Printer Friendly

Plant bugs of the tribe Phylini in Thailand (heteroptera: miridae: phylinae), with descriptions of six new species from additional areas in tropical and subtropical Asia.

Abstract--The phyline plant bugs belonging to the tribe Phylini in Thailand are reviewed. Sixteen species in eight genera that have hitherto been recognized are further documented. Nine species are described as new: Atractotomoidea izyaslavi, Decomia nigrissima, D. schuhi, D. taksini, Decomioides kazutakai, D. verecundus, Malaysiamiris rufobadius, Moissonia sakaerat, and Psallus buddha. Decomioides schneirlai Schuh is reported from Indochina for the first time and diagnosed. In addition, the following six new species, confirmed during examinations of related materials from the tropical and subtropical Asia, are described: A tractotomoidea insulicola (from Ryukyus, Japan), Decomia panayensis (Visayas, Philippines), Moissonia larutensis (Peninsular Malaysia), M. pardalis (Peninsular Malaysia), M. takaii (Ryukyus, Japan) and Opuna schwartzi (Peninsular Malaysia). Decomia cephalotes Poppius known only by a single male from Taiwan is recorded from the Ryukyus and diagnosed. Male and female genitalic structures are described and figured for most species. Biology and immature forms are reported in detail for Decomioides verecundus, Moissonia importunitas and M. takaii.

Key words: Phylini, Asia, new species, host plant, genitalia.

INTRODUCTION

The fauna of phyline plant bugs has scarcely been studied in Thailand. Only six species, Campylomma marjorae Schuh, Decomia chiangdaoensis Schuh, D. indochinensis Schuh, Moissonia importunitas (Distant), M. punctata (Fieber) and Opuna annulata (Knight), were previously recorded, on the basis of reliable identifications, from this species-rich country (Schuh, 1984). Needless to say, plant bug faunas of Thailand and countries in the tropical and subtropical Asia are still in great need of investigation.

This paper represents part of recent attempt to document the plant bug fauna of Thailand, subsequent to Yasunaga and Yamada (2009) and Yasunaga et al. (2010). During continuing investigations undertaken by the author and his colleagues from 2008 to present, more than 2,000 specimens of the Phylini have been collected. Hitherto 16 species in 8 genera have been recognized; of these, inclusion of Moissonia punctata in the present report is based on a previous record by Schuh (1984) from Chiang Mai, northernmost part of Thailand.

I herein describe 9 new species from Thailand: Atractotomoidea izyaslavi, Decomia nigrissima, D. schuhi, D. taksini, Decomioides kazutakai, D. verecundus, Malaysiamiris rufobadius, Moissonia sakaerat, and Psallus buddha. Decomioides schneirlai Schuh is recorded from Indochina for the first time and diagnosed. The following 6 new species, confirmed during examinations of related materials from the tropical and subtropical Asia, are also described: Atractotomoidea insulicola (from Ryukyus, Japan), D. panayensis (Visayas, Philippines), Moissonia larutensis (Peninsular Malaysia), M. pardalis (Peninsular Malaysia), M. takaii (Ryukyus, Japan) and Opuna schwartzi (Peninsular Malaysia). In addition, Decomia cephalotes Poppius, type species of the genus, known only by a single male from Taiwan is reported from Ishigaki Island of the Ryukyus and diagnosed.

The female genitalia have been insufficiently employed for the classification of the Phylini. In this study, the female genitalic structures are described and figured for most treated species, as are the genitalic structures of the males. Immature forms are reported for Decomioides verecundus, Moissonia importunitas and M. takaii, with detailed information on the hosts and habitats.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

More than 1,000 specimens were examined, but those of the genus Campylomma exhibiting similarly pale green coloration and apparently representing at least 5 species are excluded from this work, because identifications of the females are practically impossible (see discussion of the genus). Specimens examined are deposited in the following institutions or personal collections, unless otherwise stated: American Museum of Natural History, New York (AMNH), Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand (SUT), Tokushima Prefectural Museum, Tokushima, Japan (TKPM), and the author's collection, Nagasaki, Japan (TYCN).

Matrix code labels were attached to most specimens, which uniquely identify each specimen, and are referred to as 'unique specimen identifiers' (USIs). Generally each USI label corresponds to a single specimen; however, some USI labels correspond to 2-4 specimens in cases of several specimens mounted on one pin. USI labels were not attached to some specimens of known species represented by numerous individuals from the same localities.

Dried specimens were used in general, but immature forms are preserved in 80% ethyl alcohol in small vials. Most of specimens examined in this study were collected by the author from June 2008 to March 2010, as a part of international cooperative program on biodiversity between Rajamangala University of Technology Suvarnabhumi, Ayutthaya, Thailand (RMUTSB) and Japan International Cooperation Agency, Senior Volunteers (JICA-SV). One of the localities investigated, 'Sakaerat Environmental Research Station, Sakaerat Biosphere Reserve, Ministry of Science and Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima Provinces, Thailand', is abbreviated as "SERS," because numerous specimens used in this paper were collected there (for further information of this attractive research station, access the website: http://www.tistr.or.th/ sakaerat/index.php). In addition, specimens from Peninsular Malaysia, Nepal, Philippines and Japan in the author's collection (TYCN) were also examined to correctly ascertain the identities of Thai taxa. Digital images of live individuals were taken by TY with Canon EOS Kiss Digital camera body + Olympus OM-System (Zuiko 38 mm macrolens + Auto Extension Tube + T10 Ringflash).

All measurements are given in millimeters. Principal terminology follows major works treating the taxa of the tribe Phylini (Schuh, 1984; Wheeler, 2001; Yasunaga, 2001b); terminology of the genitalia mainly follows Cassis (2008), Davis (1955), Schuh and Wu (2009), Wyniger (2006), and Yasunaga and Schwartz (2007). New distributional records for known species (national level) are indicated by an asterisk (*) after a name of the region. All figures of the female genitalia are in dorsal view. In the synonymic lists for known taxa, only selected references, especially covering the Asian region, are cited, as comprehensive catalogs are now available (Kerzhner and Josifov, 1999; Schuh, 1995).

TRIBE PHYLINI DOUGLAS AND SCOTT, 1865 ATRACTOTOMOIDEA YASUNAGA

Atractotomoidea Yasunaga, 1999:190 (n. gen.); Yasunaga, 2001b: 154 (diag.).

TYPE SPECIES: Atractotomoidea castanea Yasunaga, 1999 (original designation).

DIAGNOSIS: Distinguished from other genera of the tribe Phylini by the following combination of characters: general coloration chestnut brown to fuscous; dorsal surface more or less shagreened or roughened, only with simple, semierect setae, lacking scale-like setae; eyes large; antennal segment IV long, almost equal in length to III; hemelytron with uniformly distributed, dark, small spots (Figs. 1 A, B).

MALE GENITALIA: Figures 2, 3. Left paramere subtriangular, with slender hypophysis. Phallotheca elongate, almost straight. Endosoma long, strongly coiled at middle, with 2-4 sclerotized appendages.

FEMALE GENITALIA: Figures 2, 3. Bursa copulatrix asymmetrical, with heavily sclerotized projections extending from anterior margin of dorsal labiate plate. Sclerotized rings ovoid, rather asymmetrical.

DISTRIBUTION: Temperate zone to tropics of eastern Asia; known from Japan, Nepal and Thailand.

DiscussioN: This genus was originally described from a single species, A. castanea Yasunaga, known from temperate and warm temperate zones of Japan. Two additional species have been found in Nepal, on the southern slope of the Himalayas (Duwal et al., 2010). The present discovery of an undescribed species in Thailand and another on Amami-Oshima Island of Japanese Ryukyus predicts that species of Atractotomoidea may widespread over eastern Asia.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

As pointed out by Duwal et al. (2010), the female genitalia of Atractotomoidea are asymmetrical. Such asymmetry is found in some phyline groups as reported by Schuh (2006). Asymmetrical female genitalia are also documented in the subfamily Orthotylinae and a few genera of the tribe Mirini (e.g., Philostephanus Distant) (Yasunaga and Schwartz, 2007).

The biology of Atractotomoidea species remains unknown, although Yasunaga (1999, 2001b) documented that the type species of the genus, A. castanea Yasunaga, is associated with many plants and appears to be predaceous. The immatures of A. castanea were taken from a conifer, Taxus cuspidate Siebold and Zucc (Taxaceae), and ornamental azaleas, Rhododendron sp. (Ericaceae) (Yasunaga, 2001 b).

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

ADDITIONAL KNOWN SPECIES EXAMINED" Atractotomoidea castanea Yasunaga, 1999 (Fig. 2, 3)-JAPAN: Shikoku: Kochi Pref., Motoyama, Mt. Kuishi, on Cephalotaxus harringtonia (Cephalotaxaceae), 30 Jul 2002, T. Yasunaga, 1[female] (AMNH_PBI 00379406) (TYCN). Kyushu: Nagasaki City, Nameshi 2-33-2, 32[degrees]48'21"N, 129[degrees]50'38"E, on ornamental azalea, 31. vii. 1996, T. Yasunaga, 1[male] (00378700) (holotype, TYCN); Kumamoto Pref., Mizukami Village, Itagi, 32[degrees]20'N, 130[degrees]58'E, flowers of Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr. (Rubiaceae), 2 Aug 2003, T. Yasunaga, 2[male]2[female] (00378701-00378704) (TYCN).

Atractotomoidea izyaslavi, new species Figures 1A, 2, 3

DIAGNOSIS: Distinguished from other known congeners by the comparatively small size, light castaneous general coloration, somewhat obscured spots on the pronotum and clavus, short and not hooked hypophysis of the left paramere, elongated phallotheca, and not much modified sclerotized rings (Figs. 2, 3).

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

DESCRIPTION: Body ovoid, slightly elongated; dorsal surface generally light castaneous, weakly shining, spotted, with uniformly distributed, simple, pale brown, semierect setae; dark small spots on pronotum and clavus somewhat obscured or obliterated (Fig. 1A). Head shining, rather vertical, with silky, semierect setae. Antenna chestnut brown; segment II sometimes light brown, in male about as thick as apical part of segment I; segments III and IV filiform, almost equal in length. Labium pale brown, reaching or a little exceeding apex of metacoxa; segment IV brown. Pronotum shining, usually weakly spotted, very shallowly punctuated; pleura widely shiny chestnut brown, with somewhat yellowish scent efferent system. Hemelytron somewhat shagreened, with uniformly distributed, dark small spots; spots on clavus obscured and sparser; apices of embolium and cuneus darkened, or sometimes sanguineous; membrane smoky brown, with pale, semitransparent portions anterior to veins. All coxae brown but lighter in fresh specimens; all trochanters pale brown; legs chestnut brown; all femora with pale extreme bases; all tibiae more or less lighter, partly with dark spots especially on metatibia; all tarsi brown. Abdomen chocolate brown.

MALE GENITALIA: Figures 2, 3. Left paramere with short hypophysis that is not hooked at apex. Phallotheca elongated. Endosoma coiled, bifurcated, with a pair of slender, apical appendages (one short, the other long) arising near secondary gonopore.

FEMALE GENITALIA: Figures 2, 3. Sclerotized process extending from dorsal labiate plate directed to right, roundly developed. Sclerotized rings ovoid, not much modified.

MEASUREMENTS: [male]/[female]: Total body length 2.1-2.2/ 2.3-2.6; length from apex of tylus to cuneal fracture 1.58-1.62/ 1.63-1.68; head width across eyes 0.58-0.60/0.55-0.58; vertex width 0.22-0.24/ 0.27-0.28; lengths of antennal segment I-IV 0.13-0.15, 0.72-0.75, 0.28-0.34, 0.31-0.33/ 0.14-0.16, 0.72-0.81, 0.28-0.36, 0.30-0.36; labial length 0.97-0.99/ 1.03-1.10; basal pronotal width 0.83-0.84/ 0.84-0.87; width across hemelytron 0.98-1.07/ 1.08-1.20; lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus 0.81-0.84, 1.17-1.20, 0.25-0.28/0.80-0.84, 1.26-1.30, 0.26-0.30.

ETYMOLOGY: Named in honor of the late Dr. Izyaslav M. Kerzhner who really was the world's greatest heteropterist; a noun in genitive case.

HOSTS: Unknown. Some specimens were collected by sweeping flowers of an unidentified, tropical broadleaf.

DISTRIBUTION: Thailand (Nakhon Ratchasima Prov.).

HOLOTYPE: THAILAND: Nakhon Ratchasima Prov.: SERS, 14[degrees]30'27"N, 101[degrees]55'39"E, 410 m alt., light trap, 12-14 Jun 2009, T. Yasunaga and K. Yamada, [male] (AMNH_PBI 00379317) (SUT).

PARATYPES: THAILAND: Nakhon Ratchasima Prov.: Same data as for holotype, 19 (AMNH_ PBI 00379318) (TYCN), 1[male] (00379319) (AMNH); same locality, 24 Jan 2009, T. Yasunaga, 1[female] (00379320) (TYCN); same locality, light trap, 26 Feb 2009, T. Yasunaga, 1[female] (00379394) (TYCN); same locality, 27 Feb 2009, T. Yasunaga, 1[male] (00379321) (TYCN).

ADDITIONAL NEW SPECIES

Atractotomoidea insulicola, new species Figures 1B, 2

DIAGNOSIS: Distinguished from other congeners by the shiny dorsum, large eye, narrow vertex, unicolorously brown antennal segment II, almost wholly reddish brown metafemur, straight, apically tapered hypophysis and rounded, weakly projecting sensory lobe of the left paramere, and medially stout phallotheca.

DESCRIPTION: Male. Body generally castaneous, somewhat reddish; dorsal surface shiny, with densely distributed, simple, silky, semierect setae (Fig. 1B). Head shiny chestnut brown, tinged with red; eye large; vertex narrow. Antenna almost unicolorously brown. Labium pale brown, reaching apex of metacoxa; apical part of segment IV darker. Pronotum and scutellum not strongly spotted; pleura almost entirely reddish brown. Hemelytron with uniformly distributed, dark, minute spots; membrane pale smoky brown, with apically pale veins. All coxae and femora reddish brown; all tibiae pale brown, with dark apices; all tarsi brown. Abdomen shiny brown. Female. Unknown.

MALE GENITALIA: Figure 2. Left paramere with straight, apically tapered hypophysis and rounded, weakly projecting sensory lobe. Phallotheca rather short, medially stout.

MEASUREMENTS: [male]: Total body length 2.28; length from apex of tylus to cuneal fracture 1.78; head width across eyes 0.64; vertex width 0.20; lengths of antennal segment 1-IV 0.18, 0.96, 0.37, 0.36; labial length 1.14; basal pronotal width 0.92; width across hemelytron 1.19; lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus 0.96, 1.46, 0.32.

ETYMOLOGY: From Latin, insulicola (=islander), referring to the occurrence of this new species on a subtropical island; an adjective.

HOSTS: Unknown.

DISTRIBUTION: Japan (Ryukyus: AmamiOshima Island).

HOLOTYPE: JAPAN: Ryukyus: Amami-Oshima Island, Uken Village, 28[degrees]16'N, 129[degrees]20'E, 20 May 1999, M. Takai, [male] (AMNH_PBI 00379303) (TKPM).

REMARKS: As a single male specimen is somewhat teneral, its endosoma is nearly invisible. However, the structures of the left paramere and phallotheca warrant the identity of the specimen as a new species of Atractotomoidea.

CAMPYLOMMA REUTER

Campylomma Reuter, 1878:52 (n. gen.); Schuh, 1995:278 (cat.); Kerzhner and Josifov, 1999: 318 (cat.); Yasunaga, 2001a: 113 (diag.); 2001b: 156 (diag.).

TYPE SPECIES: Campylomma nigronasta Reuter, 1878 (subsequent designation by Distant, 1904: 483).

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the shiny, ovoid body, small size (less than 3 mm in total length), simple vestiture on the dorsum, weakly concave head that is usually obscuring the anterior margin of the pronotum, a row of tiny dark spines on distal half of the dorsal surface of metafemur, setiform parempodia convergent apically, and two apical blades usually found on the endosoma. Male usually has a little slenderer body and thicker antennal segment II than the female. Schuh (1984) and Wagner (1975) provided further diagnostic characters and detailed redescription.

DISTRIBUTION: Known widely from the Old World (mainly tropics and subtropics), including Pacific Islands and Australia; populations of Campylomma verbasci (Meyer-Dur, 1843) in North America are considered to have been introduced from Europe (Wheeler and Henry, 1992).

DISCUSSION: Campylomma is one of the largest genera among the Phylinae, with more than 120 described species. Most members of this genus have similarly pale green general coloration (that is liable to fade to yellowish brown after death). Numerous specimens of such pale green congeners, representing at least 5 species, have been collected by sweeping inflorescences and by light traps during our investigations in Thailand. However, because female specimens cannot be identified reliably, I refrain from treating unassociated females in this paper.

Campylomma marjorae Schuh Figures 1C-D, 3

Campylomma marjorae Schuh 1984: 287 (n. sp.); Schuh, 1995: 281 (cat.).

DIAGNOSIS: Easily recognized by the small size (1.8 in [male]; 2.0 in [female]), orange-red or reddish brown general coloration, completely darkened antennal segments I and II (antennal segment II sometimes partly pale in [female], as in Fig. 1D), sigmoid endosoma (Fig. 3), and anteriorly thickened female sclerotized ring (Fig. 3). Further diagnostic characters and a description were provided by Schuh (1984).

MALE GENITALIA: Figure 3. Endosoma sigmoid, tapered apically, without complicated apical appendages.

FEMALE GENITALIA: Figure 3. Bursa copulatrix with continuous dorsal labiate plate. Sclerotized ring subtriangular, with thickened anterior margin.

DISTRIBUTION: Widely distributed in tropical Asia (Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand) and Pacific Island (Solomon Islands).

HOSTS: This species is frequently found on inflorescences of the broadleaved trees, such as Lantana spp. (Verbenaceae), Macaranga sp. (Euphorbiaceae), Dalbergia cultrata Graham ex Benth., Acacia spp. and Leucaena spp. (Legminosae), Terminalia triptera Stapf (Combretaceae), and planted mango, Magnifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae). However, immature forms have not yet been confirmed.

SPECIMENS EXAMINED: THAILAND: Saraburi Prov.: Kaeng Khoi, Kyusei Organic Farm, mango flowers, 20 Jan 2009-22 Jan 2009, T. Yasunaga and K. Yamada, 3[male]2[female] (AMNH_PBI 00378917, 00378918) (TYCN). Nakhon Ratchasima Prov.: SERS, 14[degrees]30'27"N, 101[degrees]55'39"E, 410 m alt., light trap, 17-20 Mar 2010, T. Yasunaga and K. Yamada, 1[male] (00379107), 2[male]1[female] (00379108) (TYCN); same data except for date, 12-14 Jul 2009, 1[male] (00379335), 1[female] (00379336). Nakhon Nayok Prov.: Sarika near Sarika Waterfall, 14[degrees]18'32"N 101[degrees]15'20"E ~ 14[degrees]18'09"N 101[degrees]15' 38"E, from flowers of Macaranga sp., 17-18 Jun 2009, T. Yasunaga and K. Yamada, 3[male] (00379322) (TYCN), 2[female] (00379323) (TYCN). NEPAL: Kathmandu Valley: Bhaktapur: Balkot, 20 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, 2[male] (00378913, 00378914) (TYCN). Kathmandu: Swayambhu, NMTU Garden, 21 Apr 2005, T. Yasunaga, Lantana camara (Verbenaceae), 1[male] (00378900) (TYCN); 11 May 2005, T. Yasunaga, L. camara, 19 (00378901) (TYCN); 12 May 2005, T. Yasunaga, L. camara, 1[male] (00378902) (TYCN); 18 May 2005, T. Yasunaga L. camara, 2[male] (00378903, 00378904) (TYCN); 26 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, 2[male] (00378905, 00378906) (TYCN); 28 Aug 2006, R. K. Duwal, 1[female] (00378906) (TYCN). Samakhusi, 27.433795[degrees]N 85.190299[degrees]E, 1,304 m, 29 May 200521 Jul 2005, light trap, T. Yasunaga, 2[male] (00378915, 00378916) (TYCN). Kirtipur: National Horticulture Center Farm, 23 May 2006, Castanea sp. (Fagaceae), T. Yasunaga and R. K. Duwal, 2[male]3[female] (00378908-00378910) (TYCN); 30 May 2006, T. Yasunaga, R. K. Duwal, 2[female] (00378903, 00378904) (TYCN). Kaski Dist: Pokhara: Paine Bazar, 22 Aug 2006, T. Yasunaga, R. K. Duwal, 1[female] (00378899) (TYCN); Phewa Lakeside, 22 Aug 2006-23 Aug 2006, T. Yasunaga, R. K. Duwal, light trap, 1[male] (00378898) (TYCN).

REMARKS: Campylomma marjorae is considered to be a tropical Asian element. Therefore, populations of Kathmandu Valley in Nepal (temperate zone) appear to have been derived from the warmer lowland populations, and nowadays can hibernate, possibly due to recent global warming.

DECOMIA POPPIUS

Decomia Poppius, 1915: 73 (n. gen.); Schuh, 1995: 307 (cat.); Kerzhner and Josifov, 1999: 341 (cat.); Yasunaga, 1999: 193 (diag.), 2001b: 160 (diag.).

TYPE SPECIES: Decomia cephalotes Poppius, 1915 (original designation).

DIAGNOSIS: Easily recognized by the ovoid body, smooth and rounded head, usually widely hyaline hemelytra with the partly pigmented apices of the corium and cuneus (Fig. 1E-J), enlarged metafemur, developed purvillus and J-shaped male endosoma (Fig. 4). Detailed diagnostic characters and redescription were provided by Schuh (1984).

MALE GENITALIA; Figures 4, 5. Left paramere splayed out, often with noticeable bundle of setae arising from a small protuberance; right paramere tiny. Phallotheca rounded at middle, with broad base and tapered apex. Endosoma J-shaped, with folded and/or enlarged apical part.

FEMALE GENITALIA: Figure 6. Bursa copulatrix with continuous dorsal labiate plate and toughened with sclerotized frames ventrally.. Sclerotized rings separated to each other, often with toughened anterior margin. Posterior wall simple, usually narrow

DISTRIBUTION: Known from the Old World tropics and subtropics; recorded from almost all countries in Southeast Asia and subtropical Ishigaki Island of Japan.

DISCUSSION: Decomia was accurately defined by Schuh (1984), with recognition of 32 species including 29 new species. Since his work, one species, D. okutoshii, was described from Japan by Yasunaga (1999) and Duwal et al. (2010) added one Nepalese species. During examining specimens from Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia and the Philippines, 7 species (including 4 undescribed ones) were recognized.

Specimens examined in this study were collected either by sweeping flowers of broad-leaved trees or by light traps. Although I captured many adult specimens of D. chiangdaoensis and D. indochinensis from mango flowers, immature stages were not found. It seems to me that they have certain host plants and only adults are often attracted to flowers. Further field observations are required to refine our knowledge of Decomia biology.

ADDITIONAL KNOWN SPECIES EXAMINED: Decomia cephalotes Poppius, 1915--See below for further information. Decomia okutoshii Yasunaga, 1999 (Fig. 1J, 4)--JAPAN: Ryukyus: Yaeyama Group, Ishigaki Island, Mt. Yarabudake, N24[degrees]26'00" E124[degrees]05'10", light trap, 2 Oct 1998, K. Takahashi, 1[male] (AMNH_PBI 00378933) (holotype, TYCN).

Decomia chiangdaoensis Schuh Figures 1E-F, 4, 5, 6

Decomia chiangdaoensis Schuh, 1984: 328 (n. sp.); 1995:308 (cat.).

DIAGNOSIS: Easily recognized by the following combination of characters (Figs. 1E, F): head yellowish brown, often tinged with red; yellow antennal segments I and II (apical 1/4-1/3 of segment II darkened); pronotum shiny black; mesoscutum and scutellum widely darkened mesad, with yellowish brown lateral margins; hemelytron hyaline, with dark reddish suffusions at apices of embolium and cuneus; dark reddish or maroon membrane veins; fuscous femora with pale apices. Coloration and external structures are not sexually dimorphic.

MALE GENITALIA: Figures 4, 5. Outer margin of phallotheca somewhat folded. Endosoma with widened apical flap.

FEMALE GENITALIA: Figure 6. Bursa copulatrix wide, with continuous dorsal labiate plate.

MEASUREMENTS: [male]/[female]: Total body length 2.0-2.2/ 2.2-2.3; length from apex of tylus to cuneal fracture 1.41-1.47/ 1.44-1.52; head width across eyes 0.58-0.60/0.60-0.62; vertex width 0.33-0.35/ 0.36-0.37; lengths of antennal segment I-IV 0.12-0.14, 0.36-0.41, 0.19-0.22, 0.21-0.24/ 0.11-0.12, 0.36-0.38, 0.19-0.21, 0.22-0.24; labial length 0.74-0.78/0.78-0.80; basal pronotal width 0.91-0.96/ 0.96-0.98; width across hemelytron 0.96-1.08/ 1.08-1.10; lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus 0.70-0.72, 1.03-1.08, 0.37-0.40/0.72-0.78, 1.02-1.07, 0.37-0.39.

DISTRIBUTION; North, northeastern and central Thailand; Nepal.

[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]

HOSTS: Many adult individuals were collected from inflorescences of the mango, Magnifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) at a chemical-free organic farm in Saraburi in January, 2009. No immature forms were found, however. In Nepal, some adults were collected also from flowers of broadleaved trees (see below).

SPECIMENS EXAMINED. THAILAND: Saraburi Prov.: Kaeng Khoi, Kyusei Organic Farm, 14.3275[degrees]N 101.0471[degrees]E, flowers of mango, 20-22 Jan 2009, T. Yasunaga and K. Yamada, 9[male]1[female] (AMNH_PBI 00378926-00378932) (TYCN). Nakhon Ratehasima Prov.: SERS, N14[degrees]30'27" E101[degrees]55'39", 400 m, 24 Jan 2009, T. Yasunaga, 1[male] (00379120). NEPAL: Kathmandu Valley: Bhaktapur: Balkot, 27.394148[degrees]N 85.231850[degrees]E, 1,339 m, 3 May 2006-11 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, Ligustrum indicum (Oleaceae), 2[female] (00378923, 00378924); Kirtipur, National Horticulture Center Farm, 27.402480[degrees]N 85.171899[degrees]E, 1,295 m, 23 May 2006, R. K. Duwal, Castanea sp. (Fagaceae), 1[female] (00378925) (TYCN).

[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]

REMARKS: This species was described from northernmost part of Thailand, based on a single male specimen. Subsequently, Duwal et al. (2010) recorded three females from Nepal. As external characters of chiangdaoensis are distinctive, populations of Nepal, and north and central Thailand are regarded undoubtedly as conspecific.

[FIGURE 6 OMITTED]

Decomia indochinensis Schuh Figures 1G, 4, 5, 6

Decomia indochinensis Schuh, 1984: 333 (n. sp.); 1995: 308 (cat.).

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the reddish brown general coloration, yellow antennal segment II with the darkened apical 2/5, darkened anterior margin of the mesoscutum, sanguineous apices of the embolium and cuneus, deep red membrane veins, pale legs, and widely reddish brown apical part of the metafemur (Fig. 1G). This species is most closely related to D. chiangdaoensis, judging from the size, color pattern, form of the antenna, and structures of the male and female genitalia (Figs. 4, 5, 6). Usually these two species can be separated each other by external appearance alone.

MALE GENITALIA: Figures 4, 5. Phallotheca with rather broad, rounded base, with not much curved apical projection.

FEMALE GENITALIA: Figure 6. Bursa copulatrix similar in general form to chiangdaoensis but generally narrower and somewhat warped dorsally.

MEASUREMENTS: [male]/[female]: Total body length 1.9-2.2/ 2.0-2.2; length from apex of tylus to cuneal fracture 1.34-1.40/ 1.35-1.42; head width across eyes 0.57-0.59/0.57-0.59; vertex width 0.31-0.32/ 0.32-0.34; lengths of antennal segment I-IV 0.10-0.12, 0.37-0.42, 0.21-0.23, 0.22-0.24/ 0.10-0.12, 0.36-0.38, 0.21-0.23, 0.22-0.24; labial length 0.68-0.72/0.69-0.74; basal pronotal width 0.87-0.88/ 0.85-0.90; width across hemelytron 1.021.06/0.96-1.08; lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus 0.69-0.72, 0.99-1.07, 0.31-0.33/0.70-0.72, 0.96-1.00, 0.31-0.33.

DISTRIBUTION: North and central Thailand, Viet Nam, Philippines* (Visayas), Peninsular Malaysia* (Perak).

HOST PLANT: Many adult individuals were collected from inflorescences of mango, Magnifera indica L., together with those of the preceding species, but no immature forms were found. In SERS, adults of this species were collected by sweeping inflorescences of Terminalia triptera Stapf. (Combretaceae), and of some unidentified broadleaves.

SPECIMENS EXAMINED: THAILAND: Saraburi Prov.: Kaeng Khoi, Kyusei Organic Farm, 14.3275[degrees]N 101.0471[degrees]E, flowers of mango, 20-22 Jan 2009, T. Yasunaga and K. Yamada, 6[male]6[female] (00378926-00378932) (TYCN), 25[male]16[female] (SUT, TKPM, TYCN). Nakhon Ratehasima Prov.: SERS, N14[degrees]30'27" E101[degrees]55'39", 400 m, 24 Jan 2009, T. Yasunaga, 1[male] (00379120); SERS, 14[degrees]30'36"N 101[degrees]55'50"E, flowers of Terminalia triptera Stapf (Combretaceae), 14 Jun 2009, T. Yasunaga, 5[male] (00379139-00379142) (TYCN). PHILIPPINES: Visayas: Panay Island, Tigbauan, 10[degrees]40'13"N 122[degrees]22'32"E, 10 malt., 28-29 May 1994, T. Yasunaga, 2[male]1[female] (00379143-00379145) (TYCN), 18[male]10[female] (TYCN). W. MALAYSIA: Perak: Taiping, Bukit Larut (Maxwell Hill), 1,100-1,300 m alt., 17-19 Jul 1989, T. Yasunaga, 2[male]2[female] (00379146-00379148) (TYCN); same data, except for date, 14 Jul 1989, 7[male]7[female] (TYCN).

REMARKS: Deeomia indochinensis now appears to be widespread in the Southeast Asia, from Indochina west to the Philippines, and one of the commonest members of the genus. Present examinations of the male and female genitalia reveal no significant variation among populations from Thailand, the Philippines and Peninsular Malaysia. Because many specimens are often collected in gardens or farms, some populations are assumed to have been introduced with fruit trees or ornamental nurseries.

In Thailand, D. indochinensis is sometimes found together with D. chiangdaoensis. However, population density of the latter species is lower.

Deeomia nigrissima, new species Figures 1H, 6, 12

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the shiny black basic coloration, brown antennal segment I and basal 1/5 of II, dense, silvery, reclining setae on anterior part of the totally blackened scutellum, anteriorly flattened and pruinose procoxa, well developed metafemur, widened posterior wall of bursae, and narrowed sclerotized rings.

DESCRIPTION: Female: Body ovoid, generally blackish; dorsal surface shining, with uniformly distributed, simple, silky vestiture (Fig. 1H, 12). Head wholly shiny black, rounded. Antenna yellowish brown; segment II black, with yellowish brown basal 1/5, gradually thickened toward apex; extreme apices of III and IV brown. Labium shiny dark brown, reaching apex of metacoxa. Thorax shiny black; pleura shagreened posterior to episternum; scutellum shallowly rugose, with densely distributed, silvery, reclining setae along anterior margin. Hemelytra hyaline, somewhat tinged with maroon; apex of clavus dark brown; apex of embolium and apical 1/3 of cuneus infuscate; membrane pale grayish brown, semitransparent, with slightly brownish veins. All coxae and femora shiny black; procoxa flattened and pruinosed anteriorly; apices of pro- and mesofemora pale; all tibiae and tarsi yellowish brown; median part of metatibia tinged with red. Abdomen totally black. Male: Unknown.

FEMALE GENITALIA: Figure 6. Bursa copulatrix with narrow sclerotized rings. Posterior wall widened.

MEASUREMENTS: [female]: Total body length 2.33; length from apex of tylus to cuneal fracture 1.63; head width across eyes 0.68; vertex width 0.36; lengths of antennal segment I-IV 0.12, 0.48, 0.23, 0.23; labial length 0.96; basal pronotal width 1.05; width across hemelytron 1.12; lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus 0.88, 1.15, 0.44.

ETYMOLOGY: From Latin, nigrissima (= the most blackish), referring to the noticeably blackened coloration of this new species; an adjective in the superlative.

HOSTS: Unknown.

DISTRIBUTION: Thailand (Nakhon Ratchasima Prov.).

HOLOTYPE: THAILAND: Nakhon Ratchasima Prov.: SERS, 14[degrees]30'27"N 101[degrees]55'39"E, 410 m alt., light trap, 12-14 Jun 2009, T. Yasunaga and K. Yamada, [female] (AMNH_PBI 00379114) (SUT).

REMARKS: This new species most closely resembles D. torrevillasi Schuh, 1984, known from the highlands of Luzon, the Philippines; but D. nigrissima is readily distinguished by the pale extreme base of otherwise darkened antennal segment II, mostly yellowish brown antennal segments III and IV with the brown extreme apices, silvery reclining setae on the scutellum, and totally black metafemur.

The female genitalic structures are distinctive (Fig. 6); the dorsal labiate plate with the sclerotized rings is generally narrowed and not much wider than the posterior wall.

Decomia schuhi, new species Figures 1I, 4, 5, 6

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the tiny size, orange-red general coloration, paired obscure markings on the frons, darkened posterior corner of the pronotum and ventral margin of the propleuron, darkened posterior half of the membrane veins, bifurcate dorsal process of the left paramere, subapically folded phallotheca, typically C-shaped, small endosoma, and generally small female genitalia.

DESCRIPTION: Body generally orange-red, small, ovoid; dorsal surface shining, with simple, pale, short, semierect vestiture (Fig. 1I). Head rounded, with very short setae; frons usually with a pair of obscure markings; tylus somewhat darkened. Antenna almost wholly pale brown, slender; segment II not much incrassate, with apical part as thick as segment I; segments III and IV comparatively long. Labium yellowish brown, reaching apex of metacoxa; base of segment I tinged with red; segment IV dark brown. Pronotum weakly shagreened, with narrowly darkened posterolateral corners; ventral margin of propleuron infuscate. Hemelytron hyaline; apex of clavus slightly darkened; apex of embolium and apical 1/3 of cuneus dark brown; membrane pale grayish brown, subhyaline, with posteriorly brownish veins. Coxae creamy yellow, meso- and metacoxae tinged with orange; all femora orange, with yellow basal halves; apex of metafemur deep red; all tibia and tarsi pale brown. Abdomen orange brown; apical part of male genital segment widely sanguineous.

MALE GENITALIA: Figures 4, 5. Left paramere with slender and tapered hypophysis; dorsal process of sensory lobe bifurcate apically. Phallotheca folded subapically. Endosoma small, C-shaped.

FEMALE GENITALIA: Figure 6. Generally small in size. Dorsal labiate plate weakened mesad. Sclerotized rings narrow.

MEASUREMENTS: [male]/[female]: Total body length 1.58/ 1.63; length from apex of tylus to cuneal fracture 1.06/ 1.15; head width across eyes 0.46/ 0.49; vertex width 0.26/ 0.29; lengths of antennal segment I-IV 0.12, 0.52, 0.29, 0.25/ 0.12, 0.38, 0.26, 0.25; labial length 0.68/0.69; basal pronotal width 0.62/ 0.68; width across hemelytron 0.74/ 0.74; lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus 0.60, 0.84, 0.27/0.58, 0.86, 0.26.

ETYMOLOGY: Named for Dr. Randall T. Schuh, in honor of his global contributions to clarification of the phyline plant bugs; a noun in genitive case.

HOSTS: Unknown.

DISTRIBUTION: Thailand (Nakhon Ratchasima Prov.).

HOLOTYPE: THAILAND: Nakhon Ratehasima Prov.: SERS, 14[degrees]30'27"N, 101[degrees]55'39"E, 410 m alt., light trap, 27 Oct 2008, T. Yasunaga, [male] (AMNH_PBI 00379116) (SUT).

PARATYPE: THAILAND: Nakhon Ratehasima Prov.: Same data as for holotype, 1[female] (AMNH_ PBI 00379117) (TYCN).

REMARKS: Based on the similar external appearance and endosomal form, this new species is assumed to be sister to the Philippine D. microgonaporos Schuh, from which it can be distinguished by the broader endosoma that is accompanied with a small membranous sac at the apex and more elongated phallotheca that is folded subapically. As also remarked for the following new species (D. taksini), dissection of the genitalia is usually required to identify these superficially similar members.

Decomia taksini, new species Figures 4, 5, 6, 12

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the generally yellowish brown body without remarkable reddish suffusion, striped abdominal terga, apically infuscate male genital segment, sharp apical part of the phallotheca, rather C-shaped and comparatively short posterior wall. As remarked below, however, it is very difficult to discriminate this species from some related members by external characters alone.

DESCRIPTION: Body ovoid, almost unicolorously light yellow brown, without reddish suffusion; dorsal surface shining, with uniformly distributed, simple, pale, short vestiture (Fig. 12). Head rounded in front; vertex in [female] narrowly infuscate along basal margin. Antenna totally pale brown; segment II not incrassate. Labium pale brown, rather short, reaching apex of mesocoxa; segment IV brown. Pronotum minutely and shallowly punctate, with densely distributed, pale, short, reclining setae. Hemelytron hyaline; apices of clavus, embolium and cuneus infuscate; membrane pale grayish brown, subhyaline, with brownish veins. Coxae and legs totally yellowish brown; extreme apex of metacoxa brown. Abdominal targa with dark, transverse stripes; apex of male genital segment infuscate, shining (Fig. 12).

MALE GENITALIA: Figures 4, 5. Left paramere with slender and straight hypophysis. Phallotheca with sharpened apical part. Endosoma rather Cshaped, somewhat twisted apically, with rather narrow flap.

FEMALE GENITALIA: Figure 6. Similar in general shape to D. indochinensis, but posterior wall of bursae comparatively shorter.

MEASUREMENTS: [male]/[female]: Total body length 1.97/ 1.99; length from apex of tylus to cuneal fracture 1.32/ 1.42; head width across eyes 0.56/ 0.56; vertex width 0.32/ 0.32; lengths of antennal segment I-IV 0.12, 0.48, 0.24, 0.24/ 0.12, 0.37, 0.25, 0.26; labial length 0.71/0.72; basal pronotal width 0.80/ 0.82; width across hemelytron 0.89/ 0.91; lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus 0.72, 0.92, 0.34/0.72, 0.94, 0.35.

ETYMOLOGY: Named for Mr. Taksin Artchawakom, director of SERS, who greatly supported our field research; a noun in genitive case.

HOSTS: Unknown.

DISTRIBUTION: Thailand (Nakhon Ratchasima Prov.).

HOLOTYPE: THAILAND: Nakhon Ratchasima Prov.: SERS, 14[degrees]30'27"N, 101[degrees]55'39"E, 410 m alt., light trap, 25-27 Feb 2009, T. Yasunaga, [male] (AMNH_PBI 00379118) (SUT).

PARATYPE: THAILAND: Nakhon Ratchasima Prov.: Same data as for holotype, 1[female] (AMNH_ PBI 00379119) (TYCN).

REMARKS: This new species is a close relative of D. parva Schuh, 1984, described from the Philippines and Kalimantan (Borneo). Both species, in addition to the New Guinean D. pedunculata Schuh and the Japanese D. okutoshii Yasunaga, possibly constitute a species group, and are usually difficult to discriminate from each other by superficial characters alone. Therefore, the observation of the male genitalia is currently a sole, reliable method for making accurate identification. Further comparative studies employing female genitalia are desirable to correctly classify and identify these superficially similar members.

ADDITIONAL NEW OR LITTLE KNOWN SPECIES

Decomia cephalotes Poppius Figures 4, 5, 12

Decomia eephalotes Poppius, 1915:74 (n. sp.); Schuh, 1984:327 (diag., redesc.); Schuh, 1995: 308 (cat.); Kerzhner and Josifov, 1999: 341.

DIAGNOSIS: The male adult (Fig. 12) is recognized by the following characters: Body almost totally fuscous; whole antennal segment I, basal half of segment II, and extreme apices of segments III and IV pale reddish brown; labium shiny reddish brown, reaching apex of mesocoxa; scutellum with silvery, reclining setae along anterior margin; hemelytron grayish hyaline; extreme apex of clavus, apex of embolium, and apical 1/3 of cuneus infuscate; procoxa somewhat flattened, keeled along anterior margin; metafemur widened and flattened, only twice as long as maximum width; all tibiae and tarsi, except for mutilated metatarsi, reddish brown. Closely related to D. torrevillasi Schuh, 1984, from which D. cephalotes can be distinguished by the smaller size, keeled anterior margin of the procoxa, and different form of the phallotheca and endosoma.

MALE GENITALIA: Figures 4, 5. Left paramere with small median process; hypophysis almost straight. Phallotheca tapered, not bifurcate apically. Endosoma stout, nearly C-shaped, with developed apical flap.

MEASUREMENTS: [male]: Total body length 2.16; length from apex of tylus to cuneal fracture 1.61; head width across eyes 0.65; vertex width 0.32; lengths of antennal segment I-IV 0.12, 0.44, 0.20, 0.24; labial length 0.84; basal pronotal width 1.00; width across hemelytron 1.08; lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus 0.78, 0.97,?.

HOSTS: Unknown.

DISTRIBUTION: Japan* (Ryukyus: Ishigaki Island); Taiwan.

SPECIMEN EXAMINED: JAPAN: Ryukyus: Ishigaki Island, Mt. Omoto-dake, 13 Jun 2002, T. Nakata, [male] (AMNH_PBI 00379115) (TYCN).

REMARKS: This little known phyline, type species of Decomia, was described by Poppius (1915), based on a single male specimen from Koshun (=current "Hengchun" township in Pingdong Prefecture, 22[degrees]00'N 120[degrees]43'E), the southwestern-most area of Taiwan (Koshun does not mean

Kaohsiung [or Gaoxiong] that was indicated by Poppius as "Takao"; Koshun and Takao were based upon Japanese style pronunciations of the same Chinese characters when the Empire of Japan ruled Taiwan between 1895 and 1945).

Subsequently, Schuh (1984) diagnosed and redescribed the holotype, with a dorsal habitus image and illustrations of the male genitalia. An additional male adult collected on Ishigaki Island of the Ryukyus unequivocally coincides with the Poppius' and Schuh's descriptions and figures. There are many species common between the Ryukyus and Taiwan because these island areas are supposed to have been connected by a landbridge (or a peninsula extended from the southeastern continental China) until the end of the latest ice age.

The female and biology of D. cephalotes remain unknown.

Decomia panayensis, new species Figures 4, 5, 6, 12

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the orange brown body, dark brown apices of the embolium and cuneus, smoky sublateral suffusions of the abdominal sterna, developed median process and stout hypophysis of the left paramere, typically J-shaped endosoma, and unique shape of the bursa copulatrix. Most closely related to D. parva Schuh, 1984, from which this new species can be distinguished by the generally orange body, more developed median process of the left paramere, and longer and typically J-shaped endosoma.

DESCRIPTION: Body generally orange brown; dorsal surface shining, with uniformly distributed, silky, short, reclining setae (Fig. 12). Head sometimes with smoky suffusion on vertex and frons. Antenna almost totally yellowish brown; segment II not much broadened. Labium pale reddish brown, reaching apex of metacoxa; apical part of segment IV brown. Thoracic pleura, except for scent efferent system, sometimes darkened. Hemelytron hyaline; extreme apex of clavus brown; apices of embolium and apical 1/3 of cuneus dark brown; membrane hyaline, with veins slightly brownish apically. Coxae and legs pale brown; apical 1/3-1/2 of metafemur sometimes sanguineous, except for always dark brown extreme apex; all tarsi brown. Ventral surface of abdomen sometimes with smoky, sublateral suffusions; apical half of male genital segment shiny dark brown.

MALE GENITALIA: Figures 4, 5. Left paramere with a developed median process bearing long, stiff setae; hypophysis rather stout. Phallotheca with narrowed apex. Endosoma long, typically J-shaped, with a small, pointed process at apex.

FEMALE GENITALIA: Figure 6. Bursa copulatrix widened and rounded, with thick dorsal labiate plate. Sclerotized rings circular, each toughened by thick-rimmed ventral labiate plate.

MEASUREMENTS: [male]/[female]: Total body length 1.92/ 2.04; length from apex of tylus to cuneal fracture 1.32/ 1.44; head width across eyes 0.58/ 0.60; vertex width 0.32/ 0.35; lengths of antennal segment I-IV 0.11, 0.41, 0.23, 0.24/ 0.12, 0.42, 0.25, 0.26; labial length 0.79/0.84; basal pronotal width 0.78/ 0.85; width across hemelytron 0.94/ 1.01; lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus 0.65, 0.84, 0.32/0.70, 0.96, 0.36.

ETYMOLOGY: Named for the type locality; an adjective.

HOSTS: Unknown, but all specimens were collected from inflorescences of fabaceous trees planted in the garden of South East Asian Fisheries Development Center.

DISTRIBUTION: Philippines (Panay Island).

HOLOTYPE: PHILIPPINES: Visayas: Panay Island, Tigbauan, 10[degrees]40'13"N 122[degrees]22'32"E, 10 m alt., 28-29 May 1994, T. Yasunaga, c, (AMNH_PBI 00379121) (TKPM).

PARATYPES: PHILIPPINES: Visayas: Same data as for holotype, 7[male]8[female] (AMNH_PBI 00379122-00379130) (AMNH, TYCN).

REMARKS: By the unique form of the female genitalia, this new species is readily distinguished from superficially resembling D. schuhi and D. taksini (Fig. 6). However, female genitalic structures of many congeners remain unknown, and further observations of the structures are required. A female specimen recorded as D. parva from Cameron Highlands of Peninsular Malaysia (Schuh, 1984) may belong to D. schuhi or D. taksini (see Remarks of D. taksini).

DECOMIOIDES SCHUH

Decomioides Schuh 1984: 356 (n. gen.); Schuh, 1995 (cat.); Kerzhner and Josifov, 1999:341 (cat.); Yasunaga, 2001b (diag.).

TYPE SPECIES: Decomioides schneirlai Schuh, 1984 (original designation).

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the small, ovoid body, opaque or translucent hemerytra without conspicuous marking at the apices of corium, embolium and cuneus, relatively tumid metafemur that lacks spots, and structures of the genitalia; however, sometimes very difficult to distinguish from Campylomma or Decomia. Detailed diagnostic characters and description were provided by Schuh (1984).

MALE GENITALIA: Figures 9-10. Phallotheca simple, nearly straight, with tapered apex. Left paramere with small hypophysis and dorsally pointed sensory lobe. Endosoma rather broad, coiled or strongly wound at middle, bearing a single spiculum below secondary gonopore; apical blade often accompanied with sclerotized plate and/or minute spinules.

FEMALE GENITALIA: Figures 9-10. Bursa copulatrix with weakly sclerotized, narrow dorsal labiate plate. Posterior wall simple, narrow. Sclerotized rings thick-rimmed, small, ovoid.

DISTRIBUTION: China (Hong Kong), Japan (Ryukyus), Philippines, New Guinea and adjacent islands (Solomon and New Britain), Taiwan, Thailand; Schuh (1984) indicated presence of several additional species in Malaysia and Sri Lanka.

DISCUSSION: This small genus was established by Schuh (1984) and currently includes 8 species from Southeast Asia, north to Ryukyu Islands and east to New Guinea and adjacent islands. Schuh (1984) pointed out that Decomioides most closely resembles Decomia in body form. In my experience, however, Deeomioides species found in Thailand are readily separated from Decomia by the almost immaculate, opaque hemelytra, and are most easily confused with Campylomma (Figs. 7, 12). So far as known, all Thai Campylomma species have spotted metafemora that enable discrimination of these genera. Nonetheless, dissection of the genitalia is the best method for accurate identification.

ADDITIONAL KNOWN SPECIES EXAMINED: Decomioides philippinensis Schuh, 1984 (Fig. 7E, 11)-JAPAN: Ryukyus: Iriomote Island, Monbanare near Otomi, ll May 1993, T. Yasunaga, 1[male] (00379149) (TYCN); Iriomote Island, Funa-ura, 2 Jul 2003, M. Hayashi, 1[female] (00379150) (TYCN).

Decomioides schneirlai Schuh Figures 7F, 10, 11

Decomioides schneirlai Schuh 1984:363 (n. sp.); Schuh, 1995: 309; Kerzhner and Josifov, 1999: 341 (cat.); Yasunaga et al., 1999:3 (faunal list); Yasunaga, 2001b: 161 (diag.).

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the tiny size, basically brownish body without any dark spots or markings, yellowish brown antenna, brown or dark brown head, somewhat reddish hemelytra, generally orange-brown cuneus, and usually darkened metafemur (Fig. 7B). However, the general coloration significantly varies from pale brown to dark brown, sometimes never suffused with red or orange. A single male specimen collected in Thailand has an almost entirely pale brown body without any reddish suffusion and with the all femora almost wholly pale.

MALE GENITALIA: Figures 10, 11. Phallotheca smooth, simply tapered apically. Left paramere with slightly curved hypophysis. Endosoma coiled at middle, apical part somewhat roughened and broadened, not heavily sclerotized, with spiculum straight but hooked subapically.

FEMALE GENITALIA: Figures 10, 11. Bursa copulatrix with narrow but continuous dorsal labiate plate. Sclerotized rings small, thickrimmed, noticeably separated from each other.

MEASUREMENTS: A male from Thailand: Total body length 1.75; length from apex of tylus to cuneal fracture 1.30; head width across eyes 0.49; vertex width 0.24; lengths of antennal segment I-IV 0.11, 0.49, 0.22, 0.24; labial length 0.72; basal pronotal width 0.72; width across hemelytron 0.86; lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus 0.60, 0.84, 0.27.

SPECIMENS EXAMINED. THAILAND: Nakhon Ratchasima Prov.: SERS, 14[degrees]30'27"N, 101[degrees]55' 39"E, 410 m alt., light trap, 12-14 Jun 2009, T. Yasunaga and K. Yamada, 1[male] (AMNH_PBI 00379113) (TYCN). JAPAN: Ryukyus: Okinawa Island: Kunigami Village, Yona, 20-25 May 1993, T. Yasunaga, 19 (00379154), 10[male]10[female] (TYCN). Iriomote Island: Funa-ura, 10 May 1993, T. Yasunaga, 1[male]1[female] (00379152-00379153), 10[male]10[female] (TYCN). PHILIPPINES: Visayas: Panay Island, Tigbauan, 28-29 May 1994, T. Yasunaga, 1[female] (00379151) (TYCN).

HOSTS: Macaranga spp. and Mallotus spp. (Euphorbiaceae) (Yasunaga, 2001b).

DISTRIBUTION: Thailand* (Nakhon Ratchasima Prov.), China (Hong Kong), Japan (Ryukyus), Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Taiwan.

REMARKS: A single male adult identical to D. schneirlai was collected at SERS in Thailand. This specimen has generally pale brown body with the almost immaculate dorsum and femora. However, the measurements, external structures and shape of the male genitalia are corresponding to those of D. schneirlai. I have seen many specimens from the Ryukyus, Japan, and found their basic coloration varies from pale brown to dark reddish brown. Therefore, I currently regard the Thai specimen as simply a variant of D. schneirlai; Schuh (1984: 166) also treated some pale specimens from New Guinea as 'Decomioides near schneirlai'.

[FIGURE 7 OMITTED]

This phyline appears to be the most widespread species among the congeners and is known to be associated with euphorbiaceous hosts (Yasunaga, 2001b). Ishida et al. (2009) assumed that D. schneirlai on Amami-Oshima and Okinawa Islands of Japan is likely to use the enclosed chambers formed by floral bracts of Macaranga tanarius as breeding sites before and during flower anthesis, and feed on nectar on the adaxial surface of flower bracts.

Decomioides kazutakai, new species Figures 7A-B, 10, 11, 12

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the ovoid and comparatively tumid body, light castaneous general coloration, obscure spots on the apical part of the corium and the membrane, usually darkened basal part of the metafemur, generally chocolate brown abdomen, distinct blade and weakly curved spiculum of the endosoma, and somewhat narrowed sclerotized rings. General coloration variable, from pale brown to castaneous.

DESCRIPTION: Body generally light castaneous, ovoid, rather tumid; dorsal surface shining, shallowly and minutely punctate, with uniformly distributed, simple, silky, semierect setae (Fig. 7A, B). Head shining, narrowly carinate basally. Antenna pale brown; segments III and IV slightly darker. Labium pale brown, reaching but not exceeding apex of metacoxa; segment IV brown. Thoracic pleura, including scent efferent system, usually chocolate brown. Hemelytron with an obscure spot near apex of corium; membrane pale smoky brown, with a obscure marking near apex of cuneus. All coxae yellowish brown; meso- and metacoxae sometimes widely or wholly darkened; leg pale brown; basal 1/3-2/3 of metafemur usually darkened. Abdomen usually chocolate brown but sometimes almost entirely pale brown; apex of ovipositor always infuscate.

MALE GENITALIA: Figures 9, 10. Phallotheca somewhat short. Left paramere with small, straight hypophysis. Endosoma not much coiled, with a distinct apical blade and weakly curved spiculum.

FEMALE GENITALIA: Figures 9, 10. Posterior wall of bursae rather elongate. Sclerotized rings somewhat narrowed.

MEASUREMENTS: [male]/ [male]: Total body length 1.8-2.0/ 2.1-2.2; length from apex of tylus to cuneal fracture 1.20-1.32/ 1.39-1.44; head width across eyes 0.51-0.57/0.55-0.58; vertex width 0.25-0.27/ 0.27-0.32; lengths of antennal segment I-IV 0.10-0.12, 0.40-0.48, 0.21-0.23, 0.21-0.24/ 0.11-0.12, 0.44-0.48, 0.23-0.24, 0.24-0.27; labial length 0.74-0.76/0.84-0.86; basal pronotal width 0.730.78/ 0.82-0.84; width across hemelytron 0.850.95/0.97-1.00; lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus 0.60-0.69, 0.80-0.96, 0.264).30/0.70-0.72, 0.91-0.98, 0.28-0.33.

ETYMOLOGY: Named after Dr. Kazutaka Yamada who greatly supported the collection of mirid material; a noun in genitive case.

HOSTS: Macaranga sp. (Euphorbiaceae). Many specimens were collected by sweeping the inflorescences (Fig. 8A), but the immature forms are yet to be confirmed.

DISTRIBUTION: Thailand (Nakhon Nayok and Nakhon Ratchasima Provs.).

HOLOTYPE: THAILAND: Nakhon Nayok Prov.: Sarika near Sarika Waterfall, 14[degrees]18'32"N, 101[degrees]15'20"E ~ 14[degrees]18'09"N, 101[degrees]15'38"E, from flowers of Macaranga sp., 17-18 Jun 2009, T. Yasunaga and K. Yamada, [male] (AMNH_PBI 00379183)(SUT).

PARATYPES: THAILAND: Nakhon Nayok Prov.: Same data as for holotype, 72[male]82[female] (AMNH_PBL 00379193~00379247) (AMNH, TYCN). Nakhnn Ratchasima Prov.: SERS, 14[degrees]30'27"N, 101[degrees]55' 39"E, 410 malt., light trap, 12-14 Jun 2009, T. Yasunaga and K. Yamada, 9o'79 (00379184-00379192 (TYCN).

REMARKS: The present new species most closely resembles (the extremely pale individuals of) D. schneirlai, from which D. kazutakai can be distinguished by the apical, obscure spot on the corium and smoky suffusion on the forewing membrane, in addition to the distinctive genitalic structures.

Currently, a univoltine life cycle is assumed for D. kazutakai, for the adults have been collected only in June when Macaranga inflorescences are in full blossom. Several specimens were collected by a light trap.

[FIGURE 8 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 9 OMITTED]

Decomioides verecundus, new species Figures 7C-D, 9, 10, 11, 12

DIAGNOSIS: Readily recognized by the totally pale orange, immaculate body, minutely punctate dorsum, comparatively long labium that is a little exceeding apex of the metacoxa, reddish or orange-pink suffusion of the posterior part of the membrane veins, and broadened and winding endosomal spiculum. Readily distinguished from sympatric D. kazutakai by the totally pale orange general coloration, never darkened hemelytron and femora, and reddish or orange-pink suffusion of the membrane veins. Microhabitats of these two species also differ from each other.

The immature forms (Fig. 7D, 9) are recognized by the generally whitish body with uniformly distributed, brown, short, reclining setae, long labium extending beyond the apex of metacoxa, and weakly orange-yellow dorsum of the 5th instar nymph.

DESCRIPTION: Body totally pale orange, oval, comparatively delicate in form; dorsal surface shining, with uniformly distributed, simple, silky, semierect setae (Fig. 7C). Antenna pale brown; segments III and IV usually brown. Labium pale reddish brown, a little exceeding apex of metacoxa. Hemelytron semitransparent, not much declivitous at cuneal fracture; membrane pale smoky brown, with posteriorly reddish or orangepink veins. All coxae and legs light, partly with orange-pink suffusion. Abdomen pale reddish brown; apex of ovipositor darkened.

MALE GENITALIA: Figures 10, 11. Phallotheca generally slender. Endosoma broadly notched apically; spiculum broad but short, winding, with spatula-like apex.

FEMALE GENITALIA: Figures 10, 11. Sclerotized rings somewhat triangular.

MEASUREMENTS: [male]/[female]: Total body length 1.7-1.9/ 1.9-2.1; length from apex of tylus to cuneal fracture 1.22-1.32/ 1.29-1.32; head width across eyes 0.48-0.50/ 0.48-0.50; vertex width 0.25-0.27/ 0.27-0.29; lengths of antennal segment I-IV 0.11--0.12, 0.40-0.46, 0.22-0.26, 0.25-0.32/ 0.11-0.12, 0.42-0.46, 0.24-0.27, 0.25-0.27; labial length 0.81-0.84/ 0.82-0.84; basal pronotal width 0.67-0.71/ 0.72-0.75; width across hemelytron 0.82-0.88/ 0.93-0.96; lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus 0.61-0.68, 0.82-0.84, 0.28-0.32/ 0.66-0.72, 0.87-0.92, 0.25-0.32. Nymphs: 1st instar: total body length 0.53/maximum width 0.24; 2nd: 0.72/ 0.30; 3rd: 0.90/0.36; 4th: 1.05/0.59; and 5th: 1.41/ 0.81, respectively.

[FIGURE 10 OMITTED]

ETYMOLOGY: From Latin, verecundus (=bashful, coy, shy), referring to the habit and habitat of this new species that usually hides in buds or shoot bracts of the host plant; an adjective.

HOSTS: Macaranga sp. (Euphorbiaceae). Both adult and every instar nymph were observed to secrete themselves under the bracts of shoots of Macaranga sp. (Fig. 8B, C); however, the habitat must not be disturbed by ants. No individual of this new species has been collected from Macaranga inflorescences. Although D. kazutakai and D. verecundus were sometimes found on the same tree (Fig. 8D), the microhabitat of each species is quite different. Presumably, the habitat segregation may enable them to coexist on the same plant.

[FIGURE 11 OMITTED]

DISTRIBUTION: Thailand (Nakhon Nayok Prov.).

HOLOTYPE: THAILAND: Nakhon Nayok Prov.: Sarika, Ban Wang Takrai, 14[degrees]19'48.5"N 101[degrees]18'19.5"E, from buds of Macaranga sp., 23 Mar 2010, T. Yasunaga, [male] (AMNH_PBI 00379155) (SUT).

PARATYPES: THAILAND: Nakhon Nayok Prov.: Same data as for holotype, 12[male]8[female] (AMNH_PBI 00379156-00379166) (AMNH, TYCN); Sarika near Sarika Waterfall, 14[degrees]18'32"N 101[degrees]15'20"E 14[degrees]18'09"N 101[degrees]15'38"E, from buds of Macaranga sp., 17-18 Jun 2009, T. Yasunaga and K. Yamada, 11[male]7[female] (00379167-00379182) (TYCN).

REMARKS: Based on the totally pale general coloration and form of the endosoma, the present new species most closely resembles a New Guinean congener, D. novobritannicae Schuh, from which D. verecundus can be distinguished by the generally orange body with the orange-pink suffusion of the forewing membrane.

It is usually difficult to capture D. verecundus by sweeping the host plant. When I collected both adults and immatures, I carefully peeled the bracts of Macaranga buds one after the other. Thus, hand collecting seems the best method to find this unique phyline that is always found hiding under the bracts.

[FIGURE 12 OMITTED]

MALAYSIAMIRIS SCHUH

Malaysiamiris Schuh, 1984:378 (n. gen.); Schuh, 1995:342 (cat.).

TYPE SPECIES: Malaysiamiris bellae Schuh, 1984 (original designation).

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the tiny, more or less flattened body, single type of vestiture on the dorsum, usually enlarged antennal segment II, and distinctive male endosoma having complex, sclerotized appendages near the secondary gonopore. Further diagnostic characters and a description were provided by Schuh (1984).

DISTRIBUTION: Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak), New Caledonia and Philippines (Leyte), Thailand.

DISCUSSION: This compact, Indo-Pacific genus is composed of 10 species, all of which were described as new to science by Schuh (1984). Members of Malaysiamiris are as a rule easily recognizable by the rather flattened body and more or less enlarged antennal segment II. The complex inner sclerites of the endosoma are assumed to be an autapomorphy for this unique genus.

Almost nothing is currently known about the biology.

Malaysiamiris rufobadius, new species Figures 7H-I, 13, 14, 22

DIAGNOSIS: Distinguished from other known congeners by the flattened body shape, reddish brown or castaneous basic coloration, somewhat darkened head and lateral margins of pronotum and hemelytron, moderately stout antennal segment II, light antennal segments III and IV, creamy yellow pro- and mesofemora, and fuscous metafemur with the creamy yellow base; general coloration variable (Fig. 7H, I).

DESCRIPTION: Body ovoid, flattened; basic coloration reddish brown or castaneous, sometimes dark brown; dorsal surface oily shiny, with uniformly distributed, silky, reclining setae (Fig. 7H, I). Head usually darker, smooth, oblique, rather wide. Antenna black; segment II moderately stout; segments III and IV creamy yellow, short. Labium pale reddish brown, short, reaching base of mesocoxa. Pronotum usually darker laterally; scutellum paler; pleura including scent efferent system reddish brown. Hemelytra usually darker along lateral margin; clavus, corium and sometimes basal part of cuneus paler; membrane pale smoky brown, with anterior half part semitransparent. Coxae and legs creamy yellow; apical part of metafemur reddish brown, castaneous or dark brown; metatibia dark brown, with creamy yellow base. Abdomen usually reddish brown or chestnut brown; median part sometimes paler (Fig. 13).

MALE GENITALIA: Figures 14, 22. Left paramere with narrowed sensory lobe. Phallotheca with broad base and gradually tapered apex. Endosoma L-shaped, with 2 inner sclerites and membranous, minutely spinulate apical projection.

FEMALE GENITALIA: Figure 12. Bursa copulatrix comparatively large in size, with continuous dorsal and ventral labiate plates; sclerotized rings narrowed inwardly. Posterior wall simple.

MEASUREMENTS: [male]/ [female]: Total body length 1.6-2.1/ 1.8-2.0; length from apex of tylus to cuneal fracture 1.34-1.42/ 1.27-1.37; head width across eyes 0.55-0.59/ 0.50-0.57; vertex width 0.22-0.24/ 0.24-0.27; lengths of antennal segment I-IV 0.12-0.14, 0.37-0.40, 0.16-0.22, 0.16-0.21/ 0.12-0.13, 0.30-0.33, 0.15-0.20, 0.15-0.20; labial length 0.61-0.63/ 0.60-0.63; basal pronotal width 0.72-0.75/ 0.70-0.78; width across hemelytron 0.84-0.87/ 0.87-0.92; lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus 0.55-0.62, 0.67-0.72, 0.21-0.24/ 0.54-0.60, 0.62-0.69, 0.19-0.21.

ETYMOLOGY: From Latin, rufus (=red) in combination with badius (=maroon or chestnut brown), referring to the general coloration of this new species, often varying from reddish to brownish; an adjective.

HOSTS: Unknown.

DISTRIBUTION: Thailand (Nakhon Ratchasima Prov.).

HOLOTYPE: THAILAND: Nakhon Ratehasima Prov.: SERS, 14[degrees]30'27"N, 101[degrees]55'39"E, 410 m alt., light trap, 25-27 Feb 2009, T. Yasunaga, [male] (AMNH_PBI 00379248) (SUT).

PARATYPES: THAILAND: THAILAND: Nakhon Ratchasima Prov.: Same data as for holotype, 15[male]59[female] (AMNH_PBI 00379257-00379285) (AMNH, TYCN); same locality, light trap, 12-14 Jun 2009, T. Yasunaga and K. Yamada, 4[male]30[female](00379286-00379297); same data, except for date, 17-20 Mar 2010, 15[female] (00379249-00379254), 16 Sep 2008, 4[female] (00379397-00379398), 27 Oct 2008, 1[female] (00379255), 28 Oct 2008, 2[male] (00379256), 23 Jan 2009, 1[female] (00379396) (TYCN).

REMARKS: This new species is most similar to M. bellae Schuh, 1984 (Borneo), from which it can be distinguished by the paler general coloration with the more paler median part of the dorsum, yellowish antennal segment III and IV, darkened metatibia, and distinctive form of the endosoma. Schuh (1984) indicated the presence of an undescribed species of Malaysiamiris in Thailand, represented by a single male specimen. Although I have not seen it, this specimen is likely to belong to the present new species.

Almost nothing is known about the biology of M. rufobadius as all the specimens were collected by light traps. I have never found this species by sweeping or beating plants in the daytime. Presumably, this phyline may inhabit canopy areas. Collection records suggest this species has a multivoltine life cycle.

[FIGURE 13 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 14 OMITTED]

MOISSONIA REUTER

Moissonia Reuter, 1894:148 (n. gen.); Linnavuori and Al-Safadi 1993: 233; Schuh, 1995: 353 (cat.); Kerzhner and Josifov, 1999: 372 (cat.); Yasunaga, 1999: 195 (diag.), 2001b: 166 (diag.).

TYPE SPECIES: Agalliastes punctatus Fieber, 1861 (monotypic).

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the medium to large size, pale green or yellowish brown basic coloration, ovoid or elongate oval body usually with both simple setae and wooly pubescence, opaque or transparent hemerytra often with the dark dots (at bases of setae), developed right paramere, elongated left paramere usually with the tumid sensory lobe, more or less notched endosoma with a single, slender apical projection, and noticeable, thickrimmed sclerotized rings that are often folded posterolaterally. Detailed diagnostic characters and redescriptions were provided by Schuh (1984) under junior synonyms, Ellenia and Ragmus.

MALE GENITALIA: Figures 17, 18, 22. Parameres tumid; right paramere developed, sometimes similar in size to the left; left paramere with basal projection on sensory lobe and curved, broad hypophysis. Endosoma short, rather broad, notched or spinulate, with a single, slender apical process.

FEMALE GENITALIA: Figure 19. Bursa copulatrix large, with thick-rimmed, ovoid sclerotized rings that are often folded posterolaterally; dorsal and ventral labiate plates weak, almost membranous and hardly visible.

DISTRIBUTION: Old World tropics, subtropics and warm temperate zone, and Pacific Islands: the single species, M. cuneata (Stal) is known from the New World.

DISCUSSION: Judging from the structures of the male and female genitalia, this genus is well defined as a monophyletic group. However, it is sometimes difficult to distinguish Moissonia and Opuna (see discussion of Opuna). Several species currently included in Opuna may need to be transferred to Moissonia.

ADDITIONAL KNOWN SPECIES EXAMINED: Moissonia befui Yasunaga, 1999 (Fig. 15G, 18, 19)--JA-PAN: Shikoku: Kochi Pref., Tosa-Shimizu City, Imanoyama, 29 Aug 1998, T. Befu, l[male] (AMNH_PBI 00379337) (holotype, TYCN); Kochi Pref., Nankoku City, Nissho, 33[degrees]33'N, E130[degrees]40', on flowers of Solidago canadensis L. (Asteraceae), 20 Oct 1998, M. Takai, 1[male]2[female] (00379338-00379340) (paratypes, TYCN). Kyushu: Fukuoka Pref., Nokonoshima Island, N33[degrees]36' E130[degrees]18', on flowers of Mallotus japonicus (Euphorbiaceae), 21 Jun 1993, T. Yasunaga, 1[female] (00379341) (paratype, TYCN); Nagasaki Pref., Azuma Town, 200m, 29 Aug 1992, T. Yasunaga, 2[female] (00379342) (paratypes, TYCN).

Moissonia importunitas (Distant) Figures 15A-D, 15, 16, 17, 19, 22

Ragmus importunitas Distant, 1910:18 (n. sp.); Schuh, 1984: 416 (diag., desc.).

Moissonia importunitas: Schuh, 1995: 355 (cat.); Kerzhner and Josifov, 1999: 372 (cat.).

Opuna pallidula Yasunaga, 1999: 194 (n. sp.); 2001b: 167 (diag.). Syn. by Duwal et al., 2010: 26.

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the comparatively large size, generally pale green body, almost immaculate, shiny dorsum, hyaline hemelytron, greenish head and pronotum, narrow dark brown basal ring on the antennal segment II, and a single apical spine on the endosoma that is provided apically with minute spinules; total length 2.8-3.0 and maximum width 1.2-1.4. Schuh (1984) provided further diagnosis and redescription under Ragmus, a synonym of Moissonia.

The 4th (Fig. 15C) and final (15D) instar nymphs are recognized by the ovoid body, pale green general coloration, silky, semierect setae covering the dorsum, pale brown antenna, rather creamy wing pads, yellowish legs, and dark, small spots arranged on the anterior margin of the metatibia and all tibiae.

MALE GENITALIA: Figures 17, 22. Parameres tumid; right paramere developed, sometimes similar in size to the left; left paramere with basal projection on sensory lobe and curved, broad hypophysis. Endosoma short, rather broad, notched or spinulate, with a single, slender apical process.

FEMALE GENITALIA: Figure 19. Bursa copulatrix large, with thick-rimmed, ovoid sclerotized rings that are often folded posterolaterally; dorsal and ventral labiate plates weak, almost membranous and hardly visible.

HOSTS: Distant (1910) reported that this species punctures Crotalaria verucosa and C. incarna (Fabaceae). I found numerous adults and nymphs on Crotalaria assamica Benth. widely occupying fallow areas of the RMUTSB campus in Ayutthaya (Fig. 16A, B). Every leaf was heavily spotted by the phyline (Fig. 16C).

DISTRIBUTION: Widely known from Old world tropics, subtropics and warm temperate zone, and Pacific Islands.

SPECIMENS EXAMINED: THAILAND: Ayutthaya: Huntra, Rajamangala University of Technology Campus, 20 Oct 2008, T. Yasunaga and K. Yamada, Crotalaria assamica Benth. (Fabaceae), 2[male]1[female] (AMNH_PBI 00379304-00379306) (TYCN), 25[male]20[female] (SUT, TKPM, TYCN). JAPAN: Ryukyus: Yona, Kunigami vil., Okinawa Is., 20 May 1993-25 May 1993, T. Yasunaga, light trap, l[male] (00378955) (holotype of Opuna pallidula, TYCN); same data, 7[female] (00378956-00378958) (paratypes of O. pallidula, TYCN). Maesato, Ishigaki Is., 14 Sep 1998, K. Takahashi, 1[female] (00378959) (paratype of O. pallidula, TYCN). NEPAL: Kathmandu: Samakhusi, 27.433795[degrees]N 85.190299[degrees]E, 1,304 m, 30 Jun 2005-3 Jul 2005, T. Yasunaga, light trap, 2[male] (00378964, 00378965) (TYCN). W. MALAYSIA: Perak: Taiping, Bukit Larut (Maxwell Hill), 1,100-1,300 m., 19 Jul 1989, T. Yasunaga, l[male]3[female] (00378960-00378963) (TYCN).

Moissonia punctata (Fieber) Figures 15E, 19, 22

Agalliastes punctatus Fieber, 1861: 311 (n. sp.).

Moissoniapunctata: Reuter, 1894:149 (n. comb.); Linnavuori and Al-Safadi 1993: 233; Schuh, 1995:367 (cat.); Kerzhner and Josifov, 1999: 373 (cat.); Yasunaga, 1999:195 (diag., desc.), 2001b: 166 (diag.).

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the generally pale green (sometimes grayish green) dorsum usually with the densely distributed, dark, minute spots (these spots sometimes fused together and forming larger dark suffusion) (Fig. 15E), relatively short labium, widely darkened base and apex of the antennal segment II, subhyaline but always spotted hemelytron, ventral longitudinal keel on the male genital segment, barbules on apical spine of the endosoma, 9-10 notches subtending the secondary gonopore (Fig. 22), and rather small sclerotized ring somewhat convex posteriorly (Fig. 19); total length 2.7-3.3, maximum width 1.0-1.4. Schuh (1984) provided further diagnosis under the name, Ellenia obscuricornis (Poppius, 1914), a junior synonym of punctata. Male and female genitalic structures were documented by Duwal et al. (2010).

[FIGURE 15 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 16 OMITTED]

HOSTS: Associated with species of Bidens, Chrysanthemum and Artemisia (Asteraceae); immature forms are often found on Bidens spp.; known to damage medicinal wormwood and ornamental chrysanthemum.

DISTRIBUTION: Widespread to tropics, subtropics and warm temperate zones in the Old World, and Pacific Islands. In Japan, the populations recently found in Shikoku and western Honshu have apparently been introduced, possibly from the Ryukyus.

SPECIMENS EXAMINED: JAPAN: Ryukyus: Okinawa Island, Chinen Peninsula, from Bidens flowers, 17 Apr 1986, T. Yasunaga, 1[male] (AMNH_PBI 00379310), 1[female] (00379311), 10[male]10[female] (TYCN); Ishigaki Island, Omoto, 9 May 1993, T. Yasunaga, 2[male] (00379312) (TYCN). Bonin (Ogasawara)

Islands: Hahajima Island, Oki Village, 14 Apr 1993, T. Yasunaga, 1[male] (00379313), 1[female] (00379314), 5[male]5[female] (TYCN). NEPAL: Kathmandu: Swayambhu, Natural History Museum Garden, 27.425603[degrees]N 85.170913[degrees]E, 1,355m, 14 Sep 2005, T. Yasunaga, Bidens sp. (Asteraceae), l[male]2[female] (00379315) (TYCN); same locality, 17 Jul 2006, R. Duwal, 2[male]1[female] (00379316) (TYCN).

[FIGURE 17 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 18 OMITTED]

REMARKS: Our continuing fieldwork in Thailand has not produced any specimen of M. punctata. As Schuh (1984) recorded the species from Chiang Mai Province of North Thailand, I include and diagnose this common, quite widespread phyline in this paper. The above-mentioned Japanese populations and those found in many other areas appear adventive.

Moissonia sakaerat, new species Figures 13, 15F, 18, 19

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the yellowish brown basic coloration, rather sparse vestiture on the dorsum, darkened apical 1/5 of antennal segment II, spotted head and pronotum, nearly hyaline hemelytron with three dark spots each on the apices of the clavus and embolium and basal inner margin of the cuneus, sharply pointed phallotheca, medially developed right paramere, shortened apical appendage of the endosoma, and angulated inner corner of the sclerotized ring. Similar in general appearance to M. befui Yasunaga, from which this new species can be distinguished by the darkened apical 1/5 of the antennal segment II, paler pronotum and metafemur, tumid right paramere, longer and more sharply pointed phallotheca, comparatively stout endosoma with the shorter apical appendage, and thicker sclerotized rings.

[FIGURE 19 OMITTED]

DESCRIPTION: Body yellowish brown, ovoid, somewhat elongate in or; dorsal surface shining, with rather sparsely distributed, simple, brown, semierect setae (Fig. 15F). Head with dark, small spots; frons slightly striolate. Antenna pale brown; segment I with a few dark, small spots near apex; base and apical 1/5 of segment II dark brown but extreme base and apex pale; segments III and IV dark brown, filiform. Labium pale reddish brown, reaching but not exceeding apex of metacoxa; apical half of segment IV darkened. Pronotum with dark, small spots; mesoscutum and scutellum widely dark reddish brown, with uniformly distributed, short setae; apex of scutellum yellowish brown; pleura light brown. Hemelytron nearly hyaline; apices of corium and embolium and basal inner margin of cuneus brown; membrane pale, subhyaline. Apex of metafemur and apical half of metafemur with dark, small spots; tibial spines fuscous (Fig. 13). Abdomen pale whitish green but fading to stramineous after death; apex of male genital segment infuscate, keeled mesially (Fig. 13).

MALE GENITALIA: Figure 18. Right paramere developed at middle, with flattened apex. Phallotheca elongate, curved, with sharply pointed apex. Endosoma rather stout, with about 7 subapical notches; apical appendage short.

FEMALE GENITALIA: Figure 19. Bursa copulatrix somewhat narrowed. Sclerotized rings thick.

MEASUREMENTS: [male]/[female]: Total body length 2.8/ 3.0-3.2; length from apex of tylus to cuneal fracture 1.90/ 2.06-2.16; head width across eyes 0.68/ 0.70-0.80; vertex width 0.34/ 0.35-0.36; lengths of antennal segment I IV 0.20, 0.78, 0.50, 0.44/ 0.20-0.23, 0.75-0.84, 0.52-0.57, 0.43-0.44; labial length 1.02/ 1.08-1.22; basal pronotal width 0.96/ 1.09-1.22; width across hemelytron 1.18/ 1.32-1.48; lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus 0.94, 1.44, ?/ 0.97-1.08, 1.54-1.65, 0.39-0.45.

ETYMOLOGY: Named for the type locality, Sakaerat Environmental Research Station; a noun in apposition.

HOSTS: Unknown.

DISTRIBUTION: Thailand (Nakhon Ratchasima Prov.).

HOLOTYPE: THAILAND: Nakhon Ratchasima Prov.: SERS, 14[degrees]30'27"N, 101[degrees]55'39"E, 410 m alt., light trap, 25-27 Feb 2009, T. Yasunaga, [male] (AMNH_PBI 00379307) (SUT).

PARATYPES: THAILAND: Nakhon Ratehasima Prov.: Same data as for holotype, 2[female] (AMNH_ PBI 00379308, 00379309) (TYCN).

ADDITIONAL NEW SPECIES

Moissonia larutensis, new species Figures 13, 17, 19

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the large size, pale green, elongate oval body, both dark, semierect setae and silvery, reclining setae on the dorsal surface, long antennal segment III that is almost equal in length to the head width across eyes, short labium, hyaline hemelytra with sparsely distributed, brown, small spots, and densely speckled ventral apical part of the metafemur. Most closely related to M. importunitas (Distant), from which this new species is readily distinguished by the larger size, denser dorsal vestiture, longer antennal segment III, spotted hemelytron, and speckled metafemur.

DESCRIPTION: Body elongate oval, large; basic coloration pale green (often partly fading to yellowish brown after death); dorsal surface with sparsely distributed, dark, semierect setae and densely distributed, silvery, reclining setae (Fig. 13). Head often ocherous. Antenna pale brown, comparatively long; segment I with a few apical spots at bases of dark stiff setae; base and apex of segment II infuscate; segment III as long as head width across eyes. Labium pale reddish brown, short, reaching middle of mesocoxa; apical part of segment IV dark brown. Pronotum and scutellum somewhat roughened; pleura pale brown. Hemelytron hyaline, with sparsely distributed, brown, small spots; membrane slightly grayish, with an obscure mark near posterior corner of veins. All coxae and legs yellowish brown; femora, particularly ventral part of metafemur, speckled with dark spots apically; all tibiae with dark spots bearing prominent spines. Abdomen pale brown; apex of male genital segment darkened.

MALE GENITALIA: Figure 17. Left paramere somewhat shortened, with a broad basal protuberance. Right paramere somewhat quadrate. Phallotheca sword-like. Endosoma rather short, with approximately 15 subapical notches.

FEMALE GENITALIA: Figure 19. Bursa copulatrix generally large. Sclerotized rings stout.

MEASUREMENTS: [male]/ [female]: Total body length 3.4-3.8/ 3.0-3.2; length from apex of tylus to cuneal fracture 2.21-2.40/ 2.08-2.19; head width across eyes 0.69-0.75/ 0.68-0.69; vertex width 0.37-0.39/ 0.39-0.42; lengths of antennal segment I-IV 0.22-0.23, 0.90-0.96, 0.70-0.72, 0.48 0.50/ 0.22-0.24, 0.81-0.86, 0.68-0.72, 0.48-0.51; labial length 0.96-1.01/ 0.99-1.08; basal pronotal width 1.08-1.14/ 1.08-1.10; width across hemelytron 1.32-1.43/ 1.35-1.38; lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus 1.04-1.22, 1.84-1.95, 0.49-0.51/ 1.10-1.23, 1.78-1.80, 0.48-0.50.

ETYMOLOGY: Named for the type locality; an adjective.

HOSTS: Unknown. All the type materials were collected simultaneously from inflorescences of an unidentified tropical broadleaf.

DISTRIBUTION: Peninsular Malaysia (Perak).

HOLOTYPE: W. MALAYSIA: Perak: Taiping, Bukit Larut (Maxwell Hill), 4[degrees]51'20~40"N, 100[degrees]47'40"~48'21"E, 1,100-1,400 m alt., 19 Jul 1989, T. Yasunaga, [male]: (AMNH_PBI 00379324) (TKPM).

PARATYPES: W. MALAYSIA: Perak: Same data as for holotype, 2[male]4[female] (AMNH_PBI 00379325 00379330) (AMNH, TYCN).

REMARKS: This new species is apparently most closely related to M. importunitas and M. punctata, judging from the similar form of the male genitalia, particularly the left paramere and endosoma (Figs. 16, 21). These three species, possibly also including M. philippinensis (Schuh, 1984), may constitute a species group.

Moissonia pardalis, new species Figures 13, 17, 19

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the comparatively large size, yellowish brown dorsum speckled with leopard-like dark spots on the head, pronotum, scutellum and hemelytron, dark apical 1/3-1/4 of the antennal segment II, almost totally creamy yellow pro- and mesofemora, and unique shape of the genitalia.

DESCRIPTION: Body elongate oval ([male]:) or ovoid ([female]:), large; basic coloration stramineous brown; dorsal surface subshining, heavily speckled with leopard-like dark spots on the head, pronotum, scutellum and hemelytron, with uniformly distributed, silky, reclining setae and sparsely distributed, dark, reclining setae (Fig. 13). Head irregularly speckled with dark spots and/or striae; tylus, lorum and buccla usually widely darkened. Antenna dark brown; basal 2/3-3/4 of segment II yellowish brown. Labium pale brown, short, not exceeding apex of mesocoxa; apical half of segment IV reddish brown. Thoracic pleura widely darkened; ostiolar peritreme usually creamy yellow. Hemelytra nearly hyaline, shining, apex of embolium and apical 1/3-1/2 of cuneus infuscate; membrane pale grayish brown, subhyaline, with an obscure mark near posterior corner of veins. All coxae and legs yellowish brown; apical half of metafemur densely speckled or widely darkened; tibiae, particularly metatibia, with dark spots at bases of prominent spines; all tarsi reddish brown. Abdomen dark reddish brown, with yellowish median part.

MALE GENITALIA: Figure 17. Left paramere stout; sensory lobe with a basal protuberance. Right paramere rather flattened. Phallotheca slender, somewhat tapered toward apex. Endosoma generally slender, not much broadened at middle, with a field of spinules along secondary gonopore; apical appendage with spinulate apex.

FEMALE GENITALIA: Figure 19. Bursa copulatrix narrow but wide. Sclerotized rings rather small, somewhat folded laterally.

MEASUREMENTS: [male]/[female]:: Total body length 3.0-3.3/ 3.3-3.6; length from apex of tylus to cuneal fracture 2.18-2.23/ 2.33-2.42; head width across eyes 0.76-0.79/ 0.79-0.82; vertex width 0.36-0.37/ 0.38-0.40; lengths of antennal segment I-IV 0.18-0.20, 0.90-0.96, 0.52-0.58, 0.42-0.43/ 0.22-0.23, 0.95-0.96, 0.59-0.60, 0.44-0.47; labial length 1.14-1.18/ 1.18-1.21; basal pronotal width 1.16-1.20/ 1.31-1.32; width across hemelytron 1.39-1.42/ 1.52-1.62; lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus 1.08-1.12, 1.54-1.64, 0.41-0.46/ 1.08-1.13, 1.66-1.75, 0.43-0.46.

ETYMOLOGY: From Greek, pardalis, or pardus (=leopard), referring to the spotted dorsum of this new species.

HOSTS: Unknown. All materials examined were collected from inflorescences of an unidentified broadleaved vine under shaded, tropical rain forest.

DISTRIBUTION: Peninsular Malaysia (Perak).

HOLOTYPE: W. MALAYSIA: Perak: Taiping, Bukit Larut (Maxwell Hill), 4[degrees]51'20~40"N, 100[degrees]47'40"~48'21"E, 1,100-1,400 malt., 12 Jul 1989, T. Yasunaga, cr (AMNH_PBI 00379343) (TKPM).

PARATYPES: W. MALAYSIA: Perak: Same data as for holotype, 5[male]7[female] (AMNH_PBI 00379344-00379353) (AMNH, TYCN).

ADDITIONAL MATERIAL: W. MALAYSIA: Perak: Same locality, 17 Jul 1989, T. Yasunaga, 1[male] (AMNH_PBI 00379354) (TYCN).

REMARKS: Judging from the similarly spotted dorsum and form of the male genitalia, Moissonia pardalis is possibly most easily confused with Opuna ryandi Schuh, 1984, described from E. Malaysia (Borneo). The present new species can be separated from it by the larger size, denser dorsal spots, more widely darkened apical part of the antennal segment II, subbasal thumb-like protuberance of the left paramere, and denser endosomal spinules around the secondary gonopore.

Although some characters of M. pardalis are actually shared by some Opuna members, I prefer to placing this new species in Moissonia, on the basis of the general body shape and size, distinctly spotted dorsum, developed and rather quadrate right paramere, not flattened endosoma, and basic form of the female genitalia that is more similar to those of Moissonia (Figs. 17, 18). In addition to Opuna ryandi, O. luzonica Schuh, 1984 and O. pilosulus (Distant, 1910) also resemble M. pardalis. Because I have not examined female genitalic structures of these species, however, I herein refrain to conclude their definitive generic level placements. Further comprehensive revision is required to correctly redefine these two closely related genera, Moissonia and Opuna.

One male specimen (AMNH_PBI 00379354), collected separately on July 17 and excluded from the type series, is significantly darkened (Fig. 13) and has somewhat different shape of the male genitalia (Fig. 17).

Moissonia takaii, new species

Figures 15H-K, 18, 19

DIAGNOSIS: Distinguished from most closely related congeners, M. befui and M. sakaerat, by the moderately speckled head and pronotum, darkened apical 1/3 of antennal segment II, often darkened posterior margins of the abdominal terga, stout parameres, and rather small bursa copulatrix with the extended inner corner of the sclerotized ring.

The final instar nymph (Fig. 15J, K) is recognized by the whitish pale green, ovoid body with uniformly distributed, brown, semierect setae; male is a little elongate in form (Fig. 15J).

DESCRIPTION: Body generally yellowish brown, ovoid, moderate in size; dorsal surface with uniformly distributed, silky, reclining setae and brown, simple setae. Head moderately speckled with dark, small spots. Antenna pale brown; apical part of segment I with a few spots; base and apical 1/3 of segment II dark brown, except for whitish extreme base and apex; segments III and IV dark brown, filiform. Labium shiny pale brown, reaching apex of mesocoxa; apical half of segment IV infuscate. Pronotum moderately speckled with dark, small spots, usually not heavily darkened; mesoscutum and scutellum widely darkened, with pale reddish brown parts and corners. Hemelytron hyaline, oily shiny; apices of clavus and embolium, and inner corner of cuneus each with a brown spot; posterior inner margin of corium sometimes slightly darkened; membrane pale smoky brown, nearly hyaline. All coxae and legs pale brown; each femur more or less spotted apically; apical 1/3-1/2 of metafemur sometimes widely reddish brown; each tarsomere III dark brown. Abdomen pale whitish green (but usually fading to yellowish brown after death); posterior margins of terga often with dark suffusion; apex of male genital segment narrowly darkened.

MALE GENITALIA: Figure 18. Left paramere with developed hypophysis. Right paramere stout. Phallotheca pointed apically, moderately curved. Endosoma with 6-7 subapical notches; apical appendage pointed, with broad base.

FEMALE GENITALIA: Figure 19. Bursa copulatrix comparatively small. Sclerotized rings not folded laterally; anterior inner corner extended.

MEASUREMENTS: [male]/[female]: Total body length 2.8-3.1/ 3.0-3.2; length from apex of tylus to cuneal fracture 1.89-2.04/ 1.92-2.12; head width across eyes 0.724).73/0.73-0.76; vertex width 0.34-0.36/ 0.36-0.37; lengths of antennal segment I-IV 0.18-0.22, 0.814).84, 0.48 0.54, 0.36-0.39/ 0.18-0.20, 0.73-0.77, 0.46-0.50, 0.354).36; labial length 1.02-1.10/ 1.05 1.14; basal pronotal width 1.081.11/ 1.05-1.11; width across hemelytron 1.291.32/ 1.32-1.44; lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus 0.99-1.08, 1.48-1.60, 0.36-0.39/ 1.04-1.08, 1.51-1.59, 0.37-0.41.

ETYMOLOGY: Named in honor of Mr. Mikio Takai, who discovered this new species; a noun in genitive case.

DISTRIBUTION: Japan (Ryukyus: Okinawa and Ishigaki Islands).

HOSTS: Both adult and immature forms were found from inflorescences of Sehefflera octophylla Harms (Araliaceae), which is considered as the breeding host.

HOLOTYPE: JAPAN: Ryukyus: Okinawa Island, Nago City, Ohshittai, on flowers of Schefflera octophylla, 2 Dec 2001, M. Takai, [male] (AMNH_PBI 00379355) (TKPM).

PARATYPES: JAPAN: Ryukyus: Same data as for holotype, 12[male]25[female] (AMNH_PBI 00379360-00379373); same data, except for collector T. Yasunaga, 28[male]31[female] (00379374-00379393) (AMNH, TYCN); Ishigaki Island, Omoto-Takeda, on flowers of Schefflera octophylla, 28 Nov 2001, T. Yasunaga, 6[male]1[female] (00379356-00379359) (TYCN).

OPUNA KIRKALDY

Opuna Kirkaldy, 1902:140 (n. gen.); Schuh, 1995: 365 (cat.); Kerzhner and Josifov, 1999:380 (cat.); Yasunaga, 1999:194 (note), 2001b: 167 (diag.).

TYPE SPECIES: O. hawaiiensis Kirkaldy, 1902, a synonym of Psallus sharpianus Kirkaldy, 1902 (monotypic).

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the small, ovoid body, hyaline or translucent hemelytron, weakly developed hypophysis of the left paramere, rather slender phallotheca gradually tapered toward apex, generally slender endosoma lacking the subapical notches, and narrow bursa copulatrix with small, ovoid, thick-rimmed sclerotized rings. Further diagnostic characters and a redescription were provided by Schuh (1984).

DISTRIBUTION: Old World tropics, subtropics and warm temperate zone, and Pacific Islands.

DISCUSSION: Opuna is usually recognized by the characters listed above. However, most of these characters are shared by Moissonia. It is sometimes difficult to determine generic placement of certain species (see Remarks under Moissonia pardalis). Further investigation employing female genitalic structures is required to redefine Opuna and Moissonia consistently.

Opuna annulata (Knight)

Figures 7J, 20

Carnpylomma annulatus Knight, 1935:197 (n. sp.). Opuna annulata: Schuh, 1984:401 (n. comb.), 1995:366 (cat.); Kerzhner and Josifov, 1999: 380 (cat.); Yasunaga, 1999:194 (diag., fig.), 2001b: 160 (diag., fig.).

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the pale green dorsum, distinctly annulated antennal segment II (annulations sometimes obscure in 9), hyaline hemelytron, three distinct black spots (one on the apex of the clams and two on the inner margin of the cuneus) (Fig. 7J), slender, tapered phallotheca, weakly curved endosoma, and small, ovoid sclerotized rings (Fig. 20); total length 2.2-2.6, maximum width 1.0-1.2. Further diagnostic characters were provided by Schuh (1984) and Yasunaga (1999, 2001b). The final instar nymph, recognizable by the dense, dark setae on the dorsum and basically similar in the body form and coloration to the adult, was figured by Yasunaga (2001b).

HOSTS: Bidens spp. (Asteraceae).

DISTRIBUTION: Widely distributed in the Old World tropics, subtropics and warm temperate zone, and Pacific Islands.

SPECIMENS EXAMINED. THAILAND: Nakhon Nayok Prov.: Sarika (lodge), N14[degrees]18'07" E101[degrees]18'09", at light, 21-23 Mar 2010, T. Yasunaga and K. Yamada, 4[male]4[female](AMNH PBI 00379109-00379112) (TYCN). Nakhon Ratehasima Prov.: SERS, 14[degrees]30'27'%1, 101[degrees]55'39"E, 410 m alt., light trap, 25-27 Feb 2009, T. Yasunaga, 1[male] (TYCN). Saraburi Prov.: Kaeng Khoi, Kyusei Organic Farm, 22 Jan 2009, T. Yasunaga and K. Yamada, 1[male] (00379395) (TYCN). JAPAN: Ryukyus: Okinawa Is., Naha City, Shurisakiyama, 5 Nov 1992, T. Yasunaga, 1[male] (00379020) (TYCN). Okinawa Is., Chinen Peninsula, 17 ApT 1986, T. Yasunaga, 1[male] (TYCN). Isbigaki Is., Yoshihara, 24 Nov 1997, T. Yasunaga, 1[male]3[female] (00378989, 00378990) (TYCN).

NEPAL: Kathmandu Valley: Kathmandu: Samakhusi, 27.433795[degrees]N 85.190299[degrees]E, 1,304 m, 3 Jul 2005, T. Yasunaga, light trap, 13 Jul 2006, 1[male] (00378981), 19 (00378982) (TYCN); 27 Ju12006, 1[male] (00378983), 19 (00378984) (TYCN); 30 Ju12006, 2[female] (00378985, 00378986) (TYCN). Kaski Dist.: Pokhara: Phewa Lakeside, 28.232622[degrees]N 88.575035[degrees]E, 22 Jul 2006-23 Jul 2006, T. Yasunaga and R. K. Duwal, 2[female] (00378987, 00378988) (TYCN).

ADDITIONAL NEW SPECIES

Opuna schwartzi, new species

Figures 13, 20

DIAGNOSIS: Readily distinguished from its congeners by the pale reddish brown general coloration, brown, small spots and both short silvery setae and brown setae on the dorsum, somewhat opaque hemelytron, stout basal protuberance of the left paramere, tapered apex of the endosoma, and elongate posterior wall.

[FIGURE 20 OMITTED]

DESCRIPTION: Body generally pale reddish brown, oval, rather large; dorsal surface minutely and rather sparsely spotted, with uniformly distributed, silvery, reclining setae and sparsely distributed, brown setae (Fig. 13). Head pale brown, partly tinged with red, somewhat oblique. Antenna pale brown; segment I with smoky, subbasal and subapical rings; base and apical 1/ 4-1/5 of segment II dark brown, except for creamy extreme base and apex; segments III and IV dark brown. Labium shiny pale brown, reaching apex of metacoxa; apical half of segment IV darkened. Pronotum and scutellum weakly shagreened or roughened. Hemelytron somewhat opaque, due to dense silvery vestiture; apex of corium infuscate; membrane pale smoky brown, semitransparent. All coxae and legs pale brown; femora more or less spotted, especially on apical part of metafemur; all tibiae with dark spots at bases of brown, prominent spines; each tarsomere III darker. Abdomen shiny pale brown, sometimes with reddish suffusion laterally.

MALE GENITALIA" Figure 20. Left paramere heavily setose, with long hypophysis; sensory lobe with stout protuberance basally. Phallotheca tapered toward apex, somewhat winding. Endosoma J-shaped, generally flattened, tapered toward apex.

FEMALE GENITALIA: Figure 20. Bursa copulatrix with elongate posterior wall; dorsal and ventral labiate plates weak. Sclerotized rings thickrimmed, concaved laterally.

MEASUREMENTS: or/9: Total body length 2.7 3.1/ 3.2 3.3; length from apex of tylus to cuneal fracture 1.90-2.11/2.16-2.18; head width across eyes 0.73-0.76/0.76-0.80; vertex width 0.35-0.36/ 0.37-0.38; lengths of antennal segment I-IV 0.18-0.19, 0.74-0.78, 0.50-0.52, 0.364).38/ 0.20-0.21, 0.72-0.74, 0.464).52, ?; labial length 1.15 1.26/ 1.43-1.45; basal pronotal width 1.07 1.08/ 1.11-1.18; width across hemelytron 1.24-1.30/ 1.33-1.40; lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus 1.02-1.06, 1.44-1.46, 0.43-0.47/ 1.05-1.11, 1.44-1.51, 0.44-0.46.

ETYMOLOGY: Named in honor of Dr. Michael D. Schwartz, my long time friend and colleague.

Hosts: Unknown.

Distribution. Peninsular Malaysia (Perak).

HOLOTYPE: W. MALAYSIA: Perak: Taiping, Bukit Larut (Maxwell Hill), 4[degrees]51'43"N, I00[degrees]47' 59"E, 1,113 malt., light trap, 14 Jul 1989, T. Yasunaga, [male] (AMNH_PBI 00379331) (TKPM).

PARATYPES: W. MALAYSIA: Perak: Same data as for holotype, 19 (AMNH_PBI 00379332); same locality, 4[degrees]51'20-40"N, 100[degrees]47'40"-48'21"E, 1,100-1,300 malt., 17 Jul 1989, T. Yasunaga, 1[male] (00379333), 19 (00379334) (TYCN).

PSALLUS FIEBER

Psallus Fieber 1858:321 (n. gen.); Schuh, 1995 (cat.); Kerzhner and Josifov, 1999 (cat.); Yasunaga and Vinokurov, 2000:653 (diag.); Yasunaga, 2001b (diag.).

TYPE SPECIES: Lygaeus sanguineus Fabricius, 1794, a synonym of Cimex haematodes Gmelin, 1790 (subsequent designation by Reuter, 1888: 412).

DIAGNOSIS. This large Holarctic genus is primarily diagnosed by the following characters: body variable in coloration, not exhibiting green tinge, oval to elongate oval, with length 3-6 mm, sometimes shortened and broadened in 9; dorsal surface with simple setae and woolly or sericeous, scalelike setae that are very easily abraded; pronotum, scutellum and hemelytra weakly shagreened, usually with densely distributed, scalelike setae and simple, darker setae; metafemur rather tumid; male genital segment usually with a longitudinal, mesal keel ventrally; endosoma generally C-shaped, not strongly twisted, with rather complex apical region.

DISTRIBUTION: Holarctic Region, Thailand.

DISCUSSION. Many European authors have provided generic diagnoses and/or redescriptions (e.g., Reuter, 1883; Wagner, 1952, 1975; Wagner and Weber, 1964; Yasunaga and Vinokurov, 2000), but this genus is still not unequivocally defined by consistent diagnostic characters. It is often difficult to distinguish species of Psallus from those of some related genera based solely on external characters. Psallus is apparently paraphyletic group, judging from the currently included members. Many superficially similar species have been placed in this 'garbage' genus. Seven subgenera are currently proposed for Psallus: Apocremnus Fieber, 1858; Calopsallus Yasunaga and Vinokurov, 2000; Hylopsallus Wagner, 1952; Mesopsallus Wagner, 1970; Phylidea Reuter, 1899; Pityopsallus Wagner, 1952; and Psallus s. str. However, some of these subgenera may be given generic status, and eventually a world revision is required to redefine the genus and its subgenera.

Almost of all members of Psallus are regarded as the Palearctic elements, because most of North American congeners are considered to have been introduced with nursery stocks from Europe (Wheeler and Henry, 1992). The species occurring in temperate or colder climate zones are assumed to have a univoltine life cycle and to hibernate as eggs. Psallus spp. are usually associated with deciduous broadleaf host plants, and only members of the subgenus Pityopsallus are restricted to boreal conifers.

All previous records of Psallus from tropics or subtropics are doubtful (e.g., P. rubromaculosus Knight, 1935; see Schuh, 1984). In Thailand, however, one undescribed species has been found, which possibly represents the first discovery of 'true' Psallus member from the tropical Asia. Placement of the new species in the nominotypical subgenus is on the basis of the vestiture pattern, and form of both male and female genitalia.

ADDITIONAL KNOWN SPECIES EXAMINED: Psallus (Psallus) haematodes (Gmelin, 1790) (Fig. 23)--JAPAN: Hokkaido: Horokanai, Fukinotai, Takinosawa, on willow, 5 Aug 2000, T. Yasunaga, 1[male]2[female] (AMNH_PBI 003793994)0379400) (TYCN). RUSSIA: St. Petersburg: Karelian Isthmus Sanctuary, on willow, 21 Jul 2002, T. Yasunaga, 4[female] (00379401-00379403) (TYCN). Psallus (Psallus) bagjonicus Josifov, 1983 (Fig. 23)--JAPAN: Kyushu: Nagasaki City, Sotome, Kohno-ura, on Quercus acutissima, 10 May 1995, T. Yasunaga, 39 (0037404-00379405) (TYCN).

[FIGURE 21 OMITTED]

Psallus (Psallus) buddha, new species

Figures 7K-N, 21, 22, 23

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized by the orange brown or pale grayish brown basic coloration, heavily setose body surface that is widely speckled with brown or reddish spots, annulated, slender antenna, a conspicuous large spot on the membrane, and distinct form of the male and female genitalia. The body form is not sexually dimorphic.

The final instar nymph is similar in general appearance to adults, and has the pale green, ovoid body speckled with numerous orange or brown spots and heavily furnished with the pale, stiff, semierect setae (Fig. 7N).

DESCRIPTION: Body ovoid, heavily setose, not sexually dimorphic in form; basic coloration orange brown or pale grayish brown; body surface with densely distributed, simple, brown, long, semierect setae and silvery, reclining, scale-like setae; dorsum weakly shining, speckled with brown, small spots that are sockets of brown setae (Fig. 7K-M). Head oblique, heavily setose; vertex rather wide. Antenna whitish brown, irregularly annulated almost throughout, generally slender and short. Labium pale brown, reaching apex of metacoxa. Thoracic pleurites, including scent efferent system, yellowish brown, partly tinged with red. Hemelytron; membrane pale brown, heavily speckled with dark, small spots, with a large, conspicuous spot before apex of cuneus and pale veins. All coxae shiny brown; all femora pale brown, densely speckled with dark, small spots that are partly fused together; tibia yellowish brown, with brown spots at bases of pale brown spines; all tarsi pale brown. Abdomen pale brown, speckled with reddish brown spots.

[FIGURE 22 OMITTED]

MALE GENITALIA: Figures 21, 22. Left paramere with long, tapered basal projection and developed, hooked hypophysis; right paramere with wide, somewhat flattened hypophysis. Phallotheca triangular, shovel-shaped. Endosoma generally slender, with a long, smooth apical projection; subapical part membranous, without short sclerotized appendage that is usually found in members of subgenus Psallus.

FEMALE GENITALIA: Figures 21, 23. Bursa copulatrix wide, with continuous dorsal labiate plate. Sclerotized rings elongate oval; thick rimmed.

MEASUREMENTS: [male]/[female]: Total body length 2.6-2.7/ 2.6-2.7; length from apex of tylus to cuneal fracture 1.77 1.92/ 1.97; head width across eyes 0.67-0.69/ 0.70; vertex width 0.32-0.34/ 0.36; lengths of antennal segment I-IV 0.14-0.16, 0.60-0.72, 0.31-0.40, 0.24-0.30/ 0.19, 0.64, 0.37, 0.24; labial length 1.15-1.20/1.20; basal pronotal width 1.02-1.05/ 1.06; width across hemelytron 1.351.42/1.44; lengths of metafemur, tibia and tarsus 0.844).90, 1.08-1.18, 0.25-0.28/0.91, 1.13, 0.30.

[FIGURE 23 OMITTED]

ETYMOLOGY: Named for the Buddha (or Sakyamuni), referring to the occurrence of this new species in a pious Buddhist country; a noun in apposition.

HOSTS: Not yet identified.

DISTRIBUTION: Thailand (Nakhon Ratchasima Prov.).

HOLOTYPE: THAILAND: Nakhon Ratehasima Prov.: SERS, 14[degrees]30'27"N 101[degrees]55'39"E, 410 malt., 25 Feb 2009, T. Yasunaga, [male] (AMNH_PBI 00379298) (SUT).

PARATYPES: THAILAND: Nakhon Ratchasima Prov.: Same data as for holotype, 3[male]1[female] (AMNH_PBI 00379299-00379302) (TYCN).

REMARKS: This new species is easily distinguished from any other congeners by the characters listed above. Superficially, it resembles the eastern Palearctic P. bagjonieus Josifov; however, the coloration and genitalic structures are absolutely different.

Both adults and final instar nymphs were collected by sweeping newly developed, young leaves of an unidentified deciduous broadleaf. The superficial appearance of the bug is cryptic, apparently harmonious with these young leaves that are partly tinged with orange and densely covered with minute hairs (Fig. 7N; adults (7K M) are not sitting on real host plant leaf). A univoltine life cycle is assumed for this phyline.

Psallus buddha is considered to be a relic of the ice age. It is probable that this species was isolated from a Palearctic ancestor after the glaciations and has survived in dry forest of Indochina. The apical part of the endosoma that lacks the short sclerotized appendage appears to represent the most basic form of the nominotypical Psallus.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to dedicate this paper to my fatherlike mentor, Papasha Izya, or Dr. I. M. Kerzhner (Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Science, St Petersburg), who very regretfully passed away during my stay in Thailand. Special thanks are due to Dr. S. Miyamoto (Fukuoka, Japan) for continuing advice and encouragement. The following friends or colleagues in Thailand kindly supported my field investigations: Mr. A. Taksin (SERS), Dr. M. Rut (SUT), Dr. P. Joompot, Assoc. Prof. P. Ampol, Assist Prof. L. Kamonluck, Assoc. Prof. U. Kanok and Assist. Prof. P. Somporn (RMUTSB), Dr. Kanit and Mr. M. Sakurai (Kyusei Nature Farming Center, Saraburi), and Ms. R. Nana-Siri (Bang Na, Bangkok). Dr. K. Yamada (TKPM) and Mr. B. Shishido (Hyogo Pref.) made visits to Thailand, supporting my field research, and provided invaluable materials and ideas. Mr. M. Takai (Kochi Pref., Japan) was generous enough to offer gorgeous images of some Japanese phyline species (Fig. 1B, J, 7E-G, 15G). My cordial thanks are due to Drs. R. T. Schuh (AMNH), Dr. M. D. Schwartz (Agriculture Canada, Ottawa), Prof. G. Cassis (University of New South Wales, Australia), Dr. E. Heiss (Innsbruck, Austria) and Dr. C. Johnson (AMNH) for their generous support and encouragement. I am also grateful to Prof. S. H. Lee and Ms. R. K. Duwal (Seoul National University, Korea) for sharing their ideas, and to Mr. M. Takai and Mr. T. Befu (Kochi, Japan), Prof. M. Hayashi (Saitama Univ., Saitama, Japan), Dr. K. Takahashi (Ushiku City, Ibaraki, Japan) and Mr. T. Nakata (JIRCAS, Subtropical Station, Ishigaki Island) for providing specimens.

This study was partly supported by an international cooperative program between RMUTSB and JICA Senior Volunteer, and by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Planetary Biodiversity Inventories award (DEB-0316495) to Randall T. Schuh and Gerasimos Cassis for the study of the Miridae subfamilies Orthotylinae and Phylinae. The field investigations undertaken in June 2009 and March 2010 were supported by Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B) from the Japan Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (No. 20780043) to Kazutaka Yamada, to whom I am much indebted.

Received 27 May 2010; accepted 17 October 2010

REFERENCES

Cassis, G. 2008. The Lattinova complex of Austromirine plant bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Orthotylinae). Proceedings of Entomological Society of Washington 110: 845-939.

Distant, W. L. 1904. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Rhynchota. Taylor & Francis, London. Vol. 2, part 2, pp. 243-503.

Distant, W. U 1910. Descriptions of Oriental Capsidae. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 5(8): 10-22.

Duwal, R. K., T. Yasunaga and S. H. Lee. 2010. Revision of the plant bug tribe Phylini from Nepal (Heteroptera: Miridae: Phylinae). Entomologica Americana 116: 148.

Fieber, F. X. 1858. Criterien zur generischen Theilung der Phytocoriden (Capsini auct.). Wiener entomologische Monatschrift 2: 289-327, 329-347, 388, 1 pl.

Ishida, C., M. Kono and S. Sakai. 2009. A new pollination system: brood-site pollination by flower bugs in Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae). Annals of Botany 103: 3944.

Kerzhner, I. M. and M. Josifov. 1999. Miridae Hahn, 1833. In: B. Aukema and C. Rieger (eds.), Catalogue of the Heteroptera of the Palearctic Region, vol. 3, Cimicomorpha II. The Netherlands Entomological Society, Ponsen and Looijen, Wageningen, i-xiv, pp. 1-577.

Kirkaldy, G. W. 1902. Hemiptera. Fauna Hawaiiensis. Vol. III, Part II. Cambridge University Press, pp. 93-174, pls. 4, 5.

Knight, H. H. 1935. Miridae and Anthocoridae. Insects of Samoa 2(5): 193-228.

Linnavuori, R. E. 1993. The Phylinae (Hemiptera: Miridae) of west, central and north east Africa. Garcia de Orta, set. zool., Lisbon 18: 115-296.

Linnavuori, R. and M. M. A1-Safadi. 1993. Nomenclatural note on the genus Moissonia Reuter (Hemiptera, Miridae, Phylinae). Entomologiea Fennica 4:233 234.

Poppius, B. 1915. H. Sauter's Formosa-Ausbeute: Nabidae, Anthocoridae, Termatophylidae, Miridae, Isometopidae und Ceratocombidae (Hemiptera). Archiv fur Naturgeschichte 80A(8): 1-80 (1914).

Reuter, O. M. 1878. Hemiptera Gymnocerata Europae. Hemipteres Gymnocerates d'Europe, du bassin de la Mediterranee et de l'Asie russe. I. Acta Societatis Scientiarum Fennieae 13: 1-188.

Reuter, O. M. 1888. Revisio synonymica Heteropterorum palaearcticorum quae descripserunt auctores vetustiores (Linnaeus 1758--Latreille, 1806). Finnische Literatur-Gesellschaft, Helsingfors, 458 pp.

Reuter, O. M. 1894. Ad cognitionem Capsidarum. II. Capsidae palaearcticae. Revue d'Entomologie 13: 128-152.

Schuh, R. T. 1984. Revision of the Phylinae (Hemiptera, Miridae) of the Indo-Pacific. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 177: 1476.

Schuh, R. T. 1995. Plant bugs of the world (Insecta: Heteroptera: Miridae): Systematic catalog, distributions, host list, and bibliography. New York Entomological Society, i-xii, 1329 pp. (updated catalog available on the webpage: http://research. amnh.org/pbi/catalog/)

Schuh, R. T. 2006. Revision, phylogenetic, biogeographie, and host analyses of the endemic western North American Phymatopsallus group, with the description of 9 new genera and 15 new species (Insecta: Hemiptera: Miridae: Phylinae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 301: 1-115.

Schuh, R. T. and G. Wu. 2009. Review of Eminoculus Schuh (Heteroptera: Miridae: Phylinae) from South Africa, with the description of five new species. Entomologica Americana 115: 36-66.

Wagner, E. 1952. Blindwanzen oder Miriden. Die Tierwelt Deutschland und der angrenzenden Meeresteile nach ihnen Merkmalen und nach ihrer Lebensweise. Verlag von Gustav Fischer, Jena 41: iv, 218 pp.

Wagner, E. 1975. Die Miridae Hahn, 1831, des Mittelmeerraumes und der Makaronesischen Inseln (Hemiptera, Heteroptera). Teil 3. Entomologische Abhandlungen, Dresden, 40, suppl.: II, 483 pp.

Wagner, E. and H. H. Weber. 1964. Heteropteres, Miridae. Faune de France, 67: 592.

Wheeler, A. G., Jr. 2001. Biology of the Plant Bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae), Pests, Predators, Opportunists. Cornell University Press, Ithaca and London, xv, 507 pp.

Wheeler, A. G., Jr. and T. J. Henry. 1992. A synthesis of the Holarctic Miridae (Heteroptera): Distribution, biology and origin, with emphasis on North America. Entomological Society of America, Lanham, Maryland, 282.

Wyniger, D. 2006. The Central European Hallodapini: Studies of the female genitalia (Heteroptera, Phylinae, Miridae). Denisia 19:711-720.

Yasunaga, T. 1999. New or little known Phylinae Plant Bugs of Japan (Heteroptera: Miridae: Phylinae). Insecta Matsumurana. New series 55: 181-201.

Yasunaga, T. 2001a. New Plant Bugs from Japan (Heteroptera: Miridae: Phylinae). Sukunahikona, Special publication of the Japan Coleopterological Society 1: 113-121.

Yasunaga, T. 200lb. Family Miridae Hahn, plant bugs. In: T. Yasunaga, M. Takai and T. Kawasawa (eds.), A Field Guide to Japanese Bugs If. Zenkoku Noson Kyoiku Kyokai, Publishing Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan: 1 96, 111-351. (In Japanese)

Yasunaga, T. and M. D. Schwartz. 2007. Revision of the mirine plant bug genus Philostephanus Distant and allies (Heteroptera: Miridae: Mirinae: Mirini). Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 150: 101-180.

Yasunaga, T. and N. N. Vinokurov. 2000. The phyline plant bug genus Psallus Fieber in Japan (Heteroptera: Miridae: Phylinae). Entomological Science 3: 653-668.

Yasunaga, T., N. N. Vinokurov and M. Takai. 1999. New records of the Heteroptera from Japan. Rostria 48: 1-9.

Yasunaga, T. and K. Yamada. 2009. Three new species of the orthotyline plant bugs recently found in central Thailand (Heteroptera, Miridae, Orthotylinae). Nouvelle Revue d'Entomologie (N. S.) 25: 281-287.

Yasunaga, T., K. Yamada and A. Taksin. 2010. First record of the plant bug subfamily Psallopinae (Heteroptera: Miridae) from Thailand, with descriptions of new species and immature forms. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 153:1 8.

Research Associate, Department of Entomology, Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024, USA, c/o Nameshi 2-33-2, Nagasaki 852-8061, Japan

TOMOHIDE YASUNAGA, Email address for correspondence: tyasunaga@amnh. org
COPYRIGHT 2010 New York Entomological Society
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2010 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Yasunaga, Tomohide
Publication:Entomologica Americana
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9THAI
Date:Jul 1, 2010
Words:16574
Previous Article:Systematics and phylogeny of the hatchet head plant bug genus myrmecoroides gross (insecta: heteroptera: miridae: orthotylinae).
Next Article:Description of one new species of the genus Varma (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea: Tropiduchidae) with a key to all the species.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters