Plant items consumed by various tribal groups in Bangladesh during times of food scarcity.
Bangladesh is a small country but with a population surpassing 160 million people. More than a third of the total population has been estimated to be below the poverty level, i.e. having income of less than US$ 1 per day (Holmes et al. 2008). The poverty-stricken people often suffer from scarcity of food because they cannot afford the basic diet of most Bangladeshis, which consists of rice along with vegetables, lentils, fish and meat. These people, to satiate their hunger and meet their nutritional needs then has no recourse except to depend on both conventional (but consumed only occasionally) and non-conventional plant items, these items being most often wild plants or vegetables and tubers, which fetch a low price in the market because they are not in high demand among the affluent sections. Since death from food scarcity is generally considered to be absent in the country in recent decades, these non-conventional plants can be considered to meet the nutritional needs of the people suffering from food scarcity.
Bangladesh also has a large number of tribes and recent estimates put the tribal numbers as well above hundred. Most of these tribes are small and on the verge of disappearing because of their poor economic status or merging with the mainstream Bengali-speaking population. The poor economic status of many tribes is the result of a number of cumulative factors like deforestation and consequential loss of tribal habitat, encroachment on tribal lands by the mainstream population, building of industries and hydroelectric power stations on tribal lands, as well as bringing tribal lands into commercial cultivation by affluent sections of the population and conglomerates.
Sylhet Division of Bangladesh is in the northeast region of the country and has traditionally been a major tea-growing part of Bangladesh. The various tea estates of Sylhet Division and the districts forming the Division are hot spots of numerous small tribes, who having lost their ancestral homes for different reasons, have come and settled in the tea estates to work as agricultural laborers for plucking tea leaves. A number of these tribes have clans and sub-clans, each of whom forms distinct communities within the tea estates. The economic status of these tribal communities is poor because of disruption of their traditional lives and culture, their insistence on living apart from the mainstream population, and because of lack of education. Despite efforts from the Government, most children of these tribal communities lack education because children go to work with their parents to pluck tea leaves to augment the family income. The main diet of these tribal communities is rice, which is occasionally scarce because of lack of affordability. At the same time, loss of forest habitat deprives these people from their traditional sources of meat and fish. As a result, to meet their nutritional needs and to satiate their hunger, these tribal communities often has to survive on conventional but only occasionally consumed as well as non-conventional plant items collected from the wild or fallow regions, which items are consumed instead of rice.
Famine as well as scarcity of normal diet are not unique to Bangladesh, but are a daily occurrence in many parts of the world, the best example being sub-Saharan Africa. Such food scarcity can happen because of absence of cultivable soil or loss of grazing lands due to inclement weather. Under these conditions, many nomadic tribes of sub-Saharan Africa rely on wild plants for subsistence. The people of Western Sahel in Africa have been reported to depend upon a number of wild plants as their food source, and this dependency increases during shortages of staple diet under conditions like drought (Cook et al. 2000). Use of wild edible plants as dietary supplements and a means of survival during times of food shortages have been reported for the Kara and Kwego semi-pastoralist people in Lower Omo River Valley, Debub Omo Zone of Ethiopia (Teklehaymanot and Giday, 2010). Use of wild and cultivated plants as famine foods has been reported for people of Pemba Island, Zanzibar (Walsh, 2009). In several instances to be discussed later, it has been shown that the wild edible plants consumed during times of food scarcity, are more nutritive than the staple diet of these people.
Edible non-conventional plants also possess, besides nutritive values, the capacity of growing untended and under harsh soil or weather conditions. As such, with the world population at an alarmingly high level, it is time to nutritionally analyze these plant species, for they may serve to be valuable food sources for the future. Moreover, as mentioned earlier, they can be grown under conditions where the major food crops consumed by human beings at present cannot be cultivated. Towards that, we have previously documented a number of non-conventional items (mainly plants) consumed during times of food scarcity (Jahan et al. 2010; Biswas and Rahmatullah, 2011; Islam et al. 2011; Paul et al. 2011; Rahmatullah et al. 2011). The objective of the present study was to conduct a survey among various tribal groups and tribal clans working at two tea estates of Maulvibazar district to document their consumption pattern of plant parts during times of food scarcity.
Materials and Methods
The present survey was conducted among several tribes including Bagti, Rekmun, Mridha, Patromura, Pasi, Kurmi, Rikhaison, Dusadh, and Vogta tribes and several clans of the Telegu tribe, namely, Goala, Teli, Tati, Rajvor, Olmik, and Madraji clans working in two tea estates in Maulvibazar district. The two tea estates were, respectively, Kamalgang tea estate in Shamsernagar, Kamalganj and Chatlapur tea estate at Fulaura. During the course of an ethnomedicinal survey among these tribes and tribal clans working in the two tea estates, it was mentioned by the tribal people that because of poor economic conditions, they sometimes have no other recourse than to consume non-conventional food items as well as conventional food items, the latter being consumed in low amounts or only occasionally during normal periods, but forms the major constituent of the diet during times of food scarcity. Following obtaining this information, proper surveys were conducted among the tribes and tribal clans mentioned above regarding the items consumed during times when regular dietary items like rice, meat, fish and vegetables could not be afforded because of lack of buying power.
The total members of any tribal community or clans were low in any given tea estate. Apart from the Rajvor clan of the Telegu tribe, other tribal communities had on the average about ten households per tribe or clan and each household had on the average about seven members each. Surveys were conducted with the help of a semi- structured questionnaire and an open-ended interview method and each adult member of the household was asked about food items that they consume during times of food scarcity. The persons interviewed were allowed to speak at large on their incomes, food availability, non-conventional plant items consumed, and places from where these plant items were collected. Interviews were conducted in Bengali, the language being spoken by both interviewers and those who were interviewed. The persons who were interviewed were then requested to take the interviewers to places from where they usually collected their non-conventional edible plant items. Plant specimens as pointed out by the interviewed persons were then collected and brought back to be identified at the Bangladesh National Herbarium at Dhaka.
Results and Discussion
Essentially all households interviewed mentioned that they were poor and every household mentioned that they had income levels below or slightly above the poverty income level of US$ 1 per day. The tribal communities did not possess any land where they can grow any crops. Whatever income they had came from the wages paid by the tea estate for plucking tea leaves. Adults were paid more than children but the wages paid were poor and barely enabled the communities to fulfill their nutritional needs even under normal circumstances. Any inability to work due to sickness or other reasons led to not receiving any wages; sickness of multiple members of the same family led to dire economic consequences for that particular family members. Being not able to supplement their income through other means, because the tea estates were isolated and usually distant from settled communities, the tea estate worker's only income was derived from the wages.
Interviews were conducted in Bengali, the language of the interviewers. All tribal communities could speak Bengali, which they have learnt, to maintain communications with the employer and the tea estate managers, who belonged to the mainstream Bengali-speaking population. This mutual understanding of the Bengali language lead to more effective means of obtaining information about the daily diet of these tribal communities as well as food items consumed during times of food scarcity. It was reported that during times when the normal staple diet of rice was lacking, the tribal communities relied on 26 different plant species to meet their nutritional needs and to satiate their hunger. Not all tribal communities mentioned the same plant species, although a certain degree of similarity could be observed between various communities. The 26 plant species were distributed into 18 families and are shown in Table 1.
The Amaranthaceae family provided three of the 26 plants consumed. All three species of the Amaranthaceae family consumed, namely Amaranthus lividus, Amaranthus tricolor, and Spinacia oleracea were leafy vegetables, and leaves and stems were cooked with other plant parts. Among the three Amaranthaceae species consumed during times of food scarcity, two of them, namely Amaranthus tricolor and Spinacia oleracea fell under conventional food items and were normally consumed as vegetable side dish in small amounts along with rice, when the latter could be afforded. It may be mentioned that the non-conventional foods reported to be consumed by tribal communities of the present survey can be classified into two types. The first type consisted of edible wild or non-conventional plants, which were not consumed during normal periods of availability of food, i.e. rice. The second type consisted of conventional foods, but which would be consumed during periods of food availability as a side-dish along with the main staple diet, i.e. rice. It is further to be mentioned that among the less affluent sections of the population in Bangladesh (including less affluent tribal community members), the major portion of the daily diet consists of rice. Rice is consumed with small portions of vegetables, lentils, fish or meat, but if the household cannot even afford the side-dishes, rice would be consumed with two to three fruits of Capsicum frutescens (hot pepper), a little table salt, and a few slices of onion (Allium cepa). Tubers of Solanum tuberosum (potato) would also be boiled and mashed and taken as a side dish with rice under normal circumstances, but can form the main dish in the absence of rice, because the price of potatoes is lower than that of rice in Bangladesh. Notably, a number of the tribal communities were observed to consume the various Amaranthaceae family species along with Solanum tuberosum, Capsicum frutescens, and Allium cepa. In these cases, potatoes formed the major source of carbohydrates, while hot peppers and onions were used as spices to make the food (green leafy vegetables of the Amaranthaceae family) more palatable.
Consumption of a combination of fried seeds of Coriandrum sativum and Brassica nigra was an unusual combination not observed in our previous surveys. However, this combination would have a high oil content, which can meet the requirements of fat and also be heavy on the stomach, thus creating a feeling of satiation of hunger. The two Araceae family plants are also consumed during normal circumstances as a side-dish of vegetables, but under times of food scarcity, they formed the major ingredient of diet. The tubers of Alocasia macrorrhizos would provide much needed carbohydrates, while the leaves and stems of Colocasia esculenta would provide some carbohydrate and protein as well as other nutrients like arginine, ascorbic acid, betacarotene, calcium, iron, isoleucine, leucine, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, lysine, methionine, oleic acid, palmitic acid, proline, threonine, tryptophan, and tyrosine (Duke, 1992). Both these plants can be found in the wild and are also sometimes cultivated and fetch a low price on the market. Notably, the leaves and stems of Colocasia esculenta were consumed with tubers of Solanum tuberosum, leaves of Moringa oleifera with addition of onions and hot peppers as spices and mustard oil as the cooking ingredient. The addition of potatoes would fulfill the need for carbohydrates, and mustard oil would fill the needs of fat. Under normal circumstances, the leaves of Moringa oleifera are not eaten at all; however, the pods or fruits are consumed and are considered to possess both nutritional as well as medicinal properties. On the other hand, leaves of this plant are reportedly rich in ascorbic acid, carbohydrates, fat and protein (Duke, 1992). Mustard oil is one of the main types of oil used for cooking in Bangladesh. In rural areas, the oil is comparatively cheap along with soybean oil.
Basella alba is considered as one of the choice vegetables in Bangladesh. However, this vinous plant can grow in abundance even when left untended and can easily be grown around homesteads or on the fringes of forest areas and slopes of hills, both being present in tea estates. Some tribal communities were observed to grow this plant in abundance around leftover lands in the tea estates for the purpose of consumption during periods of food scarcity. Carica papaya fruits are also prized in Bangladesh, and the plant is both commercially cultivated and also grown in untended conditions on abandoned or empty lands like sides of ponds or other water bodies. The plant is usually left to grow by itself and bears fruits in abundance, which can be consumed both in the ripened state by itself or in the unripe state in the cooked form. Ipomoea aquatica can be found in the wild, growing in aquatic conditions like ponds, marshy lands and other water bodies. This plant forms a cheap source of vegetable and is often sold in markets. The tubers of Ipomoea batatas are not normally consumed, but when done so under conditions of food scarcity, can be a good source of carbohydrates. This plant is also found to be growing in the wild and is not cultivated.
The fruits of Cucurbita maxima are usually consumed in the cooked form as vegetable; the Kurmi tribe was observed to consume the leaves in the cooked form also during times of food scarcity in combination with potatoes and fruits of Trichosanthes anguina with the addition of onions and hot peppers as spices and mustard oil as the ingredient for cooking. The tubers of Dioscorea pentaphylla are not normally consumed in Bangladesh; however, several tribal communities reported to consume the tubers during times of food scarcity. The tubers can be a good source of carbohydrates and other nutrients. Vigna mungo seeds (black gram) can be a good source of protein by themselves. While the Rikhaison tribe consumed the seeds only in the cooked form as a lentil, several other tribal communities consumed the seeds in cooked form with leaves and stems of Colocasia esculenta, the combination as such forming a source of both carbohydrates and proteins. Bulbs of Allium sativum are used as spice in Bangladesh, and were also used as such by several tribal communities. Fruits of Artocarpus heterophyllus are a much prized fruit of Bangladesh; fruits contain large seeds, which are high in protein and fat. The Rikhaison tribal community consumed the seeds along with potatoes during times of food scarcity. Fruits of Musa paradisiaca (plantains) are usually eaten in the cooked form as soup during gastrointestinal disorders; however, the fruits can form a good source of carbohydrates and nutrients like vitamins. The Vogta tribe consumed the fruits in the fried form when rice was not available. Oryza sativa seeds (paddy, the de-husked form of which is rice) are readily available in rural areas in the puffed form (local name: muri) and can be stored as such for a long time. The Kurmi clan of the Telegu tribe consumed muri during times of food scarcity. They prepared muri from rice when rice could be afforded and stored this muri to be consumed during periods when rice was not affordable.
The tubers of Solanum tuberosum (potatoes) have long been used as a staple diet in many countries of the world like Ireland. In Bangladesh, potatoes are cheaper than rice, and are consumed in many forms including by themselves or in combination with other items. Various tribal communities reported eating potatoes in multiple combinations and in multiple forms. In the absence of rice, potatoes can form a good source of carbohydrates and also satiate hunger. The consumption of Camellia sinensis (tea) young leaves by several tribal communities like Goala, Rekmun, Pasi, Vogta, Bagti, and Kurmi was a unique feature of these communities. It is not present elsewhere in Bangladesh. Whether tea leaves could provide anything nutritious needs to be scientifically established; however, the tribal communities consumed the young tea leaves in the cooked form with potatoes, which can be a good source of carbohydrates, and spices like onions and hot peppers, which would add palatability to the dish. Possibly, the use of tea leaves came from two factors: the ready availability of such leaves within the tea estates, and also since they can be eaten in plenty at practically no price, they can give a sense of fulfillment of hunger when consumed in large amounts.
Many edible wild or non-conventional food plants have been shown to be better from the nutritional view point than other conventionally consumed plants. Of the 24 indigenous plants consumed by the population of Burkina Faso in Africa (to supplement their daily diet), three plants were reported to have high protein content, four had large amounts of essential fatty acids, three were rich in calcium, and three were rich in iron (Glew et al. 1997). A number of wild plants consumed by the inhabitants of Niger in Africa have been shown to possess good or excellent qualities of proteins, amino acids, minerals, and essential fatty acids (Cook et al. 2000; Freiberger et al., 1998; Sena et al., 1998). Thus the wild or semi-wild plants consumed by the various tribal communities as reported in the present study deserves further attention of scientists as to their nutritional content and possible introduction to areas of the world suffering from persistent scarcity of food.
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Md. Imran Kabir, Md. Yousuf Hossan, Md. Fokhrul Islam, Sumaya Islam Anusha, Israt Jahan Esha, Aiubali, Syeda Seraj, Mohammed Rahmatullah
Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1209, Bangladesh
Corresponding Author: Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, Pro-Vice Chancellor University of Development Alternative House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new) Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1205 Bangladesh
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Fax: 88-02-8157339
Table 1: Plants consumed during times of food scarcity by various tribal communities of Maulvibazar district, Bangladesh and their mode of consumption (the various clans of the Telegu tribe are underlined). Serial Plant name Number (local name) Family 1 Amaranthus lividus Amaranthaceae L. (Dugi pata, Data shak) 2 Amaranthus Amaranthaceae tricolor L. (Lal shak) 3 Spinacia oleracea Amaranthaceae L. (Palong shak, Babu shak) 4 Coriandrum Apiaceae sativum L. (Dhonia) 5 Alocasia Araceae macrorrhizos (L.) G. Don (Maan kochu) 6 Colocasia esculenta Araceae (L.) Schott (Kochu shak, Kochur loti) 7 Basella alba L. Basellaceae (Pui shak) 8 Carica papaya L. Caricaceae (Koi fol) 9 Ipomoea aquatica Convolvulaceae Forssk. (Kolmi shak) 10 Ipomoea batatas L. Convolvulaceae 11 Brassica nigra Cruciferae (L.) W.D.J. Koch (Shorisa) 12 Cucurbita maxima Kurmi Cucurbitaceae Duchesne (Mishti kumra) Rajvor 13 Trichosanthes Cucurbitaceae anguina L. (Potol) 14 Dioscorea Dioscoreaceae pentaphylla L. (Pahari alu, Jongli alu, Kham alu) 15 Glycine max (L.) Fabaceae Merr. Steve Hurst. (Soybean) 16 Tamarindus Fabaceae indica L. (Tetul) 17 Vigna mungo L. Fabaceae (Chana dal, Anchor dal) 18 Allium cepa L. Liliaceae (Peyaj) 19 Allium sativum Liliaceae L. (Roshun) 20 Artocarpus Moraceae heterophyllus Lam. (Kanthal) 21 Moringa oleifera Moringaceae Lam. (Sojina) 22 Musa paradisiaca Musaceae L. (Kacha kola) 23 Oryza sativa L. Poaceae (Dhan but the puffed form is known as Muri) 24 Capsicum Solanaceae frutescens L. (Morich) 25 Solanum Solanaceae tuberosum L. (Gol alu) 26 Camellia sinensis Theaceae (L.) Kuntze (Cha pata) Serial Tribe(s) using Number the plant Parts eaten 1 Rajvor#, Madraji, Leaf, stem Dusadh 2 Bagti, Rajvor#, Leaf, stem Dusadh, Vogta 3 Bagti, Kurmi, Leaf, stem Rajvor#, Pasi#, Vogta, Rikhaison 4 Kurmi Seed 5 Kurmi, Dusadh Tuber 6 Goala#, Tati#, Leaf, stem Mridha, Pasi, Kurmi, Rekmun, Madraji#, Rikhaison, Rajvor#, Dusadh Goala#, Bagti, Leaf, stem Teli#, Rekmun, Tati#, Mridha, Rajvor#, Olmik#, Patromura, Dusadh, Rikhaison, Vogta Kurmi Stem 7 Bagti, Kurmi, Leaf, stem Tati#, Madraji#, Rajvor#, Dusadh, Rikhaison, Vogta 8 Mridha, Patromura Fruit 9 Goala#, Rajvor# Leaf, stem 10 Bagti, Rajvor, Tuber Dusadh 11 Goala#, Tati#, Seed oil Mridha, Pasi, Kurmi, Rekmun, Madraji#, Rikhaison, Rajvor, Dusadh Goala#, Bagti, Seed oil Teli#, Rekmun, Tati#, Mridha, Rajvor#, Olmik#, Patromura, Dusadh, Rikhaison, Vogta Kurmi, Dusadh Seed oil Kurmi Seed Kurmi Seed oil Vogta Seed oil 12 Leaf See Serial Number 13. Fruit Fruits are cooked and eaten as vegetable. 13 Kurmi Fruit 14 Rajvor#, Dusadh, Tuber Mridha, Tati#, Rekmun, Kurmi, Bagti, Teli#, Pasi, Madraji#, Olmik#, Patromura, Rikhaison, Vogta 15 Bagti, Rajvor#, Seed oil Dusadh, Vogta Bagti, Kurmi, Seed oil Tati#, Madraji#, Rajvor#, Dusadh, Rikhaison, Vogta Bagti, Kurmi, Seed oil Rajvor#, Pasi#, Vogta, Rikhaison 16 Kurmi, Dusadh Fruit 17 Goala#, Bagti, Seed Teli#, Rekmun, Tati#, Mridha, Rajvor#, Olmik#, Patromura, Dusadh, Rikhaison, Vogta Rikhaison Seed 18 Goala#, Tati#, Bulb Mridha, Pasi, Kurmi, Rekmun, Madraji#, Rikhaison, Rajvor#, Dusadh Goala#, Rekmun, Bulb Pasi, Vogta, Bagti, Kurmi Bagti, Rajvor#, Bulb Dusadh, Vogta Bagti, Kurmi, Tati#, Bulb Madraji#, Rajvor#, Dusadh, Rikhaison, Vogta Bagti, Kurmi, Bulb Rajvor#, Pasi#, Vogta, Rikhaison Kurmi, Dusadh Bulb Kurmi Bulb 19 Goala#, Bagti, Bulb Teli#, Rekmun, Tati#, Mridha, Rajvor#, Olmik#, Patromura, Dusadh, Rikhaison, Vogta 20 Rikhaison Seed 21 Goala#, Tati#, Fruit, leaf Mridha, Pasi, Kurmi, Rekmun, Madraji#, Rikhaison, Rajvor#, Dusadh 22 Vogta Fruit 23 Kurmi# Puffed seed 24 Goala#, Tati#, Fruit Mridha, Pasi, Kurmi, Rekmun, Madraji#, Rikhaison, Rajvor#, Dusadh Goala#, Rekmun, Fruit Pasi, Vogta, Bagti, Kurmi Bagti, Rajvor#, Fruit Dusadh, Vogta Bagti, Kurmi, Tati#, Fruit Madraji#, Rajvor#, Dusadh, Rikhaison, Vogta Bagti, Kurmi, Fruit Rajvor#, Pasi#, Vogta, Rikhaison Kurmi Fruit 25 Goala#, Tati#, Tuber Mridha, Pasi, Kurmi, Rekmun, Madraji#, Rikhaison, Rajvor#, Dusadh Goala#, Rekmun, Tuber Pasi, Vogta, Bagti, Kurmi Bagti, Dusadh, Tuber Kurmi, Rekmun, Rajvor#, Rikhaison, Vogta Kurmi Tuber Rajvor#, Madraji, Tuber Dusadh Rikhaison Tuber 26 Goala#, Rekmun, Leaf Pasi, Vogta, Bagti, Kurmi Serial Collection, preparation and Number mode of consumption 1 Leaves and stems are cooked and eaten as vegetable. Leaves and stems of Amaranthus lividus are cooked with tubers of Solanum tuberosum and eaten as vegetable. 2 Leaves and stems of Amaranthus spinosus are fried in soybean oil (oil obtained from seeds of Glycine max) along with dried fruits of Capsicum frutescens and bulbs of Allium cepa and eaten. 3 Leaves and stems of Spinacia oleracea are fried in soybean oil (oil obtained from seeds of Glycine max) along with dried fruits of Capsicum frutescens and bulbs of Allium cepa and eaten. 4 Seeds of Coriandrum sativum are mixed with seeds of Brassica nigra, fried and eaten. 5 Tubers of Alocasia macrorrhizos are boiled and the water discarded. The boiled tubers are then mixed with bulb of Allium cepa, table salt, seed oil of Brassica nigra, and fruits of Tamarindus indica and eaten. 6 See Serial Number 21. Leaves and stems are cooked and eaten as vegetable. Leaves and stems of Colocasia esculenta are mixed with seeds of Vigna mungo, and bulb of Allium sativum and cooked with seed oil of Brassica nigra and eaten. Stems are cooked with dried Puntius family fish and eaten. 7 Leaves and stems of Basella alba are fried in soybean oil (oil obtained from seeds of Glycine max) along with dried fruits of Capsicum frutescens and bulbs of Allium cepa and eaten. 8 Ripe fruits are eaten directly. Unripe fruits are cooked and eaten as vegetable. 9 Leaves and stems are cooked and eaten as vegetable. 10 Boiled tubers are eaten in the morning. 11 See Serial Number 21. See Serial Number 6. See Serial Number 5. See Serial Number 4. See Serial Number 13. See Serial Number 22. 12 See Serial Number 13. 13 Fruits of Trichosanthes anguina are combined with tubers of Solanum tuberosum, leaves of Cucurbita maxima, bulb of Allium cepa, fruits of Capsicum frutescens, and fried in seed oil of Brassica nigra and eaten. 14 Tubers are boiled and taken with a little table salt. 15 See Serial Number 2. See Serial Number 7. See Serial Number 3. 16 See Serial Number 5. 17 See Serial Number 6. Seeds are cooked and eaten. 18 See Serial Number 21. See Serial Number 26. See Serial Number 2. See Serial Number 7. See Serial Number 3. See Serial Number 5. See Serial Number 13. 19 See Serial Number 6. 20 Seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus are boiled, mixed with tubers of Solanum tuberosum and cooked and eaten as vegetable. 21 Fruits are cooked and eaten as vegetable. Leaves of Moringa oleifera are combined with tubers of Solanum tuberosum, leaves and stems of Colocasia esculenta, bulbs of Allium cepa, and fruits of Capsicum frutescens and cooked with mustard oil (oil obtained from seeds of Brassica nigra) and eaten. 22 Fruits of Musa paradisiaca are fried in seed oil of Brassica nigra and eaten. 23 Puffed seeds are eaten. 24 See Serial Number 21. See Serial Number 26. See Serial Number 2. See Serial Number 7. See Serial Number 3. See Serial Number 13. 25 See Serial Number 21. See Serial Number 26. Boiled tubers are eaten. See Serial Number 13. See Serial Number 1. See Serial Number 20. 26 Young leaves of Camellia sinensis are mixed with boiled tubers of Solanum tuberosum, bulb of Allium cepa, and fruits of Capsicum frutescens and eaten. Note: The various clans of the Telegu tribe are indicated with #.
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|Title Annotation:||ORIGINAL ARTICLE|
|Author:||Kabir, Md. Imran; Hossan, Md. Yousuf; Islam, Md. Fokhrul; Anusha, Sumaya Islam; Esha, Israt Jahan; A|
|Publication:||American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture|
|Date:||Apr 1, 2013|
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