPA-Mn were still well below the critical levels quoted by Lindsay and Norvell (1978) of 1.0 mg kg. Similarly, even at 80t/ha, a range of organic amendments failed to increase extractable Mn to >1 mg/kg in residue sand (Jones et al. 2010). Only biosolids raised DTPA-extractable Mn to >1 mg/kg. However, no values for Mn content of the organic materials were reported by Jones et al. (2010), so it is not possible to determine whether the biosolids simply supplied much more Mn than amendments used in the present study or whether it was more effective in improving availability. The high pH of the residue sand can reduce Mn availability due to specific adsorption/precipitation reactions (Kinniburgh et al. 1976). Thus, at the pH of residue sand of [approximately equal to] pH 10, deficiencies of this and other micronutrients are not uncommon (Jones et al. 2010). Manganese availability can be a particular problem because the residue environment favours oxidation of [Mn.sup.2+] to insoluble [Mn.sup.4+] due to the presence of C[O.sub.3.sup.2-] /HC[O.sub.3.sup.-] in solution (Gherardi and Rengel 2001). Neither the addition of red mud of various types (unamended, carbonated, seawater-treated) nor the addition of composts was effective in raising the levels of exchangeable Mn or DTPA-Mn to values regarded as adequate for plant growth. However, there is evidence that DTPA-extractable Mn is not always a reliable test for plant-available Mn (Bell and Dell 2008), in part because plant species, and varieties within a species, can vary substantially in acquisition of soil Mn. When grown together on Mn-fertilised, revegetated bauxite sand, native plant species showed markedly different leaf Mn levels (Thiyagarajan et al. 2009). Acacia cyclops plants showed symptoms resembling Mn deficiency and contained low leaf Mn values. By contrast, on the same site Hardenbergia comptoniana and Eucalyptus gomphocephala exhibited vigorous growth and healthy green leaves with no symptoms resembling deficiencies and contained high Mn concentrations in recently matured leaves.
Hence, the lack of Mn deficiency in H. comptoniana and Grevillea crithmifolia suggests that a high level of Mn efficiency exists in these native species. Grevillea crithmifolia in particular contained very high leaf Mn concentrations. Since proteaceous species produce proteoid roots that mobilise nutrients such as Mn in the root-zone by organic acid secretion (Shane and Lambers 2005), this may explain the efficient acquisition of Mn by G. critmifolia when grown in residue sand. By contrast, A. cyclops appeared very susceptible to low Mn with possible Mn deficiency symptoms in phyllodes. Similarly, A. saligna had low leaf Mn levels when grown in residue sand with a range of residue mud amendments up to 20% (Anderson et al. 2011). Many Eucalyptus species are sensitive to Mn deficiency on alkaline soils, and leaf concentrations < 15-20 mg/kg dry weight are considered to be marginal for growth (Dell et al. 2001). This is consistent with the low leaf Mn concentrations detected in E. gomphocephala grown on residue sand (Thiyagarajan et al. 2009). Hence, there is increasing evidence that considerable variation in Mn acquisition exists among plant species on bauxite residue sand. Given the difficulty of increasing plant-available Mn by fertiliser application (Gherardi and Rengel 2001; Thiyagarajan et al. 2009), by organic amendments, or by mixing with treated and untreated residue mud (e.g. the present study), the selection of plants that are Mn-efficient and able to acquire Mn associated with the abundant carbonate or Fe/ A1 oxyhydroxide forms may be the best long-term strategy for overcoming Mn deficiency in bauxite residue. A similar strategy may also be productive for overcoming other micronutrient deficiencies that have been diagnosed on residue sand, such as Zn (Thiyagarajan et al. 2011).
Neither organic nor mineral amendment significantly increased Mn availability in residue sand, and concentrations were typically below the critical concentration of 1 mg/kg. In fact, incorporation of residue mud (unamended, seawater neutralised, or carbonated) tended to further reduce available Mn, and to limit any leaching in residue sand columns. This may be due to specific adsorption of Mn on hydrous Fe and AI oxyhydroxide surfaces and/or co-precipitation during calcite formation.
Extraction with DTPA was found to remove comparable amounts of Mn to that extracted from cation exchange sites. Both extractants may provide a reasonable estimate of plant-available Mn in residue sand, as found with naturally occurring soils. However, given the large proportion of Mn associated with carbonate in residue, selection of plant species with Mn efficiency traits that enable Mn acquisition from this fraction may be a better long-term solution to low levels of exchangeable Mn.
The authors acknowledge the support provided to the senior author for this study by the Australian Government through the Australian Leadership Award Fellowship and for the support provided by Alcoa, Australia.
Received 17 December 2011, accepted 21 June 2012, published online 15 August 2012
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Chitdeshwari Thiyagarajan (A,B,E), R. W. Bell (B,E), I. Anderson (B,C), and I. R. Phillips (D)
(A) Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India.
(B) School of Environmental Science, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia.
(C) Present address: Oceania Consulting, PO Box 462, Wembley, WA 6913, Australia.
(D) AIcoa of Australia, PO Box 1 72, Pinjarra, WA 6208, Australia.
(E) Corresponding authors. Emails: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
Table 1. Mean (n=4) for selected properties of unamended residue sand, and of unamended, seawater-amended, and carbonated residue mud EC, Electrical conductivity; ESP, exchangeable sodium percentage. Values in parentheses are standard error of the mean Property Residue sand Seawater- amended pH (1 :5 water) 10.3 (0.07) 8.5 (0.12) EC (1 : 5 extract, dS/m) 3.4 (0.05) 24.2 (0.50) Calcium carbonate (%) 0.7 (0.01) 4.8 (0.31) Organic carbon (%) 0.08 (0.00) 0.65 (0.03) Exchangeable Ca (cmol/kg) 6.6 (0.28) 17.9 (1.40) Exchangeable Na (cmol/kg) 2.6 (0.18) 10.2 (5.02) ESP (% of sum of cations) 60 (l.2) 74 (l.6) DTPA-Cu (mg/kg) 0.23 (0.09) 0.80 (0.01) DTPA-Zn (mg/kg) 2.53 (2.42) 0.47 (0.01) DTPA-Mn (mg/kg) 0.10 (0.00) 0.46 (0.32) DTPA-Fe (mg/kg) 4.22 (0.36) 9.11 (0.34) Hot boron (mg/kg) 0.10 (0.00) 11.2 (0.30) Residue mud Carbonated Unamended pH (1 :5 water) 10.6 (0.01) 12.0 (0.08) EC (1 : 5 extract, dS/m) 5.7 (0.27) 9.6 (0.26) Calcium carbonate (%) 11.3 (0.32) 8.3 (0.69) Organic carbon (%) 0.38 (0.01) 0.38 (0.04) Exchangeable Ca (cmol/kg) 6.7 (0.34) 18.6 (3.64) Exchangeable Na (cmol/kg) 33.8 (0.12) 26.8 (0.46) ESP (% of sum of cations) 96 (0.1) 90 (2.2) DTPA-Cu (mg/kg) 1.47 (0.08) 1.44 (0.14) DTPA-Zn (mg/kg) 0.29 (0.01) 0.25 (0.03) DTPA-Mn (mg/kg) 0.87 (0.13) 0.95 (0.02) DTPA-Fe (mg/kg) 11.4 (0.41) 23.2 (3.91) Hot boron (mg/kg) 1.07 (0.12) 1.70 (0.06) Table 2. Selected properties of the three organic amendments Property Composted organic amendments Piggery Biosolids Commercial pH (1 : 5 water) 7.15 6.67 6.57 EC (l : 5, dS/m) 1.99 2.27 6.96 Organic carbon (g/kg) 211 240 293 Zinc (mg/kg) 375 141 577 Iron (mg/kg) 5560 3670 2660 Manganese (mg/kg) 145 32.1 248 Copper (mg/kg) 44.1 168 103 Boron (mg/kg> 12.8 9.64 15.1 Table 3. Changes in the pH of organically amended residue sand over time Least significant difference (P=0.05)=0.036 Compost type Rate Days after incubation (t/ha) 1 7 15 30 Piggery 0 10.20 10.10 10.10 10.00 10 10.10 10.00 10.10 10.00 50 10.00 10.00 9.93 9.96 Biosolids 0 10.10 10.10 10.10 10.00 10 10.10 10.10 10.00 9.98 50 10.00 9.89 9.95 9.83 Commercial 0 10.20 10.10 10.10 10.00 10 10.00 10.10 10.00 10.00 50 10.00 9.92 9.96 9.95 Table 4. Mean Mn concentrations extracted using DTPA in the compost-amended residue sand Least significant difference (P=0.05)= 1.394 Compost type Rate Days after incubation (t/ha) 1 7 15 30 Piggery 0 0.06 0.07 0.11 0.09 10 0.17 0.21 0.17 0.16 50 0.63 0.60 0.55 0.54 Biosolids 0 0.05 0.08 0.09 0.09 10 0.11 0.12 0.12 0.14 50 0.38 0.28 0.29 0.30 Commercial 0 0.06 0.10 0.08 0.10 10 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.29 50 0.88 0.96 1.05 0.89 Table 5. Mean (n=4) DTPA-extractable Mn in residue mud (RM) amended residue sand (RS) before and after leaching with 18 pore volumes, sampled at 0-5 and 25-40 cm depths Values in parentheses are standard errors of the mean Residue sand No leaching After leaching treatments 0-5 cm 25-40 cm RS only 0.100 (0.015) 0.197 (0.093) 0.225 (0.069) RS +3% seawater RM 0.224 (0.077) 0.262 (0.064) 0.146 (0.055) RS +8% seawater RM 0.095 (0.005) 0.160 (0.015) 0.134 (0.034) RS +3% carbonated RM 0.042 (0.003) 0.347 (0.105) 0.188 (0.070) RS +8% carbonated RM 0.042 (0.004) 0.198 (0.064) 0.174 (0.068) RS +3% unamended RM 0.045 (0.005) 0.066 (0.031) 0.067 (0.019) RS +8% unamended RM 0.073 (0.025) 0.112 (0.041) 0.100 (0.051)
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|Author:||Thiyagarajan, Chitdeshwari; Bell, R.W.; Anderson, I.; Phillips, I.R.|
|Date:||Aug 1, 2012|
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