Piezas liricas para guitarra.
Pierre de Breville. Fantaisie pour guitare. [Edited by Angelo Gilardino and Luigi Biscaldi.] Ancona, Italy: Berben (T. Presser), c2002. (The Andres Segovia Archive.) [Foreword (Allan Clive Jones, A. Gilardino), p. 3-6; score, p. 7-15; facsim. reprod. of MS (b & w), 7 p. Pub. no. E. 4764 B. [euro]8.]
Gaspar Cassado. Works for Guitar. Edited by Angelo Gilardino and Luigi Biscaldi. Ancona, Italy: Berben (T. Presser), c2003. (The Andres Segovia Archive.) [Foreword (Roberto Moron, A. Gilardino), p. 3-6; score, p. 7-25; facsim. reprod. of MSS (b & w), 15 p. Pub. no. E. 4982 B. [euro]13.] Contains: Catalanesca; Cancion de Leonardo; Sardana chigiana; Preambulo y sardana; Leyenda catalana; Dos cantos populares finlandeses.
Hans Haug. The Complete Works for Solo Guitar. Edited by Angelo Gilardino and Luigi Biscaldi. Ancona, Italy: Berben (T. Presser), c2003. (The Andres Segovia Archive.) [Photograph of Haug, 1 p.; foreword (Allan Clive Jones, A. Gilardino), p. 5-10; score, p. 11-48; facsim. reprod. of MSS (b & w), 22 p.; photograph of Haug at his desk, 1 p. Pub. no. E. 4960 B. [euro]19.] Contains: Etude: Rondo fantastico; Passacaglia; Alba; Prelude, tiento et toccata; Preludio.
Raoul Laparra. Cuadros ("Scenes d'Espagne") pour guitare. [Edited by Angelo Gilardino and Luigi Biscaldi.] Ancona, Italy: Berben (T. Presser), , c1934. (The Andres Segovia Archive.) [Foreword (Allan Clive Jones, A. Gilardino), p. 3-8; score, p. 9-17; facsim. reprod. of MS (b & w), 4 p. Pub. no. E. 4983 B. [euro]9.]
Henri Martelli. Quatre pieces pour guitare, op. 32. [Edited by Angelo Gilardino and Luigi Biscaldi.] Ancona, Italy: Berben (T. Presser), c2002. (The Andres Segovia Archive.) [Foreword (Allan Clive Jones, A. Gilardino), p. 3-6; score, p. 7-23; facsim. reprod. of MS (b & w), 9 p. Pub. no. E. 4776 B. [euro]10.]
Federico Moreno-Torroba. Sonata-fantasia para guitarra. [Edited by Angelo Gilardino and Luigi Biscaldi.] Ancona, Italy: Berben (T. Presser), , c1975. (The Andres Segovia Archive.) [Foreword (Roberto Moron, A. Gilardino, Federico Moreno-Torroba Jr.), p. 3-6; score, p. 7-25; facsim. reprod. of MS (b & w), 10 p. Pub. no. E. 4878 B. [euro]9.]
Jaume Pahissa. Canco en el mar para guitarra. [Edited by Angelo Gilardino and Luigi Biscaldi.] Ancona, Italy: Berben (T. Presser), c2003. (The Andres Segovia Archive.) [Foreword (Roberto Moron, A. Gilardino), p. 3-5; photograph of Pahissa, 1 p.; score, p. 7-9; facsim. reprod. of MS (b & w), 3 p. Pub. no. E. 4879 B. [euro]7.]
Jaume Pahissa. Tres temas de recuerdos para guitarra. [Edited by Angelo Gilardino and Luigi Biscaldi.] Ancona, Italy: Berben (T. Presser), c2003. (The Andres Segovia Archive.) [Foreword (Roberto Moron, A. Gilardino), p. 3-6; score, p. 7-17; facsim. reprod. of MS (b & w), 9 p. Pub. no. E. 4958 B. [euro]10.]
Fernande Peyrot. Theme et variations pour guitare. [Edited by Angelo Gilardino and Luigi Biscaldi.] Ancona, Italy: Berben (T. Presser), c2003. (The Andres Segovia Archive.) [Foreword (Allan Clive Jones, A. Gilardino), p. 3-4; score, p. 5-12; facsim. reprod. of MS (b & w), 6 p. Pub. no. E. 4768 B. [euro]7.]
Ida Presti. Segovia pour guitare. [Edited by Angelo Gilardino and Luigi Biscaldi.] Ancona, Italy: Berben (T. Presser), c2003. (The Andres Segovia Archive.) [Foreword (Anne Marillia, A. Gilardino), p. 3-5; score, p. 6-15; photograph of Presti, 1 p.; facsim. reprod. of MS (b & w), 11 p. Pub. no. E. 4959 B. [euro]9.]
Pedro Sanjuan. Una leyenda para guitarra. [Edited by Angelo Gilardino and Luigi Biscaldi.] Ancona, Italy: Berben (T. Presser), c2003. (The Andres Segovia Archive.) [Foreword (Roberto Moron, A. Gilardino, Pedro A. Sanjuan), p. 3-6; score, p. 7-12; facsim. reprod. of MS (b & w), 7 p. Pub. no. E. 4870 B. [euro]8.]
Cyril Scott. Sonatina for Guitar. [Edited by Angelo Gilardino and Luigi Biscaldi.] Ancona, Italy: Berben (T. Presser), c2002. (The Andres Segovia Archive.) [Foreword (Allan Clive Jones, A. Gilardino), p. 3-8; score, p. 9-23; photograph of Scott, 1 p.; facsim. reprod. of MS (b & w), 11 p. Pub. no. E. 4760 B. [euro]11.]
Alexandre Tansman. Posthumous Works for Guitar. Edited by Angelo Gilardino and Luigi Biscaldi; introduction by Frederic Zigante. Ancona, Italy: Berben (T. Presser), c2003. (The Andres Segovia Archive.) [Photogarph of Tansman, 1 p.; foreword (F. Zigante), p. 5-19; note from the editor (A. Gilardino), p. 19-21; "Alexandre Tansman: Catalogue of Compositions for Guitar and with Guitar" (F. Zigante), p. 23-29; photograph of Tansman conducting, 1 p.; score, p. 31-78; facsim. reprod. of MSS (b & w), 24 p. Pub. no. E. 4900 B. [euro]29.] Contains: Inventions pour guitare: Hommage a Bach; Passacaille; Pieces breves; Prelude et interlude; Quattro tempi di mazurka.
Writing to Mexican composer Manuel Ponce (1882-1948) in 1923, Andres Segovia (1893-1987) expressed his efforts in "vindicating" his guitar by collaborating with several prominent composers. He continued: "I already have a small, beautiful work of Albert Roussel, the promise of others on the way by Ravel, and 'cheerful pages' from Volmar Andreas, Suter, Schoenberg, Weles [sic], Grovlez, Turina, Torroba, Falla, etc." (The Segovia-Ponce Letters, ed. Miguel Alcazar, trans. Peter Segal [Columbus, OH: Editions Orphee, 1989], 3). Given Segovia's well-documented distaste for what he called "experimentalisms" in music, it is surprising that this list includes Arnold Schoenberg and Egon Wellesz or even Manuel de Falla, his close friend, whose only piece for guitar, Homenaje pour le tombeau de Debussy (1920), Segovia eventually recorded but never made part of his repertoire. (For an overview of Segovia's negative attitude toward modern pieces outside the romantic tradition, see Brian Hodel, "Twentieth-Century Music and the Guitar, Part I: 1900-1945," Guitar Review 117 [Summer 1999]: 9-15.)
Indeed, the list of works dedicated to and later rejected by Segovia is as significant as the ones that he championed throughout his performance career. In fact, in his passion for commissioning modern composers to write for the guitar, Segovia committed what may be considered great errors in judgment. His rejection of Frank Martin's modernistic Quatre pieces breves (1933) is perhaps the most notorious case. Only after Julian Bream's recording in 1967 (20th Century Guitar, RCA Red Seal LSC 2964, LP; reissued on Twentieth-Century Guitar I, Julian Bream Edition, 12, RCA Victor Gold Seal 09026-61595-2 , CD) did this work achieve international acclaim and prove to be a masterpiece of the guitar repertory. Segovia's capriciousness also extended to the music of Heitor Villa-Lobos, whose Douze etudes for guitar he praised in the preface of the 1953 Max Eschig edition, but in a letter to Ponce expressed complete disdain (Segovia-Ponce Letters, 212-14).
Segovia's criteria for choosing the pieces in his repertoire are not clear, as evinced by the numerous manuscripts of works dedicated to him that guitarist-composer Angelo Gilardino discovered in 2001 at the Andres Segovia Foundation in Linares, Spain (where he had been serving as artistic director since 1997). With the exception of Segovia by guitarist Ida Presti, these previously unknown and unpublished works were written by several non-guitarist European composers. Reflecting the musical aesthetics of each individual composer, these pieces require advanced technical skills for performance and, in some cases, substantial editorial intervention to render them idiomatic for the instrument.
With Gilardino and Luigi Biscaldi as editors, Berben published twenty-six volumes of these works between 2001 and 2006 in a series entitled The Andres Segovia Archive (an additional volume presents Gilardino's Colloquio con Andres Segovia, composed in memory of the guitarist in 2002). Each volume includes not only an edited version of the work or works but also a complete facsimile reproduction of the autograph manuscript. Printed in large-format musical notation with plenty of space between staves and handsomely bound, the volumes also provide excellent biographical notes in English by Allan Clive Jones and Roberto Moron, as well as editorial remarks by Gilardino. The publication of the autograph sources, authorized by Segovia's widow, Emilia Segovia, makes each volume particularly attractive, especially for those interested in studying the compositional process. In the cases where the sources are found in several states, however, only the one used for the final edited version is reprinted.
This review addresses the fourteen volumes of Andres Segovia Archive submitted for review by Berben's American agent Theodore Presser; I hope to discuss the remaining volumes of this important series in a subsequent review.
The historical significance of this repertoire demonstrates Segovia's emergence as a guitarist of international acclaim and the response from composers of different nationalities. Not surprisingly, Spanish composers are well represented. The Catalonian composer and musicologist Jaume Pahissa (1880-1969) occupies an important position among this group of compositions. While he composed mostly large-scale works such as operas and orchestral music, Pahissa's Canco en el mar (1919), notated on a grand staff (originally for piano or guitar), is one of the earliest pieces dedicated to Segovia. As Gilardino points out (p. 5), Segovia acknowledged the quality of Pahissa's works from very early on but never mentioned this piece's existence. This silence is surprising, given that its musical language and content, a tonal barcarole, would seem to satisfy Segovia's aesthetic preferences. The fact that the score uses piano notation should not have been a problem, for Segovia elevated transcription for guitar to an art form. For the present edition, which required few editorial changes, Gilardino transposed the work up a fifth (from G major to D major), making it more idiomatic for the guitar.
Although his Canco went unperformed, Pahissa composed yet another work dedicated to Segovia, Tres temas de recuerdos (ca. 1938-39). This piece, however, did not reach Segovia until 1979, when he was eighty-six. Montserrat de Pahissa, the composer's widow, found the autograph manuscript in two states and sent them to Segovia, hoping he would bring them to life (letter reprinted on p. 4). There are several possible reasons for Segovia's neglect of this work. The manuscripts, not in a finished stage, required substantial editing. Moreover, Gilardino points out that despite his poor eyesight, Segovia still carried on a full schedule of concerts and may not have had time to work on the Tres temas de recuerdos. While Gilardino's edition presents reasonable editorial choices based on a fair copy of the manuscript, it is unfortunate that the other version of the piece is not reproduced for further comparison.
Una leyenda (1923) by Pedro Sanjuan (1886-1976) represents a similar case of neglect. Although Sanjuan is virtually forgotten now, he had a successful musical career as a composer, conductor, and teacher in Spain, Cuba, and the United States, where he became a citizen in 1947. Because this work was composed before Segovia's 1924 debut in Paris and his subsequent international success, Gilardino observes that "this piece is surely one of the first acknowledgments of the guitarist's greatness" (p. 4). Una leyenda follows trends in romantic Spanish music similar to those of Enrique Granados and Isaac Albeniz, and is very idiomatically conceived for the guitar--making its absence from Segovia's repertoire indeed puzzling. The manuscript so clearly demonstrates the art of musical calligraphy that performers can read directly from it. The present edition is faithful to the original, with the exception of two details. Gilardino notates the harmonics an octave higher than those in the autograph manuscript. In mm. 14, 20, and 53 of the original version, for example, these notes indicate an answer to the preceding motive, a musical gesture that is lost in the edited version. Another small but significant change occurs on the downbeat of mm. 7 and 8, where the editor replaces the open octave (d-[d.sup.1]) with a major sixth (f-[d.sup.1]). The original octave was intentional, for the composer repeats it in the return of these measures in the final section of the piece (mm. 46-47). While the interval of a sixth is one of the main compositional components in this piece, the open octave highlights the eventual change from D minor to D major in the middle section of the work and should be retained.
Vicente Arregui (1871-1925) and cellist Gaspar Cassado (1897-1966) are two other Spanish composers of the same romantic milieu who also composed for Segovia. As Roberto Moron points out (p. 4), the only guitar piece in the catalog of Arregui's works has been Cuento viejo (1925); thus the discovery of five additional guitar works written at the end of the composer's life around 1924-25 is highly significant. According to Gilardino, the pieces survive in several manuscripts, where the general title Tres piezas liricas para guitarra is given to the "Intermedio," and Piezas liricas to "Campesina" and "Confidencia." For the present edition, however, Gilardino also applies the title Piezas liricas to two other pieces in the same group of manuscripts, Cancion lejana and Tonada de ronda-leon, and organizes the resulting five works chronologically. Although there is no indication that the composer thought of these pieces as a single group, they work well together. The manuscripts demonstrate the composer's concern for making these pieces suitable for the guitar. As in the previous examples, the edited version is close to the original, with only a few changes. In Cancion lejana, for example, the editor breaks the chords that end the phrases in mm. 4, 6, 8, and 10, therefore weakening the downbeat. While the editor's version produces a more playable result, it negatively affects the rhythmic conception of the work. In fact, the strategic placement of these chords demonstrates the composer's concern with the modal changes that occur with the repetition of the initial phrases. The chord B-E-G#-d in m. 4 changes to B[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]-E-G[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]-d in m. 8, but the editor spells it B[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]-D-E-G[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], virtually changing its function. The original chord spelling and rhythmic structure of the phrase are perfectly playable and should be restored.
While Cassado is mostly known as a cellist, he also composed as a "hobby" (p. 5). His performing career started around the same time as Segovia's in the early 1920s, as did the friendship between them. As Gilardino observes (p. 6), Cassado's Sardana chigiana and Preambulo y sardana (ca. 1950s), included in this edition of all Cassado's compositions for guitar, were known through Segovia's recordings. The discovery of his much earlier Catalanesca (1922) is a most significant find, since it was composed and dedicated to Segovia before his international success. Although the piece is originally notated on the grand staff, it is very idiomatic for the guitar, demonstrating Cassado's profound knowledge of the instrument. While this edition closely adheres to the autograph, much more daring editorial intervention comes in another work in the collection, Dos cantos populares finlandeses, where the editor suppresses the coda, a long progression of arpeggiated chords. As Gilardino explains, these chords "are too simplistic even for music with a popular background ... bring[ing] the work to a very unsatisfactory end" (p. 6). As difficult as this decision might have been, there is merit in it, as the coda presents material not related to the preceding sections. For those interested in restoring the original conclusion of the piece, however, the facsimile of the autograph source provides a legible score.
Federico Moreno Torroba (1891-1982) appears in this collection as one of the most significant Spanish composers with the Sonata-fantasia (ca. 1950s). With only a few exceptions, Moreno Torroba's compositions for solo guitar, championed by Segovia throughout his career, consist of short pieces. In the three-movement Sonata-fantasia, the composer explores a large-scale sonata form for the first movement, an intervening lively intermezzo, and a rondo as the final movement. Given Moreno Torroba's experience in writing for the guitar, this work is highly idiomatic to the instrument and required only small editorial adjustments, mostly in the bass line. Gilardino suggests that Segovia may have been too busy with his concert schedule to include this piece in his repertoire (p. 5). In this light, Segovia's apparent rejection may not represent a negative judgment of the work but rather reflected his increasing concert demands.
As a result of Segovia's growing popularity, British composers also dedicated works to him. The Sonatina (1927) by British composer Cyril Scott (1879-1970) has become one of the most legendary twentieth-century pieces for the guitar. This work was deemed lost for decades, a victim of the Spanish Civil War, making its discovery in the Segovia Archive particularly significant for the history of guitar music. In fact, with parallel chords as the basis for harmonic progressions, this is one of the most modernistic pieces of the early Segovia repertoire. Its expressive quality reflects the composer's musical aesthetics, often associated with Claude Debussy. Segovia mentioned Scott's music on several occasions, even if with some reservations, in order to demonstrate his efforts in having modern composers write for the guitar. To be sure, he performed Scott's Reverie in London and Buenos Aires in 1928, which Gilardino and Biscaldi speculate to be the first movement of the Sonatina presented as a single movement. The autograph manuscript, however, does not confirm this assumption. Nevertheless, this discovery brings to light the entire work, which was premiered by Julian Bream in his fiftieth anniversary concert at Wigmore Hall, London, on 26 November 2001, and its completion is already a source of heated debate (see the archive of Gilardino's postings to various mail lists at www.ga-usa.com/cglists/projects/asa-ag.htm [accessed 31 May 2006]).
After Segovia's 1924 debut in Paris, several French composers dedicated works to him. Pierre de Breville (1861-1949) composed an untitled work (labeled Fantaisie by Gilardino), which Segovia apparently never performed in public. One of the two manuscripts for this composition, dated 1 October 1926, presents the entire work in a finished stage. According to the editor, Segovia also possessed a second set of manuscripts, not used as the basis of this edition, that transmitted only the final two sections of the piece in a draft form.
In an impressive account of guesswork and sheer luck, Gilardino describes his discovery of an anonymous manuscript entitled Pueblo castellano, from a suite entitled Cuadros: Scenes d'Espagne, later confirmed to have been composed by Raoul Laparra (1876-1943). As a champion of Spanish music, this French composer initially thought of the guitar as a popular instrument and was skeptical of any attempt to bring it into the concert hall. After hearing Segovia in concert, however, he changed his mind and wrote in Le menestrel on 18 April 1924: "Besides the compositions written specially for the instrument, the arrangements made by Segovia are, in all respects, technically and musically remarkable" (quoted on p. 5). Segovia would acknowledge later that Laparra was among the French composers who dedicated compositions to him, though he did not perform them (Segovia-Ponce Letters, 116-17). The most important task confronting Gilardino was to restore the other possible movements of the work, which he did quite successfully by transcribing "En Aragon" and "Brujerias" from a suite of the same name that the composer arranged for the piano in 1927. Laparra also arranged this suite for violin and piano and for orchestra and piano, forming a striking resemblance with the history of Martin's Quatre pieces breves.
Gilardino also highlights the Quatre pieces pour guitare, op. 32, by French composer Henri Martelli (1895-1980) as another of the major finds. Indeed, this substantial work demonstrates the trademarks of a skilled composer in all aspects of the composition. The clarity of the manuscript and its suitability to the guitar required no editorial intervention. Another such case is the piece entitled Segovia, by the famous French guitarist Ida Presti (1924-1967), who dedicated this work to Andres Segovia in 1962. Until now, both works had remained totally unknown.
While Segovia mentioned the two Swiss composers Hermann Suter and Volkmar Andreas in the letter to Ponce cited above, no works by them seem to have survived in the Segovia Archive. Gilardino found, however, compositions by Fernande Peyrot (1888-1978), Hans Haug (1900-1967), and Aloys Fornerod (1890-1965) composed after Segovia's residency in Switzerland in the 1930s. Gilardino notes that although Peyrot published two sets of pieces for the guitar (Preludes and Petite suite pour guitare, op. 31), the Theme et variations was completely unknown until its discovery (p. 4). An impressive composition, this piece demonstrates the composer's skills in transforming melodic and harmonic materials to form a large-scale work that culminates in a short fugue. The autograph manuscripts present two versions of the fugal section, from which Gilardino chose the revised one (not the fugal section reproduced in the volume's facsimile). The prolific Swiss composer Haug also wrote and published works for solo guitar, as well as some for guitar and ensemble, including a concertino for guitar and small orchestra Quasi una fantasia (1951). Two findings in the Segovia archive, the Etude (Rondo fantastico, 1955) and the Passacaglia (1956), complete the collection of his solo guitar works. Given Gilardino's long association with Haug's guitar music--he was the editor of the 1970 Berben editions of Haug's Alba, Preludio, and Prelude, tiento et toccata in the series Collezione di musiche per chitarra--the present edition brings together a consistent presentation of the complete work for solo guitar of this seminal Swiss composer.
Finally, the volume entitled Posthumous Works for Guitar by Polish composer Alexandre Tansman (1897-1986), who emigrated to France in 1920, provides the crown for the entire collection. The relationship between Tansman and Segovia goes back to the mid-1920s, when he composed a Mazurka (1925) dedicated to Segovia. In fact, with a few exceptions, Tansman composed all his guitar music exclusively for Segovia. For the present publication, the editor includes five previously unknown pieces for guitar solo: Inventions pour guitare (Hommage a Bach), Passacaille, Pieces breves, Prelude et interlude, and Quattro tempi di mazurka. The publication of these works is accompanied by extensive biographical notes and a catalog of Tansman's complete guitar works by Frederic Zigante. This discovery therefore extends the composer's catalog to thirty-three general titles of works for the guitar (see pp. 23-29). As Gilardino observes, these five compositions are not mere shadows of Tansman's master-pieces for guitar, but are major works in their own right. The Inventions and the Pieces breves are suites of five movements, the large-scale Passacaille contains different variations, including a fugue to end the piece, and the Quattro tempi di mazurka form a four-movement work. Gilardino's main task in presenting these compositions was, in his words, "less a question of details than of replacing [sic] the music in a new, convenient general frame" (p. 20). Perhaps the most far-reaching editorial changes occur in the Inventions, where the editor transposes the work one step higher and changes the meter of the Passepied and Toccata (the first and fourth movements, respectively) from [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] to [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. While transposition is often used to make works idiomatic for the guitar, the original conception of the Inventions is successful and could have been left unaltered.
In a review of a centennial celebration of Segovia held at New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art on 21 November 1993, Allan Kozinn notes:
It was Segovia's evangelical zeal that brought the instrument into the mainstream of concert life. And although his own compositions were few and inconsequential, he goaded hundreds of composers into writing for his instrument.... In noting the importance of Segovia's commissioning program,... [Spanish guitarist and musicologist Gerardo Arriaga] acknowledged the guitarist's negligence, too: instead of seeking works from the leading composers of his day, Bartok, Stravinsky and Shostakovich, Segovia sought conservative, Spanish-flavored works from lesser composers.... But Segovia was musically self-taught, and his tastes could be astonishingly pedestrian.... Nicholas Goluses, the chairman of the guitar department at the Eastman School of Music, quoted from one of Segovia's letters to Ponce in which he described the better modernist composers, even the least jarring among them, as "international thugs," bent on robbing music of beauty. (New York Times, 23 November 1993, late edition, final)
While an evaluation of the aesthetic value of the pieces published in The Andres Segovia Archive is beyond the scope of this review, the historic significance of many of the composers is undeniable. To be sure, the editor indicates that the archive contains pieces by obscure or minor composers and that his choices of the repertoire for this series was restricted to what he considers "true composers" (see "A Note from the Editor" in Presti's Segovia, p. 5). A more complete picture of the works dedicated to Segovia would therefore require a visit to the archives at the Andres Segovia Foundation. Nevertheless, this series demonstrates Segovia's far reaching, nondiscriminating efforts in extending the guitar repertory, even if he eventually neglected some composers. In many respects, the works represented in this collection cast doubts on whether Segovia's neglect of contemporary compositions was based solely on his preference of music following the romantic tradition, since many of the unperformed pieces reviewed here are hardly examples of musical modernism. In this light, this series will be indispensable to the scholarship related to Segovia's contribution to the guitar as well as the history of guitar music in the twentieth century. The overall clarity of presentation and the superb editorial work also make each volume an excellent performance edition. The entire Andres Segovia Archive will therefore be an excellent addition to any music collection supporting guitar performance.
SILVIO JOSE DOS SANTOS
Youngstown State University
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|Title Annotation:||The Andres Segovia Archive, edited by Angelo Gilardino, Liugi Biscaldi|
|Author:||dos Santos, Silvio Jose|
|Article Type:||Book review|
|Date:||Sep 1, 2006|
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