Pilar and Maria: Hemingway's feminist homage to the "new woman of Spain" in for whom the bell tolls.
PRIOR TO THE OUTSET OF THE SPANISH CIVIL WAR (1931-1936), the "New Woman of Spain" was a recurring theme in the platform of sweeping social and political reform proposed by the democratically elected Republican government of Spain. The oft-repeated slogan reflected a major shift away from the traditional view of Spanish women's proper role as one of docility, subservience, and invisibility, and towards one of empowerment, agency, and autonomy. (1) During the bitter and devastating three-year conflict that followed, this new feminist consciousness prevailed. (2) In "Women in the Civil War," Catherine Coleman notes:
The struggle for gender equality was one of the important social battles also being fought during the civil war ... political party propaganda promoted a new and positive image of the antifascist Spanish woman balancing out the predominant image of woman as victim of military action and rearguard repression. (50)
Along with the fact that women played a large and important part in the Republican war effort, this move towards gender re-identification offers a unique context for examining Ernest Hemingway's portrayals of Pilar and Maria in For Whom the Bell Tolls. Numerous scholars have examined these two characters in light of gender issues? However, existing criticism has failed to consider how Hemingway might have deliberately infused his characterizations of the women with these significant changes in Spanish gender relations during this important historical period. In fact, there are elements in both Pilar and Maria that can be appreciated as Hemingway's feminist homage to the "New Woman of Spain"
Hemingway was well aware of the emergence of the newly empowered Spanish woman. He incorporated a reference to this social phenomenon in his narrative for the 1937 pro-Loyalist documentary "The Spanish Earth." In a scene from the film, the camera closes in on a large matronly-looking woman dressed in black and wearing her dark hair pulled back in a bun. She is the lone female speaking at an event Hemingway's commentary describes as a celebration of the "newly organized People's Army" "The most famous woman in Spain today is speaking," Hemingway informs the viewer. His commentary continues:
They call her La Pasionaria. She is not a romantic beauty, nor any Carmen. She is the wife of a poor miner in Asturias. But all the character of the new Spanish woman is in her voice. She speaks of the new nation of Spain. It is a new nation, disciplined and brave. It is a new nation forged in the discipline of its soldiers and the enduring bravery of its women. (narr. "The Spanish Earth")
During the Spanish Civil War, La Pasionaria, whose real name was Dolores Ibarurri (1895-1989), certainly was, as Hemingway states in the film, "the most famous woman in Spain," an internationally recognized champion for the Spanish Republican cause. (4) She was an accomplished writer and charismatic speaker, as well as a member of the Spanish Communist Party and the Spanish Parliament or Cortes. During Franco's 1936 assault on Madrid, Ibarurri galvanized the citizen army defending the city with a patriotic speech including the line Hugh Thomas has described as the "chief rallying cry of the Republic"--No Pasaran! (They Shall Not Pass!) (140). Along with another of Ibarurri's famous phrases--"It is better to die on your feet than live on your knees"--No Pasaran! became an iconic slogan often repeated by pro-Loyalist speakers, chanted in Republican rallies, and reproduced on war posters and other printed matter. Ibarurri's words helped attract worldwide respect and sympathy for Spain's beleaguered democratic government, so it is not surprising that Hemingway emphasizes her presence at a rally. However, a careful analysis of his description of Ibarurri in "The Spanish Earth" reveals a double purpose for her appearance in the film.
Hemingway's commentary in "The Spanish Earth" which attributes "all the character of the new Spanish woman" to La Pasionaria's "voice" specifically alludes to her role as a representation of and spokeswoman for the redefinition of gender roles under the Second Republic. In a study of Ibarurri, "Writing the Female Revolutionary Self: Dolores Ibarurri and the Spanish Civil War" Kristine Byron observes:
... the Civil War held out the potential for liberation of Spanish women to a degree much higher than in supposedly more "advanced" nations at the time, such as Britain and France. For Pasionaria, the revolution was just as much about empowering women as it was about empowering the working classes... (163, n.13)
Ibarurri was a champion of women's rights (5) and consistently and fervently urged the women of Spain to change their view of themselves: to become more politically involved, to take an active part in the resistance movement against Franco, and to rebel against strictures imposed by the Catholic Church and its masculine authority. She distributed birth-control literature published by the liberal anarchist feminist women's group--the Mujeres Libres--and glowingly commended women who joined the Republican army (called milicianas). (6) Ibarurri did much more than just speak out; she also participated in these new cultural identities, not only in her role as militant spokeswoman but also in her personal life. Estranged from her miner husband, Ibarurri lived openly with her 27 year-old lover, Francisco Anton Saenz (Mullaney 235).
Hugh Thomas describes Ibarurri as "a simple, direct and powerful woman ... who represented the idea of revolutionary womanhood"(9). There are interesting parallels between the historic figure and Hemingway's multilayered portrait of Pilar in For Whom the Bell Tolls. Not only do the two women share many physical characteristics, but Pilar also embodies Ibarurri's revolutionary spirit, charisma, and oratorical skill as well as her iconic status as a representation of, as Hemingway states in the film, "the new Spanish woman."
Pilar and Ibarurri share striking similarities in physical appearance. In the narrative of "The Spanish Earth" Hemingway observes that Ibarurri is "not a romantic beauty, nor any Carmen" Indeed, period photos of Ibarurri recall Pilar, described in For Whom the Bell Tolls as "barbarous" and ugly but "braver than Pablo" (29), with a "square, heavy face, lined and pleasantly ugly" (98) and with "big shoulder[s]" (101).
Pilar is ... a woman of about fifty almost as big as Pablo, almost as wide as she was tall, in black peasant skirt and waist, with heavy wool socks on heavy legs, black rope-soled shoes and a brown face like a model of a granite monument. She had big but nice looking hands and her thick curly black hair was twisted into a knot on her neck. (34)
Pilar also embodies Ibarurri's passion for the Republic and shares her sharp intelligence and powerful and intimidating speaking skills. "An intelligent woman" (FWTBT 183), Pilar has a "deep voice" (34) and "booming laugh" (103). She "believe[s] in the Republic"(100), and Hemingway notes that if she is provoked with someone, she can "scare them to death with [her] mouth" (145).
Like Ibarurri, Pilar exemplifies the emancipated behavior endorsed by the Mujeres Libres. She consistently ignores cultural propriety. Pilar proudly proclaims she has "lived with three bullfighters" (FWTBT 60), brags of mak[ing] love in Valencia" with one (94), smokes (108), and discusses with Robert and Maria how often "the earth moved" for her during lovemaking (190). Pilar also advises Maria on "things one can do for a husband" (377). The fact that she gives sexual advice to Maria, as well as the nature of that advice, conveys that Pilar has broken with traditional feminine behavior in favor of the type of female sexual education advocated by the Mujeres Libres: "physiology, sexual pleasure, sexual functioning and contraception" (Ackelsberg 167). (7)
Like Ibarurri, Pilar easily takes on the role of female revolutionary leader and clearly demonstrates her ability to inspire and mobilize. After demanding that Pablo's men change their allegiance (FWTBT 62), she becomes "Senora Commander" and makes it clear to all: "Here I command. No one commands but me. Here I command" (60). Robert acknowledges Pilar's leadership qualities early on: "Without the woman" he concludes, "there is no organization nor discipline here and with the woman it can be very good" (69).
While the similarities between Ibarurri and Pilar are numerous, I do not want to suggest that Hemingway modeled the character of Pilar entirely on Ibarurri. Several scholars have argued effectively that Hemingway drew his inspiration from various other strong and interesting women including Gertrude Stein, Pastora Imperio, Martha Gellhorn, and even Grace Hemingway. (8) Ibarurri is, I suggest, only a partial model here. Moreover, towards the end of the novel, the Pilar/La Pasionaria connection takes a quite convoluted turn.
Cary Nelson writes: "It seems likely that Hemingway used the writing of the novel to sort through his contradictory feelings about the very different sorts of Republican supporters he met in Spain" ("Honor" 25). Nelson's assessment certainly seems to apply to Hemingway's treatment of Ibarurri in the novel. According to Hans Schoots, after the Republican defeat in 1939 Ibarurri left Spain for Moscow in order to "thereafter fulfill the role of mouthpiece of Stalin" (120). Perhaps for this reason Hemingway considered her reputation forever damaged. In a letter to Jay Allen written ca. 13 January 1940, Hemingway declared: "Dolores always made me vomit always" (qtd Baker Life 347, 629). How did these negative feelings about Ibarurri infiltrate Hemingway's novel?
One answer resides in Pilar's mimicry of Ibarurri's famous "They shall not pass!" slogan with her own cryptic comment, "that which must pass will pass" (FWTBT 58). Hemingway also discredits Ibarurri's loyalty to the Republic when another character alludes to the fact that she has sent her young son to safety in Russia during the conflict. (9)
Joaquin: "Pasionaria says it is better to die on your feet than to live on your knees"
"Mierda again" the man said and another man said, over his shoulder, "We are on our bellies, not our knees."
"Thou. Communist. Do you know your Pasionaria has a son thy age in Russia since the start of the movement?" (FWTBT 332)
This comment is particularly pointed considering that, as Mary Nash points out in Defying Male Civilization: Women in the Spanish Civil War, Pasionaria's speeches consistently "hammered home the sacrifice of Spanish sons" (58).
Alvah Bessie, a veteran of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, first noted the convoluted nature of the Pilar/La Pasionaria connection in For Whom the Bell Tolls. In a 1970 postscript to his 1940 review of the novel, Bessie comments,
Hemingway's slander of this great woman [Ibarurri] ... remains inexplicable--especially when you consider the fact that the most memorable character in For Whom the Bell Tolls is Pilar, whose physical appearance, whose convictions, whose voice and whose very gestures were not only modeled on Dolores by the novelist, but were reproduced brilliantly in the film version by the great Greek actress who played the role: Katina Paxinou. (14)
Whether Hemingway expressed his conflicted feelings about Ibarurri through the Ibarurri/Pilar connection in the novel remains a subject of debate. What is pertinent is that real people in Hemingway's life often served as partial models in his fiction, helping him to capture elements essential to his purpose. In this case, despite his disappointment with Ibarurri's political alignment with Stalin, Hemingway clearly incorporated aspects of her powerful iconic presence as the "New Woman of Spain" in the character of Pilar.
According to Carlos Baker, Hemingway made the following comment to his editor, Max Perkins, during the writing of the novel: "So far, said he [Hemingway], there are two wonderful women in the book" (343, 628). (10) Hemingway created not one, but two embodiments of the "New Spanish Woman" in For Whom the Bell Tolls. The novel features another heroine besides the formidable Pilar, and while Maria does not share Pilar's aggressiveness and dominant personality, Hemingway also provides Maria with some obvious characteristics qualifying her as a "new woman."
Nineteen-year-old Maria (FWTBT 171) seems to exhibit the traditional behavior of the stereotypical Spanish woman: docility, subservience, and abnegation. She is Jordan's "little rabbit" and utters sentences such as, "and do you like me too? Do I please thee?" (176). Yet Maria is heroic in her own right. During the fascist takeover of her village the young woman exhibits courage in the face of unimaginable fear and suffering. Later, she makes little mention of the horrors she endured during her three month imprisonment at Valladolid (26). Maria says that she "never gave in" and tells Robert, "Where things were done to me I fought until I could not see" (79). In another conversation between them Maria repeats, "Never did I submit. Always I fought and always it took two of them or more to do me the harm" (378). Miriam Mandel points out that Robert, Pilar, and El Sordo all recognize Maria's bravery by referring to her as "Guapa"--a term which, according to Mandel, means "handsome, brave" (227).
Understandably, Maria has been severely traumatized by the atrocities she witnessed and the terror she experienced. "When we picked the girl up at the time of the train" Rafael informs Jordan, "she would not speak and she cried all the time and if any one touched her she would shiver like a wet dog. She was in a very bad state but now she is better" (FWTBT 32). (11) Yet while Maria has begun to get "better" physically and emotionally when Robert Jordan first meets her (32), over the course of the narrative she undergoes a much more subtle, yet deeply powerful transformation in her character. Examining this transformation allows us to appreciate new dimensions and new identities in Maria, one of the "two wonderful women" in Hemingway's novel.
Maria becomes progressively more assertive as the story unfolds. Her sense of agency begins with a desire to avenge the death of her parents. She asks Jordan to teach her to shoot (FWTBT 186), and confides to him that the fascists who killed her family and assaulted her "are bad people and I would like to kill some of them with thee if I could" (381). With a resolve reflective of this new assertiveness, she shows Jordan a razor blade, given to her by Pilar, which she intends to use to kill herself rather than suffer any further degradation (186). (12) But Maria's transformation extends beyond a desire for revenge and a newfound sense of self-agency.
A striking photomural by Josep Renau, exhibited at the Spanish Pavilion of the 1937 Paris World's Fair, 13 highlights the radical shift in gender perception which occurred during the Spanish Civil War and directly relates to this discussion of Hemingway's depiction of Maria.
Superimposed on an expansive glass wall, and standing side by side, are life-sized photos of two Spanish women. One woman is dressed in a traditional, elaborately constructed, and richly decorated wedding dress. The other woman, a Republican militiawoman, is wearing an open-collared shirt and trousers. The woman wearing the traditional dress appears weighted down by its voluminous multi-layered skirt and long sleeves. Her arms hang down limply by her side, her mouth is tightly closed, and she stares straight ahead. In comparison, the fabric of the trousers and shirt of the militiawoman is lightweight enough to appear to be moving as she strides confidently forward. Her arms convey strength and movement, as does her left shoulder, which seems to more toward the viewer. The woman's mouth is open and she appears to be issuing some sort of command. Her eyes are piercing and intent. Her head is uncovered and her hair is pulled off her face. Unlike the bride in the other photograph, this woman appears to be walking out of the display straight towards the visitor. The only adornment on her clothing is a leather strap across her shoulder--possibly a gun holster--investing her with an aggressive and militaristic persona.
Explaining the intended message of Renau's photomural, Jordana Mendelson writes:
...Renau contrasted the Arxiu Mas image of traditional culture with the forward stride of a young militia woman. The photomural used the visual comparison to reinforce a message about the liberation of women under the Republic: shedding her age-old traditional dress, the new woman of the revolution would find freedom in her fight against fascism. (138)
The legend on the glass under the militiawoman confirms this message: "The New Woman of Spain has rid herself of the superstitions and misery of her past enslavement and is reborn and capable of taking part in the celebration of the future" (Graham 112 n.7).
For visitors to the 1937 World's Fair, the trousers on the miliciana would have been the most obvious sign of Spanish women's new emancipation and alignment with aggressive political action. As Nash explains:
... for [Spanish] women the wearing of trousers or monos [blue overalls] acquired an even deeper significance, as women had never before adopted such masculine attire. So for women, donning the militia/revolutionary uniform not only meant an exterior identification with the process of social change but also a challenge to traditional female attire and appearance. (14) (52)
Consider Hemingway's image of Maria at the time of the fascist assault on her village--a vulnerable and helpless young woman with long braids (soon cut off and stuffed in her mouth), and wearing a long heavy skirt (thrown over her head during the rape). Now compare that with the "new" Maria who wears, interestingly enough, trousers and "a khaki shirt, open at the neck" who offers to "hold the legs of the gun," and who announces to Robert, "I would like to go for a train with thee" (FWTBT 149, 290, 381). If we superimpose these two contrasting images of Maria on Renau's photomural of the two Spanish women, the similarities are clear and thought-provoking. In the same fashion as Renau, Hemingway deliberately and visually demonstrates the change in gender roles during the Spanish Civil War through these two juxtaposed images of Maria.
In "In Love with Papa," Linda Miller discusses Hemingway's use of vignettes which she describes as "quick camera-like shots that zoom in close to freeze the moment" (13). Near the end of the novel, we find Hemingway using just such a "quick camera-like shot" to indicate that Maria's transformation has taken another turn. While the passage seems to have gone unnoticed in discussions of For Whom the Bell Tolls, it clearly demonstrates Maria's newfound revolutionary spirit. In this scene, Maria pleads with Robert to let her come with him to track down the cavalry men he suspects might discover the guerrilla band. Despite her insistence Robert refuses. Hemingway then describes Maria's response:
"I go." Her fist, clenched tight in his pocket, beat hard against his thigh. He looked at her and saw there were tears in her eyes. She pulled her fist out of his pocket and put both arms tight around his neck and kissed him.
"I go." she said. "Me voy. I go."
He looked back and saw her standing there, the first morning sunlight on her brown face and the cropped, tawny, burntgold hair. She lifted her fist at him [my emphasis] and turned and walked back down the trail, her head down. (FWTBT 292)
There are, of course, several ways the reader might interpret Maria's raised fist. One could argue that it is a gesture of anger or frustration. But placed in the context of the Spanish Civil War, this vignette of Maria giving the clenched fist salute of Republican Spain indicates that she too now fervently embraces the "movement." (15)
In Teaching Representations of the Spanish Civil War, Noel Valis observes: "One of the most significant aspects of the war was the visual presence of women both on and off the battlefield" (17). Many of these women were anonymous heroines and a significant number of them lost their lives. Framing For Whom the Bell Tolls within this unique social revolution deepens our understanding and appreciation of the novel. In Pilar and Maria, Hemingway has condensed his respect for the "New Women of Spain," who during the Spanish Civil War assumed their newfound autonomy and directed it towards defending their land and freedom against Francos overwhelmingly superior equipment and forces. Their stories suggest how Loyalist women coped with loss and bereavement, and how they demonstrated their strength and stamina. In For Whom the Bell Tolls, Hemingway honors their courage and sacrifices through Pilar and Maria--"two fine women" who embody qualities of the "New Woman of Spain."
Ackelsberg, Martha A. Free Women of Spain: Anarchism and the Struggle for the Emancipation of Women. Oakland, CA: AK P, 2005.
Baker, Carlos. Ernest Hemingway: A Life Story. New York: Scribner's, 1969.
Bessie, Alvah C. "A Postscript." 13 April 1970. In The Merrill Studies in For Whom the Bell Tolls. Ed. Sheldon Norman Grebstein. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill, 1971.14.
Borkenau, Franz. The Spanish Cockpit: An Eyewitness Account of the Spanish Civil War. 1937. London: Phoenix P, 2000.
Brenner, Gerry. "Once a Rabbit, Always? A Feminist Interview with Maria." In Blowing the Bridge: Essays on Hemingway and For Whom the Bell Tolls. Ed. Rena Sanderson. New York: Greenwood P, 1992. 131-142.
Broer, Lawrence R. and Gloria Holland, eds. Hemingway and Women: Female Critics and the Female Voice. Tuscaloosa: U of Alabama P, 2002.
Byron, Kristine. "Writing the Female Revolutionary Self: Dolores Ibarurri and the Spanish Civil War" Journal of Modern Literature 28 (Fal12004): 138-165.
Coleman, Catherine. "Women in the Spanish Civil War" In Heart of Spain: Robert Capa's Photographs of the Spanish Civil War. Ed. Lesley A. Martin. New York: Aperture Foundation, 1999. 43-51.
Comley, Nancy R. and Robert Scholes. Hemingway's Genders: Rereading the Hemingway Text. New Haven, CT: Yale U P, 1994. 23-71.
Freedberg, Catherine B. The Spanish Pavilion at the Paris World's Fair of 1937. New York: Garland, 1986.
Graham, Helen. The Spanish Civil War: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford, UK: Oxford U P, 2005.
--. "Women and Social Change" In Spanish Cultural Studies: An Introduction: The Struggle for Modernity. Eds. Helen Graham and Jo Labanyi. New York: Oxford U P, 1996.99-115.
Hemingway, Ernest. For Whom the Bell Tolls. 1940. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995.
--. Narr. The Spanish Earth. Dir. Joris Ivens. Photo John Ferno. Music arrang. Marc Blitzstein and Virgil Thomson. Contemporary Historians 1937.
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--. Memories of Resistance: Women's Voices From the Spanish Civil War. New Haven, CT: Yale U P, 1995.
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Nolan, Charles J. Jr. "A Little Bit Crazy: Psychiatric Diagnoses of Three Hemingway Women Characters" The Hemingway Review 28.2 (Spring 2009): 105-118.
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(1.) The Second Republic endorsed reforms including the legalization of divorce and abortion, the abolishment of the crime of adultery, women's suffrage (1931), maternity insurance plans, labor legislation, education reform, and civil marriage laws. Prostitution was declared illegal.
(2.) In The Spanish Civil War: A Very Short Introduction, Helen Graham writes: "The military coup unleashed what was in effect a series of culture wars: urban culture and cosmopolitan lifestyles versus rural tradition; secular against religious; authoritarianism against liberal political cultures; centre versus periphery; traditional gender roles versus the 'new woman" (2).
(3.) Gender-related criticism of Maria and Pilar includes Gerry Brenner's "Once a Rabbit, Always? A Feminist Interview with Maria" Wolfgang E. H. Rudat's "The Other War in For Whom the Bell Tolls: Maria and Miltonic Gender-Role Battles," and Nancy R. Comley and Robert Scholes's "Mothers, Nurses, Bitches, Girls, and Devils."
(4.) In "Writing the Female Revolutionary Self: Dolores Ibarurri and the Spanish Civil War," Kristine Byron states that La Pasionaria was "arguably the most famous Spanish woman of the 20th century" (138).
(5.) In her autobiography, Ibarurri writes from her own personal experience of poverty and repression about the plight of the Spanish woman:
In the borne, she was stripped of her social identity; she was committed to sacrifice, to privation, to all manner of service by which her husband's and her children's lives were made more bearable. Thus her own needs were negligible; her own personality was nullified....Thus was the tradition of generations. (60)
(6.) In Free Women of Spain: Anarchism and the Struggle for the Emancipation of Women, Martha A. Ackelsberg explains: "In 1936, groups of women in Madrid and Barcelona founded Mujeres Libres, an organization dedicated to the liberation of women from their 'triple enslavement to ignorance, as women, and as producers" (21).
(7.) According to Mary Nash, "Even in private, with their own husbands, [Spanish] women did not openly discuss sexuality or reproductive issues because males considered any interest or knowledge in this field to be threatening and even a sign of dubious moral standards of unnatural desires" (167).
(8.) Several critics have commented on the similarities between Gertrude Stein and Pilar. Joseph Waldmeir, for example, observes that Pilar is a "composite of a number of women--La Passionaria (sic) comes immediately to mind" But Waldmeir ultimately concludes that, based on "Pilar's Steinian qualities--strength of leadership.., courage, conviction, commitment to the point of stubbornness ... Hemingway was thinking primarily of Gertrude Stein" (43-45). Nancy Comley and Robert Scholes point out that "Pilar's physical appearance does indeed resemble that of Gertrude" and that her character is "constructed by blending the maternal.., with that of the manly lesbian on the model of Gertrude Stein" (46). Agreeing with Edward F. Stanton's Hemingway and Spain: A Pursuit (171), Allen Josephs believes that Hemingway "based Pilar on Pastora Imperio" (76). In "The Priest Did Not Answer': Hemingway, the Church, the Party, and For Whom the Bell Tolls" H. R. Stoneback concludes that Pilar is "Hemingway's secular reincarnation of Pilar, that is, Nuestra Senora del Pilar, the Virgin Patroness of Spain" (103). Jeffrey Meyers points out that Pilar "has more than a touch of Grace Hemingway's forceful personality" (337).
(9.) Ibarurri's only son, Ruben, joined the Red Army and was killed at the Battle of Stalingrad in 1942. Referencing Hemingway's slander of Ibarurri in the novel, Alvah Bessie points out:
It is true that Dolores Ibarurri's two surviving children ... were evacuated with thousands of other Spanish children to the U.S.S.R. early in the war.... Hemingway knew of this. He also knew--or should have known--that in 1936, when they were sent, Ruben Ibarurri was twelve years old. ("Postscript" 14)
(10.) According to Carlos Baker, the character of Maria was inspired bY a young Spanish nurse named Maria whom Hemingway met in 1938 during the war. The young woman had been raped by Fascist troops early in the conflict (Baker 328; see also Bernice Kert 334). Jeffrey Meyers contends that Hemingway "based" Mana on Martha Gellhorn (336)
(11.) In a 2009 essay entitled "A Little Bit Crazy': Psychiatric Diagnoses of Three Hemingway Women Characters," Charles Nolan contends: "There seems little question that Maria suffers from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and is gradually recovering" (117).
(12.) Wolfgang Rudat and Gail Sinclair have also discussed what they see as Maria's developing sexual aggressiveness. In "The Other War in For Whom the Bell Tolls: Maria and Miltonic Gender-Role Battles," Rudat argues that Maria "has unjustly been stereotyped as being without individual personality, as submissive and as unimportant to the overall theme of the novel" and yet, he argues, she becomes the "sexual aggressor" in her relationship with Robert Jordan (8, 12). Gail Sinclair observes that "Maria has moved from victimization three months earlier, to a seizing of her will and her sexuality" (102).
(13.) Sources for discussions of the Spanish Pavilion include Catherine Freedberg's The Spanish Pavilion at the 1937 Paris World's Fair and Jordana Mendelson's Documenting Spain: Artists, Exhibition Culture, and the Modern Nation.
(14.) In/he Spanish Cockpit: An Eyewitness Account of the Spanish Civil War, Franz Borkenau writes:" ... it would have been unthinkable before for a Spanish girl to appear in trousers, as the militia-girls invariably do" (72). Mary Nash explains further:
Although revolutionary/war imagery cannot be viewed as a direct reflection of reality, it may point to readjustments in patterns of social behavior and representation of gender roles. While a discussion of the cultural representation of the miliciana or the forms of women's dress during the war may, at first glance appear to be frivolous of irrelevant, the construction of gendered cultural and symbolic imagery is crucial to the exploration of women's experience in the war... (49)
(15.) The clenched fist salute became an iconic symbol of anti-fascist solidarity against Franco and his allies. Spanish citizens of all ages and from all walks of life, as well as members of the militia and International Brigades, can be seen giving this salute in vintage newsreels, photos, and newspapers from the period. The image was frequently included on war posters and in other artwork as well.
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|Publication:||The Hemingway Review|
|Article Type:||Critical essay|
|Date:||Mar 22, 2011|
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