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Pinoleic acid the natural apetite suppressant.

Considering the alarming global increase of obesity, it is no surprise to learn that there is a significant and rapidly growing market for food products that help to tackle this problem. The weight loss segment is one of the largest health food markets and, in particular, appetite suppressants are experiencing significant growth in the slimming aids sector. Pinoleic acid, a very long chain fatty acid found in pine nut oil, is an excellent active ingredient that works effectively on appetite control, regulating satiety hormones, thus helping to reduce food intake. Pineloic acid is one of the active ingredients in PinnoThin, a unique and natural appetite suppressant ingredient developed and patented by Lipid Nutrition. PinnoThin is a 100% natural, vegetable-based product that works on weight gain at the very source. It promotes a feeling of fullness, thus helping to reduce food consumption.

According to the World Health Organization, "obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges of the 21st century." Overweight and obesity are undeniably more widespread now than ever before--even amongst children and teenagers--resulting in significant global consequences at both social and health levels. Western societies put a lot of emphasis on appearance, with slimness often being interpreted as a synonym for attractiveness. Hence, obese people might actually suffer from social and emotional insecurities: discrimination in social circumstances, at school and in the job market are very common, causing depression, feelings of rejection and even shame in most cases. In addition to the social side-effects, being overweight or obese also renders the individual more responsible for the increase in a wide range of serious health problems, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, stroke, heart failure, arteriosclerosis, kidney failure and even cancer. Not only that, being overweight can also affect a person's joints, breathing, sleep, mood and energy levels. As such, being overweight can impact a person's entire quality of life.


Technically, being overweight or obese is the result of excessive fat accumulation, fundamentally caused by an energy imbalance between calories in and calories out. Among the factors contributing to this imbalance are an increased intake of energy rich foods that are high in fat and sugars but low in vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients, and limited physical activity, owing to the increasingly sedentary nature of many forms of work, changing modes of transportation, increasing urbanization, the widespread diffusion of television, video games and personal computers and other sedentary play activities (such that physical activity among children and adolescents has seriously declined). To counteract obesity, a healthy lifestyle comprising a proper diet and less sedentary habits is essential. The energy balance is tightly regulated by a very simple equation: energy intake must equal energy expenditure.

To lose weight, therefore, energy intake must either decrease or energy expenditure must increase. One way to reduce total energy intake without increasing the energy density of foodstuffs is to increase their satiation value (appetite control). Satiation and satiety are part of our appetite control system. Satiation is the process that causes you to stop eating; satiety is the feeling of fullness that persists after eating. Both are crucial in determining our total energy intake. Humans tend to eat until they feel "full." Satiation is characterized by the sensation of a full stomach, derived from the consumption of food. This process terminates food consumption and often limits the size and frequency of meals. After eating, an individual will not eat for a period of time; this is defined as satiety. The feeling of satiation depends not only on the quantity of food eaten, but also on its composition. Some foods are able to fill the gut but cannot be digested (such as fibre), whereas others effect the release of gut hormones, influencing satiety and appetite. Satiety seems to be regulated by two main physiological mechanisms: one at the 'brain' level and one at the 'gastrointestinal tract' level.


At the brain level, humans have a number of "satiety signals" that enable them to eat a variety of nutrient sources and subsequently secrete a range of gut peptide hormones that are appropriate for the particular food. This system also has the ability to inform the brain precisely what has been consumed, with different signals being secreted for specific fats, carbohydrates and proteins. At the gastrointestinal tract level, the presence of food in the stomach is indicated (and relayed to the brain) by signals such as stomach distension and the release of gut hormones such as cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide (GLP1). CCK is a small intestinal hormone, released upon fat or protein intake. It is responsible for gall bladder contraction, the release of bile and the secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes. Its active peptide, CCK-8, seems to help modulate digestive function and is instrumental in causing the feeling of satiety. Glucagon-like peptide 1 is a small intestinal hormone that reduces appetite and food intake. It is released in response to fat and carbohydrate intake. GLP1 slows down gut motility by way of the "ileal brake" mechanism.

Pinoleic Acid

The Korean Pine tree (Pinus koraiensis) is native to eastern Asia, Manchuria, far eastern Russia, Korea and central Japan. In the north of its range, it grows at moderate altitudes (600-900 m), whereas further south, it is a mountain tree growing at 2000-2600 m (in Japan). It is a large tree, reaching a mature height of 40-50 m and a trunk diameter of 1.5-2 m. China is the world's largest producer and exporter of nuts to Europe and the USA and, from the nuts of the Korean Pine, a pine nut oil is extracted. Pine nut oil is rich in poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids, and especially rich in very long chain fatty acids such as pinoleic acid. Pinoleic acid is an omega-6 fatty acid (C18: 3-5,9,12) that has double bonds in the cis configuration. Korean pine nuts are one of the richest sources of fatty acids, containing about 40 times more pinoleic acid than, for example, Italian stone pine nuts. It has been demonstrated that Korean pine nut oil is an excellent active ingredient that works effectively on appetite control, regulating satiety hormones, thus helping to reduce food intake. It actually stimulates the release of the hunger-suppressing peptide hormone, CCK, and GLP1.

Several studies have been done to test the effectiveness of pinoleic acid in suppressing appetite and reducing food intake, compared with a placebo. According to the results, PinnoThin significantly increases CCK release within 60 min and increases GLP1 blood concentrations within 30-60 min; the effect is still measurable 3 hours after intake. Prospective food intake significantly decreased after PinnoThin FFA administration (the form that PinnoThin TG is broken down into after consumption). In another study, which lasted a full day, 42 women were given Korean pine nut oil 30 minutes before lunch. Food/calorie intake was then measured at lunch and dinner. Participants given PinnoThin FFA decreased their food intake by 9% and caloric intake by 7%.

Practical Matters

Available as an oil and a powder, PinnoThin is suitable for a wide range of applications, from dietary supplements to foodstuffs. It is recommended for liquid food products such as flavoured milks, yoghurts and beverages, and for products such as dressings and fat spreads. It has also been successfully incorporated into bakery products such as cookies and nutritional bars, making it even easier to consume the dosage needed for maximum effect. It is safe and has beneficial effects. It has not demonstrated any side-effects. Its effectiveness has been demonstrated at a daily dosage of 3 g, allowing marketers to promote a "one-shot" concept to consumers in which the total intake is given in one small serving. It can be taken in capsule form before and between meals. In conclusion, Lipid Nutrition's PinnoThin is a unique appetite suppressant. It significantly stimulates the production of CCK and GLP1, two objective parameters for satiety. It can help to promote a feeling of satiety, suppress appetite, reduce meal size and reduce the urge to snack. It is internationally patented for specific uses in food, food supplements, pharmaceuticals and as a health component. From a regulatory point of view, it is not a Novel Ingredient in the EU because of its history of use; in the US, PinnoThin TG is recognized as GRAS.

For more information

Silvia Di Tommaso

Giusto Faravelli SpA

Via Medardo Rosso 8

I-20159 Milan, Italy

Tel. +39 02 69 717 364
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Title Annotation:weight management
Author:Tommaso, Silvia Di
Publication:Nutraceutical Business & Technology
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Sep 1, 2010
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