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Plant hunting expeditions of David Fairchild to The Bahamas.

Introduction

David Fairchild (1869-1954) was the founder of the Section of Seed and Plant Introduction of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) in 1898 (Fairchild, 1938; Douglas, 1973). He was one of the most important plant explorers in the history of the United States of America (Pauly, 2007). It is estimated that under his leadership the United States Department of Agriculture received over 75,000 plant germplasm accessions from all over the world (Todd, 2009). His achievements were honored in 1939 when Colonel Robert Montgomery founded in Miami a botanic garden named after him: Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden (FTBG) (Zuckerman, 1988). Today this botanical institution has the most extensive collection of tropical plants in the United States (ca. 3,500 species) with a focus on palms, cycads, Caribbean plants, orchids, and tropical fruits. This botanic garden has a strong commitment to the Bahamian flora with a three acre area known as the "Bahamian Plot" dedicated to plants from this archipelago. Currently the living collections of FTBG have over 93 native plant species wild collected in The Bahamas. This collection was initiated in 1964 by former Garden director John Popenoe after receiving a grant from the American Philosophical Society (Popenoe, 1966). It has the most important living collection of Bahamian plants outside the Bahamas. Recent joint field trips between Bahamas National Trust (BNT) and FTBG botanists have brought additional plant material for these living collections and those of BNT (Jestrow et al., 2012). In addition, FTBG was a catalyst for the most recent and comprehensive floristic account for these islands: "Flora of the Bahama Archipelago". This work was initiated by William Gillis (1933-1979) (Kass & Eshbaugh, 1993) but published by Donovan Correll (1908-1983) and Helen Correll (1907-2000) and illustrated by Priscilla Fawcett (1932-2012) (Correll & Correll, 1982).

As part of our research pertinent to the plant hunting expeditions undertaken by David Fairchild (Francisco-Ortega, 2012; Francisco-Ortega et al., 2012) here we present a study concerning the three known plant exploration trips performed by David Fairchild to the Bahamian Archipelago. These expeditions were restricted to islands belonging to the country of The Bahamas. As far as we are aware, David Fairchild did not visit the United Kingdom Overseas Territory of the Turks and Caicos Islands. Our research has been primarily based on documents, manuscripts and photographs that belonged to David Fairchild that are located in the Archives and Library of FTBG. Among these documents we found particularly useful three undated and unpublished manuscripts by David Fairchild focusing on his trips along the Caribbean Basin, one of them was untitled. The other two were titled "Through the West Indies for Plants" and "With the Research Boat Utowana in the West Indies and Guianas." In addition, the archive of this botanic garden has documents listing the ports visited by the Utowana (see below details about this vessel) during its trips. These unpublished lists were useful to reconstruct the itineraries followed by David Fairchild. Finally, for our research we have also studied the germplasm introduction records found in the periodic plant exploration reports of USDA (available on the internet at http://www.ars.usda.gov/ Services/docs.htm?docid=18722).

Utowana as a Research Yacht--The Caribbean Voyages

The plant hunting expeditions of David Fairchild were largely funded by Barbour Lathrop (1847-1927) and Allison V. Armour (1863-1941) (Todd, 2009). These two wealthy businessmen had a strong interest in plant exploration and the development of agricultural research in the U.S.A. Between 1898 and 1903 Fairchild was an "employee" of Lathrop and under his patronage he conducted agricultural exploration worldwide (Todd, 2009). Chronologically, Allison V. Armour was the second benefactor of Fairchild's plant exploration endeavors, and between 1925 and 1933 he provided financial support for several expeditions that visited more than 50 countries or colonies in Africa, Asia, Europe, and North, Central and South America. For these expeditions Allison Armour bought a yacht which he renamed Utowana (Fig. 1) and had specially designed to perform natural history research (Fairchild, 1928). During the 20th century few other research vessels have been as important in natural science exploration as the Utowana. This floating laboratory provided facilities and transportation for many botanists and zoologists who performed natural history research and biological surveys on all continents except Antarctica and Australia. Her first commission was a voyage to the Canary Islands in July 1925 (Fairchild, 1930) and she went out of service on an unknown date between April 1934 and February 1935 (Barbour & Shreve, 1935). This vessel should not be confused with another research boat that was also named Utowana and that was also owned by Allison Armour (Fig. 2). This previous sailing steamer was involved in several expeditions during the late 19th and early 20th centuries (Millspaugh, 1900; Barbour, 1945) and was decommissioned by 1917 (Anonymous, 1917).

David Fairchild published one book and one long article about the outcomes of the biological expeditions on board the Utowana between 1925 and 1927 (Fairchild, 1928, 1930). These voyages centered on the Old World. However, we know that after 1927 David Fairchild also undertook two additional plant exploration expeditions focusing on the Caribbean Basin on this yacht (Burton, 1932; Fairchild, 1934; Yaffa, 1971). These expeditions were also sponsored by Allison V. Armour. Unfortunately David Fairchild did not publish a full account of these post-1927 trips. Therefore, details and outcomes of his latest expeditions on this research vessel have remained largely unknown.

Famous herpetologist Prof. Thomas Barbour (1884-1946) also sailed on the Utowana between 1929 and 1934. The aim of Barbour's trips was mostly to collect specimens of Caribbean amphibians and reptiles (Henderson & Powell, 2003) and full accounts of these expeditions were published by Barbour (1945). Interestingly, one of these trips also included two plant hunters from the USDA (i.e., James Kempton and Guy Collins). Between January and May 1931 these two botanists joined Barbour during an expedition to The Bahamas, Cuba, the Cayman Islands, Central America, and Mexico; however, David Fairchild did not join this crew (Barbour, 1945). Barbour had a high respect and admiration for David Fairchild as a person as well as a talented scientist (Barbour, 1945). As a result of his herpetological studies in The Bahamas one species of Anolis was named by him and Benjamin Shreve to honor David Fairchild. Anolis fairchildi (Fig. 3) is endemic to Cay Sal (Buckner et al., 2012) and its conservation status needs to be evaluated (Knapp et al., 2011).

David Fairchild plant hunted in The Bahamas on two occasions on board the Utowana between December 1931 and April 1933. During these expeditions seven islands and three cays were explored (Fig. 4). These two trips did not focus exclusively on The Bahamas as they were part of larger endeavors that included other Caribbean Islands, the Guianas, Central America or Mexico.

From our archival research we also know that David Fairchild and his wife flew to Nassau in April 1939 where they stayed ca. one week, but no plants were collected during this visit. Prior to these Bahamian trips David Fairchild visited the Caribbean Islands in 1898 when, under the sponsorship of Barbour Lathrop, he performed field work on the islands of Barbados, Jamaica, and Trinidad (Fairchild, 1938, unpublished). Based on documents located at the FTBG archives we know that before 1931 David Fairchild travelled to Cuba at least once (Fairchild, unpublished); however, additional historical research is needed to have full details of the itineraries followed by Fairchild along the Caribbean Islands. From the information that we have gathered so far it appears that during these other West Indian expeditions, the Bahamian archipelago was not visited.

The Three Trips of David Fairchild to The Bahamas

First Plant Hunting Expedition: From Miami to the Antilles and the Guianas (1931-1932). The first plant hunting expedition of David Fairchild in The Bahamas took place in 1931 and 1932 (Table 1). It was part of a trip to other Caribbean Islands, Guyana, and Suriname that departed from Miami and arrived at Nassau on December 31, 1931. The expedition members were Allison V. Armour, Jordan C. Mott (a personal friend of Allison Armour who was the grandson of Jordan L. Mott I, founder of a prominent iron works company in New York), Harold Loomis (USDA), Palemon Howard Dorsett (USDA), Marian and Nancy Fairchild (wife and daughter of David Fairchild, respectively) (Fig. 5), and Leonard R. Toy (Florida State Experimental Station at Homestead). Seven of The Bahamas islands (i.e., Cat Island, Conception, Eleuthera, Great Inagua, Mayaguana, New Providence and Rum Cay) were visited. Sadly during this trip Jordan C. Mott died at Rum Cay on January 7 (Barbour, 1945). As a result, the expedition members had to return to Nassau to make funeral arrangements with Mott's family. After this sad and emotional incident the Utowana visited two additional islands and eventually departed from Great Inagua to the Dominican Republic on January 15. On their way back to Miami the Utowana arrived at Mayaguana (March 29) from Haiti and after a two day stop at Nassau it continued to Miami (Table 1).

An account with expedition highlights for The Bahamas and the other regions visited during this trip was published by Fairchild (1934). From this account and Fairchild's unpublished manuscripts found in the FTBG archives it appears that the main reason to include The Bahamas in this trip was to collect germplasm of "sea-island cotton." The history of this crop is complex as it involves introgression between Gossypium barbadense L. and G. hirsutum (Stephens 1976; Wendel, pers. comm.). Both of these species have large and overlapping indigenous cultivated ranges in the Caribbean, which led to their introgression. Despite its low yield and poor adaptation for large-scale agriculture, sea-island cotton was a relatively important crop both in the southeastern USA and the West Indies because it produced long, fine, and silky fibers that were highly desirable and unmatched by other high-yielding cottons (Stephens, 1976). Cotton plantations were extremely important in the Bahamas in the late 18th century (Albury, 1975) and it appears that the archipelago was an important area for the early introduction of this crop in the southeastern USA (Stephens, 1976). Unfortunately, David Fairchild was not successful in finding sea-island cotton in The Bahamas although nine accessions of Gossypium sp. were collected in the archipelago during this expedition.

During this first expedition 79 germplasm accessions (62 species) were collected and 86 photographs were taken (Table 2). David Fairchild collected in agricultural and wild stands and also in private gardens. Six of the germplasm accessions came from the gardens of "Mrs. Edward George" at Nassau. Among the distinguished horticulturists that David Fairchild visited during this trip there was Mr. Arthur C. Langlois (1902-1977) and his wife Margaret (7-1985). Arthur Langlois is well known for his published work on palms (Langlois, 1976). The Langlois established an extraordinary collection of palms at their private gardens at Nassau. These gardens are known as The Retreat and they are currently owned by BNT. The headquarters of this organization are currently located at this site (Mosely, 2008; Tasker, 2009). During this trip David Fairchild took only one photograph of The Retreat to show a specimen of Ficus jacquinifolia. We believe that germplasm collection number 95691 refers to this tree (Table 2). From David Fairchild's pocket notebooks and scrapbooks we know that during this first expedition he received help from many other Bahamian plant enthusiasts and farmers. David Fairchild provided the names of several of these island residents; however, we have not been able to properly track down their occupations and how Fairchild interacted with them. Dr. Joseph Albuty is one of the most intriguing people recorded in David Fairchild's notes. The only available image of Nancy Fairchild in The Bahamas (Fig. 5) is with Dr. Albury, and it shows them with a branch of jumbie bean (Leucaena leucocephala). Mr. William Darville (Great Inagua), Mr. Newbold and Mr. Abraham (Eleuthera), and Mr. Charles Sweeting and Mrs. Edward George (Nassau, see above) are other Bahamian residents who also met David Fairchild during this trip and for whom we do not have biographical information.

Second Plant Hunting Expedition: From Miami to the Greater Antilles and Panama (1932-1933). Unlike the first expedition, which had only a plant germplasm focus, this second one included both botanists from the USDA (David Fairchild and P. H. Dorsett) and zoologists from Harvard University (herpetologist Thomas Barbour and ornithologist James C. Greenway) (Fig. 6). David Fairchild did not publish any account about this trip; however, through the works of Barbour (1943, 1945) we have details of this expedition. The Utowana arrived at Nassau on January 10, 1933 and from here she visited seven additional islands or cays (Table 1). On January 27, the expedition departed for Haiti. On her way back to the USA (final destination Newport, Rhode Island) the vessel stopped in Nassau between April 7 and 10. During this trip David Fairchild collected only 15 germplasm accessions (twelve species) but 46 photographs were taken. Among the people who helped there were Mr. John Toote who was the "wireless operator on Long Cay," Mr. Eddie Albury identified as "Master of Tuna Fish" (Nassau), and the catholic priest of San Salvador, the Rev. Denis Pernell. We have also found notes for two other native Bahamians (Mr. Cartwright at Great Inagua and Mr. John Martin at Mayaguana); however, we have not been able to find additional biographical information about them.

The Third Visit: From Miami to Nassau (1939). During this trip David and Marian Fairchild met with Mrs. Anne Archbold (1873-1968). She was the daughter of the co-founder of Standard Oil and the main sponsor of the Cheng Ho expedition. This plant hunting endeavor was the only major expedition undertaken by David Fairchild to collect plant material for FTBG. It focused on Indonesia and it only lasted six months between January and June 1940 (Fairchild, 1945).

No plant material was collected during this third trip to The Bahamas and we believe that the main aim of this visit was to arrange logistics for the Cheng Ho expedition. During this trip four photographs were taken, all of them depicting Dr. Charles Sumner Dolley (1856-1948) (Fig. 7) an American medical doctor and biologist who worked in the Bahamas (Gifford, 1947; Fairchild, 1948) and collaborated on the "Provisional List of the Plants of the Bahama Islands" by Gardiner & Brace (1889).

The Photographic Record. As a naturalist David Fairchild was not only interested in collecting germplasm. During his expeditions he took images pertinent to the people and natural history of the places that he visited (Fig. 8; Table 3). A very small selection of these images is shown in this article. The photographs that he took in the archipelago provide a unique and broad-ranging historical perspective on these islands. His collection of Bahamian photographs included urban images of gardens, public buildings such as the Nassau Hospital, relevant street trees and landmarks like Miss Morely's bookstore in Nassau. In addition, there are images showing the difficult living conditions found in the countryside of the most remote islands (Fig. 9) where slash-and-bum was still an important agricultural technique to clear land for agriculture (Fig. 10).

In his unpublished papers he indicated that pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. (Fabaceae)] was one of the most important staple foods of The Bahamas and he took three photographs showing seeds of this species being sold in the market of Nassau (Fig. 11). Additional images with agricultural value are those showing horses losing their hair after eating leucaena [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. (Fabaceae)] or those depicting orange trees being devastated by the citrus black fly [Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera)]. From the second expedition there are several photographs showing T. Barbour and J. C. Greenway performing field work (Fig. 6).

These two expeditions to The Bahamas need to be placed in a historical context, as they happened during a period when the archipelago was severely damaged by four category 3 or higher hurricanes that hit the islands in 1928, 1929, 1932, and 1933 (Albury, 1975; Neeley, 2006; Andrews, 2007). One of the photographs shows the coast of Crooked Island with many rocks piled up by a tidal wave (Fig. 12), probably as a result of the severe hurricane that hit the archipelago in 1932 (Andrews, 2007). We found additional comments concerning the devastating effect of this hurricane in the notes that Fairchild wrote for two other photographs taken on San Salvador and on Crooked Island.

Acknowledgments This is contribution number 258 from the Tropical Biology Program of Florida International University (FIU). Our gratitude to Mr. Pericles Maillis for his insights and help pertinent to the people David Fairchild met in The Bahamas. We dedicate this paper to our colleague Dr. Richard Campbell in recognition of his work searching for tropical fruit germplasm throughout the world, work that follows in the footsteps of David Fairchild. This paper was presented at an international symposium held in Nassau between October 30 and 31, 2012 to celebrate the 30th anniversary of the publication of the "Flora of the Bahama Archipelago" (title of symposium: Celebrating 30 Years of the Flora of the Bahamas: Conservation and Science Challenges). Our gratitude to the symposium organizers (BNT and The College of The Bahamas in collaboration with FTBG, and FIU) for providing a venue to present our research. The symposium was funded by the Bahamas Environmental Fund. The Latin American and Caribbean Center of FIU and FTBG supported attendance at the symposium. Prof. Dan Austin and Prof. Jonathan Wendel provided guidance with taxonomic aspects pertinent to Ipomoea and Gossypium, respectively. Sandra Buckner, L. Sorenson, and M. Sorenson helped with images and details of Anolis fairchildi.

DOI 10.1007/s12229-014-9139-x

Literature Cited

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Jestrow, B., E. Freid, J. Lopez, M. Daniels, E. Carey, D. Hepburn, N. Korber, J. Mosely & J. Francisco-Ortega. 2012. Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: Celebrating a 30-year Fairchild research milestone. The Tropical Garden 67(3): 46-52.

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Korber, N., M. E. Gelberg, J. Mosely, M. Swan, E. Freid, B. Jestrow & J. Francisco-Ortega. 2013. The unpublished autobiography of Donovan Correll (1908-1983): Accounts on Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden and Bahamian plants. Moscosoa 18: 86-104.

Langlois, A. C. 1976. Supplement to palms of the world. The University Presses of Florida. Gainesville, FL.

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Javier Francisco-Ortega (1,2,4) * Nancy Korber (2) * Marianne Swan (2) * Janet Mosely (2) * Ethan Freid (3) * Brett Jestrow (2)

(1) Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA

(2) Kushlan Tropical Science Institute, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Coral Gables, Miami, FL 33156, USA

(3) The Bahamas National Trust, P. O. Box N-4105, The Retreat, Village Road, Nassau, The Bahamas

(4) Author for Correspondence; e-mail: ortegaj@fiu.edu

Published online: 14 August 2014

Table 1 Itinerary of the three plant hunting expeditions of David
Fairchild in The Bahamas

Expedition           Island

First expedition     New Providence (a,b)

First expedition     Cat Island (a,b)
First expedition     Conception (b)
First expedition     Rum Cay (a,b)
First expedition     New Providence (a,b)
First expedition     Eleuthera (a,b)
First expedition     New Providence (a,b)
First expedition     Great Inagua (a,b)

First expedition     Mayaguana (a,b)

First expedition     New Providence
Second expedition    New Providence (b)
Second expedition    San Salvador (b)
Second expedition    Crooked Island (a,b)
Second expedition    Long Cay
Second expedition    Crooked Island (b)
Second expedition    Mayaguana (a,b)
Second expedition    Planas Cay
Second expedition    Great Inagua (a,b)

Second expedition    New Providence

Expedition           Length of visit

First expedition     December 31, 1931-
                       January 3, 1932
First expedition     January 4-January 5, 1932
First expedition     January 5-January 6, 1932
First expedition     January 6-January 7, 1932
First expedition     January 8-January 10, 1932
First expedition     January 10-January 11, 1932
First expedition     January 12, 1932
First expedition     January 14-January 15, 1932

First expedition     March 29, 1932

First expedition     March 31-April 1, 1932
Second expedition    January 10-February 16, 1933
Second expedition    February 17-February 18, 1933
Second expedition    February 19-February 21, 1933
Second expedition    February 21, 1933
Second expedition    February 21-February 22, 1933
Second expedition    February 23-February 25, 1933
Second expedition    February 25, 1933
Second expedition    February 25-February 27, 1933

Second expedition    April 7-April 10, 1933

Expedition           Notes

First expedition     Utowana arrived from Miami

First expedition
First expedition
First expedition
First expedition
First expedition
First expedition
First expedition     Utowana left for Beata
                       Island (Dominican Republic)
First expedition     Utowana arrived from Cap
                       Haitien (Haiti)
First expedition     Utowana left for Miami
Second expedition    Utowana arrived from
Second expedition    Guantanamo (c)
Second expedition
Second expedition
Second expedition
Second expedition
Second expedition
Second expedition    Utowana left for Port au
                       Prince
Second expedition    Utowana arrived from
                       Cienfitegos and left for
                       Newport, Rhode Island

(a) Germplasm was collected

(b) Photos were taken

(c) Utowana arrived from Guantanamo probably on January 10, but
David Fairchild and other expedition members arrived in Nassau on
February 16 (Barbour, 1945)

Table 2 Getmplasm collected by David Fairchild during his
expeditions to the Canary Islands

Taxon as identified by            Collecting site/       Collecting
David Fairchild (a)               Island                 date

Acacia choriophylfa Benth.        Mayaguana              March
  (Fabaceae)                                               29, 1932
Achras zapota L. (Sapotaceae)     Cat Island             Undated (c)
  [= Manilkara zapota (L.)
  P. Royen (Sapotaceae)]
Agave acklinicola Trel.           Crooked Island         February
  (Asparagaceae)                                           20, 1933
Agave indagatorum Trel.           East of Cockbum/San    Undated (f)
                                    Salvador
Agave indagatorum                 Cockbum/San Salvador   Undated (f)
Annona squamosa L.                Eleuthera              Undated (c)
  (Annonaceae)
Arecaceae sp.                     Nassau/New             January
                                    Providence             1, 1932
Asparagus sp. (Asparagaceae)      In the garden          January
                                      of Mrs.              9, 1932
                                    Edward George,
                                    Nassau/
                                    New Providence
Bourreria ovata Miers             Rum Cay                January
  (Boraginaceae)                                           6, 1932
Bradburya virginiana (L.)         Spanish Wells/         January
  Kuntze (Fabaceae)                 Eleuthera              10, 1932
  [= Centrosema virginianum
  (L.) Benth. (Fabaceae)]
Bucida buceras L.                 Inagua (c)             January
  (Combretaceae)                                           15, 1932
Caesalpinia vesicaria             Great Inagua           February 27,
  L. (Fabaceae)                                            1933
Capsicum frutescens               Nassau/New Providence  January
  L. (Solanaceae)                                          10, 1932
Capparis cynophallophora          Salt Pond Hill/Great   January
  L. (Capparaceae)                  Inagua                 15, 1932
Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae)     Nassau/New Providence  January
                                                           12, 1932
Carica papaya                     Nassau/New Providence  April 12,
                                                           1933 (b)
Cephalocereus bahamensis          North side of Crooked  February
  Britton & Rose (Cactaceae)        Island                 20, 1933
  [= Pilosocereus polygonus
  (Lam.)
  Byles & Rowles (Cactaceae)]
Cephalocereus millspaughii        Mayaguana              February
  Britton [= Pilosocereus                                  24, 1933
  royenii
  (L.) Byles & Rowley]
Cephalocereus millspaughii        Salt Pond/Great        March 26,
                                    Inagua                 1933 (b)
Cissus intermedia A. Rich.        Grant Town             January
                                    and Nassau/            3, 1932
  (Vitaceae)                        New Providence
Citrus sp. (Rutaceae)             In the garden of Mrs.  January
  [= C. paradisi Macfad.]           Edward George,         9, 1932
                                    Nassau/
                                    New Providence
Coccothrinax sp. (Arecaceae)      Great Inagua           January 1,
                                                           1932 (b)
Coccothrinax sp.                  Great Inagua           January
                                                           15, 1932
Coccoloba sp. (Polygonaceae)      Great Inagua           Undated (c)
Colubrina ferruginosa             Rum Cay                January
  Brongn. (Rhamnaceae)                                     7, 1932
  [= C. arborescens
  (Mill.) Sarg.]
Conocarpus erectus L.             Arthur Town/           January
  (Combretaceae)                    Cat Island             4, 1932
Crotalaria pumila Ortega          Gun Point/Eleuthera    January
  (Fabaceae)                                               11, 1932
Croton eluteria (L.)              Cat Island             January
  Sw. (Euphorbiaceae)                                      5, 1932
  [= C. nitens Sw.]
Datura chlorantha Hook.           Spanish Wells/         January
  (Solanaceae) [= D. metel L.]      Eleuthera              11, 1932
Datura metel L. var. fastuosa     Nassau/New Providence  January
                                                           12, 1932
Dioscorea alata L.                Gun Point/Eleuthera    January
  (Dioscoreaceae)                                          11, 1932
Dolicholus minimus (L.)           Cat Island             January
  Medik. (Fabaceae)                                        4, 1932
  [= Rhynchosia minima
  (L.) DC. (Fabaceae)]
Elaeis guineensis Jacq.           In the garden of Mrs.  January
  (Arecaceae)                       Edward Geoige,         9, 1932
                                    Nassau/
                                    New Providence
Ficus jacquinifolia A. Rich.      Nassau/New Providence  January
  (Moraceae)                                               1, 1932
Galactia sp. (Fabaceae)           Salt Pond Hill/        January
                                    Great Inagua           15, 1932
Galactia spiciformis Torr. &      Gun Point/Eleuthera    January
  A. Gray                                                  11, 1932
Galactia striata (Jacq.) Urb.     Conception             January
                                                           5, 1932
Gossypium jamaicense Mac fad      Great Inagua           February
  (Malvaceae)                                              27, 1933
  [= G. hirsutum L.]
Gossypium sp.                     Nassau/New             Undated (c)
                                    Providence
Gossypium sp.                     Conception             Undated (c)
Gossypium sp.                     Great Inagua           Undated (c)
Gossypium sp.                     Unknown                Undated (c)
Gossypium sp.                     Unknown                Undated (c)
Gossypium sp.                     Unknown                Undated (c)
Gossypium sp.                     Unknown                Undated (c)
Gossypium sp.                     Cat Island             Undated (c)
Gouania lupuloides (L.)           Grant Town, Nassau/    January
  Urb. (Rhamnaceae)                 New Providence         3, 1932
Helicteres jamaicensis            Salt Pond Hill/        January
  Jacq. (Sterculiaceae)             Great Inagua           15, 1932
Hymenocallis arenicola            Conception             January
  Northr. (Amaryllidaceae)                                 5, 1932
Ipomoea heptaphylla (Rottl.       Crooked Island         February 2,
  & Willd.) Voigt                                          1933 (b)
  (Convolvulaceae)
  [= Ipomoea sp.] (d)
Ipomoea heptaphylla               Great Inagua           February
  [= Ipomoea sp.] (d)                                      26, 1933
Ipomoea tuba (Schltdl.) Don       Conception             January
  [= I. violacea L.]                                       5, 1932
Jacaranda caerulea (L.)           Nassau/New Providence  Undated (c)
  Griseb. (Bignoniaceae)
  [= J. caerulea (L.) Juss.]
Jacaranda caerulea                Nassau/New Providence  Undated (c)
Jacquemontia jamaicensis          Nassau/New Providence  January
  (Jacq.) Hall. f. ex Soler                                1, 1932
  (Convolvulaceae)
  [= J. havanensis
  (Jacq.) Urb.]
Jasminum azoricum L. (Oleaceae)   Nassau/New Providence  January
                                                           10, 1932
Livistona chinensis (Jacq.)       New Providence         January
  R.Br. ex Mart. (Arecaceae)                               1, 1932
Lycopersicon esculentum           Gun Point/Eleuthera    January
  Mill. (Solanaceae)                                       11, 1932
Maba crassinervis (Kug. & Urb.)   San Salvador           January 1,
  Urb. (Ebenaceae) [= Diospyros                            1933 (b)
  crassinervis (Kug. & Urb.)
  Standi. (Ebenaceae)]
Manihot esculenta Crantz          Presented by J.T.      Undated (c)
  (Euphorbiaceae)                   Brown, Arthur
                                    Town/Cat Island
Manihot esculenta                 Gun Point/Eleuthera    January
                                                           11, 1932
Mimosa bahamensis Benth.          Rum Cay                January
  (Fabaceae)                                               7, 1932
Moraea sp. (Iridaceae)            Presented by D.        January
                                    Lawrence/              2, 1932
                                    New Providence
Neomamillaria sp. (Cactaceae)     Salt Pond/             March 26,
                                    Great Inagua           1933 (b)
Oncidium sp. (Orchidaceae)        Cotton Point/Rum Cay   January
                                                           6, 1932
Orchidaceae sp.                   Great Inagua           Undated (c)
Orchidaceae sp.                   Great Inagua           Undated (c)
Passijlora cupraea L.             Arthur Town/           January
  (Passifloraceae)                  Cat Island             4, 1932
Passijlora pectinata Griseb.      Conception             January
                                                           5, 1932
Passijlora pectinata              Rum Cay                January
                                                           6, 1932
Passijlora rubra L.               Eleuthera Bluff/       January 7,
                                    Eleuthera              1932 (b)
Phaseolus lathyroides L.          Salt Pond Hill/Great   January
  (Fabaceae) [= Macroptilium        Inagua                 15, 1932
  lathyroides (L.)
  Urb. (Fabaceae)]
Phaseolus sp.                     Spanish Wells/         January
                                    Eleuthera              11, 1932
Phaseolus vulgaris L.             Cat Island             January
                                                           4, 1932
Phaseolus vulgaris                Eleuthera              January
                                                           11, 1932
Phaseolus vulgaris                Eleuthera              January
                                                           11, 1932
Phoenix roebelenii O'Brien        Old Fort, Nassau/New   January 31,
  (Arecaceae)                       Providence             1932 (b)
Plumeria obtusa                   Rum Cay                January
  L. (Apocynaceae)                                         6, 1932
Plumeria obtusa                   Black Lands/Rum Cay    January
                                                           6, 1932
Plumeria sp.                        Great Inagua         January
                                                           15, 1932
Prosopis chilensis (Molina)       Near Mathewstown/      January
  Stuntz (P. juliflora              Great Inagua           15, 1932
  (Sw.) DC.)
  (Fabaceae) [= P chilensis ]
Pseudophoenix sargentii H.        In the garden of Mrs.  January
  Wendl ex Sarg. (Arecaceae)        Edward George,         10, 1932
                                    Nassau/
                                    New Providence
Rhabdadenia sp. (Apocynaceae)     Mayaguana              February
                                                           24, 1933
Seaforthia elegans                In the garden of Mrs.  January
  R.Br. (Arecaceae)                                        10, 1932
  [= Ptychosperma                   Edward George,
  elegans (R.Br.)
  Blume (Arecaceae)]                Nassau/
                                    New Providence
Sesamum orientate                 Cat Island             Undated (c)
  L. (Pedaliaceae)
  [= S. indicum L.]
Sesamum orientate                 Nassau/New Providence  January
                                                           2, 1932
Solanum sp. (Solanaceae)          Great Inagua           February
                                                           26, 1933
Stylosanthes hamata (L.) Taub.    Salt Pond Hill/        January
  (Fabaceae)                        Great Inagua           15, 1932
Tabemaemontana sp.                Nassau/New Providence  January
  (Apocynaceae)                                            12, 1932
Talinum paniculatum (Jacq.)       Near Grant Town,       January
  Gaertn (Portulacaceae)            Nassau/                2, 1932
                                    New Providence
Tillandsia utriculata L.          Conception             January
  (Bromeliaceae)                                           5, 1932
Vitex agnus-castus                In the garden of Mrs.  January
  L. (Lamiaceae)                    Edward George,         9, 1932
                                    Nassau/
                                    New Providence
Zephyranthes cardinalis           Nassau/New Providence  January
  C.H. Wright (Amaryllidaceae)                             12, 1932

                                  USDA
Taxon as identified by            accession
David Fairchild (a)               number     Reference

Acacia choriophylfa Benth.        98977      Ryerson, 1934
  (Fabaceae)
Achras zapota L. (Sapotaceae)     95688      Ryerson, 1933
  [= Manilkara zapota (L.)
  P. Royen (Sapotaceae)]
Agave acklinicola Trel.           102647     Morrison, 1935
  (Asparagaceae)
Agave indagatorum Trel.           102587     Morrison, 1935

Agave indagatorum                 102621     Morrison, 1935
Annona squamosa L.                98797      Ryerson, 1934
  (Annonaceae)
Arecaceae sp.                     99643      Ryerson, 1934

Asparagus sp. (Asparagaceae)      96501      Ryerson, 1933

Bourreria ovata Miers             95695      Ryerson, 1933
  (Boraginaceae)
Bradburya virginiana (L.)         97306      Ryerson, 1933
  Kuntze (Fabaceae)
  [= Centrosema virginianum
  (L.) Benth. (Fabaceae)]
Bucida buceras L.                 96502      Ryerson, 1933
  (Combretaceae)
Caesalpinia vesicaria             102346     Morrison, 1934
  L. (Fabaceae)
Capsicum frutescens               96503      Ryerson, 1933
  L. (Solanaceae)
Capparis cynophallophora          97759      Ryerson, 1933
  L. (Capparaceae)
Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae)     96504      Ryerson, 1933

Carica papaya                     102347     Morrison, 1934

Cephalocereus bahamensis          102348     Morrison, 1934
  Britton & Rose (Cactaceae)
  [= Pilosocereus polygonus
  (Lam.)
  Byles & Rowles (Cactaceae)]
Cephalocereus millspaughii        102349     Morrison, 1934
  Britton [= Pilosocereus
  royenii
  (L.) Byles & Rowley]
Cephalocereus millspaughii        102656     Morrison, 1935

Cissus intermedia A. Rich.        95689      Ryerson, 1933

  (Vitaceae)
Citrus sp. (Rutaceae)             99516      Ryerson, 1934
  [= C. paradisi Macfad.]

Coccothrinax sp. (Arecaceae)      96482      Ryerson, 1933

Coccothrinax sp.                  97283      Ryerson, 1933

Coccoloba sp. (Polygonaceae)      98831      Ryerson, 1934
Colubrina ferruginosa             97307      Ryerson, 1933
  Brongn. (Rhamnaceae)
  [= C. arborescens
  (Mill.) Sarg.]
Conocarpus erectus L.             95690      Ryerson, 1933
  (Combretaceae)
Crotalaria pumila Ortega          97308      Ryerson, 1933
  (Fabaceae)
Croton eluteria (L.)              99557      Ryerson, 1934
  Sw. (Euphorbiaceae)
  [= C. nitens Sw.]
Datura chlorantha Hook.           97309      Ryerson, 1933
  (Solanaceae) [= D. metel L.]
Datura metel L. var. fastuosa     97766      Ryerson, 1933

Dioscorea alata L.                95665      Ryerson, 1933
  (Dioscoreaceae)
Dolicholus minimus (L.)           97311      Ryerson, 1933
  Medik. (Fabaceae)
  [= Rhynchosia minima
  (L.) DC. (Fabaceae)]
Elaeis guineensis Jacq.           96485      Ryerson, 1933
  (Arecaceae)

Ficus jacquinifolia A. Rich.      95691      Ryerson, 1933
  (Moraceae)
Galactia sp. (Fabaceae)           97313      Ryerson, 1933

Galactia spiciformis Torr. &      97312      Ryerson, 1933
  A. Gray
Galactia striata (Jacq.) Urb.     95692      Ryerson, 1933

Gossypium jamaicense Mac fad      102607     Morrison, 1935
  (Malvaceae)
  [= G. hirsutum L.]
Gossypium sp.                     98756      Ryerson, 1934

Gossypium sp.                     98757      Ryerson, 1934
Gossypium sp.                     98762      Ryerson, 1934
Gossypium sp.                     98758      Ryerson, 1934
Gossypium sp.                     98759      Ryerson, 1934
Gossypium sp.                     98761      Ryerson, 1934
Gossypium sp.                     98775      Ryerson, 1934
Gossypium sp.                     98776      Ryerson, 1934
Gouania lupuloides (L.)           95704      Ryerson, 1934
  Urb. (Rhamnaceae)
Helicteres jamaicensis            96507      Ryerson, 1933
  Jacq. (Sterculiaceae)
Hymenocallis arenicola            99578      Ryerson, 1934
  Northr. (Amaryllidaceae)
Ipomoea heptaphylla (Rottl.       102469     Morrison, 1935
  & Willd.) Voigt
  (Convolvulaceae)
  [= Ipomoea sp.] (d)
Ipomoea heptaphylla               102668     Morrison, 1935
  [= Ipomoea sp.] (d)
Ipomoea tuba (Schltdl.) Don       95693      Ryerson, 1933
  [= I. violacea L.]
Jacaranda caerulea (L.)           96509      Ryerson, 1933
  Griseb. (Bignoniaceae)
  [= J. caerulea (L.) Juss.]
Jacaranda caerulea                99583      Ryerson, 1934
Jacquemontia jamaicensis          95694      Ryerson, 1933
  (Jacq.) Hall. f. ex Soler
  (Convolvulaceae)
  [= J. havanensis
  (Jacq.) Urb.]
Jasminum azoricum L. (Oleaceae)   97888      Ryerson, 1933

Livistona chinensis (Jacq.)       96486      Ryerson, 1933
  R.Br. ex Mart. (Arecaceae)
Lycopersicon esculentum           96510      Ryerson, 1933
  Mill. (Solanaceae)
Maba crassinervis (Kug. & Urb.)   102670     Morrison, 1935
  Urb. (Ebenaceae) [= Diospyros
  crassinervis (Kug. & Urb.)
  Standi. (Ebenaceae)]
Manihot esculenta Crantz          95593      Ryerson, 1933
  (Euphorbiaceae)

Manihot esculenta                 95666      Ryerson, 1933

Mimosa bahamensis Benth.          97314      Ryerson, 1933
  (Fabaceae)
Moraea sp. (Iridaceae)            99901      Ryerson, 1934

Neomamillaria sp. (Cactaceae)     102655     Morrison, 1935

Oncidium sp. (Orchidaceae)        99036      Ryerson, 1934

Orchidaceae sp.                   99053      Ryerson, 1934
Orchidaceae sp.                   99054      Ryerson, 1934
Passijlora cupraea L.             95696      Ryerson, 1933
  (Passifloraceae)
Passijlora pectinata Griseb.      95697      Ryerson, 1933

Passijlora pectinata              95698      Ryerson, 1933

Passijlora rubra L.               97966      Ryerson, 1933

Phaseolus lathyroides L.          97315      Ryerson, 1933
  (Fabaceae) [= Macroptilium
  lathyroides (L.)
  Urb. (Fabaceae)]
Phaseolus sp.                     97896      Ryerson, 1933

Phaseolus vulgaris L.             95699      Ryerson, 1933

Phaseolus vulgaris                97894      Ryerson, 1933

Phaseolus vulgaris                97895      Ryerson, 1933

Phoenix roebelenii O'Brien        95700      Ryerson, 1933
  (Arecaceae)
Plumeria obtusa                   97781      Ryerson, 1933
  L. (Apocynaceae)
Plumeria obtusa                   99624      Ryerson, 1934

Plumeria sp.                      96515      Ryerson, 1933

Prosopis chilensis (Molina)       96516      Ryerson, 1933
  Stuntz (P. juliflora
  (Sw.) DC.)
  (Fabaceae) [= P chilensis ]
Pseudophoenix sargentii H.        96488      Ryerson, 1933
  Wendl ex Sarg. (Arecaceae)

Rhabdadenia sp. (Apocynaceae)     102271     Morrison, 1934

Seaforthia elegans                96490      Ryerson, 1933
  R.Br. (Arecaceae)
  [= Ptychosperma
  elegans (R.Br.)
  Blume (Arecaceae)]

Sesamum orientate                 95702      Ryerson, 1933
  L. (Pedaliaceae)
  [= S. indicum L.]
Sesamum orientate                 95703      Ryerson, 1933

Solanum sp. (Solanaceae)          102616     Morrison, 1935

Stylosanthes hamata (L.) Taub.    96517      Ryerson, 1933
  (Fabaceae)
Tabemaemontana sp.                97898      Ryerson, 1933
  (Apocynaceae)
Talinum paniculatum (Jacq.)       95705      Ryerson, 1933
  Gaertn (Portulacaceae)

Tillandsia utriculata L.          97790      Ryerson, 1933
  (Bromeliaceae)
Vitex agnus-castus                96518      Ryerson, 1933
  L. (Lamiaceae)

Zephyranthes cardinalis           99642      Ryerson, 1934
  C.H. Wright (Amaryllidaceae)

(a) Accepted names are shown in square brackets

(b) It is likely that this collecting date is not correct as this
day the team was visiting another island or region

(c) Probably Great Inagua

(d) The name I. heptaphylla (Rottl. & Willd.) Voigt is
illegitimate and it refers to /. ticcopa Verde, [accepted name I.
tenuipes Verde.] (Verdcourt, 1961). However, this species does
not occur in the Bahamas (Cornell & Cornell, 1982) and we are
uncertain what name David Fairchild meant

(e) Germplasm collected during the first expedition

(f) Germplasm collected during the second expedition

Table 3 Plant material collected
and number of photographs taken
during the three trips of David
Fairchild to the Bahama
Archipelago

                 Number        Number        Number of
                 of plant      of species    photographs
Island           collections   collections

Cat Island       9             9             4
Conception       6             6             0
Crooked Island   3             3             9
Eleuthera        12            11            24
Great Inagua     20            17            23
Long Cay         0             0             0
Mayaguana        3             3             7
New Providence   26            24            42
Planas Cay       0             0             2
Rum Cay          7             6             3
San Salvador     3             2             18
Unreported       5             1             0
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Author:Francisco-Ortega, Javier; Korber, Nancy; Swan, Marianne; Mosely, Janet; Freid, Ethan; Jestrow, Brett
Publication:The Botanical Review
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:5BAHA
Date:Sep 1, 2014
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