Plant hunting expeditions of David Fairchild to The Bahamas.
David Fairchild (1869-1954) was the founder of the Section of Seed and Plant Introduction of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) in 1898 (Fairchild, 1938; Douglas, 1973). He was one of the most important plant explorers in the history of the United States of America (Pauly, 2007). It is estimated that under his leadership the United States Department of Agriculture received over 75,000 plant germplasm accessions from all over the world (Todd, 2009). His achievements were honored in 1939 when Colonel Robert Montgomery founded in Miami a botanic garden named after him: Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden (FTBG) (Zuckerman, 1988). Today this botanical institution has the most extensive collection of tropical plants in the United States (ca. 3,500 species) with a focus on palms, cycads, Caribbean plants, orchids, and tropical fruits. This botanic garden has a strong commitment to the Bahamian flora with a three acre area known as the "Bahamian Plot" dedicated to plants from this archipelago. Currently the living collections of FTBG have over 93 native plant species wild collected in The Bahamas. This collection was initiated in 1964 by former Garden director John Popenoe after receiving a grant from the American Philosophical Society (Popenoe, 1966). It has the most important living collection of Bahamian plants outside the Bahamas. Recent joint field trips between Bahamas National Trust (BNT) and FTBG botanists have brought additional plant material for these living collections and those of BNT (Jestrow et al., 2012). In addition, FTBG was a catalyst for the most recent and comprehensive floristic account for these islands: "Flora of the Bahama Archipelago". This work was initiated by William Gillis (1933-1979) (Kass & Eshbaugh, 1993) but published by Donovan Correll (1908-1983) and Helen Correll (1907-2000) and illustrated by Priscilla Fawcett (1932-2012) (Correll & Correll, 1982).
As part of our research pertinent to the plant hunting expeditions undertaken by David Fairchild (Francisco-Ortega, 2012; Francisco-Ortega et al., 2012) here we present a study concerning the three known plant exploration trips performed by David Fairchild to the Bahamian Archipelago. These expeditions were restricted to islands belonging to the country of The Bahamas. As far as we are aware, David Fairchild did not visit the United Kingdom Overseas Territory of the Turks and Caicos Islands. Our research has been primarily based on documents, manuscripts and photographs that belonged to David Fairchild that are located in the Archives and Library of FTBG. Among these documents we found particularly useful three undated and unpublished manuscripts by David Fairchild focusing on his trips along the Caribbean Basin, one of them was untitled. The other two were titled "Through the West Indies for Plants" and "With the Research Boat Utowana in the West Indies and Guianas." In addition, the archive of this botanic garden has documents listing the ports visited by the Utowana (see below details about this vessel) during its trips. These unpublished lists were useful to reconstruct the itineraries followed by David Fairchild. Finally, for our research we have also studied the germplasm introduction records found in the periodic plant exploration reports of USDA (available on the internet at http://www.ars.usda.gov/ Services/docs.htm?docid=18722).
Utowana as a Research Yacht--The Caribbean Voyages
The plant hunting expeditions of David Fairchild were largely funded by Barbour Lathrop (1847-1927) and Allison V. Armour (1863-1941) (Todd, 2009). These two wealthy businessmen had a strong interest in plant exploration and the development of agricultural research in the U.S.A. Between 1898 and 1903 Fairchild was an "employee" of Lathrop and under his patronage he conducted agricultural exploration worldwide (Todd, 2009). Chronologically, Allison V. Armour was the second benefactor of Fairchild's plant exploration endeavors, and between 1925 and 1933 he provided financial support for several expeditions that visited more than 50 countries or colonies in Africa, Asia, Europe, and North, Central and South America. For these expeditions Allison Armour bought a yacht which he renamed Utowana (Fig. 1) and had specially designed to perform natural history research (Fairchild, 1928). During the 20th century few other research vessels have been as important in natural science exploration as the Utowana. This floating laboratory provided facilities and transportation for many botanists and zoologists who performed natural history research and biological surveys on all continents except Antarctica and Australia. Her first commission was a voyage to the Canary Islands in July 1925 (Fairchild, 1930) and she went out of service on an unknown date between April 1934 and February 1935 (Barbour & Shreve, 1935). This vessel should not be confused with another research boat that was also named Utowana and that was also owned by Allison Armour (Fig. 2). This previous sailing steamer was involved in several expeditions during the late 19th and early 20th centuries (Millspaugh, 1900; Barbour, 1945) and was decommissioned by 1917 (Anonymous, 1917).
David Fairchild published one book and one long article about the outcomes of the biological expeditions on board the Utowana between 1925 and 1927 (Fairchild, 1928, 1930). These voyages centered on the Old World. However, we know that after 1927 David Fairchild also undertook two additional plant exploration expeditions focusing on the Caribbean Basin on this yacht (Burton, 1932; Fairchild, 1934; Yaffa, 1971). These expeditions were also sponsored by Allison V. Armour. Unfortunately David Fairchild did not publish a full account of these post-1927 trips. Therefore, details and outcomes of his latest expeditions on this research vessel have remained largely unknown.
Famous herpetologist Prof. Thomas Barbour (1884-1946) also sailed on the Utowana between 1929 and 1934. The aim of Barbour's trips was mostly to collect specimens of Caribbean amphibians and reptiles (Henderson & Powell, 2003) and full accounts of these expeditions were published by Barbour (1945). Interestingly, one of these trips also included two plant hunters from the USDA (i.e., James Kempton and Guy Collins). Between January and May 1931 these two botanists joined Barbour during an expedition to The Bahamas, Cuba, the Cayman Islands, Central America, and Mexico; however, David Fairchild did not join this crew (Barbour, 1945). Barbour had a high respect and admiration for David Fairchild as a person as well as a talented scientist (Barbour, 1945). As a result of his herpetological studies in The Bahamas one species of Anolis was named by him and Benjamin Shreve to honor David Fairchild. Anolis fairchildi (Fig. 3) is endemic to Cay Sal (Buckner et al., 2012) and its conservation status needs to be evaluated (Knapp et al., 2011).
David Fairchild plant hunted in The Bahamas on two occasions on board the Utowana between December 1931 and April 1933. During these expeditions seven islands and three cays were explored (Fig. 4). These two trips did not focus exclusively on The Bahamas as they were part of larger endeavors that included other Caribbean Islands, the Guianas, Central America or Mexico.
From our archival research we also know that David Fairchild and his wife flew to Nassau in April 1939 where they stayed ca. one week, but no plants were collected during this visit. Prior to these Bahamian trips David Fairchild visited the Caribbean Islands in 1898 when, under the sponsorship of Barbour Lathrop, he performed field work on the islands of Barbados, Jamaica, and Trinidad (Fairchild, 1938, unpublished). Based on documents located at the FTBG archives we know that before 1931 David Fairchild travelled to Cuba at least once (Fairchild, unpublished); however, additional historical research is needed to have full details of the itineraries followed by Fairchild along the Caribbean Islands. From the information that we have gathered so far it appears that during these other West Indian expeditions, the Bahamian archipelago was not visited.
The Three Trips of David Fairchild to The Bahamas
First Plant Hunting Expedition: From Miami to the Antilles and the Guianas (1931-1932). The first plant hunting expedition of David Fairchild in The Bahamas took place in 1931 and 1932 (Table 1). It was part of a trip to other Caribbean Islands, Guyana, and Suriname that departed from Miami and arrived at Nassau on December 31, 1931. The expedition members were Allison V. Armour, Jordan C. Mott (a personal friend of Allison Armour who was the grandson of Jordan L. Mott I, founder of a prominent iron works company in New York), Harold Loomis (USDA), Palemon Howard Dorsett (USDA), Marian and Nancy Fairchild (wife and daughter of David Fairchild, respectively) (Fig. 5), and Leonard R. Toy (Florida State Experimental Station at Homestead). Seven of The Bahamas islands (i.e., Cat Island, Conception, Eleuthera, Great Inagua, Mayaguana, New Providence and Rum Cay) were visited. Sadly during this trip Jordan C. Mott died at Rum Cay on January 7 (Barbour, 1945). As a result, the expedition members had to return to Nassau to make funeral arrangements with Mott's family. After this sad and emotional incident the Utowana visited two additional islands and eventually departed from Great Inagua to the Dominican Republic on January 15. On their way back to Miami the Utowana arrived at Mayaguana (March 29) from Haiti and after a two day stop at Nassau it continued to Miami (Table 1).
An account with expedition highlights for The Bahamas and the other regions visited during this trip was published by Fairchild (1934). From this account and Fairchild's unpublished manuscripts found in the FTBG archives it appears that the main reason to include The Bahamas in this trip was to collect germplasm of "sea-island cotton." The history of this crop is complex as it involves introgression between Gossypium barbadense L. and G. hirsutum (Stephens 1976; Wendel, pers. comm.). Both of these species have large and overlapping indigenous cultivated ranges in the Caribbean, which led to their introgression. Despite its low yield and poor adaptation for large-scale agriculture, sea-island cotton was a relatively important crop both in the southeastern USA and the West Indies because it produced long, fine, and silky fibers that were highly desirable and unmatched by other high-yielding cottons (Stephens, 1976). Cotton plantations were extremely important in the Bahamas in the late 18th century (Albury, 1975) and it appears that the archipelago was an important area for the early introduction of this crop in the southeastern USA (Stephens, 1976). Unfortunately, David Fairchild was not successful in finding sea-island cotton in The Bahamas although nine accessions of Gossypium sp. were collected in the archipelago during this expedition.
During this first expedition 79 germplasm accessions (62 species) were collected and 86 photographs were taken (Table 2). David Fairchild collected in agricultural and wild stands and also in private gardens. Six of the germplasm accessions came from the gardens of "Mrs. Edward George" at Nassau. Among the distinguished horticulturists that David Fairchild visited during this trip there was Mr. Arthur C. Langlois (1902-1977) and his wife Margaret (7-1985). Arthur Langlois is well known for his published work on palms (Langlois, 1976). The Langlois established an extraordinary collection of palms at their private gardens at Nassau. These gardens are known as The Retreat and they are currently owned by BNT. The headquarters of this organization are currently located at this site (Mosely, 2008; Tasker, 2009). During this trip David Fairchild took only one photograph of The Retreat to show a specimen of Ficus jacquinifolia. We believe that germplasm collection number 95691 refers to this tree (Table 2). From David Fairchild's pocket notebooks and scrapbooks we know that during this first expedition he received help from many other Bahamian plant enthusiasts and farmers. David Fairchild provided the names of several of these island residents; however, we have not been able to properly track down their occupations and how Fairchild interacted with them. Dr. Joseph Albuty is one of the most intriguing people recorded in David Fairchild's notes. The only available image of Nancy Fairchild in The Bahamas (Fig. 5) is with Dr. Albury, and it shows them with a branch of jumbie bean (Leucaena leucocephala). Mr. William Darville (Great Inagua), Mr. Newbold and Mr. Abraham (Eleuthera), and Mr. Charles Sweeting and Mrs. Edward George (Nassau, see above) are other Bahamian residents who also met David Fairchild during this trip and for whom we do not have biographical information.
Second Plant Hunting Expedition: From Miami to the Greater Antilles and Panama (1932-1933). Unlike the first expedition, which had only a plant germplasm focus, this second one included both botanists from the USDA (David Fairchild and P. H. Dorsett) and zoologists from Harvard University (herpetologist Thomas Barbour and ornithologist James C. Greenway) (Fig. 6). David Fairchild did not publish any account about this trip; however, through the works of Barbour (1943, 1945) we have details of this expedition. The Utowana arrived at Nassau on January 10, 1933 and from here she visited seven additional islands or cays (Table 1). On January 27, the expedition departed for Haiti. On her way back to the USA (final destination Newport, Rhode Island) the vessel stopped in Nassau between April 7 and 10. During this trip David Fairchild collected only 15 germplasm accessions (twelve species) but 46 photographs were taken. Among the people who helped there were Mr. John Toote who was the "wireless operator on Long Cay," Mr. Eddie Albury identified as "Master of Tuna Fish" (Nassau), and the catholic priest of San Salvador, the Rev. Denis Pernell. We have also found notes for two other native Bahamians (Mr. Cartwright at Great Inagua and Mr. John Martin at Mayaguana); however, we have not been able to find additional biographical information about them.
The Third Visit: From Miami to Nassau (1939). During this trip David and Marian Fairchild met with Mrs. Anne Archbold (1873-1968). She was the daughter of the co-founder of Standard Oil and the main sponsor of the Cheng Ho expedition. This plant hunting endeavor was the only major expedition undertaken by David Fairchild to collect plant material for FTBG. It focused on Indonesia and it only lasted six months between January and June 1940 (Fairchild, 1945).
No plant material was collected during this third trip to The Bahamas and we believe that the main aim of this visit was to arrange logistics for the Cheng Ho expedition. During this trip four photographs were taken, all of them depicting Dr. Charles Sumner Dolley (1856-1948) (Fig. 7) an American medical doctor and biologist who worked in the Bahamas (Gifford, 1947; Fairchild, 1948) and collaborated on the "Provisional List of the Plants of the Bahama Islands" by Gardiner & Brace (1889).
The Photographic Record. As a naturalist David Fairchild was not only interested in collecting germplasm. During his expeditions he took images pertinent to the people and natural history of the places that he visited (Fig. 8; Table 3). A very small selection of these images is shown in this article. The photographs that he took in the archipelago provide a unique and broad-ranging historical perspective on these islands. His collection of Bahamian photographs included urban images of gardens, public buildings such as the Nassau Hospital, relevant street trees and landmarks like Miss Morely's bookstore in Nassau. In addition, there are images showing the difficult living conditions found in the countryside of the most remote islands (Fig. 9) where slash-and-bum was still an important agricultural technique to clear land for agriculture (Fig. 10).
In his unpublished papers he indicated that pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. (Fabaceae)] was one of the most important staple foods of The Bahamas and he took three photographs showing seeds of this species being sold in the market of Nassau (Fig. 11). Additional images with agricultural value are those showing horses losing their hair after eating leucaena [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. (Fabaceae)] or those depicting orange trees being devastated by the citrus black fly [Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera)]. From the second expedition there are several photographs showing T. Barbour and J. C. Greenway performing field work (Fig. 6).
These two expeditions to The Bahamas need to be placed in a historical context, as they happened during a period when the archipelago was severely damaged by four category 3 or higher hurricanes that hit the islands in 1928, 1929, 1932, and 1933 (Albury, 1975; Neeley, 2006; Andrews, 2007). One of the photographs shows the coast of Crooked Island with many rocks piled up by a tidal wave (Fig. 12), probably as a result of the severe hurricane that hit the archipelago in 1932 (Andrews, 2007). We found additional comments concerning the devastating effect of this hurricane in the notes that Fairchild wrote for two other photographs taken on San Salvador and on Crooked Island.
Acknowledgments This is contribution number 258 from the Tropical Biology Program of Florida International University (FIU). Our gratitude to Mr. Pericles Maillis for his insights and help pertinent to the people David Fairchild met in The Bahamas. We dedicate this paper to our colleague Dr. Richard Campbell in recognition of his work searching for tropical fruit germplasm throughout the world, work that follows in the footsteps of David Fairchild. This paper was presented at an international symposium held in Nassau between October 30 and 31, 2012 to celebrate the 30th anniversary of the publication of the "Flora of the Bahama Archipelago" (title of symposium: Celebrating 30 Years of the Flora of the Bahamas: Conservation and Science Challenges). Our gratitude to the symposium organizers (BNT and The College of The Bahamas in collaboration with FTBG, and FIU) for providing a venue to present our research. The symposium was funded by the Bahamas Environmental Fund. The Latin American and Caribbean Center of FIU and FTBG supported attendance at the symposium. Prof. Dan Austin and Prof. Jonathan Wendel provided guidance with taxonomic aspects pertinent to Ipomoea and Gossypium, respectively. Sandra Buckner, L. Sorenson, and M. Sorenson helped with images and details of Anolis fairchildi.
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Javier Francisco-Ortega (1,2,4) * Nancy Korber (2) * Marianne Swan (2) * Janet Mosely (2) * Ethan Freid (3) * Brett Jestrow (2)
(1) Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA
(2) Kushlan Tropical Science Institute, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Coral Gables, Miami, FL 33156, USA
(3) The Bahamas National Trust, P. O. Box N-4105, The Retreat, Village Road, Nassau, The Bahamas
(4) Author for Correspondence; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Published online: 14 August 2014
Table 1 Itinerary of the three plant hunting expeditions of David Fairchild in The Bahamas Expedition Island First expedition New Providence (a,b) First expedition Cat Island (a,b) First expedition Conception (b) First expedition Rum Cay (a,b) First expedition New Providence (a,b) First expedition Eleuthera (a,b) First expedition New Providence (a,b) First expedition Great Inagua (a,b) First expedition Mayaguana (a,b) First expedition New Providence Second expedition New Providence (b) Second expedition San Salvador (b) Second expedition Crooked Island (a,b) Second expedition Long Cay Second expedition Crooked Island (b) Second expedition Mayaguana (a,b) Second expedition Planas Cay Second expedition Great Inagua (a,b) Second expedition New Providence Expedition Length of visit First expedition December 31, 1931- January 3, 1932 First expedition January 4-January 5, 1932 First expedition January 5-January 6, 1932 First expedition January 6-January 7, 1932 First expedition January 8-January 10, 1932 First expedition January 10-January 11, 1932 First expedition January 12, 1932 First expedition January 14-January 15, 1932 First expedition March 29, 1932 First expedition March 31-April 1, 1932 Second expedition January 10-February 16, 1933 Second expedition February 17-February 18, 1933 Second expedition February 19-February 21, 1933 Second expedition February 21, 1933 Second expedition February 21-February 22, 1933 Second expedition February 23-February 25, 1933 Second expedition February 25, 1933 Second expedition February 25-February 27, 1933 Second expedition April 7-April 10, 1933 Expedition Notes First expedition Utowana arrived from Miami First expedition First expedition First expedition First expedition First expedition First expedition First expedition Utowana left for Beata Island (Dominican Republic) First expedition Utowana arrived from Cap Haitien (Haiti) First expedition Utowana left for Miami Second expedition Utowana arrived from Second expedition Guantanamo (c) Second expedition Second expedition Second expedition Second expedition Second expedition Second expedition Utowana left for Port au Prince Second expedition Utowana arrived from Cienfitegos and left for Newport, Rhode Island (a) Germplasm was collected (b) Photos were taken (c) Utowana arrived from Guantanamo probably on January 10, but David Fairchild and other expedition members arrived in Nassau on February 16 (Barbour, 1945) Table 2 Getmplasm collected by David Fairchild during his expeditions to the Canary Islands Taxon as identified by Collecting site/ Collecting David Fairchild (a) Island date Acacia choriophylfa Benth. Mayaguana March (Fabaceae) 29, 1932 Achras zapota L. (Sapotaceae) Cat Island Undated (c) [= Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen (Sapotaceae)] Agave acklinicola Trel. Crooked Island February (Asparagaceae) 20, 1933 Agave indagatorum Trel. East of Cockbum/San Undated (f) Salvador Agave indagatorum Cockbum/San Salvador Undated (f) Annona squamosa L. Eleuthera Undated (c) (Annonaceae) Arecaceae sp. Nassau/New January Providence 1, 1932 Asparagus sp. (Asparagaceae) In the garden January of Mrs. 9, 1932 Edward George, Nassau/ New Providence Bourreria ovata Miers Rum Cay January (Boraginaceae) 6, 1932 Bradburya virginiana (L.) Spanish Wells/ January Kuntze (Fabaceae) Eleuthera 10, 1932 [= Centrosema virginianum (L.) Benth. (Fabaceae)] Bucida buceras L. Inagua (c) January (Combretaceae) 15, 1932 Caesalpinia vesicaria Great Inagua February 27, L. (Fabaceae) 1933 Capsicum frutescens Nassau/New Providence January L. (Solanaceae) 10, 1932 Capparis cynophallophora Salt Pond Hill/Great January L. (Capparaceae) Inagua 15, 1932 Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) Nassau/New Providence January 12, 1932 Carica papaya Nassau/New Providence April 12, 1933 (b) Cephalocereus bahamensis North side of Crooked February Britton & Rose (Cactaceae) Island 20, 1933 [= Pilosocereus polygonus (Lam.) Byles & Rowles (Cactaceae)] Cephalocereus millspaughii Mayaguana February Britton [= Pilosocereus 24, 1933 royenii (L.) Byles & Rowley] Cephalocereus millspaughii Salt Pond/Great March 26, Inagua 1933 (b) Cissus intermedia A. Rich. Grant Town January and Nassau/ 3, 1932 (Vitaceae) New Providence Citrus sp. (Rutaceae) In the garden of Mrs. January [= C. paradisi Macfad.] Edward George, 9, 1932 Nassau/ New Providence Coccothrinax sp. (Arecaceae) Great Inagua January 1, 1932 (b) Coccothrinax sp. Great Inagua January 15, 1932 Coccoloba sp. (Polygonaceae) Great Inagua Undated (c) Colubrina ferruginosa Rum Cay January Brongn. (Rhamnaceae) 7, 1932 [= C. arborescens (Mill.) Sarg.] Conocarpus erectus L. Arthur Town/ January (Combretaceae) Cat Island 4, 1932 Crotalaria pumila Ortega Gun Point/Eleuthera January (Fabaceae) 11, 1932 Croton eluteria (L.) Cat Island January Sw. (Euphorbiaceae) 5, 1932 [= C. nitens Sw.] Datura chlorantha Hook. Spanish Wells/ January (Solanaceae) [= D. metel L.] Eleuthera 11, 1932 Datura metel L. var. fastuosa Nassau/New Providence January 12, 1932 Dioscorea alata L. Gun Point/Eleuthera January (Dioscoreaceae) 11, 1932 Dolicholus minimus (L.) Cat Island January Medik. (Fabaceae) 4, 1932 [= Rhynchosia minima (L.) DC. (Fabaceae)] Elaeis guineensis Jacq. In the garden of Mrs. January (Arecaceae) Edward Geoige, 9, 1932 Nassau/ New Providence Ficus jacquinifolia A. Rich. Nassau/New Providence January (Moraceae) 1, 1932 Galactia sp. (Fabaceae) Salt Pond Hill/ January Great Inagua 15, 1932 Galactia spiciformis Torr. & Gun Point/Eleuthera January A. Gray 11, 1932 Galactia striata (Jacq.) Urb. Conception January 5, 1932 Gossypium jamaicense Mac fad Great Inagua February (Malvaceae) 27, 1933 [= G. hirsutum L.] Gossypium sp. Nassau/New Undated (c) Providence Gossypium sp. Conception Undated (c) Gossypium sp. Great Inagua Undated (c) Gossypium sp. Unknown Undated (c) Gossypium sp. Unknown Undated (c) Gossypium sp. Unknown Undated (c) Gossypium sp. Unknown Undated (c) Gossypium sp. Cat Island Undated (c) Gouania lupuloides (L.) Grant Town, Nassau/ January Urb. (Rhamnaceae) New Providence 3, 1932 Helicteres jamaicensis Salt Pond Hill/ January Jacq. (Sterculiaceae) Great Inagua 15, 1932 Hymenocallis arenicola Conception January Northr. (Amaryllidaceae) 5, 1932 Ipomoea heptaphylla (Rottl. Crooked Island February 2, & Willd.) Voigt 1933 (b) (Convolvulaceae) [= Ipomoea sp.] (d) Ipomoea heptaphylla Great Inagua February [= Ipomoea sp.] (d) 26, 1933 Ipomoea tuba (Schltdl.) Don Conception January [= I. violacea L.] 5, 1932 Jacaranda caerulea (L.) Nassau/New Providence Undated (c) Griseb. (Bignoniaceae) [= J. caerulea (L.) Juss.] Jacaranda caerulea Nassau/New Providence Undated (c) Jacquemontia jamaicensis Nassau/New Providence January (Jacq.) Hall. f. ex Soler 1, 1932 (Convolvulaceae) [= J. havanensis (Jacq.) Urb.] Jasminum azoricum L. (Oleaceae) Nassau/New Providence January 10, 1932 Livistona chinensis (Jacq.) New Providence January R.Br. ex Mart. (Arecaceae) 1, 1932 Lycopersicon esculentum Gun Point/Eleuthera January Mill. (Solanaceae) 11, 1932 Maba crassinervis (Kug. & Urb.) San Salvador January 1, Urb. (Ebenaceae) [= Diospyros 1933 (b) crassinervis (Kug. & Urb.) Standi. (Ebenaceae)] Manihot esculenta Crantz Presented by J.T. Undated (c) (Euphorbiaceae) Brown, Arthur Town/Cat Island Manihot esculenta Gun Point/Eleuthera January 11, 1932 Mimosa bahamensis Benth. Rum Cay January (Fabaceae) 7, 1932 Moraea sp. (Iridaceae) Presented by D. January Lawrence/ 2, 1932 New Providence Neomamillaria sp. (Cactaceae) Salt Pond/ March 26, Great Inagua 1933 (b) Oncidium sp. (Orchidaceae) Cotton Point/Rum Cay January 6, 1932 Orchidaceae sp. Great Inagua Undated (c) Orchidaceae sp. Great Inagua Undated (c) Passijlora cupraea L. Arthur Town/ January (Passifloraceae) Cat Island 4, 1932 Passijlora pectinata Griseb. Conception January 5, 1932 Passijlora pectinata Rum Cay January 6, 1932 Passijlora rubra L. Eleuthera Bluff/ January 7, Eleuthera 1932 (b) Phaseolus lathyroides L. Salt Pond Hill/Great January (Fabaceae) [= Macroptilium Inagua 15, 1932 lathyroides (L.) Urb. (Fabaceae)] Phaseolus sp. Spanish Wells/ January Eleuthera 11, 1932 Phaseolus vulgaris L. Cat Island January 4, 1932 Phaseolus vulgaris Eleuthera January 11, 1932 Phaseolus vulgaris Eleuthera January 11, 1932 Phoenix roebelenii O'Brien Old Fort, Nassau/New January 31, (Arecaceae) Providence 1932 (b) Plumeria obtusa Rum Cay January L. (Apocynaceae) 6, 1932 Plumeria obtusa Black Lands/Rum Cay January 6, 1932 Plumeria sp. Great Inagua January 15, 1932 Prosopis chilensis (Molina) Near Mathewstown/ January Stuntz (P. juliflora Great Inagua 15, 1932 (Sw.) DC.) (Fabaceae) [= P chilensis ] Pseudophoenix sargentii H. In the garden of Mrs. January Wendl ex Sarg. (Arecaceae) Edward George, 10, 1932 Nassau/ New Providence Rhabdadenia sp. (Apocynaceae) Mayaguana February 24, 1933 Seaforthia elegans In the garden of Mrs. January R.Br. (Arecaceae) 10, 1932 [= Ptychosperma Edward George, elegans (R.Br.) Blume (Arecaceae)] Nassau/ New Providence Sesamum orientate Cat Island Undated (c) L. (Pedaliaceae) [= S. indicum L.] Sesamum orientate Nassau/New Providence January 2, 1932 Solanum sp. (Solanaceae) Great Inagua February 26, 1933 Stylosanthes hamata (L.) Taub. Salt Pond Hill/ January (Fabaceae) Great Inagua 15, 1932 Tabemaemontana sp. Nassau/New Providence January (Apocynaceae) 12, 1932 Talinum paniculatum (Jacq.) Near Grant Town, January Gaertn (Portulacaceae) Nassau/ 2, 1932 New Providence Tillandsia utriculata L. Conception January (Bromeliaceae) 5, 1932 Vitex agnus-castus In the garden of Mrs. January L. (Lamiaceae) Edward George, 9, 1932 Nassau/ New Providence Zephyranthes cardinalis Nassau/New Providence January C.H. Wright (Amaryllidaceae) 12, 1932 USDA Taxon as identified by accession David Fairchild (a) number Reference Acacia choriophylfa Benth. 98977 Ryerson, 1934 (Fabaceae) Achras zapota L. (Sapotaceae) 95688 Ryerson, 1933 [= Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen (Sapotaceae)] Agave acklinicola Trel. 102647 Morrison, 1935 (Asparagaceae) Agave indagatorum Trel. 102587 Morrison, 1935 Agave indagatorum 102621 Morrison, 1935 Annona squamosa L. 98797 Ryerson, 1934 (Annonaceae) Arecaceae sp. 99643 Ryerson, 1934 Asparagus sp. (Asparagaceae) 96501 Ryerson, 1933 Bourreria ovata Miers 95695 Ryerson, 1933 (Boraginaceae) Bradburya virginiana (L.) 97306 Ryerson, 1933 Kuntze (Fabaceae) [= Centrosema virginianum (L.) Benth. (Fabaceae)] Bucida buceras L. 96502 Ryerson, 1933 (Combretaceae) Caesalpinia vesicaria 102346 Morrison, 1934 L. (Fabaceae) Capsicum frutescens 96503 Ryerson, 1933 L. (Solanaceae) Capparis cynophallophora 97759 Ryerson, 1933 L. (Capparaceae) Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) 96504 Ryerson, 1933 Carica papaya 102347 Morrison, 1934 Cephalocereus bahamensis 102348 Morrison, 1934 Britton & Rose (Cactaceae) [= Pilosocereus polygonus (Lam.) Byles & Rowles (Cactaceae)] Cephalocereus millspaughii 102349 Morrison, 1934 Britton [= Pilosocereus royenii (L.) Byles & Rowley] Cephalocereus millspaughii 102656 Morrison, 1935 Cissus intermedia A. Rich. 95689 Ryerson, 1933 (Vitaceae) Citrus sp. (Rutaceae) 99516 Ryerson, 1934 [= C. paradisi Macfad.] Coccothrinax sp. (Arecaceae) 96482 Ryerson, 1933 Coccothrinax sp. 97283 Ryerson, 1933 Coccoloba sp. (Polygonaceae) 98831 Ryerson, 1934 Colubrina ferruginosa 97307 Ryerson, 1933 Brongn. (Rhamnaceae) [= C. arborescens (Mill.) Sarg.] Conocarpus erectus L. 95690 Ryerson, 1933 (Combretaceae) Crotalaria pumila Ortega 97308 Ryerson, 1933 (Fabaceae) Croton eluteria (L.) 99557 Ryerson, 1934 Sw. (Euphorbiaceae) [= C. nitens Sw.] Datura chlorantha Hook. 97309 Ryerson, 1933 (Solanaceae) [= D. metel L.] Datura metel L. var. fastuosa 97766 Ryerson, 1933 Dioscorea alata L. 95665 Ryerson, 1933 (Dioscoreaceae) Dolicholus minimus (L.) 97311 Ryerson, 1933 Medik. (Fabaceae) [= Rhynchosia minima (L.) DC. (Fabaceae)] Elaeis guineensis Jacq. 96485 Ryerson, 1933 (Arecaceae) Ficus jacquinifolia A. Rich. 95691 Ryerson, 1933 (Moraceae) Galactia sp. (Fabaceae) 97313 Ryerson, 1933 Galactia spiciformis Torr. & 97312 Ryerson, 1933 A. Gray Galactia striata (Jacq.) Urb. 95692 Ryerson, 1933 Gossypium jamaicense Mac fad 102607 Morrison, 1935 (Malvaceae) [= G. hirsutum L.] Gossypium sp. 98756 Ryerson, 1934 Gossypium sp. 98757 Ryerson, 1934 Gossypium sp. 98762 Ryerson, 1934 Gossypium sp. 98758 Ryerson, 1934 Gossypium sp. 98759 Ryerson, 1934 Gossypium sp. 98761 Ryerson, 1934 Gossypium sp. 98775 Ryerson, 1934 Gossypium sp. 98776 Ryerson, 1934 Gouania lupuloides (L.) 95704 Ryerson, 1934 Urb. (Rhamnaceae) Helicteres jamaicensis 96507 Ryerson, 1933 Jacq. (Sterculiaceae) Hymenocallis arenicola 99578 Ryerson, 1934 Northr. (Amaryllidaceae) Ipomoea heptaphylla (Rottl. 102469 Morrison, 1935 & Willd.) Voigt (Convolvulaceae) [= Ipomoea sp.] (d) Ipomoea heptaphylla 102668 Morrison, 1935 [= Ipomoea sp.] (d) Ipomoea tuba (Schltdl.) Don 95693 Ryerson, 1933 [= I. violacea L.] Jacaranda caerulea (L.) 96509 Ryerson, 1933 Griseb. (Bignoniaceae) [= J. caerulea (L.) Juss.] Jacaranda caerulea 99583 Ryerson, 1934 Jacquemontia jamaicensis 95694 Ryerson, 1933 (Jacq.) Hall. f. ex Soler (Convolvulaceae) [= J. havanensis (Jacq.) Urb.] Jasminum azoricum L. (Oleaceae) 97888 Ryerson, 1933 Livistona chinensis (Jacq.) 96486 Ryerson, 1933 R.Br. ex Mart. (Arecaceae) Lycopersicon esculentum 96510 Ryerson, 1933 Mill. (Solanaceae) Maba crassinervis (Kug. & Urb.) 102670 Morrison, 1935 Urb. (Ebenaceae) [= Diospyros crassinervis (Kug. & Urb.) Standi. (Ebenaceae)] Manihot esculenta Crantz 95593 Ryerson, 1933 (Euphorbiaceae) Manihot esculenta 95666 Ryerson, 1933 Mimosa bahamensis Benth. 97314 Ryerson, 1933 (Fabaceae) Moraea sp. (Iridaceae) 99901 Ryerson, 1934 Neomamillaria sp. (Cactaceae) 102655 Morrison, 1935 Oncidium sp. (Orchidaceae) 99036 Ryerson, 1934 Orchidaceae sp. 99053 Ryerson, 1934 Orchidaceae sp. 99054 Ryerson, 1934 Passijlora cupraea L. 95696 Ryerson, 1933 (Passifloraceae) Passijlora pectinata Griseb. 95697 Ryerson, 1933 Passijlora pectinata 95698 Ryerson, 1933 Passijlora rubra L. 97966 Ryerson, 1933 Phaseolus lathyroides L. 97315 Ryerson, 1933 (Fabaceae) [= Macroptilium lathyroides (L.) Urb. (Fabaceae)] Phaseolus sp. 97896 Ryerson, 1933 Phaseolus vulgaris L. 95699 Ryerson, 1933 Phaseolus vulgaris 97894 Ryerson, 1933 Phaseolus vulgaris 97895 Ryerson, 1933 Phoenix roebelenii O'Brien 95700 Ryerson, 1933 (Arecaceae) Plumeria obtusa 97781 Ryerson, 1933 L. (Apocynaceae) Plumeria obtusa 99624 Ryerson, 1934 Plumeria sp. 96515 Ryerson, 1933 Prosopis chilensis (Molina) 96516 Ryerson, 1933 Stuntz (P. juliflora (Sw.) DC.) (Fabaceae) [= P chilensis ] Pseudophoenix sargentii H. 96488 Ryerson, 1933 Wendl ex Sarg. (Arecaceae) Rhabdadenia sp. (Apocynaceae) 102271 Morrison, 1934 Seaforthia elegans 96490 Ryerson, 1933 R.Br. (Arecaceae) [= Ptychosperma elegans (R.Br.) Blume (Arecaceae)] Sesamum orientate 95702 Ryerson, 1933 L. (Pedaliaceae) [= S. indicum L.] Sesamum orientate 95703 Ryerson, 1933 Solanum sp. (Solanaceae) 102616 Morrison, 1935 Stylosanthes hamata (L.) Taub. 96517 Ryerson, 1933 (Fabaceae) Tabemaemontana sp. 97898 Ryerson, 1933 (Apocynaceae) Talinum paniculatum (Jacq.) 95705 Ryerson, 1933 Gaertn (Portulacaceae) Tillandsia utriculata L. 97790 Ryerson, 1933 (Bromeliaceae) Vitex agnus-castus 96518 Ryerson, 1933 L. (Lamiaceae) Zephyranthes cardinalis 99642 Ryerson, 1934 C.H. Wright (Amaryllidaceae) (a) Accepted names are shown in square brackets (b) It is likely that this collecting date is not correct as this day the team was visiting another island or region (c) Probably Great Inagua (d) The name I. heptaphylla (Rottl. & Willd.) Voigt is illegitimate and it refers to /. ticcopa Verde, [accepted name I. tenuipes Verde.] (Verdcourt, 1961). However, this species does not occur in the Bahamas (Cornell & Cornell, 1982) and we are uncertain what name David Fairchild meant (e) Germplasm collected during the first expedition (f) Germplasm collected during the second expedition Table 3 Plant material collected and number of photographs taken during the three trips of David Fairchild to the Bahama Archipelago Number Number Number of of plant of species photographs Island collections collections Cat Island 9 9 4 Conception 6 6 0 Crooked Island 3 3 9 Eleuthera 12 11 24 Great Inagua 20 17 23 Long Cay 0 0 0 Mayaguana 3 3 7 New Providence 26 24 42 Planas Cay 0 0 2 Rum Cay 7 6 3 San Salvador 3 2 18 Unreported 5 1 0
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|Author:||Francisco-Ortega, Javier; Korber, Nancy; Swan, Marianne; Mosely, Janet; Freid, Ethan; Jestrow, Brett|
|Publication:||The Botanical Review|
|Date:||Sep 1, 2014|
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