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Plant communities supported by the geological setting: the case history of the Isole dei Ciclopi (east Sicily)/La vegetacion y su relacion con el sustrato geologico: el caso de Isole dei Ciclopi (este de Sicilia, Italia).

Introduction

The Mediterranean islands generally represent very important areas for the occurrence of several endemic or rare vascular plant species (Medail & Quezel, 1999; Kallimanis & al., 2010). Cyclops Islands ("Isole dei Ciclopi" in Italian), close to the Sicilian coast, in the Ionian Sea, are so small (about 2 Ha), but famous in the world because connected to one of the most known Greek myths: Odysseus and the Cyclops, narrated by Homer in his Odyssey. Moreover they represent the products of the oldest Etnean volcanic phase occurred about 500000 years ago (Branca & al., 2011; De Beni & al., 2011). Anyway as islets, they have a biogeographical interest to be compared mainly with the numerous small islands around Sicily. In the past the circum-Sicilian islets, attracted the interest of several botanists, which have mainly investigated the vascular flora (Lojacono-Pojero, 1878; Sommier, 1906, 1907, 1922; Francini & Messeri, 1956; Albo, 1959; Di Martino, 1958, 1962, 1963; Di Martino & Trapani, 1964, 1967, 1968; Catanzaro, 1965, 1984, 1992; Ferro & Furnari, 1968; Di Martino & Perrone, 1970, 1974; Ferro & Furnari, 1970; Di Benedetto, 1973; Brullo & Di Martino, 1974; Brullo & al, 1977; Brullo & Marceno, 1983; Longhitano, 1983; Bartolo & al, 1990; Brullo & Siracusa, 1995; Siracusa, 1995; Troia, 1998; Gianguzzi, 1999; Mazzola & al., 2001; Pasta & Lo Cascio, 2002; Pasta, 2004; Minissale & al., 2005; Gianguzzi & al., 2006; Romano & al., 2006; Pasta, 2001; Lo Cascio & Pasta, 2012; Pasta & al., 2014; Minissale & Sciandrello, 2017).

Regarding the Isole dei Ciclopi the first floristic collections were carried out by Nicotra (1893) and Zodda (1911), but the first vascular flora check-list can be attributed to Musmarra (1941) and recently to Siracusa (1995), while for the vegetation there are no detailed studies for this area, except for an abstract on the ecology of the protected area of the Isola Lachea (De Santis & al, 1995).

The present study is part of a project of research and monitoring activities carried out in the Nature Reserve "Isola Lachea e Faraglioni dei Ciclopi" (nowadays managed by CUTGANA), in order to a correct management of the protected area.

The aim of this research is to provide an updated inventory of the vascular flora and a framework of the plant communities of the Isole dei Ciclopi taking into account their geological setting.

Study area

The Isole dei Ciclopi are located in the Etnean volcanic district (S.E Sicily), in front of the little village of Acitrezza (Figure 1). Mount Etna Volcano is the largest active volcano in Europe and consists of the products of several overlapping eruptive centers. Rittmann (1973) firstly recognized five different eruptive stages in the etnean volcanic activity. The first stage, named Pre-Etnean stage, corresponds to a long period of submarine and subaerial fissure-type eruptions, whose products are now exposed in the Acitrezza, Acicastello and Ficarazzi area, localized on the lower SE flank of the volcano (Figure 1). Recent classification (Branca & al., 2011) grouped this products in the Basal Tholeiitic Supersynthem and the literature data are agree to date the eruptive phenomena at about 500000 years ago.

In the Acitrezza area the volcanic products constitute an archipelago (Isole dei Ciclopi) made by two main islands (Lachea and S. Maria) and six islets. This setting was inherited by the occurrence of a tectonic uplift, causing the subaerial exposition of the volcanic products and associated sediments (see below) and their relative erosion.

The Ciclopi Archipelago, covering an area of about 2 ha, can be subdivided in two distinct sectors (Figure 2). The southern one is composed by four islets having a total dimension of few square metres; the biggest are named Faraglione di Mezzo (having 20 meters high and characterized by vertical slopes) and Faraglione Piccolo (high about 10 meters). Every islet is totally made by volcanic products.

The northern one is located in front of the small harbour of Acitrezza village and includes the Faraglione Grande and the Isola Lachea. The latter represents the biggest island of the Archipelago, having an altitude of about 25 m above sea level and a surfaces of about 1,5 ha, with a roughly circular shape. Finally the Faraglione Grande is almost conical in shape and reach about 30 meters in high and it is characterized by rather steep surfaces.

The naturalistic high value of the area allowed it to be included in the network of Sites of Community Importance (SCI) according to the Habitats Directive (code ITA070006 Isole dei Ciclopi, cod. ITA070028 Fondali di Acicastello, Isola Lachea-Ciclopi). Furthermore the Archipelago on 1998 was established as a Nature Reserve "Isola Lachea e Faraglioni dei Ciclopi", and on 1989 the arm of the sea between the Archipelago and the Acitrezza harbor began the Marine Protected Area "Isole Ciclopi".

According to a recent phytogeographic subdivision of Sicily (Sciandrello & al., 2015), this area belongs to the Etna district included in the north-east Sicilian subsector.

According to the bioclimatic classification proposed by Rivas-Martinez (1993, 2004), the investigated territory is referred to the Mediterranean pluviseasonal oceanic bioclimate, with thermotypes low thermomediterranean, and ombrotypes semiarid (or lower humid, Bazan & al., 2015).

Geological setting of the isole dei ciclopi

The northern sector of the Ciclopi Archipelago is characterized by the predominant outcrop of basaltic lava rocks (Figure 3b) and marly clays (Figure 3a), withish in color belonging to the "Argille grigio-azzurre" formation (Wezel, 1967). The entire stratigraphie succession is cropping out at the Isola Lachea when the marly clays generally overlie the volcanic products, except on the western sector where the two litotypes are interlayed.

On the top of the Isola Lachea above the marly clays, a thin level of sandy soil is present (Figure 3 c). The soil has been mapped only when the thickness exceed 40 cm., and it is typically absent on the volcanic surfaces. Finally, in the east sector of the island a coarse-grained littoral deposit is present (Figure 3d).

The volcanic rocks outcropping on the area are represented by dolerites-basalts (Analcime basalts, Tanguy, 1978), dark-grey in colour. Volcanic bodies are affected by the "columnar jointing "consisting on decimetric-metric scale fracturing of the rocks due to the occurrence of thermal contraction episodes during the slow transition from the molten to the solid states of the lavas. It is notable, on the lava outcrops, the total absence of scoriaceous surfaces and soils. This feature is probably linked with the eruptive style of the magmatic activity. Indeed, the volcanic activity occurred in the area did not consist on the classical eruptions producing lava flows and pyroclastic products, but in intrusions of magmas inside the soft package of the Pleistocene marly-clays. The intruded magmas chilled in slow way making planar and compact volcanic bodies (laccolites) without scoriaceus horizons whose alteration usually represents the first step of the volcanic soil formation. Furthermore the occurrence of strong winds, due to the exposition of the island, and the steep volcanic surfaces don't allow the accumulation of epiclastic deposits possibly produced by the erosional processes.

The marly clays are represented by fine-grained sediments, poorly cemented, except the areas affected by thermal metamorphism close to the volcanic intrusions. This sediments are affected by an intense fracturing centimetric in scale that decreases their hardness. This properties, linked with the occurrences of the outcrops at the top of the island, having a subplanar setting, helps the development and the preservation of the soil above the withish marly clays.

Materials and Methods

The vegetation analysis was carried out following the phytosociological method (Braun-Blanquet, 1964) taking into account the most recent acquisitions related to symphytosociology and geosymphytosociology (Biondi, 2011; Rivas Martinez, 2005). A total of 111 phytosociological releves were performed in the period 2015-2016. Subsequently, data related to halo-nitrophilous scrub vegetation and halophilous plant communities were subjected to multivariate analysis using Syntax 2000 software (Podani, 2001). Original Braun-Blanquet sampling scales were transformed into the ordinal scale according to Van der Maarel (1979). A hierarchic classification method (WPGMA) was performed. Dissimilarity of the releves was measured using the Euclidean distance coefficient. Syntaxa classification follows Mucina & al. (2016).

For the correlation between vegetation types and habitats we referred to the Italian Interpretation Manual for the Habitats of Directive 92/43/EEC (Biondi & al., 2009); while EUNIS coding and status assessment follows Janssen & al. (2016). The plant communities was mapped using ArcGis 10.3 (ESRI Inc., Redlands, CA, USA).

Plants were collected from all over the study area and also throughout the year to obtain a complete inventory of existing species, noting their local distribution and preferred habitat. The exsiccata (preserved in the Herbarium of University of Catania) were studied with the help of Flora Europaea (Tutin & al., 1964-80), the Italian floras (Fiori, 1923-29; Pignatti, 1982). Taxonomic nomenclature follows Giardina & al. (2007). In the list, species and families follow alphabetical order. For each taxon, life form, chorological element, frequency, and local distribution are reported. The life form of each taxon follows the Raunkiaer system as proposed by Pignatti (1982) while the chorological types are adapted from Brullo & al. (1998).

Moreover, each taxon's frequency in the study area is indicated using the following abbreviations: C (common, spread in several habitats), NC (not common, spread in some habitats), R (rare, localized on specific habitats).

Results and Discussion

Flora

The vascular flora of this area consists of 102 specific and infraspecific taxa (Appendix 1). The most represented families are Poaceae (18 taxa), Asteraceae (16 taxa) and Fabaceae (7 taxa). The life form spectrum of the vascular flora indicates the predominance of therophytes (52%), with hemicryptophytes (15%) and phanerophytes (10%) (Figure 4). From a chorological viewpoint, most species show a Mediterranean distribution (46 taxa) (Figure 5).

Vegetation

Vegetation is described from 111 unpublished releves collected during the study. A total of 12 plant communities were identified, belonging to 6 classes, as explained in the syntaxonomical scheme (Appendix 2). Cluster analysis of the halophilous (cluster A) and halo-nitrophilous (cluster B) scrubs vegetation allowed to distinguish four main plant communities with specific differential species (Figure 6). The description of each plant community is given below.

Rocky coast vegetation

(Crithmo maritimi-Staticion Molinier 1934) Crithmetum maritimi Beguinot 1941

(Table 1, cluster A2, Figure 7A)

Characteristic species: Crithmum maritimum

Structure and ecology: Chamaephytic vegetation colonizing the cliffs or gently sloping volcanic outcrops along the sea, influenced by the sea-spray and by the organic waste accumulated during the sea-storms. This association is characterized by the dominance of Crithmum maritimum, mixed with sparse individuals of Lotus cytisoides, Allium commutatum, Capparis orientalis and Matthiola incana. It is linked to thermo-Mediterranean subhumid bioclimatic belt, in catenal contact, towards the inland, with the Pegano-Salsoletea vegetation. In fact as already noted by Biondi (2007) in similar contexts, the rocks closest to the sea, subjected to the actions of the marine aerosol, are colonized by halo-rupicolous pioneer vegetation, while on the less exposed cliffs halotolerant communities grow.

Local distribution: Isola Lachea and Faraglione Grande.

Habitat: EUNIS B3.1b Mediterranean and Black Sea rocky sea cliff and shore (LC); not considered in Habitat Directive.

Rocky cliff vegetation

(Anthyllidion barbae-jovis Brullo & De Marco 1989)

Matthiola incana subsp. incana comm.

(Table 1, cluster B2, Figure 7B)

Diagnostic species: Matthiola incana

Structure and ecology: On volcanic rocky cliff, in an almost total absence of soil, grows a sub-halophilous vegetation characterized by dominance of Matthiola incana subsp. incana. According Brullo & De Marco (1989) this chamaephitic species is characteristic of Anthyllidion barbae-jovis alliance. On the cliff of the Faraglione degli Uccelli the physiognomy of this rupicolous plant communities is given mainly by Matthiola incana subsp. incana and other few species belonging to the Anthyllidion barbae-jovis alliance, as Allium commutatum, Lotus cytisoides and Silene vulgaris subsp. todaroana (Brullo & De Marco, 1989).

Local distribution: Faraglione di Mezzo

Habitat: EUNIS B3.1b Mediterranean and Black Sea rocky sea cliff and shore (LC); not considered in Habitat Directive.

Perennial halo-nitrophilous vegetation

(Salsolo vermiculatae-Peganetalia harmalae Br.-Bl. & O.Bolos 1958)

Atriplici halimi-Suaedetum verae Biondi 1988 nom. inv. propos.

(Table 1, cluster A1, Figure 7C-D)

Characteristic species : Suaeda vera, Atriplex halimus.

Structure and ecology: Halo-nitrophilous plant community colonizing coastal rocky habitats (marls, conglomerates, limestone and sandstone) directly influenced by the sea-spray and dunged by the seabirds (Brullo & al., 2013). The physiognomy is given mainly by Atriplex halimus and the bushes of Suaeda vera, this last species on the Isola Lachea achieving high cover values. In last years, the excessive spread of Yellow-legged Gulls (Larus michaellis) on the Islands has favored the reduction of Atriplex halimus and a spread of Suaeda vera, the latter more tolerant nitrophilous species.

Local distribution: Isola Lachea and Faraglione Grande.

Habitat: EUNIS F6.8 Mediterranean halo-nitrophilous scrub (LC); 1430 Halo-nitrophilous scrubs (Pegano-Salsoletea).

Atriplici halimi-Artemisietum arborescentis Biondi 1988

(Table 1, cluster B1, Figure 7E-F)

Characteristic species: Atriplex halimus, Artemisia arborescens.

Structure and ecology: Synanthropic shrublands dominated mainly by Artemisia arborescens, sometimes growing together with Atriplex halimus and Suaeda vera. This very poor floristic settlement is often found in coastal sites, on marly and conglomeratic substrata, sometimes used as dumping places for urban waste and rubbles (Biondi & al, 1988). It can be considered as a permanent edaphic community whose evolution is contrasted by the human disturbance, combined to the action of coastal winds, seabirds, salt-spray (Brullo & al, 2013). It is found within the thermo-Mediterranean dry to subhumid bioclimatic belt, often in contact with the Oleo-Ceratonion vegetation.

Local distribution: Isola Lachea and Faraglione Grande.

Habitat: EUNIS F6.8 Mediterranean halo-nitrophilous scrub (LC); 1430 Halo-nitrophilous scrubs (Pegano-Salsoletea).

Halo-nitrophilous and sub-halophilous annual vegetation

(Frankenion pulverulentae Rivas-Martinez ex Castroviejo & Porta 1976)

Trifolio scabri-Catapodietum balearici Brullo et Giusto del Galdo 2003

(Table 2, rels. 1-13)

Characteristic species: Trifolium scabrum, Catapodium balearicum.

Structure and ecology: Halo-nitrophilous association colonizing the rocky coastal. This annual vegetation grows on in particular areas on flat surfaces with a few centimeters of soil, subject to marine-spray within the Thermo-mesomediterranean bioclimatic belt (Rivas Martinez & al, 2004). It is in catenal contact with the halo-nitrophilous plant communities of the Atriplici halimi-Suaedetum verae. The structure of Trifolio scabri-Catapodietum balearici is given mainly by Catapodium balearicum and several species belonging to the Saginetea maritimae class (Brullo & Giusso, 2003), as Spergularia bocconi, Plantago coronopus, Parapholis incurva, Sagina maritima, Trifolium scabrum, Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum, Polycarpon tetraphyllum subsp. diphyllum etc. The surfaces rich in nitrates, with little deeper soils and not very sunny, the Trifolio scabri-Catapodietum balearici is replaced by a vegetation dominated by Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum (Figure 8C).

Local distribution: Isola Lachea.

Habitat: EUNIS A2.6513--Salicornia spp. pioneer saltmarshes; 1310 Salicornia and other annuals colonizing mud and sand.

Parapholido incurvae-Spergularietum bocconei Brullo, Scelsi & Spampinato 2001

(Table 2, rels. 14-23, Figure 8A-B)

Characteristic species: Spergularia bocconei, Parapholis incurva.

Structure and ecology: This vegetation prefers more or less the same ecological conditions of Trifolio scabri-Catapodietum balearici with some differences linked to an increased need to nitrates and very shallow soils. It is in catenal contact with the halo-nitrophilous plant communities of the Crithmo maritimiStaticetea. The structure is given mainly by Spergularia bocconi and Parapholis incurva and other few species belonging to the Saginetea maritimae class (Brullo & Giusso, 2003), as Spergularia salina, Parapholis incurva and Sagina maritima.

Local distribution: Isola Lachea and Faraglione Grande.

Habitat: EUNIS A2.6513--Salicornia spp. pioneer saltmarshes; 1310 Salicornia and other annuals colonizing mud and sand.

Scrub vegetation

(Oleo sylvestris-Ceratonion siliquae Br.-Bl. ex Guinochet & Drouineau 1944 em. Rivas-Martinez 1975)

Asparago acutifolii-Oleetum sylvestris Bacchetta et al. 2003

(Table 3, rels. 1-7)

Diagnostic species: Olea europaea var. sylvestris.

Structure and ecology: On top of Lachea island and Faraglione Grande grows a evergreen vegetation dominated by Olea europaea var. sylvestris. Small plant species of the Oleo-Ceratonion alliance are presence, such as Arisarum vulgare, Prasium majus and Asparagus acutifolius. For its ecological characteristics this plant community can be referred to Asparago acutifolii-Oleetum sylvestris, association described by Bacchetta (2003) for Sardinia. In some parts of the island Lachea the Olea europaea communities are mixed with Spartium junceum, Opuntia ficus-indica, Ailanthus altissima, in particular the latter two species often tend to alter the typical structure of the shrub community and especially to steal the habitat of indigenous communities.

Local distribution: Isola Lachea and Faraglione Grande.

Habitat: F5.51 Thermo-Mediterranean brushes, thickets and heath-garrigues (VU); 9320 Foreste di Olea e Ceratonia.

Synanthropic vegetation

(Pruno-Rubion ulmifolii O. Bolos 1954, Allion triquetri O. Bolos 1967, Echioplantaginei-Galactition tomentosae O. Bolos & Molinier 1969)

Rubus ulmifolius comm.

(Table 3, rels. 8-13)

Diagnostic species: Rubus ulmifolius.

Structure and ecology: As a result of the degradation of maquis, a secondary shrub develops on moist, nitrate rich soils. This vegetation occupying in particular the north-facing slopes, in proximity of geological fractures of the Isola Lachea. From a structural viewpoint, this vegetation is characterized by intricate, almost impenetrable bushes, such as Rubus ulmifolius, Ficus carica and Spartium junceum. Moreover, this community hold several synanthropic and alien species, asOpuntiaficus-indica, Ailanthus altissima, Arundo donax, Robinia pseudoacacia, Brassica fruticulosa, Dittrichia viscosa, Mercurialis annua, Piptatherum miliaceum subsp. miliaceum, Daucus carota, etc.

Local distribution: Isola Lachea.

Habitat: EUNIS F3.23 Tyrrhenian sub-mediterranean deciduous thickets; not considered in Habitat Directive.

Acanthus mollis comm.

(Table 4, rels. 1-3)

Diagnostic species: Acanthus mollis

Structure and ecology: Anthropogenic vegetation of sciaphilous and nitrophilous, perennial or annual herbs that grows on deep and nutrient-rich soils (Biondi & al., 2014). This plant community, with a winter-spring cycle, is localized in the shade of olive trees (Olea europaea var. sylvestris) of the Lachea Island. It is prefer ruderal environments with deep soils, rich in organic matter. The physiognomy of this community is given by the dominance of Acanthus mollis normally achieving high cover values, mixed with several other nitrophilous species, as Urtica membranacea, Parietaria lusitanica, Galium aparine subsp. aparine, Mercurialis annua, Galactites elegans, Erodium malacoides, ect.. In Sicily, this vegetation is widespread in the thermo-mesomediterranean bioclimatic belt (Brullo & Marceno, 1985).

Local distribution: Isola Lachea.

Habitat: not considered in EUNIS and Habitat Directive.

Galactites elegans comm.

(Table 4, rels. 4-9)

Diagnostic species: Vulpia geniculata and Galactites elegans.

Structure and ecology: Annual, subnitrophilous, thermoxerophilous, herbaceous communities that grow in abandoned and fallow fields, along roadsides and in disturbed areas in the Mediterranean region (Biondi & al., 2014). On the Lachea Island is widespread an annual weeds, a consequence of abandoning crops that have affected the island in the past. This vegetation is characterized by a rich contingent of nitrophilous species, including Anisantha madritensis, Anagallis arvensis, Brassica fruticulosa, Catapodium rigidum, Cerastium pumilum, Dittrichia viscosa, Erodium malacoides, Glebionis coronaria, Galactites elegans, Hordeum leporinum, Lolium rigidum, Melilotus italicus, Mercuriales annua, Plantago lagopus, Polycarpon dyphyllum, Sonchus oleraceus, Trachynia distachya, Trifolium scabrum, Urospermum picroides, Valantia muralis, Vulpia geniculata, V. ciliata, etc. mixed with some perennial species of Lygeo-Stipetea, as Carlina corymbosa, Ferula communis, Dactylis hispanica and Thapsia garganica. On the whole this community is referred to Echio plantaginei-Galactition tomentosae, alliance which groups the subnitrophilous vegetation of abandoned fields. In some well-sunny areas in less nitrophilous conditions, of the island Lachea, Vulpia geniculata assumes a significant structural role (Figure 8), forming monophitic community in contact with evergreen shrubs of Olea europaea.

Local distribution: Isola Lachea and Faraglione Grande.

Habitat: EUNIS E1.6 Mediterranean subnitrophilous grass communities; not considered in Habitat Directive.

Vegetation map

The processing of the vegetation map allowed to define 9 different vegetation types (Figure 9). For each one the phytosociological sintaxon (association or higher-order syntaxa), habitats and coverage in square meters (sqm) is indicated. The different types have been adapted to better respond to the mapping scale (1: 1.000). Some vegetation types, occupying very limited areas (as Saginetea maritimae communities), have not been mapped.

On the investigated territory, a total of about 2.5 ha, the 62% is characterized by the presence of the basaltic rocks without vegetation (15668 [m.sup.2]).

The plant communities, most represented on the Island, are the halo-nitrophilous vegetation of Pegano-Salsoletea with an area of about 4,458 [m.sup.2] (18%), within which micro-communities of Saginetea maritimae are growing, but not mappable due to the small cover of this vegetation. These associations cover mainly the marly-clays outcrops.

Poorly represented are the evergreen shrub communities dominated by Olea europaea (900 [m.sup.2], 4%), as well as the salt-tolerant plant communities ofthe rocky coast with Crithmum maritimum (955 [m.sup.2], 4%) and uncultivated vegetation of the Echio-Galactition (632 [m.sup.2], 2%) and the bushes of Rubus ulmifolius (219 [m.sup.2], 1%). Moreover a strong threat is represented by alien species that occupy considerable surfaces, especially Opuntia ficusindica (1534 [m.sup.2], 6%) and Ailanthus altissima (590 [m.sup.2], 2%). All these associations are widespread on the top of the island, where the soil is present.

Conclusion

The results of the current flora (102 entities) of the Isole Ciclopi show a moderate floristic richness taking into account the small size of the islets. Previously Siracusa (1995) reports a total of 180 species, considering also those cited by other authors (Nicotra, 1893; Zodda, 1911; Musmarra, 1941), but by the same author only 91 taxa were counted in 1995.

The flora richness in the last 100 years has clearly suffered a sharp drop, especially on the Lachea island. Musmarra (1941) signaled some pteridophytes now totally absent, as Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Asplenium obovatum Viv., Asplenium trichomanes L., Ceterach officinarum Willd., Polypodium cambricum L., Dryopteris pallida (Bory) C. Chr. ex Maire & Petitm., probably due to a lower edaphic humidity compared to that of the past.

Furthermore some of the species reported recently from Siracusa (1995) were not found, as Euphorbia dendroides, Halimione portulacoides, Heliotropium bocconei, Reichardia picroides var. maritima, Senecio cineraria subsp. bicolor. Probably the disappearance of these species is linked to the spread of some invasive alien species (Ailanthus altissima, Opuntia ficus-indica, Arundo donax) that in some cases cover large areas (Figure 10), replacing the natural habitats and characteristic species. The invasion of alien species in Isole Ciclopi is a further confirmation of a widespread phenomenon in the coastal areas of Sicily (Sciandrello & al., 2013, 2014, 2016) and surrounding islets (Minissale & al, 2005; Pretto & al, 2012; Minissale & Sciandrello 2017). Another important cause of the disappearance of some plant species or natural habitat is the excessive spread of Yellow-legged Gulls (Larus michahellis) in the spring and summer colonize the entire island for nesting, thus affecting the delicate ecological balance between plants, animals and soil, for the supply, with their droppings, of significant quantities of nitrates as already noted by Gristina & Marceno (2008) for a coastal area of north-west Sicily.

In addition there are various exotic introduced as ornamental species such as Casuarina equisetifolia, Thuja orientalis, Pittosporum tobira, Robinia pseudoacacia, which have greatly changed the physiognomy of the Isola Lachea plant landscape's, especially on the summit plateau.

So overall, the various forms of disturbance on habitats and flora over time have resulted in a significant depletion of the floristic and phytocenotic diversity of the islets.

On the other hand, despite these disturbances a good correlation between the plant communities distribution and the stratigraphic succession is still clearly recognizable and appears of a sure interest. In particular the basal areas of the islands, characterized by presence of basalts, are dominated by halophilous communities of Crithmo-Limonietea present mostly on the cracks affecting the volcanic bodies (columnar joint) that are sometimes filled by thin thikness of soil. In the medium slopes, characterized by marly-clays exposures, we find mainly a nitrophilous and halo-nitrophilous vegetation of Pegano-Salsoletea that prefers a soft substrata (here represented by the marly clays) having a thin layer of soil. Finally on the top of the island, characterized by the presence of sandy soil exceeding 40 cm in thickness, grows evergreen vegetation of the Oleo-Ceratonion alliance.

The vegetation results helped define objectively habitats, according to Directive 43/92/ EEC, which are present on the Isole Ciclopi. In particular, except for the habitat of marine type Reefs 1170 here not investigated, on the islands were surveyed the following habitats: 1310 Salicornia and other annuals colonizing mud and sand, 1430 Halo-nitrophilous scrubs (Pegano-Salsoletea), 9320 Foreste di Olea e Ceratonia. In addition the habitat 5330 Thermo-Mediterranean and pre-desert scrub and 6220 * Pseudo-steppe with grasses and annuals of the Thero-Brachypodietea shown in the Standard Data Form, are excluded for the absence of typical species of this habitat (Biondi & al, 2009).

Finally, for the purposes of proper management of the area, it would be desirable to adopt some specific conservation measures, in accordance with the Habitats Directive, aimed at re-naturalise or restore degraded or damaged habitats, especially the habitat of evergreen bush with Olea europaea and habitat of thermophilous shrubs with Euphorbia dendroides, as well as program of concrete measures for the eradication of invasive alien species, in particular Ailanthus altissima and Opuntia ficus-indica and as ultimate goal the control and containment of the Yellow-legged Gulls populations (Larus michahellis). It should however be emphasized that the solution of these problems is not easy to solve, not only from the technical viewpoint, but also taking into account that some of these plants, such as the indian-fig prickly pear, are perceived, by most stakeholders, as forming part of the Sicilian identity (Barbera & al., 1992).

http://dx.doi.org/10.5209/LAZAROA.47929

Acknowledgements

Research made with the financial contribution of "Regione Siciliana" to CUTGANA (protected area management). We are particularly grateful to Giovanni Signorello (Director of CUTGANA) and Agata Di Stefano (President of AMP Isole dei Ciclopi) for the suggestions and critical review of the manuscript, Domenico Catalano (Director of R.N.I., Isola Lachea e Faraglioni dei Ciclopi) and Mauro Contarino and Emanuele Puglia for the crucial logistic support.

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Appendix 1
Floristic list. Abbreviations are: Fr.: Frequency; Is. Lac.: Isola
Lachea; Al.: S. Alonga; Gr.: Faraglione Grande; F. Mez.: Faraglione Di
Mezzo; Pic.: Faraglione Piccolo; * Introduced plant species; p:
presence in each islet; T.: total number of taxa for each islet.

N.    Family             Species

1     Acanthaceae        Acanthus mollis L.
2     Aizoaceae          Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum L.
3     Alliaceae          Allium commutatum Guss.
4     Alliaceae          Allium ampeloprasum L.
5     Amaryllidaceae     *Amaryllis belladonna L.
6     Apiaceae           Crithmum maritimum L.
7     Apiaceae           Daucus carota L. subsp. carota
8     Apiaceae           Daucus gingidium L.
9     Apiaceae           Ferula communis L.
10    Apiaceae           Thapsia garganica L.
11    Apocynaceae        *Nerium oleander L.
12    Araceae            Arisarum vulgare Targ.-Tozz.
13    Asparagaceae       Asparagus acutifolius L.
14    Asparagaceae       Asparagus albus L.
15    Asteraceae         Artemisia arborescens (Vaill.) L.
16    Asteraceae         Carlina hispanica Lam. subsp. globosa
                         (Arcang.) Meusel & Kastner
17    Asteraceae         Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter
18    Asteraceae         Erigeron bonariensis hort. ex Link
19    Asteraceae         Erigeron canadensis L.
20    Asteraceae         Galactites elegans (All.) Soldano
21    Asteraceae         Glebionis coronaria (L.) Spach
22    Asteraceae         Limbarda chrithmoides (L.) Dumort.
23    Asteraceae         Reichardia picroides (L.) Roth
24    Asteraceae         Sonchus asper (L.) Hill
25    Asteraceae         Sonchus bulbosus (L.) Kilian & Greuter
26    Asteraceae         Sonchus oleraceus L.
27    Asteraceae         Urospermum picroides (L.)
                         F. W. Schmidt
28    Asteraceae         Symphyotrichum squamatum (Spreng.)
                         G. L. Nesom
29    Asteraceae         Pulicaria dysenterica (L.) Bernh.
30    Asteraceae         Helminthotheca echioides (L.) Holub
31    Boraginaceae       Heliotropium europaeum L.
32    Brassicaceae       Brassica fruticulosa Cirillo
33    Brassicaceae       Matthiola incana (L.) R. Br. subsp.
                         incana
34    Brassicaceae       Sisymbrium polyceratium L.
35    Cactaceae          * Opuntiaficus-indica (L.) Mill.
36    Capparidaceae      Capparis orientalis Veill.
37    Capparidaceae      Capparis spinosa L.
38    Caryophyllaceae    Cerastium pumilum Curtis
39    Caryophyllaceae    Polycarpon tetraphyllum subsp.
                         diphyllum (Cav.) O. Bolos & Font Quer
40    Caryophyllaceae    Sagina maritima G. Don
41    Caryophyllaceae    Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke subsp.
                         tenoreana (Colla) Soldano & F. Conti
42    Caryophyllaceae    Spergularia bocconi (Scheele) Graebn.
43    Caryophyllaceae    Spergularia salina J. & C. Presl
44    Casuarinaceae      * Casuarina equisetifolia L.
45    Chenopodiaceae     Atriplex halimus L.
46    Chenopodiaceae     Chenopodium album L.
47    Chenopodiaceae     Suaeda vera J. F. Gmelin
48    Convolvulaceae     Cuscuta epithymum L. subsp. epithymum
49    Crassulaceae       Sedum rubens L.
50    Crassulaceae       Umbilicus rupestris (Salisb.) Dandy
51    Crassulaceae       Umbilicus horizontals (Guss.) DC.
52    Cyperaceae         Cyperus rotundus L.
53    Euphorbiaceae      Mercurialis annua L.
54    Fabaceae           Lotus cytisoides L.
55    Fabaceae           Medicago truncatula Gaertn.
56    Fabaceae           Melilotus italicus (L.) Lam.
57    Fabaceae           Melilotus sulcatus Desf.
58    Fabaceae           * Robinia pseudacacia L.
59    Fabaceae           * Spartium junceum L.
60    Fabaceae           Trifolium scabrum L.
61    Frankeniaceae      Frankenia pulverulenta L.
62    Geraniaceae        Erodium malacoides (L.) L'Her.
63    Lamiaceae          Prasium majus L.
64    Lauraceae          *Laurus nobilis L.
65    Malvaceae          Malva sylvestris L.
66    Moraceae           Ficus carica L.
67    Oleaceae           Olea europaea var. sylvestris
                         (Mill.) Lehr
68    Oxalidaceae        Oxalis pes-caprae L.
69    Papaveraceae       Fumaria capreolata L.
70    Papaveraceae       Fumariaflabellata Gasparr.
71    Pittosporaceae     * Pittosporum tobira (Thunb.) W. T. Aiton
72    Plantaginaceae     Plantago coronopus L.
73    Plantaginaceae     Plantago lagopus L.
74    Poaceae            Anisantha madritensis (L.) Nevski
75    Poaceae            * Arundo donax L.
76    Poaceae            Catapodium balearicum (Willk.)
                         H. Scholz
77    Poaceae            Catapodium rigidum (L.) C. E. Hubb.
78    Poaceae            Dactylis glomerata subsp. hispanica
                         (Roth) Nyman
79    Poaceae            Hordeum murinum L. subsp. leporinum
                         (Link) Arcang.
80    Poaceae            Lagurus ovatus L. subsp. ovatus
81    Poaceae            Lolium rigidum Gaudin
82    Poaceae            Parapholis incurva (L.) C. E. Hubb.
83    Poaceae            Piptatherum miliaceum (L.) Coss. subsp.
                         miliaceum
84    Poaceae            Rostraria cristata (L.) Tzvelev
85    Poaceae            Trachynia distachya (L.) Link
86    Poaceae            Vulpia ciliata Dumort.
87    Poaceae            Vulpia geniculata (L.) Link
88    Poaceae            Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. subsp.
                         sanguinalis
89    Poaceae            Avena barbata Pott ex Link
90    Poaceae            Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
91    Poaceae            Gastridium ventricosum (Gouan)
                         Schinz & Thell.
92    Portulacaceae      Portulaca oleracea L. subsp. oleracea
93    Primulaceae        Anagallis arvensis L.
94    Primulaceae        Anagallis foemina Mill.
95    Rosaceae           Rubus ulmifolius Schott
96    Rubiaceae          Galium aparine L. subsp. aparine
97    Rubiaceae          Valantia muralis L.
98    Simaroubaceae      * Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle
99    Solanaceae         Hyoscyamus albus L.
100   Solanaceae         Solanum nigrum L.
101   Urticaceae         Parietaria lusitanica L.
102   Urticaceae         Urtica membranacea Poir.

N.    Family             Chorology       Life form   Fr.

1     Acanthaceae        O Med.          H scap      C
2     Aizoaceae          Med.-Trop.      T scap      R
3     Alliaceae          Med.            G bulb      NC
4     Alliaceae          Med.            G bulb      C
5     Amaryllidaceae     Sud-Africa      G bulb
6     Apiaceae           Med.-Atl.       Ch suffr    NC
7     Apiaceae           Euro-Med.       H bien      NC
8     Apiaceae           C Med.          H bien      R
9     Apiaceae           Med.            H scap      NC
10    Apiaceae           Med.            H scap      NC
11    Apocynaceae        Med.            P caesp     NC
12    Araceae            Med.            G rhiz      NC
13    Asparagaceae       Med.            NP          NC
14    Asparagaceae       O Med.          NP          NC
15    Asteraceae         Med.            NP          C
16    Asteraceae         End. It.-sic.   H scap      NC
17    Asteraceae         O Med.          H scap      C
18    Asteraceae         Avv.            T scap      C
19    Asteraceae         Cosmop.         T scap      C
20    Asteraceae         Med.            H bien      C
21    Asteraceae         Med.            T scap      C
22    Asteraceae         Med.-Atl.       Ch suffr    R
23    Asteraceae         Med.            H scap      NC
24    Asteraceae         Cosmop.         T scap      C
25    Asteraceae         Med.            G bulb      NC
26    Asteraceae         Cosmop.         T scap      C
27    Asteraceae         Med.            T scap      C
28    Asteraceae         Nat.            H scap.     C
29    Asteraceae         Euro-Med.       H scap      R
30    Asteraceae         Med.            T scap      R
31    Boraginaceae       Euro-Med.-      T scap      NC
                         Iran.-Tur
32    Brassicaceae       O Med.          H scap      C
33    Brassicaceae       NO-Med.         Ch suffr    NC
34    Brassicaceae       Med.            T scap      R
35    Cactaceae          Nat.            P succ      C
36    Capparidaceae      Med.            Ch suffr    NC
37    Capparidaceae      Med.-Iran.-     Ch suffr    R
                         Tur.
38    Caryophyllaceae    Euro-Med.       Tscap       NC
39    Caryophyllaceae    Med.            T scap      NC
40    Caryophyllaceae    Med.-Atl.       T scap      NC
41    Caryophyllaceae    End. sic.       H scap      C
42    Caryophyllaceae    Paleotemp.      T scap      NC
43    Caryophyllaceae    Paleotemp.      T scap      NC
44    Casuarinaceae      Australia       P scap      NC
45    Chenopodiaceae     Med.            P caesp     R
46    Chenopodiaceae     Cosmop.         T scap      C
47    Chenopodiaceae     Med.-Atl.       NP casp     C
48    Convolvulaceae     Paleotemp.      T par       NC
49    Crassulaceae       Euro-Med.       T scap      NC
50    Crassulaceae       Med.-Trop.      G bulb      NC
51    Crassulaceae       Med.-Trop.      G bulb      NC
52    Cyperaceae         Med.-Trop.      G rhiz      C
53    Euphorbiaceae      Paleotemp.      T scap      C
54    Fabaceae           Med.            Ch suffr    NC
55    Fabaceae           Med.-Atl.       T scap      NC
56    Fabaceae           Med.            T scap      NC
57    Fabaceae           Med.            T scap      C
58    Fabaceae           Nat.            P caesp     NC
59    Fabaceae           Med.            P caesp     NC
60    Fabaceae           Med.            T rept      NC
61    Frankeniaceae      Med.-Iran.-     T scap      R
                         Tur.
62    Geraniaceae        Med.            T scap      C
63    Lamiaceae          Med.            Ch frut     R
64    Lauraceae          Med.-Atl.       P caesp     NC
65    Malvaceae          Euro-Med.       H scap      C
66    Moraceae           N Med.          P scap      NC
67    Oleaceae           Med.            P caesp     NC
68    Oxalidaceae        Nat.            G bulb      C
69    Papaveraceae       Euro-Med.       T scap      C
70    Papaveraceae       Med.            T scap      NC
71    Pittosporaceae     Med.            T rept      NC
72    Plantaginaceae     Paleotemp.      T scap      NC
73    Plantaginaceae     Med.            T scap      C
74    Poaceae            Med.-Atl.       T scap      C
75    Poaceae            Med.            G rhiz      NC
76    Poaceae            Med.            T scap      NC
77    Poaceae            Euro-Med.-      T scap      C
                         Iran.-Tur
78    Poaceae            Med.            H caesp     NC
79    Poaceae            Euro-Med        T scap      C
80    Poaceae            Med.            T scap      C
81    Poaceae            Med.-Iran.-     T scap      C
                         Tur.
82    Poaceae            Med.-Atl.       T scap      NC
83    Poaceae            Med.-Atl.       H caesp     NC
84    Poaceae            Med.-Iran.-     T scap      C
                         Tur.
85    Poaceae            Med.-Iran.-     T scap      C
                         Tur.
86    Poaceae            Med.            T caesp     C
87    Poaceae            O Med.          T caesp     C
88    Poaceae            Boreo-Trop.     T scap      R
89    Poaceae            Cosmop.         T scap      C
90    Poaceae            Boreo-Trop.     G rhiz      NC
91    Poaceae            Med.            T scap      NC
92    Portulacaceae      Boreo-Trop.     T scap      C
93    Primulaceae        Boreo-Trop.     T rept      C
94    Primulaceae        Boreo-Trop.     T rept      C
95    Rosaceae           Euro-Med.       NP          NC
96    Rubiaceae          Paleotemp.      T scap      NC
97    Rubiaceae          End. sic.       T scap      C
98    Simaroubaceae      Nat.            P scap      C
99    Solanaceae         Med.            T scap      C
100   Solanaceae         Boreo-Trop.     T scap      C
101   Urticaceae         Med.            T rept      C
102   Urticaceae         Med.            T scap      C

N.    Family             Lac.    Al.    Gr.     Mez.    Pic.

1     Acanthaceae        p
2     Aizoaceae          p
3     Alliaceae          p              p       p       p
4     Alliaceae          p              p
5     Amaryllidaceae     p
6     Apiaceae           p              p               p
7     Apiaceae           p              p
8     Apiaceae           p
9     Apiaceae           p              p
10    Apiaceae           p              p
11    Apocynaceae        p
12    Araceae            p              p
13    Asparagaceae       p              p       p
14    Asparagaceae       p              p
15    Asteraceae         p              p
16    Asteraceae         p              p
17    Asteraceae         p
18    Asteraceae         p
19    Asteraceae         p
20    Asteraceae         p              p
21    Asteraceae         p
22    Asteraceae         p
23    Asteraceae         p              p       p
24    Asteraceae         p              p
25    Asteraceae         p
26    Asteraceae         p              p       p
27    Asteraceae         p              p
28    Asteraceae         p
29    Asteraceae         p
30    Asteraceae         p
31    Boraginaceae       p              p
32    Brassicaceae       p              p
33    Brassicaceae       p              p       p       p
34    Brassicaceae       p
35    Cactaceae          p
36    Capparidaceae      p              p       p
37    Capparidaceae      p
38    Caryophyllaceae    p
39    Caryophyllaceae    p
40    Caryophyllaceae    p              p
41    Caryophyllaceae    p              p       p
42    Caryophyllaceae    p              p
43    Caryophyllaceae                   p
44    Casuarinaceae      p
45    Chenopodiaceae     p              p
46    Chenopodiaceae     p              p       p
47    Chenopodiaceae     p       p      p       p       p
48    Convolvulaceae     p
49    Crassulaceae                      p
50    Crassulaceae       p
51    Crassulaceae                      p
52    Cyperaceae         p
53    Euphorbiaceae      p
54    Fabaceae           p              p       p       p
55    Fabaceae           p
56    Fabaceae           p              p
57    Fabaceae           p
58    Fabaceae           p
59    Fabaceae           p
60    Fabaceae           p              p
61    Frankeniaceae      p
62    Geraniaceae        p
63    Lamiaceae          p
64    Lauraceae          p
65    Malvaceae          p
66    Moraceae           p              p
67    Oleaceae           p              p
68    Oxalidaceae        p
69    Papaveraceae       p
70    Papaveraceae       p
71    Pittosporaceae     p
72    Plantaginaceae     p              p
73    Plantaginaceae                    p
74    Poaceae            p              p
75    Poaceae            p
76    Poaceae            p              p
77    Poaceae            p
78    Poaceae            p              p       p
79    Poaceae                           p
80    Poaceae            p              p
81    Poaceae            p              p
82    Poaceae            p              p
83    Poaceae            p
84    Poaceae            p
85    Poaceae            p              p
86    Poaceae            p
87    Poaceae            p
88    Poaceae                           p
89    Poaceae            p              p
90    Poaceae            p
91    Poaceae            p
92    Portulacaceae      p              p
93    Primulaceae        p
94    Primulaceae        p
95    Rosaceae           p
96    Rubiaceae          p
97    Rubiaceae          p
98    Simaroubaceae      p
99    Solanaceae         p              p       p       p
100   Solanaceae         p
101   Urticaceae         p
102   Urticaceae         p
                         T. 96   T. 1   T. 48   T. 12   T. 6


Appendix 2

Syntaxonomic scheme

Crjthmo-Staticetea Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl. et al. 1952

Crithmo maritimi-Staticetalia Molinier 1934

Crithmo maritimi-Staticion Molinier 1934

Crithmetum maritimi Beguinot 1941

Helichrysetalia italici Biondi et Gehu in Gehu et Biondi 1994

Anthyllidion barbae-jovis Brullo & De Marco 1989

Matthiola incana subsp. incana comm.

Pegano harmalae-Salsoletea yermiculatae Br-Bl & O.Bolos 1958

Salsolo vermiculatae-Peganetalia harmalae Br.-Bl. & O. Bolos 1954

Atriplici halimi-Suaedion verae Gehu et al. ex Bergmeier et Dimopoulos 2003

Atriplici halimi-Suaedetum verae Biondi 1988 nom. inv. propos. (Suaedo

veraeAtriplicetum halimi Biondi 1988)

Artemision arborescentis Gehu et al. 1986

Atriplici halimi-Artemisietum arborescentis Biondi 1988

Saginetea maritimae Westhoff, Van Leeuwen & Adriani 1962

Frankenietalia pulverulentae Rivas-Martinez ex Castroviejo & Porta 1976

Frankenionpulverulentae Rivas-Martinez ex Castroviejo & Porta 1976

Trifolio scabri-Catapodietum balearici Brullo et Giusso del Galdo 2003

Parapholido incurvae-Spergularietum bocconei Brullo, Scelsi & Spampinato 2001

Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum comm.

Quercetea ilicis Br.-Bl. ex A. Bolos et O. de Bolos in A. Bolos y Vayreda 1950

Pistacio lentisci-Rhamnetalia alaterni Rivas-Mart. 1975

Oleo-Ceratonion siliquae Br.-Bl. ex Guinochet et Drouineau 1944

Asparago acutifolii-Oleetum sylvestris Bacchetta et al. 2003

Crataego-Prunetea Tx. 1962

Pyro spinosae-Rubetalia ulmifolii Biondi, Blasi et Casavecchia in Biondi et al.

2014

Pruno spinosae-Rubion ulmifolii O. de Bolos 1954

Rubus ulmifolius comm.

Chenopodietea Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl. et al. 1952

Chenopodietalia Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl. et al. 1936

Allion triquetri O. Bolos 1967

Acanthus mollis comm.

Brometalia rubenti-tectorum (Rivas Goday et Rivas-Mart. 1973) Rivas-Mart. et

Izco 1977

Echio-Galactition tomentosae O. Bolos & Molinier 1969

Galactites elegans comm.

Vulpia geniculata comm.

Saverio Sciandrello (1), Pietro Minissale (2) & Giovanni Sturiale (1)

Received 14 October 2016 / Accepted 3 May 2017

(1) Centre for the Conservation and Management of Nature and Agroecosystems (CUTGANA), University of Catania, Via Santa Sofia 98. I-95123 Catania.

(2) Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Catania, Via A. Longo 19. I-95125 Catania.

Caption: Figure 1. Geological sketch map of the Acicastello-Acitrezza-Ficarazzi area. 1. Pillow-lavas and pillow breccia. 2. Volcaniclastic deposits. 3. Subvolcanic rocks with closely spaced columnar joints. 4. Subvolcanic rocks with widely spaced columnar joints. 5. Younger alkaline volcanics and sedimentary rocks chiefly marly claystones; sands and gravels. Inside the red box are highlighted the Isole dei Ciclopi (after Corsaro & Cristofolini, 2000; modified).

Caption: Figure 2. Panoramic view of the study area from west (from CUTGANA).

Caption: Figure 3. Geological sketch map of the northern sector of the Ciclopi Archipelago. In the picture on the left the overall stratigraphic setting of the Isola Lachea is showed. It is also notable the absence of vegetation characterizing the volcanic surfaces.

Caption: Figure 4. Life form spectrum (102 taxa); P: Phanerophytes; NP: Nanophanerophytes; Ch: Chamaephytes; H: Hemicryptophytes; G: Geophytes; T: Therophytes.

Caption: Figure 5. Chorological spectrum. Chorotypes: Med.: Circum-Mediterranean; Euro-Med.: Euro-Mediterranean; Med.-Atl.: Mediterranean Atlantic; Med.-Trop.: Mediterranean Tropical; N. Med.: North Mediterranean; C. Med.: Centre Mediterranean; W Med.: West Mediterranean; Med.-Iran.-Tur.: Mediterranean-Irano-Turanian; End.: Endemic; Boreo-Trop. Boreo-Tropical; Paleotemp.: Paleotemperate; Cosmop.: Cosmopolitan; Nat.: Naturalized (chorological types adapted from Brullo & al., 1998).

Caption: Figure 6. Cluster analysis. Plant communities: A1. Suaedo verae- Atriplicetum halimi, A2. Crithmetum maritimi, B1. Atriplici halimi-Artemisietum arborescentis, B2. Matthiola incana comm.

Caption: Figure 7. Perennial vegetation. A. Rocky coast vegetation with Crithmum maritimum (Isola Lachea); B. Rocky cliff vegetation with Matthiola incana (Faraglione di Mezzo); C-D. Halo-nitrophilous vegetation with Suaeda vera e Atriplex halimus (I. Lachea-Faraglione Grande); E-F. Nitrophilous vegetation with Artemisia arborescens (Faraglione Grande and Isola Lachea). The plant communities shown in A-B-D develop on cracks of the basaltic lavas. In C is visible the substrata represented by marly clays.

Caption: Figure 8. Annual vegetation. A-B. Sub-halophilous vegetation with Spergularia bocconei and Parapholis incurva (Faraglione Grande); C. Halo-nitrophilous vegetationwith Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum (Isola Lachea); D. Nitrophilous vegetation with Vulpia geniculata (Isola Lachea).

Caption: Figure 9. Vegetation map of the northern sector of the Ciclopi Archipelago

Caption: Figure 10. Problematic species on Cyclops Islands. A. Ailanthus altissima; B-C. Opuntiaficus-indica; D. Yellow-legged Gulls (Larus michahellis).
Table 1. A triplici halimi-Su aedetum verae B iondi 1988 (1-25)
(Atriplici-Suaedion, Salsolo-Peganetalia, Pegano-Salsoletea)
Crithmetum maritimi Beguinot 1941 (26-44)
(Crithmo maritimi-Staticion, Crithmo-Staticetalia, Crithmo-Staticetea)

Cluster                                 A1    A1    A1    A1    A1

Area ([m.sup.2])                        40    40    40    40    40
Cover (%)                               80    85    90    90    100
Slope ([degrees])                       20    15    60    65     5
Exposure                                SE     W     W     W     E
Reference N.                             1     2     3     4     5
Releve N.                                1     2     3     4     5
Characteristics
Suaeda vera                              3     4     4     4     4
Crithmum maritimum                       +     2     1     2    ...
Characteristics Pegano-Salsoletea
Artemisia arborescens                   ...   ...   ...   ...    3
A triplex halimus                       ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Characteristics Crithmo-Limonietea
Matthiola incana subsp. incana           1     +     1     1    ...
Allium commutatum                        1     1     +     1     +
Cappatis orientalis                     ...   ...    +     +    ...
Lotus cy'tisoides                       ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Silene vulgaris subsp. tenoreana        ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Limbarda chrithmoides                   ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Other species
Asparagus acutifolius                    +    ...   ...   ...    +
Brassica fruticulosa                     +    ...   ...   ...   ...
Opuntia ficus-indica                     1    ...   ...   ...   ...
Melilotus italiens                       2    ...   ...   ...    +
Dittrichia viscosa                      ...   ...   ...   ...    1
Parapholis incun'a                      ...    +     +     +    ...
Dacty'lis glomerata subsp. hispanica    ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Arisarum vulgare                        ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Ficus carica                            ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Sonchus asper                            +    ...   ...   ...   ...
Ferula communis                         ...   ...   ...   ...   ...

Cluster                                 A1    A1    A1    A1    A1

Area ([m.sup.2])                        40    40    40    40    40
Cover (%)                               90    10C   100   100   80
Slope ([degrees])                       25    45     5    20     5
Exposure                                 W     E     E     E     E
Reference N.                             6     7     8     9    10
Releve N.                                6     7     8     9    10
Characteristics
Suaeda vera                              3     5     4     3     4
Crithmum maritimum                       1     1    ...   ...   ...
Characteristics Pegano-Salsoletea
Artemisia arborescens                    3    ...    2     3    ...
A triplex halimus                       ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Characteristics Crithmo-Limonietea
Matthiola incana subsp. incana           1     1     +     +     +
Allium commutatum                        1     1     +     +    ...
Cappatis orientalis                      +     1    ...    +     1
Lotus cy'tisoides                       ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Silene vulgaris subsp. tenoreana        ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Limbarda chrithmoides                    1    ...   ...   ...   ...
Other species
Asparagus acutifolius                    +    ...    +    ...   ...
Brassica fruticulosa                     +    ...   ...   ...   ...
Opuntia ficus-indica                     +    ...    +    ...    1
Melilotus italiens                       +    ...    +     +    ...
Dittrichia viscosa                      ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Parapholis incun'a                       +    ...    +    ...   ...
Dacty'lis glomerata subsp. hispanica    ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Arisarum vulgare                        ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Ficus carica                            ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Sonchus asper                            +    ...   ...   ...   ...
Ferula communis                         ...   ...    +     +    ...

Cluster                                 A1    A1    A1    A1    A1

Area ([m.sup.2])                        40    40    40    40    16
Cover (%)                               85    85    85    80    85
Slope ([degrees])                        5    40    50    65    60
Exposure                                 E     W     W     W     W
Reference N.                            11    12    14    15    18
Releve N.                               11    12    13    14    15
Characteristics
Suaeda vera                              4     4     3     3     4
Crithmum maritimum                      ...    2     1     +     +
Characteristics Pegano-Salsoletea
Artemisia arborescens                   ...    +     1     1     +
A triplex halimus                       ...   ...    1     1    ...
Characteristics Crithmo-Limonietea
Matthiola incana subsp. incana          ...    +     1     1     1
Allium commutatum                       ...   ...   ...   ...    +
Cappatis orientalis                     ...   ...   ...   ...    1
Lotus cy'tisoides                       ...    1     +     1    ...
Silene vulgaris subsp. tenoreana        ...    1     1     2    ...
Limbarda chrithmoides                   ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Other species
Asparagus acutifolius                   ...    +     +     +     +
Brassica fruticulosa                    ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Opuntia ficus-indica                    ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Melilotus italiens                      ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Dittrichia viscosa                      ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Parapholis incun'a                      ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Dacty'lis glomerata subsp. hispanica    ...   ...    +    ...   ...
Arisarum vulgare                        ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Ficus carica                            ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Sonchus asper                           ...   ...   ...    +    ...
Ferula communis                         ...   ...   ...   ...   ...

Cluster                                 A1    A1    A1    A1    A1

Area ([m.sup.2])                        16    16    16    16    16
Cover (%)                               100   90    90    85    90
Slope ([degrees])                       ...   45    ...   ...    5
Exposure                                ...    W    ...   ...   NW
Reference N.                            20    21    22    23    42
Releve N.                               16    17    18    19    20
Characteristics
Suaeda vera                              4     1     2     3     5
Crithmum maritimum                       +     +    ...    1     2
Characteristics Pegano-Salsoletea
Artemisia arborescens                    2     3     3     2    ...
A triplex halimus                       ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Characteristics Crithmo-Limonietea
Matthiola incana subsp. incana           +     +     +    ...    +
Allium commutatum                        1     +     +    ...   ...
Cappatis orientalis                     ...    +    ...   ...   ...
Lotus cy'tisoides                       ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Silene vulgaris subsp. tenoreana        ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Limbarda chrithmoides                   ...    1    ...    2    ...
Other species
Asparagus acutifolius                    +     +     +    ...   ...
Brassica fruticulosa                    ...   ...   ...    +    ...
Opuntia ficus-indica                    ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Melilotus italiens                      ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Dittrichia viscosa                       +    ...    +    ...   ...
Parapholis incun'a                      ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Dacty'lis glomerata subsp. hispanica    ...    1    ...   ...   ...
Arisarum vulgare                        ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Ficus carica                            ...    1    ...   ...   ...
Sonchus asper                           ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Ferula communis                         ...   ...   ...   ...   ...

Cluster                                 A1    A1    A1    A1    A1

Area ([m.sup.2])                        16    20    20    20    40
Cover (%)                               85    90    95    90    90
Slope ([degrees])                       65    25     5     5     5
Exposure                                NW    NW     E     E     E
Reference N.                            43    46    47    48    69
Releve N.                               21    22    23    24    25
Characteristics
Suaeda vera                              3     3     4     3     2
Crithmum maritimum                       3     2     2     2    ...
Characteristics Pegano-Salsoletea
Artemisia arborescens                   ...    3    ...    +     3
A triplex halimus                       ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Characteristics Crithmo-Limonietea
Matthiola incana subsp. incana           2     2     1    ...    1
Allium commutatum                        1     1     2     +     1
Cappatis orientalis                      +     +    ...   ...   ...
Lotus cy'tisoides                       ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Silene vulgaris subsp. tenoreana         +    ...   ...   ...   ...
Limbarda chrithmoides                   ...   ...   ...    4    ...
Other species
Asparagus acutifolius                   ...    1     1    ...    +
Brassica fruticulosa                    ...   ...    +    ...    1
Opuntia ficus-indica                    ...   ...   ...   ...    1
Melilotus italiens                      ...   ...    1    ...    1
Dittrichia viscosa                      ...   ...   ...   ...    1
Parapholis incun'a                      ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Dacty'lis glomerata subsp. hispanica    ...   ...   ...   ...    +
Arisarum vulgare                        ...    1     +    ...   ...
Ficus carica                            ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Sonchus asper                           ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Ferula communis                         ...   ...   ...   ...   ...

Cluster                                 A2    A2    A2    A2    A2

Area ([m.sup.2])                        16    16    16    16    16
Cover (%)                               75    75    75    30    85
Slope ([degrees])                       55    65    80    30    65
Exposure                                 W     W     N     N    NW
Reference N.                            17    19    24    33    34
Releve N.                               26    27    28    29    30
Characteristics
Suaeda vera                              1     2     +     1     2
Crithmum maritimum                       3     3     2     3     3
Characteristics Pegano-Salsoletea
Artemisia arborescens                   ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
A triplex halimus                       ...   ...   ...    1    ...
Characteristics Crithmo-Limonietea
Matthiola incana subsp. incana           +     1     3    ...    3
Allium commutatum                        +     +     1    ...    +
Cappatis orientalis                      1     1     1    ...    +
Lotus cy'tisoides                        +     +     +     1     1
Silene vulgaris subsp. tenoreana        ...   ...   ...    +    ...
Limbarda chrithmoides                   ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Other species
Asparagus acutifolius                   ...    +    ...   ...    +
Brassica fruticulosa                    ...   ...    +    ...   ...
Opuntia ficus-indica                    ...   ...   ...   ...    1
Melilotus italiens                      ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Dittrichia viscosa                      ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Parapholis incun'a                      ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Dacty'lis glomerata subsp. hispanica    ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Arisarum vulgare                        ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Ficus carica                            ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Sonchus asper                           ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Ferula communis                         ...   ...   ...   ...   ...

Cluster                                 A2    A2    A2    A2    A2

Area ([m.sup.2])                        16    16    16    16    16
Cover (%)                               60    90    80    80    85
Slope ([degrees])                       75    60    ...   ...   ...
Exposure                                 W     W    ...   ...   ...
Reference N.                            35    36    37    38    39
Releve N.                               31    32    33    34    35
Characteristics
Suaeda vera                              1     +    ...   ...    +
Crithmum maritimum                       3     4     4     4     4
Characteristics Pegano-Salsoletea
Artemisia arborescens                   ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
A triplex halimus                        +    ...   ...   ...   ...
Characteristics Crithmo-Limonietea
Matthiola incana subsp. incana           2     3     1     1     +
Allium commutatum                        1     1     +    ...    +
Cappatis orientalis                      1     1     2     1     1
Lotus cy'tisoides                        +     +     +    ...    +
Silene vulgaris subsp. tenoreana        ...   ...   ...   ...    1
Limbarda chrithmoides                   ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Other species
Asparagus acutifolius                   ...    +    ...   ...   ...
Brassica fruticulosa                     +    ...   ...   ...   ...
Opuntia ficus-indica                    ...    1    ...   ...   ...
Melilotus italiens                      ...    +    ...   ...   ...
Dittrichia viscosa                      ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Parapholis incun'a                      ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Dacty'lis glomerata subsp. hispanica    ...   ...   ...   ...    +
Arisarum vulgare                        ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Ficus carica                            ...    +    ...   ...   ...
Sonchus asper                           ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Ferula communis                         ...   ...   ...   ...   ...

Cluster                                 A2    A2    A2    A2    A2

Area ([m.sup.2])                        16    16    16    16    16
Cover (%)                               90    80    80    70    90
Slope ([degrees])                       60    50    35    25    60
Exposure                                 N     W     N     N     W
Reference N.                            40    41    44    45    49
Releve N.                               36    37    38    39    40
Characteristics
Suaeda vera                              1     2     2     1    ...
Crithmum maritimum                       4     4     4     4     3
Characteristics Pegano-Salsoletea
Artemisia arborescens                    +    ...   ...   ...   ...
A triplex halimus                       ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Characteristics Crithmo-Limonietea
Matthiola incana subsp. incana           3     +     1     +     4
Allium commutatum                        +     +     +           1
Cappatis orientalis                      2     1     +     1     +
Lotus cy'tisoides                       ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Silene vulgaris subsp. tenoreana        ...   ...    +    ...   ...
Limbarda chrithmoides                   ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Other species
Asparagus acutifolius                   ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Brassica fruticulosa                    ...   ...   ...   ...    +
Opuntia ficus-indica                    ...   ...   ...   ...    1
Melilotus italiens                      ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Dittrichia viscosa                      ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Parapholis incun'a                      ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Dacty'lis glomerata subsp. hispanica    ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Arisarum vulgare                        ...    +    ...   ...   ...
Ficus carica                             +    ...   ...   ...   ...
Sonchus asper                           ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Ferula communis                         ...   ...   ...   ...   ...

Cluster                                 A2    A2    A2    A2

Area ([m.sup.2])                        20    20    20    20
Cover (%)                               80    85    75    65
Slope ([degrees])                       70    15    60    65
Exposure                                 E     E     W    NE
Reference N.                            65    66    67    68
Releve N.                               41    42    43    44
Characteristics
Suaeda vera                              +    ...   ...   ...
Crithmum maritimum                       4     4     4     4
Characteristics Pegano-Salsoletea
Artemisia arborescens                   ...   ...   ...   ...
A triplex halimus                       ...   ...   ...   ...
Characteristics Crithmo-Limonietea
Matthiola incana subsp. incana           2     1     1     2
Allium commutatum                        1     +     1     +
Cappatis orientalis                      1     2     3     1
Lotus cy'tisoides                       ...   ...   ...   ...
Silene vulgaris subsp. tenoreana        ...    1    ...   ...
Limbarda chrithmoides                   ...   ...   ...   ...
Other species
Asparagus acutifolius                   ...   ...    +    ...
Brassica fruticulosa                     +     +    ...    +
Opuntia ficus-indica                    ...   ...   ...   ...
Melilotus italiens                      ...   ...   ...   ...
Dittrichia viscosa                       +    ...   ...   ...
Parapholis incun'a                      ...   ...   ...   ...
Dacty'lis glomerata subsp. hispanica    ...   ...   ...   ...
Arisarum vulgare                        ...   ...   ...   ...
Ficus carica                            ...   ...   ...   ...
Sonchus asper                           ...   ...   ...   ...
Ferula communis                         ...   ...   ...   ...

Other species: Trachynia distachya andMesembryanthemum nodiflorum + in
1; Thapsia garganica + in 23; Piptatherum miliaceum subsp. miliaceum +
in 25; Umbilicus horizontalis + in 44.

Localities: 1-11: Isola Lachea, 16.04.2015; 12-14: Faraglione Grande
(Madonnina), 16.04.2015; 15-19, 26-28: Isola Lachea, 22.06.2015;
20,21,36-39: Isola Lachea, 26.10.2015; 22-24: Isola Lachea,
28.01.2016; 25, 42-44: Isola Lachea, 24.05.2016; 29: Faraglione Grande
(Madonnina), 22.06.2015; 30-35: Isola Lachea, 08.07.2015; 40: Isola
Lachea (lower side of the house), 31.04.2016; 41: Isola Lachea,
24.05.2016.

Atriplici halimi-Artemisietum arborescentis Biondi 1988 (1-19)
(Artemision arborescentis, Salsolo-Peganetalia, Pegano-Salsoletea)
Matthiola incana subsp. incana community (20-25)
(Anthyllidion barbae-jovis, Helichrysetalia italici, Crithmo-Staticetea)

Cluster                                 B1    B1    B1    B1    B1

Area ([m.sup.2])                        40    40    50    50    50
Cover (%)                               90    80    90    95    85
Slope ([degrees])                       60    35    35    40    40
Exposure                                 W     W    NW     N     W
Reference N.                            13    16    29    30    31
Releve N.                                1     2     3     4     5
Characteristics
Artemisia arborescens                    4     2     4     5     1
Matthiola incana subsp. incana           2    ...    +     1     1
Characteristics Pegano-Salsoletea
Suaeda vera                              1     2    ...   ...    2
A triplex halimus                        +     4     1     +     3
Characteristics Crithmo-Limonietea
Silene \mlgaris subsp. tenoreana         2     +     1     1     +
Lotus cytisoides                         1     +     +     +     1
Allium commutatum                       ...    +    ...   ...    +
Capparis orientalis                     ...    +    ...   ...    +
Crithmum maritimum                       +     +    ...   ...   ...
Other species
Dactylis glomerata subsp. hispanica      +    ...    1     +     +
Asparagus acutifolius                    1     +     +     +     +
Asparagus albus                         ...    +     1     1     +
Br assica fruticulosa                   ...   ...    +     +    ...
Sonchus asper                            +     +     +     +     +
Sonchus oleraceus                       ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Melilotus italiens                      ...   ...    1     +     +
Carlina hispanica subsp. globosa        ...   ...    +     1    ...
Lolium rigidum                          ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Daucus carota subsp. carota             ...   ...    +     +    ...
Chenopodium album                       ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Arisarum vulgare                        ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Trachynia distachya                     ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Ferula communis                         ...   ...    +    ...   ...

Cluster                                 B1    B1    B1    B1    B1

Area ([m.sup.2])                        50    20    20    20    20
Cover (%)                               80    85    80    85    80
Slope ([degrees])                       40    65    70    70    50
Exposure                                 W    NW    NW    NW    NW
Reference N.                            32    50    51    52    53
Releve N.                                6     7     8     9    10
Characteristics
Artemisia arborescens                    1     1     4     3     2
Matthiola incana subsp. incana           +     2     1     2     2
Characteristics Pegano-Salsoletea
Suaeda vera                              1     1    ...    1     +
A triplex halimus                        3     4    ...   ...   ...
Characteristics Crithmo-Limonietea
Silene \mlgaris subsp. tenoreana         1     1     1     1     1
Lotus cytisoides                         +     +     +     +     +
Allium commutatum                        1     1     +     1     1
Capparis orientalis                      1    ...   ...   ...   ...
Crithmum maritimum                      ...    1    ...   ...   ...
Other species
Dactylis glomerata subsp. hispanica      +     1     1     1     2
Asparagus acutifolius                    +     1     2     1     +
Asparagus albus                          1    ...    1     1     +
Br assica fruticulosa                   ...    +     +     +     +
Sonchus asper                            +    ...   ...   ...   ...
Sonchus oleraceus                       ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Melilotus italiens                       +    ...   ...   ...   ...
Carlina hispanica subsp. globosa        ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Lolium rigidum                          ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Daucus carota subsp. carota             ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Chenopodium album                       ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Arisarum vulgare                        ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Trachynia distachya                     ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Ferula communis                         ...   ...   ...   ...   ...

Cluster                                 B1    B1    B1    B1    B1

Area ([m.sup.2])                        20    20    20    40    40
Cover (%)                               100   90    85    70    80
Slope ([degrees])                       30    40    50    35    45
Exposure                                 W     W     W    NW    NW
Reference N.                            54    55    56    57    58
Releve N.                               11    12    13    14    15
Characteristics
Artemisia arborescens                    5     2     3     2     1
Matthiola incana subsp. incana          ...   ...    1     2     2
Characteristics Pegano-Salsoletea
Suaeda vera                             ...    1     1     2     1
A triplex halimus                        1     3     1     2     3
Characteristics Crithmo-Limonietea
Silene \mlgaris subsp. tenoreana         +    ...    +     1     1
Lotus cytisoides                        ...    +     2     1     +
Allium commutatum                        +     2     1     +    ...
Capparis orientalis                     ...   ...   ...    +     +
Crithmum maritimum                      ...   ...   ...    +     +
Other species
Dactylis glomerata subsp. hispanica      +     +     +    ...    +
Asparagus acutifolius                    +     +     +     1     +
Asparagus albus                          2     1     1    ...   ...
Br assica fruticulosa                    +     +     +     +     +
Sonchus asper                           ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Sonchus oleraceus                       ...   ...   ...    +     +
Melilotus italiens                       1     +     +    ...   ...
Carlina hispanica subsp. globosa         +    ...    1    ...   ...
Lolium rigidum                          ...   ...   ...    +     +
Daucus carota subsp. carota             ...   ...    +    ...   ...
Chenopodium album                       ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Arisarum vulgare                         +    ...   ...   ...   ...
Trachynia distachya                      +    ...    +    ...   ...
Ferula communis                          +    ...   ...   ...   ...

Cluster                                 B1    B1    B1    B1    B2

Area ([m.sup.2])                        40    40    40    40    16
Cover (%)                               80    75    75    85    85
Slope ([degrees])                       40    30    40    60    70
Exposure                                NW    SE    SW    SW     W
Reference N.                            59    60    61    62    25
Releve N.                               16    17    18    19    20
Characteristics
Artemisia arborescens                    2     1     1     3    ...
Matthiola incana subsp. incana           2    ...   ...    1     3
Characteristics Pegano-Salsoletea
Suaeda vera                              2     1     3     1    ...
A triplex halimus                        3     4     3     1    ...
Characteristics Crithmo-Limonietea
Silene \mlgaris subsp. tenoreana         2     1     1     1     3
Lotus cytisoides                         +     1     2     3     1
Allium commutatum                       ...   ...    1     +     +
Capparis orientalis                      +     1     +     +     +
Crithmum maritimum                       +     +    ...   ...   ...
Other species
Dactylis glomerata subsp. hispanica      +     +    ...    +    ...
Asparagus acutifolius                    +     1     +     1    ...
Asparagus albus                         ...    +     +     +    ...
Br assica fruticulosa                    +    ...    1     1    ...
Sonchus asper                           ...   ...   ...   ...    +
Sonchus oleraceus                        +     +     +     +    ...
Melilotus italiens                      ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Carlina hispanica subsp. globosa        ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Lolium rigidum                           +    ...   ...   ...   ...
Daucus carota subsp. carota             ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Chenopodium album                       ...    +    ...   ...   ...
Arisarum vulgare                        ...   ...   ...    +    ...
Trachynia distachya                     ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Ferula communis                         ...   ...   ...   ...   ...

Cluster                                 B2    B2    B2    B2    B2

Area ([m.sup.2])                        16    16    16    20    20
Cover (%)                               85    85    50    80    85
Slope ([degrees])                       45    80    90    60    70
Exposure                                NW     W     W     N     N
Reference N.                            26    27    28    63    64
Releve N.                               21    22    23    24    25
Characteristics
Artemisia arborescens                   ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Matthiola incana subsp. incana           3     3     2     3     3
Characteristics Pegano-Salsoletea
Suaeda vera                             ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
A triplex halimus                       ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Characteristics Crithmo-Limonietea
Silene \mlgaris subsp. tenoreana         2     3     1     1     2
Lotus cytisoides                         2     2     2     3     2
Allium commutatum                        +     1    ...   ...    1
Capparis orientalis                      1     +     +     1     +
Crithmum maritimum                      ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Other species
Dactylis glomerata subsp. hispanica     ...   ...    +     1     +
Asparagus acutifolius                   ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Asparagus albus                         ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Br assica fruticulosa                   ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Sonchus asper                            +     +     1    ...   ...
Sonchus oleraceus                       ...   ...   ...    +     +
Melilotus italiens                      ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Carlina hispanica subsp. globosa        ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Lolium rigidum                          ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Daucus carota subsp. carota             ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Chenopodium album                       ...   ...    +    ...   ...
Arisarum vulgare                        ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Trachynia distachya                     ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Ferula communis                         ...   ...   ...   ...   ...

Other species: Thapsia garganicaand Galactites elegans + in 11:
Reichardiapicroides + in 23: Umbilicus horizontalis + in 25.

Localities: 1,2: Faraglrone Grande (Madonnma), 16.04.2015; 3-6:
Faraglrone Grande (Madonnma), 22.06.2015; 7-13: Faraglrone Grande.
31.03.2016; 14-19: Faraglrone Grande. 13.04.2016; 20-23: Faraglrone dr
Mezzo (F. Uccellr), 22.06.2015; 24-25: Faraglrone dr Mezzo (F.
Uccellr). 13.04.201

Table 2. Trifolio scabri-Catapodietum baleatici Brullo et Giusso del
Galdo 2003 (1-13)
Parapholido incurvae-Spetgidarietum bocconei Brullo, Scelsi &
Spampinato 2001 (14-23) (Frankenion pidvendentae,
Frankenietaliapidvendentae, Saginetea maritimae)

Area ([m.sup.2])                            0.5   0.5   0.3   0.3   0.5
Cover (%)                                   90    90    90    90    90
Slope ([degrees])                           --    --    --    --    --
Exposure                                    --    --    --    --    --
Altitude (m)                                 8     8     9     9     9
Soil type                                   Ma    Ma    Ma    Ma    Ma
Releve N.                                    1     2     3     4     5
Characteristics
Catapodium balearicum                        4     4     4     4     3
Spergularia bocconi                         ...   ...   ...   ...    +
Plantago coronopus                           1     +           +     3
Parapholis incurva                           3     1     2     1     2
Sagina maritima                             ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Trifolium scabrum                           ...   ...    +    ...    1
Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum                 ...   ...   ...    +     +
Medicago truncatula                         ...   ...   ...    +     +
Polycarpon tetraphyllum subsp. diphyllum    ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Other species                               ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Suaeda vera                                  +     +     +     +     +
Sonchus asper                               ...   ...   ...    +    ...
Crithmum maritimum                           +     +    ...   ...   ...
Allium commutatum                           ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Anagallis an'ensis                          ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Melilotus italiens                          ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Trachynia distachya                         ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Anagallis foemina                           ...   ...   ...   ...   ...

Area ([m.sup.2])                            0.2   0.3   0.4   0.5   0.5
Cover (%)                                   90     6    85    80    65
Slope ([degrees])                           SE     N     N     N    --
Exposure                                     5     5     5     5    --
Altitude (m)                                 9     8     8     8     9
Soil type                                   Ma    Ma    Ma    Ma    Ma
Releve N.                                    6     7     8     9    10
Characteristics
Catapodium balearicum                        4     1     4     4     2
Spergularia bocconi                         ...    1     +     +    ...
Plantago coronopus                           1     1     2     1     1
Parapholis incurva                           +    ...   ...   ...   ...
Sagina maritima                             ...    3     1     1     +
Trifolium scabrum                            +     +     +     +     1
Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum                 ...   ...   ...   ...    +
Medicago truncatula                         ...   ...   ...   ...    +
Polycarpon tetraphyllum subsp. diphyllum    ...   ...    +     +    ...
Other species                               ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Suaeda vera                                  +    ...    +     +     +
Sonchus asper                               ...   ...    +     +    ...
Crithmum maritimum                          ...    +    ...   ...   ...
Allium commutatum                           ...    +    ...   ...    +
Anagallis an'ensis                          ...   ...    1     2     +
Melilotus italiens                          ...   ...    +    ...    +
Trachynia distachya                         ...   ...   ...    +    ...
Anagallis foemina                           ...   ...   ...   ...   ...

Area ([m.sup.2])                            0.5   0.5   0.5   0.3   0.3
Cover (%)                                   70    80    90    80    85
Slope ([degrees])                           --    --    --    --    --
Exposure                                    --    --    --    --    --
Altitude (m)                                 9    10    10     8     8
Soil type                                   Ma    Ma    Ma    Ma    Ma
Releve N.                                   11    12    13    14    15
Characteristics
Catapodium balearicum                        3     4     3    ...   ...
Spergularia bocconi                         ...   ...   ...    4     4
Plantago coronopus                           2     2     1     +     1
Parapholis incurva                          ...   ...   ...    +     +
Sagina maritima                              1     +    ...    +     +
Trifolium scabrum                            1     +     2    ...   ...
Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum                 ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Medicago truncatula                         ...    +     1    ...   ...
Polycarpon tetraphyllum subsp. diphyllum    ...    1          ...   ...
Other species                               ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Suaeda vera                                  +     +     +    ...   ...
Sonchus asper                               ...    +     +    ...   ...
Crithmum maritimum                          ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Allium commutatum                           ...    +     +    ...   ...
Anagallis an'ensis                           +    ...    +    ...   ...
Melilotus italiens                           +     +     +    ...   ...
Trachynia distachya                          +     1     1    ...   ...
Anagallis foemina                           ...    +     1    ...   ...

Area ([m.sup.2])                            0.4   0.4   0.5   0.5   0.5
Cover (%)                                   90    90    85    90    90
Slope ([degrees])                           NW    NW    NE    --    --
Exposure                                     3     3     2    --    --
Altitude (m)                                 6     6     6     7     7
Soil type                                   Vu    Vu    Vu    Vu    Vu
Releve N.                                   16    17    18    19    20
Characteristics
Catapodium balearicum                       ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Spergularia bocconi                         ...    +    ...    5     1
Plantago coronopus                           4     4     4     1     4
Parapholis incurva                           3     2     1     1     3
Sagina maritima                              1     1     +     1    ...
Trifolium scabrum                           ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum                 ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Medicago truncatula                         ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Polycarpon tetraphyllum subsp. diphyllum    ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Other species                               ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Suaeda vera                                 ...   ...   ...    +     +
Sonchus asper                               ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Crithmum maritimum                          ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Allium commutatum                           ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Anagallis an'ensis                          ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Melilotus italiens                          ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Trachynia distachya                         ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Anagallis foemina                           ...   ...   ...   ...   ...

Area ([m.sup.2])                            0.5   0.5   0.8
Cover (%)                                   85    70    90
Slope ([degrees])                           --    --    --
Exposure                                    --    --    --
Altitude (m)                                 7     7     7
Soil type                                   Vu    Vu    Vu
Releve N.                                   21    22    23
Characteristics
Catapodium balearicum                       ...   ...    1
Spergularia bocconi                          +     3     4
Plantago coronopus                           3     +     1
Parapholis incurva                           3     1     +
Sagina maritima                              1    ...    1
Trifolium scabrum                           ...   ...   ...
Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum                 ...   ...   ...
Medicago truncatula                         ...   ...   ...
Polycarpon tetraphyllum subsp. diphyllum    ...   ...   ...
Other species                               ...   ...   ...
Suaeda vera                                 ...   ...    +
Sonchus asper                               ...   ...   ...
Crithmum maritimum                          ...    1    ...
Allium commutatum                           ...   ...   ...
Anagallis an'ensis                          ...   ...   ...
Melilotus italiens                          ...   ...   ...
Trachynia distachya                         ...   ...   ...
Anagallis foemina                           ...   ...   ...

Other species: Silene vulgaris subsp. tenoreana + in 19.

Localities: 1-5: Isola Lachea, 16.04.2015; 6: Isola Lachea,
08.07.2015; 7-15: Isola Lachea (white rock with Suaeda), 31.04.2016;
16-19: Faraglione Grande, 31.03.2016; 20-23: Faraglione Grande,
13.04.2016.

Table 3. Rubus ulmifolius community
(Pruno spinosae-Rubion ulmifolii, Pyro spinosae-Rubetalia ulmifolii,
Crataego-Prunetea)

Altitude (m)                              25    25    25    25    25
Area ([m.sup.2])                          20    20    20    20    20
Cover (%)                                 90    90    90    90    90
Slope ([degrees])                         45    35    55    45    40
Exposure                                   W     W     W     W     W
Soil                                      Ma    Ma    Ma    Ma    Ma
Relev. No.                                 1     2     3     4     5
Characteristics
Asparagus acutifolius                      1     1     +     1     +
Rubus ulmifolius                           2     1     2     1     1
Characteristics Oleo-Ceratonion
Olea europaea var. sylvestris              4     3     4     4     3
Arisarum vulgare                           1     1     1     1     1
Other species
Opuntia ficus-indica                       3     2     3     2     4
Ailanthus altissima                        2     1     2     3     1
Brassica fruticulosa                       1     2     1     2     1
Spartium junceum                           2     1     3     1     2
Matthiola incana subsp. incana             2     1     1     1     1
Capparis orientalis                        1     +     +     +     +
Dittrichia viscosa                        ...    +    ...    +     +
Dactylis glomerata subsp. hispanica        +     +    ...    +     +
Acanthus mollis                            +     +     +     +     +
Thapsia garganica                          +     +     +     1    ...
Mercurialis annua                          +     +     +     +     +
Piptatherum miliaceum subsp. miliaceum    ...   ...   ...    +    ...
Ficus carica                               1     1     +    ...   ...
Carlina hispanica subsp. globosa          ...   ...   ...    +    ...
Galactites elegans                        ...   ...   ...   ...    +
Allium commutatum                         ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Daucus carota subsp. carota               ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Arundo donax                              ...   ...   ...   ...   ...

Altitude (m)                              25    26    24    24    24
Area ([m.sup.2])                          20    20    20    20    20
Cover (%)                                 100   100   95    95    95
Slope ([degrees])                         --     5    30    30    30
Exposure                                  --     E     N     N     N
Soil                                      Ma    Ma    Ma    Ma    Ma
Relev. No.                                 6     7     8     9    10
Characteristics
Asparagus acutifolius                      2     +     +     +    ...
Rubus ulmifolius                           +    ...    4     2     4
Characteristics Oleo-Ceratonion
Olea europaea var. sylvestris              4     5    ...    1    ...
Arisarum vulgare                           1     4    ...   ...   ...
Other species
Opuntia ficus-indica                       1     1     1     2     2
Ailanthus altissima                       ...   ...    4     3     3
Brassica fruticulosa                       +    ...    2     1     1
Spartium junceum                          ...   ...    2     1    ...
Matthiola incana subsp. incana             +     +    ...    +     +
Capparis orientalis                        +     +     +     +    ...
Dittrichia viscosa                        ...   ...    +     +     +
Dactylis glomerata subsp. hispanica       ...   ...   ...    +     +
Acanthus mollis                            +     +    ...   ...    +
Thapsia garganica                         ...   ...    +     +    ...
Mercurialis annua                          +     +     +     +     +
Piptatherum miliaceum subsp. miliaceum    ...   ...    +     +    ...
Ficus carica                              ...   ...    1    ...   ...
Carlina hispanica subsp. globosa          ...   ...   ...    +    ...
Galactites elegans                        ...   ...    +    ...   ...
Allium commutatum                         ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Daucus carota subsp. carota               ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Arundo donax                              ...   ...    2     1    ...

Altitude (m)                              23    24    24
Area ([m.sup.2])                          20    20    20
Cover (%)                                 100   90    100
Slope ([degrees])                         --    35    40
Exposure                                  --     N     W
Soil                                      Ma    Ma    Ma
Relev. No.                                11    12    13
Characteristics
Asparagus acutifolius                      1     1    ...
Rubus ulmifolius                           3     1     4
Characteristics Oleo-Ceratonion
Olea europaea var. sylvestris              1     +
Arisarum vulgare                          ...   ...
Other species
Opuntia ficus-indica                       2     +    ...
Ailanthus altissima                        2    ...   ...
Brassica fruticulosa                       1     +    ...
Spartium junceum                           2     4     1
Matthiola incana subsp. incana             +     +     +
Capparis orientalis                        +     +    ...
Dittrichia viscosa                         +     +    ...
Dactylis glomerata subsp. hispanica        +     +    ...
Acanthus mollis                           ...   ...   ...
Thapsia garganica                          +     +    ...
Mercurialis annua                          +     +    ...
Piptatherum miliaceum subsp. miliaceum     +     +    ...
Ficus carica                               1     +     2
Carlina hispanica subsp. globosa          ...    1    ...
Galactites elegans                        ...    +    ...
Allium commutatum                         ...    +     +
Daucus carota subsp. carota                +     +    ...
Arundo donax                              ...   ...   ...

Other species: Capparis spinosa + in 4, Robiniapseudacacia 1 in 10.

Localities: 1-6: Isola Lachea, 08.07.2015; 7: Isola Lachea,
26.10.2015; 8-13: Isola Lachea, 08.07.2015.

Table 4. Galactites elegans community
(Echio-Galactition tomentosae, Brometalia rubenti-tectorum,
Chenopodietea)

Area ([m.sup.2])                            20    20    20    20    40
Cover (%)                                   90    95    100   100   100
Slope ([degrees])                           --    --    --    --    --
Exposure                                    --    --    --    --    --
Altitude (m)                                10    10    10    10    10
Relev. No.                                   1     2     3     4     5
Characteristics
Acanthus mollis                              4     3     3     1     1
Galactites elegans                           1     +     2     4     4
Characteristics Epilobietea & Allion
  triquetri
Arisarum vulgare                             2     3     1     1     1
Urtica membranacea                           +     1     +    ...    +
Parietaria lusitanica                        +     +     +    ...   ...
Galium aparine subsp. aparine                +           +    ...   ...
Characteristics Papaveretea & Brometalia
Mercurialis annua                            1     2     1     3     1
Erodium malacoides                          ...   ...    +     +     +
Brassica fruticulosa                         +    ...    +     1     1
Sonchus oleraceus                           ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Anisantha madritensis                       ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Glebionis coronaria                         ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Solanum nigrum                              ...   ...    +     +    ...
Vulpia geniculata                           ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Melilotus italicus                          ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Catapodium rigidum                          ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Anagallis arvensis                          ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Vulpia ciliata                              ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Other species
Thapsia garganica                            +     +    ...    +    ...
Asparagus acutifolius                        +     +     +     +     +
Carlina hispanica subsp. globosa            ...    +    ...    +     +
Ferula communis                              +    ...    +     1     1
Trachynia distachya                         ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Allium commutatum                            +    ...   ...    +    ...
Dittrichia viscosa                          ...   ...    1    ...    1
Valantia muralis                            ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Polycarpon tetraphyllum subsp. diphyllum    ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Cerastium pumilum                           ...   ...   ...   ...   ...
Ailanthus altissima                         ...   ...   ...    +     +

Area ([m.sup.2])                            20    20    10    10
Cover (%)                                   100   90    90    90
Slope ([degrees])                            5     5     5     5
Exposure                                     N    NW     W     W
Altitude (m)                                11     8    10    10
Relev. No.                                   6     7     8     9
Characteristics
Acanthus mollis                              1    ...    +     +
Galactites elegans                           4     3     1     1
Characteristics Epilobietea & Allion
  triquetri
Arisarum vulgare                                   +    ...    +
Urtica membranacea                           1    ...   ...   ...
Parietaria lusitanica                        1    ...   ...   ...
Galium aparine subsp. aparine                +    ...   ...   ...
Characteristics Papaveretea & Brometalia
Mercurialis annua                            2    ...    +     2
Erodium malacoides                           +    ...    +     1
Brassica fruticulosa                         1     2     +    ...
Sonchus oleraceus                            1     1     +     +
Anisantha madritensis                        +    ...    3     2
Glebionis coronaria                          3    ...    1     1
Solanum nigrum                              ...   ...   ...   ...
Vulpia geniculata                           ...   ...    3     3
Melilotus italicus                          ...   ...    +     +
Catapodium rigidum                          ...   ...    +     +
Anagallis arvensis                          ...   ...    1     +
Vulpia ciliata                              ...   ...    2     1
Other species
Thapsia garganica                            +     1     +     +
Asparagus acutifolius                       ...    +    ...   ...
Carlina hispanica subsp. globosa             +    ...    1    ...
Ferula communis                              1    ...   ...   ...
Trachynia distachya                          +     1     1     1
Allium commutatum                           ...    1    ...   ...
Dittrichia viscosa                           2    ...   ...   ...
Valantia muralis                            ...   ...    +     +
Polycarpon tetraphyllum subsp. diphyllum    ...   ...    +     1
Cerastium pumilum                           ...   ...    +     +
Ailanthus altissima                         ...   ...   ...   ...

Characteristics Papaveretea & Brometalia: Hordeum murinum subsp.
leporinum, Lolium rigidum, Plantago lagopus and Sonchus asper 2 in 7;
Urospermum picroides + in 8. Other species: Erigeron bonariensis + in
6; Dactylis glomerata subsp. hispanica 2, Silene vulgaris subsp.
tenoreana 1, Trifolium scabrum, Sedum rubens and Asparagus albus +
in 7.

Localities: 1-5: Isola Lachea, 28.01.2016; 6: Isola Lachea,
31.04.2016; 7: Faraglione Grande (under Madonnina), 31.04.2016; 8-9:
Isola Lachea, 31.04.2016.
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Author:Sciandrello, Saverio; Minissale, Pietro; Sturiale, Giovanni
Publication:Lazaroa
Date:Jan 1, 2017
Words:11841
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