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Phytogeography and floristic affinities of the limestone flora of Mt. Exianling, Hainan Island, China.

Introduction

Because of the great diversity of edaphic conditions and topography, vegetation types on limestone landform are extremely diverse and rich in endemic taxa. One of the most extensive and arguably most impressive limestone regions of the world is the Sino-Vietnamese limestone area, which is characterized by dense karst pinnacles and high biodiversity (Clements et al., 2006; Chung et al., 2014). Limestone in tropical China occurs mainly in Yunnan and Guangxi Provinces of southern China, and extensive botanical studies have been conducted in this well-formed karst region (Liang et al., 1985; Zhu, 2002; Zhu et al., 2003). The tropical island of Hainan, at the southernmost tip of China in the South China Sea, has very limited limestone formation. Of the ca. 33,000 [km.sup.2] land area, only some 1200 km consists of limestone geology. These limestone blocks are scattered in the southwestern part of the island, with the highest concentration along the Changhua River flowing towards the Gulf of Tonkin.

Despite their inaccessibility and inferiority for farming, much of the original limestone vegetation in southern China has been degraded. Valuable timbers have been taken out and farmers cleared every accessible depressions and hillslopes for subsistent agriculture. Limestone ecosystem is particularly susceptible to degradation as vegetation recovery is much slower on the usually thin top soils. Our research was conducted in one of the last remaining primary tropical limestone forest blocks in China, the spectacular Mt. Exianling (hereinafter EXIANLING) of Hainan Island, where more than 90% of the total forested area is limestone (Qin, 2006; Qin et al., 2014; Zhang et al., 2005; Zhang, 2007; Zhang et al., 2007). Primary floristic and vegetation works at EXIANLING and other areas on Hainan Island have been reported elsewhere (Qin, 2006; Qin et al., 2005, 2007, 2012; Tian, 2013; Wang, 2012; Wang, et al., 2006; Wei et al., 2016; Yuan, 2016; Zhang, 2007, 2015; Zhang et al., 2005; Zhang et al., 2007; Zhong et al., 2014). This paper represents a synthesis of the floristics, physiognomy, and biogeographical affinities of Exianling, and conservation status of Exianling's flora.

Study Site

Hainan is a mountainous island at the northern margin of tropical Southeast Asia, it is part of the Indo-Burma Biodiversity Hotspot and is China's largest island after Taiwan (Fig. 1). Exianling is an east-west running limestone outcrop located in the western part of the island, with an altitude range of 150 m asl in the southwest to 1232 m asl at the highest summit towards the northeast. The limestone area of Exianling is ca. 20 [km.sup.2] in size and is characterized by karst landscape with underground rivers, caves, and vertical cliffs. The area experiences typical tropical monsoon climate with an annual mean temperature of 24.5[degrees]C, and annual precipitation of ca. 1620 mm, of which more than 80% falls during the rainy season between May and October (The Local Chronicles Compilation Committee of Changjing Li Minority Autonomous County, 1998). Rock substrate is hard limestone of Ordovician and Carboniferous origin with a rugged topography. The soil is mainly brown, coarse in texture, and composed of loamy limestone with a pH of ca. 7 and ca. 4% organic matter (Gong et al., 2004).

Methods

A complete floristic inventory was made based on the identification of more than 6000 plant specimens collected from limestone habitats of Exianling during 2003-2013 and deposited mainly at the herbarium of South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Qin, 2006; Zhang, 2007). The limestone flora of Exianling consists of 171 families of vascular plants, including 620 genera and 1121 species. An initial floristic analysis was made based on the inventory (Qin, 2006; Zhang, 2007). Five main vegetation types occur at Exianling: (1) Tropical limestone ravine rainforest; (2) tropical limestone evergreen forest; (3) tropical limestone semi-evergreen forest; (4) tropical limestone montane dwarf forest; and (5) monsoon rainforest.

Botanical plots were established in all five vegetation types as follow: one plot of 2300[m.sup.2] for Type 1; eight separate plots ranging in size from 1400m to 2200[m.sup.2] for Type 2; one plot of 1300[m.sup.2] for Type 3, four separate plots ranging in size from 500[m.sup.2] to 1600[m.sup.2] for Type 4, four separate plots ranging in size from 600 [m.sup.2] to 800 [m.sup.2] for Type 5. The different plot sizes reflect differential coverage of forest type and topographic restrictions. Structure and species composition of the limestone vegetation were analyzed based on plot data, and are already published (Zhang et al., 2005; Zhang et al., 2007; Zhang, 2007). In the present paper, plant inventory lists of the five main vegetation types were compiled from sample plots separately for the physiognomic (life form and leaf size) analysis. For criteria of life form and leaf size classes we followed Raunkiaer (1934). Ecological species groups were categorized from field observation and correspond to groups used in Shimizu (1964) and Chin (1977, 1979). Species-level biogeographical affinities were assessed for the total flora of the limestone vegetation at EXIANLING.

Significant Records from Mt. Exianling

Hainan Island has been separated from the continent since early Quaternary by a shallow strait. Although the first scientific botanical collection for Hainan was made by A. Dahl as early as 1790 (Henry, 1886), no botanists have ever visited Exianling until the late 1980s, as it is located in the rugged central highlands without vehicular access until recent decades. The first botanical exploration of the area was made in April 1988 by botanists from the South China Botanical Garden, when several new records were found (Li & Xing 1990). Since the early twenty-first century, we carried out extensive botanical fieldwork on the flora, vegetation and community ecology of the area. So far, 79 significant records have been found, including 11 species new to science and 57 species new to Hainan; nine genera and one family were also newly recorded for Hainan, as well as one new genus for China. For details see Appendix Table 8.

Classification of Limestone Vegetation on Mt. Exianling

Based on plant physiognomy, forest profile, floristic composition, and habitat, the primary limestone vegetation can be classified into five major vegetation types Within these, twelve formations (Wu, 1980; Zhang, 2007), including seventeen communities, were recognized:

(1) Ravine rainforest (including the sole formation Dehaasia hainanensis + Homalium hainanense + Bischofia javanica + Firmiana hainanensis + Cephalotaxus mannii + Dimocarpus longan + Lasiococca comberi var. pseudoverticill + Streblus ilicifolius)

(2) Tropical evergreen rainforest (including the following six formations: Lasiococca comberi var. pseudoverticill, Lasiococca comberi var. pseudoverticill + Streblus ilicifolius, Antidesma montanum, Ostodes paniculata, Vatica mangachapoi, Elaeocarpus sylvestris + Litchi chinensis + Lasiococca comberi var. pseudoverticill and Streblus ilicifolius + Arenga pinnata)

(3) Tropical semi-evergreen rainforest (including the sole formation Lagerstroemia balansae + Streblus ilicifolius + Terminalia hainaensis)',

(4) Tropical montane dwarf forest (including the following two formations: Quercus bawanglingensis and Drypetes hainanensis + Firmiana pulcherrima)-,

(5) Monsoon rainforest (including the sole formation Streblus ilicifolius + Terminalia hainaensis + Lagerstroemia balansae)',

Detailed descriptions and ecological analyses of the communities have been reported elsewhere (Zhang et al., 2005; Zhang et al., 2007; Zhang, 2007). Here, classification of the limestone vegetation of EXIANLING is concisely enumerated so that the biogeographical components of the limestone vegetation can be better understood.

Ravine Rainforest

Limestone ravine rainforest represents Southeast Asian tropical rainforest at its latitudinal and altitudinal limits, and shares characteristics with other non-limestone ravine rainforests of Hainan Island. These forests are evergreen, and emergent layer can reach 45 m in height. At Exianling this forest type occurs mainly in the large and deep wet valleys below 1000 m asl. This same forest type also occurs in southern Yunnan (Zhu et al., 2003) and North Vietnam (Thin, 1997), although different terms (Zhu et al, 2003; Thin, 1997) were used to describe them. The ecological structure of this forest type is almost identical to the tropical non-limestone ravine rainforest of Hainan Island (Zhang, 2007). Most species in the tropical limestone ravine rainforest of Exianling are also found in adjacent non-limestone ravine rainforest and seasonal rainforest, but the latters are more diverse with additional species, which are absent on limestone.

Tropical Evergreen Rainforest

Tropical evergreen rainforest occurs on the middle and upper limestone slopes ranging from 400 to 1000 m asl at Exianling. Emergent layer can reach 30 m in height. This vegetation type was called monsoon forest by some Chinese authors (Liu, 1987; Wu, 1980; Guangdong Institute of Botany, 1976). The term tropical evergreen rainforest is preferred here because the forest is not equivalent to Schimper's monsoon forest (Schimper, 1903) and the tropical seasonal moist forest of Xishuangbanna of southern Yunnan (Zhu et al., 2003; Zhu, 2005; Wang et al., 1997), in spite of the fact that it is also affected by seasonal dryness and contains a variable percentage of deciduous tree species.

The seasonal dryness at Exianling is compensated to some extent by dense fog accompanied by low temperatures between November and April (Whitmore, 1984). This forest types mainly occurs on shaded slopes of Exianling, contributing to water conservation for the limestone forest. A small percentage of deciduous trees, such as Streblus ilicifolius, Walsura cochinchinensis, Lagerstroemia balansae and Terminalia hainaensis can be found, which shed leaves toward the end of the dry season. This suggests that deciduousness of the EXIANLING forest is influenced mainly by local microclimates rather than climatic factors of the region. Therefore, using the term monsoon forest for the evergreen or semi-evergreen forest on limestone is confusing because Schimper's monsoon forest is more or less completely leafless during the dry season (Schimper, 1903).

Tropical Semi-Evergreen Rainforest

Tropical semi-evergreen rainforest occurs mainly on lower slopes ranging from 200 to 600 m asl at EXIANLING. Emergent layer can reach 25 m (sometimes 30 m) in height. The substrate is hard limestone rock with little soil, so it's very dry during the dry season. There are some deciduous trees with the IV of 36.49%, such as Lagerstroemia balansae, Streblus ilicifolius, Terminalia hainanensis, Walsura cochinchinensis and Toon a microcarpa, etc. And the dominant species of this forest are mainly Lagerstroemia balansae, Streblus ilicifolius and Terminalia hainanensis. The forest floor is very dry almost year round. Many species grow lowly and with thorns, such as Streblus ilicifolius and Terminalia hainanensis. This forest type is of limited extent at Exianling.

Tropical Montane Dwarf Forest

Montane dwarf forest occurs only on hilltops and summits at altitudes above 300 m asl at Exianling. There is only one dwarf tree layer with a canopy height of 2-7 m. Epiphytic species and small woody climbers, such as Nephrolepis cordifolia, Acampe rigida, Eria rosea, Rhaphidophora hongkongensis, Dischidia chinensis, Aristolochia polymorpha, and non-vascular epiphytes (e.g. lichens) are abundant.

Monsoon Rainforest

Monsoon rainforest occurs mainly on lower sun-facing slopes from 200 to 600 m asl at Exianling where deciduous tree species dominate, and almost all the leaves fall during dry season. The ground is covered with hard limestone rock with little soil layer. Emergent layer can reach 15 m in height.

Plant Physiognomy or Attributes

From our plot data, life form spectra (Raunkiaer 1934) of the four main forest types (i.e. ravine rainforest, tropical evergreen rainforest, tropical montane dwarf forest and monsoon rainforest) are compiled in Table 1. Leaf size spectra, leaf form, and leaf texture are shown in Table 2. The four forest types were dominated by phanerophytes, including lianas, epiphanerophytes and stem-succulent phanerophytes.

Ecological Species Group

Based on studies of limestone floras in Japan and Taiwan, Shimizu (1964) divided limestone plants into five ecological groups:

(1) plants exclusive to limestone habitat;

(2) plants selective for and found mainly in limestone;

(3) plants preferring and dominant on limestone;

(4) taxa indifferent, with no special association with limestone;

(5) plants found only occasionally on limestone or strangers to limestone.

According to Shimizu (1964), the first three groups were characteristic species of limestone habitats and in particular his exclusive and selective taxa were calcicoles. Chin (1977, 1979) accepted the classification and similarly categorized plants on limestone in the Malay Peninsula into four groups, combining selective and prefeient plants, and he indicated the first two groups are mostly calcicoles. Similar ecological species groups have been later recognized by Chinese botanists (Liang et al., 1985; Liu et al, 1994; Zhu et al., 2003).

Following these classifications, we divided the endemic limestone flora of Exianling into four major ecological species groups (Table 3). In our study, plants exclusive to limestone make up about 2.4% of the total limestone flora of Exianling, which is far lower than the results from Nonggang limestone forest (exclusive taxa, 13%) (Liang et al., 1985) and Longhua limestone forest (exclusive taxa, 10%) (Liu et al., 1994) of Guangxi Province, and southern Yunnan limestone forest (exclusive taxa, about 10%) (Zhu et al., 2003) in China. In Exianling the combined total of exclusive and preferent taxa make up only 8.6% of the total sum, which could be termed as characteristic species for limestone habitats. Our result indicates that forest composition of Exianling is dissimilar to those from extensive limestone regions, such as Nonggang in Guangxi (with characteristic species making up 20% of the total sum) (Liang et al., 1985), Xishuangbanna in Yunnan (22.3% of the total sum) (Zhu et al., 2003) and limestone forest of Malay Peninsula (27.5% of the total sum) (Chin 1977, 1979).

The Flora and Its Biogeography

In the limestone forest of Exianling, 171 families of vascular plants including 620 genera and 1121 species and varieties, were recorded, of which seed plants compose of 137 families, 557 genera, and 972 species. More than 90% of these species also occur in non-limestone habitats of Hainan Island. Qin et al. (2007) prepared a checklist of vascular plant flora on limestone of Hainan Island with 1409 native species belonging to 711 genera and 179 families. EXIANLING, being the largest limestone outcrop of the island, makes up about ca. 69% of the total limestone vascular plant species in Hainan Island. Xing et al., (2012) reported a total of 4456 native vascular plant species belonging to 1239 genera and 274 families for Hainan Island, and the limestone flora makes up about 31.6% of the total species of the Hainan flora.

The distribution types of Chinese seed plants at the generic level were documented by Wu (1991) for the representative communities of the 5 main forest types, namely limestone ravine rainforest, tropical evergreen rainforest, tropical semi-evergreen rainforest, tropical montane dwarf forest and monsoon rainforest. Of which, the genera of seed plants of three communication types were documented based on Wu's document. They can be divided into 11 distribution types or geographic elements (9 genera of the Lasiococca comberi var. pseudoverticillata forest and 6 genera of the Quercus bawanglingensis forest, which are cosmopolitan in distribution, are not included in the geographic statistics) (Table 4).

Endemicity

Fourteen limestone-specialist species endemic to Hainan, belonging to 13 families and 14 genera, were recorded at Exianling, of which ten are endemic to Exianling (Table 5). At the generic level, the geographic elements of tropical distribution (16, Table 4) compose 90% of the total genera; the geographic elements of temperate distribution (7-10, Table 4) make up only 6.7% and the remaining 3.3% are of worldwide distribution. This indicates that the limestone flora at Exianling is predominantly tropical in nature and represents the tropical Asian flora at its northern margin.

Conservation Challenges

Prior to our botanical exploration in 1988, the biodiversity value of Exianling was little known. Subsequent studies and surveys by ecologists and conservationists confirmed the conservation significance of this limestone outcrop (Lee & Lu, 2007; Lu & Chen, 2007). Despite the recognized conservation value Exianling is not yet a statutory protected area, and the site is being degraded by overexploitation of wildlife, valuable timber and other non-timber forest products as such orchids. The fragrant rosewood Dalbergia odorifera, in particular, is in high demand for the timber market and fetches USD $1000/kg, and wood from the Exianling area is considered to be of the best quality. As such, gangs of illegal loggers comb the forest cutting all mature trees of the species, and use explosives to extract the stumps and roots amongst limestone rocks. Hunters and orchid collectors are also threatening the biodiversity of this limestone forest. Exianling has been subject to environmental threats from mining activities as well in the past two decades. Kadoorie Conservation China has heavily involved in the conservation of Exianling limestone forest and partially financed the above floristic studies. A nature reserve station was constructed in 2009. Recently, activities in exploiting of the gold mining in Exianling has been stopped by the nature reserve. In addition, the local government is putting efforts into protection of EXIANLING by organizing a team of full-time rangers patrolling the forest and the authority is in the process of establishing a nature reserve which includes all limestone habitats of Exianling.

Of the flora of Exianling a total of 26 species (2% of the total sum) belonging to 25 genera and 19 families have been assessed by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (IUCN, 2016), of which 16 are globally threatened. These include 7 species classified as Endangered (EN) and 9 species considered Vulnerable (VU). Table 6 provides an overview of the IUCN Red List status of plant species known from Exianling.

Of the flora of Exianling, all species have been assessed by the Biodiversity Red List of China (the Ministry of Environmental Protection of the people's Republic of China, the Chinese Academy of Science, 2013), of which, a total of 122 species (10.9% of the total sum) belonging to 93 genera and 55 families are considered nationally threatened with extinction (Table 7). These include 1 species classified as Regionally Extinct (RE), 6 considered Critically Endangered (CR), 24 species considered Endangered (EN), 33 species considered Near Threatened (NT) and 58 species considered Vulnerable (VU). Table 7 provides an overview of the Biodiversity Red List of China status of plant species known from EXIANLING.

Conclusions

Exianling is unequivocally the best-preserved tropical limestone rainforest on Hainan Island, and arguably the best in China. Based on our long-term botanical studies, the four major forest types at Exianling are: (1) tropical limestone ravine rainforest; (2) tropical limestone evergreen forest; (3) tropical limestone montane dwarf forest; (4) monsoon rainforest. The limestone flora of Exianling is principally tropical in nature and represents the tropical Asian flora at its northern margin, which is not closely affiliated with the floras of the Sino-Vietnamese limestone as one might have expected based on proximity.

With limited limestone area on Hainan Island, forest composition of Exianling is dissimilar to those from extensive and continuous limestone regions of Indochina; nevertheless a good number of significant records have been found including new species and species new to China. A total of 14 species belonging to 14 genera and 13 families are endemic to limestone forests of Hainan Island, of which 10 species belonging to 10 genera and 10 families are point endemic to Exianling. Enhanced conservation measures and systematic botanical studies are required to protect this unique limestone ecosystem.

Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the Forestry Department of Hainan Province for granting permission for conducting fieldwork. We thank Li Fei of Kadooric Farm and Botanic Garden for kindly producing Fig. 1. and Chen Qing of Bawangling National Nature Reserve for assistance in fieldwork. The villagers of Nanlang provided much logistic supports for fieldwork and lodging. The senior author is grateful to Philip Lo of Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden for his assistance and advice in conducting this study. This project was funded by The National Natural Science Foundation of China (41001028, 41471046), and Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden.

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Appendix

Table 8 Checklist of significant plant records of Mt. Exianling,
Hainan Island, China

Num.    Family name        Latin name

1       Euphorbiaceae      Acalypha chuniana
                           H.G.Ye, Y.S.Ye,
                           X.S.Qin & F.W.Xing,
                           sp.nov.

2       Aceraceae          Acer cordatum Pax

3       Adiantaceae        Adiantum
                           capillus-veneris L.

4       Adiantaceae        A. edgewothii Hook.
                           Sp.

5       Adiantaceae        A. juxtapositum
                           Ching

6       Sinopteridaceae    Aleuritopteris
                           pseudofarinosa Ching
                           et S.K.Wu

7       Athyriaceae        Allantodia alata
                           (Christ) Ching

8       Zingiberaceae      Alpinia tonkinensis
                           Gagnep.

9       Aspleniaceae       Asplenium
                           austrochinense Ching

10      Aspleniaceae       A. coenobiale Hance

11      Aspleniaceae       A. planicaule Wall.

12      Aspleniaceae       A. sampsoni Hance

13      Aspleniaceae       A. saxicola
                           Rosenstock

14      Aspidiaceae        Ataxipteris
                           dianguiensis W.M.Chu
                           & H.G.Zhou

15      Balanophoraceae    Balanophora saxicola
                           Xing et Z. X.Li,
                           sp.nov.

16      Acanthaceae        Blepharis
                           maderaspatensis
                           (Linn.)Roth

17      Papilionaceae

18      Ulmaceae           Celtis biondii Pamp.

19      Sinopteridaceae    Cheilosoria chusana
                           (Hook.)Ching et
                           Shing

20      Orchidaceae        Cleisostoma
                           menghaiense Z.H.Tsi

21      Ranunculaceae      Clematis uncinata
                           Champ.

22      Aspidiaceae        Ctenitis rhodolepis
                           (Clarke)Ching

23      Labiatae           Coleus carnosifolius
                           (Hemsl.)Dunn.

24      Thelypteridaceae   Cyclosoms calvescens
                           China

25      Dryopteridaceae    Cyrtomium fortunei
                           J. Sm.

26      Dryopteridaceae    C. hemionitis Christ

27      Dioscoreaceae      Dioscorea
                           changjiangensis Xing
                           et Z.X.Li.sp.nov.

28      Boraginaceae       Ehretia
                           changjiangensis Xing
                           et Z.X.Li, sp.,nov.

29      Gesneriaceae       Epithema camosum
                           Benth.

30      Euphorbiaceae      Euphorbia
                           hainanensis Croizat

31      Araliaceae         Hedera nepalensis K.
                           Koch var. sinensis
                           (Tobl.) Rehd.

32      Rubiaceae          Hedyotis ovalifolia
                           Cav.

33      Davalliaceae       Humata tyermanni
                           Moore

34      Hypodematiaceae    Hvpodematium
                           crenatum
                           (Foisk.)Kuhn

35      Hypodematiaceae    H.squamuloso-pilosum
                           Ching

36      Aquifoliaceae      Ilex latifolia
                           Thunb.

37      Urticaceae         Laportea bulbifera
                           (Sieb. Et
                           Zucc.)Weed.

38      Lindsaeaceae       Lindsaea conformis
                           Ching

39      Orchidaceae        Liparis nervosa
                           (Thunb.) Lindl.

40      Lygodiaceae        Lygodium
                           subareolatum Christ

41      Berberidaceae      Mahonia hainanensis
                           H.L.X.,sp. nov.

42      Euphorbiaceae      Maliotus milliettii
                           Levi.

43      Celastraceae       Mavtenus
                           dongfangensis
                           F.W.Xing, X.S.Qin &
                           R.J.Zhang, sp. Nov.

44      Thelypteridaceae   Mesopteris
                           tonkinensis (C.
                           Chr.) Ching

45      Dennslaedtiaceae   Microlepia
                           platyphylla
                           (Don)J.Sm.

46      Polypodiaeeae      Microsorum steerei
                           (Harr.) Ching

47      Orchidaceae        Mischobulbum
                           cordifolium (Hook.
                           f.)Schltr.

48      Orchidaceae        Mischobulbum
                           longiscapum Seilenf
                           ex H.Tumer

49      Rutaceae           Murrava
                           euchrestifolia
                           Hayata

50      Aspleniaceae       Neottopteris
                           humbertii
                           (Tard-Blot)Tagawa

51      Orchidaceae        Nervilia fordii
                           (Hance) Schltr.

52      Gesneriaceae       Paraboea
                           changjiangensis Xing
                           et Z.X.Li

53      Gesneriaceae       P. dictyoneura
                           (Hance) Burtt

54      Piperaceae         Peperomia cavaleriei
                           C. DC.

55      Dryopteridaceae    Polystichum deitodon
                           (Bak.) Diels

56      Simarubaceae       Picrasma quassioides
                           Benn.

57      Urticaceae         Pilea cavaleriei
                           Levi.

58      Urticaceae         P. peltata Hance

59      Polygalaceae       Polygala
                           bawanglingensis
                           F.W.Xing & Z.X.Li

60      Dryopteridaceae    Polystichum
                           kwangtungense Ching

61      Pteridaceae        Pteris
                           changjiangensis
                           X.-L.Zheng &
                           F.-W.Xing

62      Pteridaceae        Pteris decrescens
                           Christ

63      Pteridaceae        Pteris majestica
                           Ching ex Ching et S.
                           H. Wu

64      Polypodiaceae      Pyrrosia calvata
                           (Bak.)Ching

65      Fagaceae           Quercus
                           bawanglingensis
                           Huang.Li et Xing
                           ,sp.nov.

66      Rhamnaceae         Rhamnus brachypoda
                           C.Y.Wu

67      Rosaceae           Rubus pinfaensis
                           Levi. Et Vant.

68      Rhamnaceae         Sageretia thea
                           (Osbeck) Johnst.

69      Euphorbiaceae      Sapium insigne
                           Benth. Et Hook.

70      Saxifragaceae      Schizophragma
                           integrifolium
                           (Franch.) Oliv.

71      Orchidaceae        Schoenorchis
                           venoverbeghii Ames

72      Crassulaeeae       Sedum
                           stellariifolium
                           Franch.

73      Selaginellaceae    Selaginella
                           moellendorffii
                           Hieron

74      Selaginellaceae    S. pulvinata (Hook,
                           et Grev.) Maxim

75      Rubiaceae          Serissa serissoides
                           (DC.)Druce

76      Rubiaceae
                           Sinoadina racemosa
                           (Sieb. Et Zucc.)
                           Ridsdale

77      Sapotaceae         Sinosideroxylon
                           wightianum (Hook. et
                           Am.) Aubr.

78      Aspidiaceae        Tectaria polymorpha
                           (Wall. Ex Hook.)
                           Copel.

79      Compositae         Tithonia
                           diversifolia A. Gray

80      Orchidaceae        Tropidia angulosa
                           (Lindl.)Bl.

81      Ulmaceae           Ulmus changii Cheng
                           var. kunmingensis
                           (Cheng) Cheng et L.
                           K. Fu.

Num.    Family name        Specimen                      Depository

1       Euphorbiaceae      Fuwu Xing et al.
                           14,983 (holotype
                           IBSC; isotype TNM)

2       Aceraceae          Fuwu Xing,et al.              IBSC
                           13,768; Zexian Li &
                           Fuwu Xing 4185

3       Adiantaceae        Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing 5114

4       Adiantaceae        Fuwu Xing s.n.                IBSC

5       Adiantaceae        Zexian Li & Fuwu
                           Xing5291

6       Sinopteridaceae    Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing 5106

7       Athyriaceae        Fuwu Xing,et al.              IBSC
                           14759,15,031,15,034

8       Zingiberaceae      Zexian Li & Fuwu
                           Xing5101

9       Aspleniaceae       Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing3588

10      Aspleniaceae       Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing5077

11      Aspleniaceae       Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing5070

12      Aspleniaceae       Fuwu Xing,et al.              IBSC
                           13,689

13      Aspleniaceae       Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing5078

14      Aspidiaceae        Shiyong Dong 1062             PE

15      Balanophoraceae    Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing5251(holotype);
                           Zexian Li &
                           Fuwu Xing5368

16      Acanthaceae        Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing 5087

17      Papilionaceae      Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing5080

18      Ulmaceae           Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing5081

19      Sinopteridaceae    Fuwu Xing.et al.              IBSC
                           13,701

20      Orchidaceae        Xiqiang Song 060802           PE

21      Ranunculaceae      Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing 5100

22      Aspidiaceae        Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing4221

23      Labiatae           Zexian Li & Fuwu              [BSC
                           Xing4215

24      Thelypteridaceae   Kerui Huang, Hui              CSH
                           Shang, Jiangping Shu
                           & Jinhong Wei SG2886

25      Dryopteridaceae    Xinsheng Qin 849              IBSC

26      Dryopteridaceae    Zexian Li & Fuwu
                           Xing5292

27      Dioscoreaceae      Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing 5116(holotype)

28      Boraginaceae       Fuwu Xing5136 (Typus
                           SCBI),5139

29      Gesneriaceae       Xilong Zheng 835              IBSC

30      Euphorbiaceae      Xinsheng Qin &                IBSC
                           Rongjing Zhang
                           529;Zexian Li & Fuwu
                           Xing 6287

31      Araliaceae         Fuwu Xing.et al.              IBSC
                           13.770

32      Rubiaceae          Zexian Li & Fuwu
                           Xing5093

33      Davalliaceae       Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing 5110

34      Hypodematiaceae    Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing5079

35      Hypodematiaceae    Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing 5123

36      Aquifoliaceae      Zexian Li & Fuwu
                           Xing5111

37      Urticaceae         Zexian Li & Fuwu
                           Xing5094

38      Lindsaeaceae       Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing4360

39      Orchidaceae        Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing 5108

40      Lygodiaceae        Fuwu Xing, et al.             IBSC
                           13,889

41      Berberidaceae      Zexian Li & Fuwu              Holotypus IBSC
                           Xing 5117, 5275

42      Euphorbiaceae      Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing5091

43      Celastraceae       Xinsheng Qm et al.
                           942(Holotype:IBSC)

44      Thelypteridaceae   Kerui Huang, Hui              CSH
                           Shang, Jiangping Shu
                           & Jinhong Wei
                           SG2883, SG2888

45      Dennslaedtiaceae   Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing4303

46      Polypodiaeeae      Fuwu Xing,et al.              IBSC
                           14.826

47      Orchidaceae        Xiqiang Song 060502           PE

48      Orchidaceae        Lin Li 057                    IBSC

49      Rutaceae           Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing 5120

50      Aspleniaceae       Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing4195

51      Orchidaceae        Zexian Li & Fuwu
                           Xing5095

52      Gesneriaceae       Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing
                           5134(holotype);Fuwu
                           Xing5142

53      Gesneriaceae       Zexian Li & Fuwu
                           Xing5294

54      Piperaceae         Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing4174

55      Dryopteridaceae    Zexian Li & Fuwu
                           Xing5289

56      Simarubaceae       Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing4198

57      Urticaceae         Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing5082

58      Urticaceae         Xinsheng Qin et al.           IBSC
                           192.

59      Polygalaceae       Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing
                           5140(holo.,SCBI)1989.5.20.;
                           Fuwu Xing & Xinsheng Qin
                           13,765

60      Dryopteridaceae    Xinsheng Qin 965              IBSC

61      Pteridaceae        Xilong Zheng                  IBSC
                           733(holotype);Xilong
                           Zheng 1019(paratype)

62      Pteridaceae        Fuwu Xing.et al.13900         IBSC

63      Pteridaceae        Fuwu Xing.et al.15015         IBSC

64      Polypodiaceae      Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing4165

65      Fagaceae           Fuwu Xing                     IBSC
                           s.n.(fruit,holotype);
                           Zexian Li 4148(male
                           inflorescence
                           specimen)

66      Rhamnaceae         Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing4140

67      Rosaceae           Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing3172

68      Rhamnaceae         Zexian Li & Fuwu
                           Xing5112

69      Euphorbiaceae      Zexian Li & Fuwu
                           Xing5090

70      Saxifragaceae      Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing3877

71      Orchidaceae        Xinsheng Qin et al.           IBSC
                           803

72      Crassulaeeae       Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing 5122

73      Selaginellaceae    Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing5088

74      Selaginellaceae    Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing 5109

75      Rubiaceae          Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing5083

76      Rubiaceae          Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing 5097

77      Sapotaceae         Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing4150

78      Aspidiaceae        Shiyong Dong 1057,            PE
                           1060

79      Compositae         Fuwu Xing. et al.             IBSC
                           14,085

80      Orchidaceae        Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing 5104

81      Ulmaceae           Zexian Li & Fuwu              IBSC
                           Xing 5102

Num.    Family name        Collecting time

1       Euphorbiaceae      2004.4.15.

2       Aceraceae          1988.5.5.; 2003.3.31.

3       Adiantaceae        1989.3.20.

4       Adiantaceae        1989.4.5.

5       Adiantaceae        1991.11.17.

6       Sinopteridaceae    1989.3.25.

7       Athyriaceae
                           2003.10.24.; 2004.4.10.-
                           ;2004.4.15.

8       Zingiberaceae      1989.3.25.

9       Aspleniaceae       1988.4.21.

10      Aspleniaceae       1988.10.20.

11      Aspleniaceae       1988.4.21.

12      Aspleniaceae       2003.4.1.

13      Aspleniaceae       1988.10.20.

14      Aspidiaceae

15      Balanophoraceae    1991.11.16.; 1991.11.28.

16      Acanthaceae        1989.10.1.

17      Papilionaceae      1988.10.15.

18      Ulmaceae           1988.10.20.

19      Sinopteridaceae    2003.4.1

20      Orchidaceae        2006.5.20.

21      Ranunculaceae      1989.3.25.

22      Aspidiaceae        1988.5.5.

23      Labiatae           1988.5.5.

24      Thelypteridaceae   2015.3.22.

25      Dryopteridaceae    2005.1.17.

26      Dryopteridaceae    1991.11.17.

27      Dioscoreaceae      1989.3.28.

28      Boraginaceae       1989.07.24.

29      Gesneriaceae       2007.9. 18.

30      Euphorbiaceae      1940

31      Araliaceae         2003.3.31.

32      Rubiaceae          1989.10.1.

33      Davalliaceae       1989.3.26.

34      Hypodematiaceae    1988.10.20.

35      Hypodematiaceae    1989.3.27.

36      Aquifoliaceae      1989.3.26.

37      Urticaceae         1989.10.1.

38      Lindsaeaceae       1988.6.10.

39      Orchidaceae        1989.3.25.

40      Lygodiaceae        2003.4.1

41      Berberidaceae      1994

42      Euphorbiaceae      1989.10.1.

43      Celastraceae       2005.1.20.

44      Thelypteridaceae   2015.3.22.

45      Dennslaedtiaceae   1988.5.10.

46      Polypodiaeeae      2004.3.26.

47      Orchidaceae        2006.5.10.

48      Orchidaceae        2006.7.16.

49      Rutaceae           1989.3.25.

50      Aspleniaceae       1988.5.5.

51      Orchidaceae        1989.10.1.

52      Gesneriaceae       1989.7.25.; 1989.9.30.

53      Gesneriaceae       1991.11.27.

54      Piperaceae         1988.5.5.

55      Dryopteridaceae    1991.11.17.

56      Simarubaceae       1988.5.5.

57      Urticaceae         1988.10.20.

58      Urticaceae         2004.7 .13.

59      Polygalaceae       1989.5.20.

60      Dryopteridaceae    2005.1.20.

61      Pteridaceae        2007.9.16.; 2007.10.10.

62      Pteridaceae        2003.3.30.

63      Pteridaceae        2004.4.15.

64      Polypodiaceae      1988.5.5.

65      Fagaceae           1988.11.5.

66      Rhamnaceae         1988.5.5.

67      Rosaceae           1988.4.15.

68      Rhamnaceae         1989.3.26.

69      Euphorbiaceae      1989.9.29.

70      Saxifragaceae      1988.4.27.

71      Orchidaceae        2005.1.11.

72      Crassulaeeae       1989.3.27.

73      Selaginellaceae    1989.9.29.

74      Selaginellaceae    1989.3.25.

75      Rubiaceae          1988.10.20.

76      Rubiaceae          1989.3.15.

77      Sapotaceae         1988.5.5.

78      Aspidiaceae

79      Compositae         2003.3.27.

80      Orchidaceae        1989.3.25.

81      Ulmaceae           1989.3.25.

Num.    Family name        Collecting location

1       Euphorbiaceae      Wangxia, on
                           limestone mountains,
                           alt.700 m

2       Aceraceae          on the limestone in
                           Wangxia

3       Adiantaceae        at the gully of
                           Wangxia, alt. 700 m

4       Adiantaceae        on the limestone in
                           Wangxia

5       Adiantaceae        the limestone
                           mountain of Wangxia,
                           alt. 1100 m

6       Sinopteridaceae    on the limestone in
                           Wangxia, 1000 m

7       Athyriaceae        Wangxia, alt. 700
                           m;Wangxia, alt. 750
                           m; Sanpai village of
                           Wangxia town,alt.
                           650 m

8       Zingiberaceae      in the limestone
                           monsoon forest of
                           Wangxia, alt. 1000 m

9       Aspleniaceae       on the tree stem of
                           the limestone
                           towards Bawangling
                           Mountain, alt. 1100
                           m

10      Aspleniaceae       on the limestone
                           towards Bawangling
                           Mountain, alt. 950 m

11      Aspleniaceae       on the limestone
                           towards Bawangling
                           Mountain, alt. 1000
                           m

12      Aspleniaceae       on the limestone in
                           Wangxia

13      Aspleniaceae       on the limestone
                           towards Bawangling
                           Mountain, alt. 950 m

14      Aspidiaceae        Exian mountain, alt.
                           900-980 m

15      Balanophoraceae    the limestone of
                           Wulie, alt.350 m;
                           the limestone of
                           Houmiling in
                           Dongfang, alt. 390 m

16      Acanthaceae        on the limestone in
                           Wangxia, alt. 800 m

17      Papilionaceae

18      Ulmaceae           on the limestone
                           towards Bawangling
                           Mountain, alt. 950 m

19      Sinopteridaceae    on the limestone in
                           Wangxia

20      Orchidaceae        Exian mountain

21      Ranunculaceae      between the
                           limestone of
                           Wangxia, alt. 1000 m

22      Aspidiaceae        in the dense forest
                           of the limestone
                           mountain towards
                           Bawangling, alt. 900
                           m

23      Labiatae           on the limestone
                           towards Bawangling
                           Mountain, alt. 900 m

24      Thelypteridaceae   on the limestone
                           evergreen broadleaf
                           forest of Mt.
                           Exianling, alt.
                           900-1000 m

25      Dryopteridaceae    Jiulong Mountain of
                           Nanlang village in
                           Donghe town, alt.l
                           100 m

26      Dryopteridaceae    in the limestone
                           monsoon forest of
                           Wangxia, alt. 1100 m

27      Dioscoreaceae      the limestone
                           mountain of Wangxia,
                           alt. 380 m

28      Boraginaceae       the top of the
                           limestone mountain
                           towards Bawangling
                           Mountain,300 m

29      Gesneriaceae       Sanpai village of
                           Wangxia, on the
                           sheer cliff of
                           limestone mountain,
                           alt 400-600 m

30      Euphorbiaceae      the top of the
                           mountain at Nanlang;
                           the limestone
                           mountain of Wangxia

31      Araliaceae         on the limestone in
                           Wangxia

32      Rubiaceae          on the limestone of
                           Wangxia, alt.800 m

33      Davalliaceae       on the limestone in
                           Wangxia, 1100 m

34      Hypodematiaceae    on the limestone
                           towards Bawangling
                           Mountain, alt. 950 m

35      Hypodematiaceae    on the limestone in
                           Wangxia,400 m

36      Aquifoliaceae      in the limestone
                           monsoon forest of
                           Wangxia, alt. 1000 m

37      Urticaceae         Wangxia, in the
                           sparse forest on the
                           limestone hilltop,
                           alt. 850 m

38      Lindsaeaceae       in the forest of the
                           limestone mountain
                           towards Bawangling
                           Mountain, alt. 900 m

39      Orchidaceae        on the limestone in
                           Wangxia, alt. 700 m

40      Lygodiaceae        on the limestone in
                           Wangxia,alt.500 m

41      Berberidaceae      on the limestone in
                           Wangxia, alt.
                           800-1250

42      Euphorbiaceae      between the
                           limestone in
                           Wangxia, alt. 1000 m

43      Celastraceae       Donghe Town, Nanlang
                           village, Jiulong ML,
                           alt.900 m, on the
                           top of limestone
                           mountains

44      Thelypteridaceae   on the limestone
                           evergreen broadleaf
                           forest of Mt.
                           Exianling, alt.
                           900-1000 m

45      Dennslaedtiaceae   at the margin of the
                           limestone gully
                           towards Bawangling
                           Mountain, alt. 900 m

46      Polypodiaeeae      Wangxia, alt. 800 m,

47      Orchidaceae        Exian mountain

48      Orchidaceae        on the limestone in
                           Wangxia, alt. 680 m

49      Rutaceae           on the limestone in
                           Wangxia, alt. 1000 m

50      Aspleniaceae       on the limestone
                           towards Bawangling
                           Mountain, alt. 900 m

51      Orchidaceae        on the grassland on
                           the limestone
                           hilltop of Wangxia,
                           alt. 800 m

52      Gesneriaceae       on the limestone in
                           Wangxia, alt. 600 m

53      Gesneriaceae       in the limestone
                           monsoon forest of
                           Wangxia, alt. 1000 m

54      Piperaceae         on the limestone
                           towards Bawangling
                           Mountain, alt. 900 m

55      Dryopteridaceae    in the limestone
                           monsoon forest of
                           Wangxia, alt. 1100 m

56      Simarubaceae       on the limestone
                           towards Bawangling
                           Mountain, alt. 900 m

57      Urticaceae         on the limestone
                           towards Bawangling
                           Mountain, alt Q SO m

58      Urticaceae         ait. yjKj m on the
                           top of the limestone
                           mountain in Wangxia,
                           alt. 600-1000 m

59      Polygalaceae       the limestone
                           mountain of Wangxia,
                           alt. 1000 m;between
                           the limestone of
                           Wangxia

60      Dryopteridaceae    Jiulong Mountain
                           ofNanlang village in
                           Donghe town, alt.900
                           m

61      Pteridaceae        on the limestone in
                           Wangxia, alt.
                           400-800 m

62      Pteridaceae        Wangxia, in the
                           forest on limestone,
                           alt. 600 m

63      Pteridaceae        Sanpai village of
                           Wangxia town, on the
                           limestone mountain,
                           alt. 700 m

64      Polypodiaceae      on the limestone
                           towards Bawangling
                           Mountain, alt. 900 m

65      Fagaceae           the limestone
                           mountain towards
                           Bawangling Mountain,
                           alt. 980 m, 900 m

66      Rhamnaceae         on the limestone
                           towards Bawangling
                           Mountain, alt QSO m

67      Rosaceae           an. yj\j m at the
                           forest margin of the
                           limestone mountain
                           towards Bawangling,
                           alt. 900 m

68      Rhamnaceae         in the limestone
                           monsoon forest of
                           Wangxia. alt. 1000 m

69      Euphorbiaceae      between the
                           limestone in
                           Wangxia, alt.850 m

70      Saxifragaceae      in the forest of the
                           limestone mountain
                           towards Bawangling,
                           ait. 1000 m

71      Orchidaceae        the tree stem on the
                           top of Nanlang, alt.
                           1100 m

72      Crassulaeeae       between the
                           limestone on the
                           limestone mountain
                           of Wangxia, alt.
                           1200 m

73      Selaginellaceae    between the
                           limestone in
                           Wangxia, alt. 1000 m

74      Selaginellaceae    on the limestone in
                           Wangxia, 1100 m

75      Rubiaceae          on the limestone
                           towards Bawangling
                           Mountain. alt. 950 m

76      Rubiaceae
                           on the top of
                           limestone mountain
                           in Wangxia, alt.
                           1000 m

77      Sapotaceae         on the limestone
                           towards Bawangling
                           Mountain. alt. 950 m

78      Aspidiaceae        in the forest of
                           Exian mountain, alt.
                           500-1500 m

79      Compositae         on the sandbeach at
                           the foot of the
                           Tiger mountain of
                           Baoyou village,
                           Qichai town, alt. 42
                           m; Nanlang

80      Orchidaceae        in the dense forest
                           on the limestone in
                           Wangxia, alt. son m

81      Ulmaceae           ouu m on the
                           limestone in
                           Wangxia, 1000 m

Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae and Flora of China are the
authoritative sources for specific and infraspecific names except
for those with recently revised taxonomy in IPNI (www.ipni.org) and
TROPICOS (http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html). Family
names of angiosperms follow the Angiospcrm Phylogeny Website
(http://www.mobot. org/MOBOT/rescarch/APweb/)

SH new record for Hainan, NS new species, GSH newly recorded genera
& species for Hainan, FGSH newly recorded family, genera & species
for Hainan. GSC newly recorded genera & species for China

IBSC South China Botanical Garden Herbarium, PF. Herbarium,
Institute of Botany, CAS


Rongjing Zhang (1) * Xinsheng Qin (2) * Hongfeng Chen (3) * Bosco Pui Lok Chan (4) * Fuwu Xing (3,5) * Zhe Xu (1)

(1) College of Life Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642, People's Republic of China

(2) College of Forestry, South China Agricultural University. Guangzhou. Guangdong 510642, People's Republic of China

(3) South China Botanical Garden, The Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510650, People's Republic of China

(4) Kadoorie Conservation China, Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden, Lam Kam Road, New Territories, Hong Kong

(5) Author for Correspondence; e-mail: xinfw@scib.ac.cn

Published online: 4 April 2017

Caption: Fig. 1 Location of Mt. Exianling, Hainan Island, China (Prepared by Li Fci)
Table 1 Life form of the limestone forest at Mt. Exianling, Hainan
Island, China

Vegetation                                Meg   Mes    Mic    N

Ravine rainforest    N of spp.            8     45     19     4
                     % of total species   6.6   36.9   15.6   3.3

Tropical evergreen   N of spp.            4     79     32     9
rainforest           % of total spp.      2.5   48.5   19.6   5.5

Tropical montane     N of spp.            2     24     28     19
dwarf forest         % of total species   1.5   17.9   20.9   14.2

Monsoon rainforest   N. of spp.           0     22     16     6
                     % of total species   0     26.5   19.3   7.2

Vegetation                                L      E      S      Hph

Ravine rainforest    N of spp.            22     5      1      14
                     % of total species   18.0   4.1    0.8    11.5

Tropical evergreen   N of spp.            28     1      0      1
rainforest           % of total spp.      17.2   0.6    0      0.6

Tropical montane     N of spp.            22     6      6      17
dwarf forest         % of total species   16.4   4.5    4.5    12.7

Monsoon rainforest   N. of spp.           20     3      0      3
                     % of total species   24.1   3.6    0      3.6

Vegetation                                C      G      Th     All

Ravine rainforest    N of spp.            1      2      1      122
                     % of total species   0.8    1.6    0.8

Tropical evergreen   N of spp.            8      1      1      164
rainforest           % of total spp.      4.9    0.6    0.6

Tropical montane     N of spp.            0      1      9      134
dwarf forest         % of total species   0      74.6   6.7

Monsoon rainforest   N. of spp.           11     1      1      83
                     % of total species   13.3   1.2    1.2

Meg Megaphanerophytes, Mes Mesophanerophytes, Mic Mierophanerophytes,
N Nanophanerophytes, L Linophanerophytes, E Epiphanerophytes, S
Succulent phanerophytes, Hph Hemicryptophytes, C Chamae-phytes, G
Geophytes, Th Therophytes (Raunkiaer, 1934)

Table 2 Leaf form, texture and size of the limestone forest at Mt.
Exianling. Hainan Island, China

Forest type                               Leaf form

                                          S      c

Ravine rainforest    N of spp.            100    22
                     % of total species   82.0   18.0

Tropical evergreen   N. of spp.           138    26
rainforest           % of total species   84.2   15.9

Tropical montane     N. of spp.           109    25
dwarf forest         % of total species   81.3   18.7

Monsoon rainforest   N. of spp.           58     25
                     % of total species   69.9   30.1

Forest type                               Leaf texture

                                          H      Co     F      M

Ravine rainforest    N of spp.            16     97     4      5
                     % of total species   13.1   79.5   3.3    4.1

Tropical evergreen   N. of spp.           62     94     3      5
rainforest           % of total species   37.8   57.3   1.8    3.1

Tropical montane     N. of spp.           33     84     17     0
dwarf forest         % of total species   24.6   62.7   12.7   0

Monsoon rainforest   N. of spp.           33     36     9      5
                     % of total species   39.8   43.4   10.8   6.0

Forest type                               Leaf size

                                          Meg    Ma     Me     Mi

Ravine rainforest    N of spp.            8      17     68     26
                     % of total species   6.7    14.3   57.1   21.9

Tropical evergreen   N. of spp.           3      10     116    35
rainforest           % of total species   1.8    6.1    70.7   21.3

Tropical montane     N. of spp.
dwarf forest         % of total species

Monsoon rainforest   N. of spp.           2      9      44     22
                     % of total species   2.4    10.9   53.0   26.5

S Simple leaves, C Compound leaves, H Herbaceous, Co Coriaceous, F
Fleshy, M Membranous, Meg Mcgaphyll (larger than 164,025 [mm.sup.2]),
Ma Macrophyll (to 164,025 [mm.sup.2]), Me Mesophyll (to 18,222
[mm.sup.2]), Mi Microphyll (to 2025 [mm.sup.2]) (Raunkiaer, 1934)

Table 3 Characteristic ecological species groups of Mt. Exianling,
Hainan Island, China

Ecological species groups                Num. of    % of total
                                         species    species

plants exclusive to limestone habitats   27         2.4
plants dominant on limestone             69         6.2
plants no restriction on limestone       870        77.6
Plants found occasionally on limestone   155        13.8
Total                                    1121       100

Table 4 Genera distribution types of three communities at Mt.
Exianling, Hainan Island, China

                                         Ravine rainforest

Distribution types                       Genus num.   % Per.

World
1. Pantropic                             25           28.1
2. Trop. Asia & Trop. Amer. disjuncted   2            2.3
3. Old World Tropics                     13           14.6
4. Trop. Asia to Trop. Australasia       9            10.1
5. Tropical Asia & Trop. Africa          3            3.4
6. Trop. Asia (India-Malaysia)           31           34.8
7. Temperate                             2            2.3
8. E. Asia & N. Amer. disjuncted
9. Old World Temperate
10. E. Asia                              3            3.4
11. Endemic to China                     1            1.1
Total                                    89           100

                                         Tropical evergreen
                                         rainforest

Distribution types                       Genus num.   % Per.

World                                    9            .
1. Pantropic                             39           33.3
2. Trop. Asia & Trop. Amer. disjuncted   2            1.7
3. Old World Tropics                     10           8.6
4. Trop. Asia to Trop. Australasia       10           8.6
5. Tropical Asia & Trop. Africa          8            6.8
6. Trop. Asia (India-Malaysia)           42           35.9
7. Temperate                             1            0.9
8. E. Asia & N. Amer. disjuncted
9. Old World Temperate
10. E. Asia                              3            2.6
11. Endemic to China                     2            1.7
Total                                    126          100

                                         Tropical montane
                                         dwarf forest

Distribution types                       Genus num.   % Per.

World                                    6            4.6
1. Pantropic                             40           30.7
2. Trop. Asia & Trop. Amer. disjuncted   2            1.5
3. Old World Tropics                     12           9.2
4. Trop. Asia to Trop. Australasia       21           16.2
5. Tropical Asia & Trop. Africa          10           7.7
6. Trop. Asia (India-Malaysia)           32           24.6
7. Temperate                             5            3.9
8. E. Asia & N. Amer. disjuncted         3            2.3
9. Old World Temperate                   2            1.5
10. E. Asia                              3            2.3
11. Endemic to China
Total                                    136          100

Table 5 Limestone specialist
species endemic to Hainan found
at Mt. Exianling, Hainan Island,
China

Species                         Exianling endemics
                                (denoted by "*")

1. Allantodia wangii
2. Mahonia hainanensis          *
3. Aristolochia polymorpha      *
4. Polygala bawanglingensis     *
5. Impatiens hainanensis
6. Acalypha chuniana
7. Euphorbia hainanensis        *
8. Quercus bawanglingensis      *
9. Maytenus dongfangensi        *
10. Balanophora saxicola        *
11. Clausena hainanensis        *
12. Ardisia crassirhiza
13. Ehretia changjiangensis     *
14. Dioscorea changjiangensis   *

Table 6 Status of plant species
in the HJCN Red List of Threatened
Species at Mt. Exianling,
Hainan Island, China

Species                           Category

1. Cyrtomium hemionitis           EN
2. Cycas changjiangensis          EN
3. Alphonsea hainanensis          EN
4. Vatica mangachapoi             EN
5. Begonia peltatifolia           EN
6.Gastrochilus calceolaris        EN
7. Phalaenopsis hainanensis       EN
8. Cephalotaxus mannii            VU
9. Alphonsea monogyna             VU
10. Chieniodendron hainanense     VU
11. Miliusa prolifica             VU
12. Aquilaria sinensis            VU
13. Hydnocarpus hainanensis       VU
14. Firmiana hainanensis          VU
15. Dalbergia odorifera           VU
16. Litchi chinensis              VU
17. Podocarpus neriifolius        LC
18. Cephalotaxus sinensis         LC
19. Gentum parivifolium           LC
20. Bulbophyllum delitescens      LC
21. Cratoxylum cochinchinense     LR/LC
22. Scleropyrum wallichianum      LR/LC
23. Toona ciliata                 LR/LC
24. Dimocarpus longan             LR/NT
25. Pholidota chinensis           NT
26. Magnolia paenetalauma         DD

Table 7 Status of plant specics in the Biodiversity Red List of China
at Mt. Exianling, Hainan Island, China

Category   Num. /%   Species

RE         1/0.08    Tectaria ebenina

CR         6/0.5     Cycas changjiangensis, Dalbergia
                     odorifera, Platea parvifolia,
                     Paranephelium hainanense, Lasianthus
                     calycinus, Phalaenopsis hainanensis

EN         24/2.1    Cyrtomium hemionitis, Lygodium merrilii,
                     Oleandra undulata, Pteris tripartita,
                     Aleuritopteris squamosa, Ataxipteris
                     dianguiensis, Cyclosorus terminans,
                     Cephalotaxus mannii, Chieniodendron
                     hainanense, Fissistigma tungfangense,
                     Stephania hainanensis, Tinospora
                     sagittata var. sagittata, Homalium
                     stenophyllum, Lagerstroemia balansae,
                     Syzygium brachyantherum, Firmiana
                     pulcherrima, Euphorbia hainanensis,
                     Ellipanthus glabrifolius, Richeriella
                     gracilis, Acanthephippium striatum, Eria
                     rosea, Liparis fissilabris, Renanthera
                     coccinea, Vanda subconcolor

NT         33/2.9    Adiantum diaphanum, A. induratum,
                     Asplenium belangeri, A. saxicola,
                     Dtynaria rigidula, Alphonsea
                     hainanensis, Litsea baviensis,
                     Albertisia laurifolia, Arcangelisia
                     gusanlung, Lagerstroemia fordii,
                     Hibiscus grewiifolius, Impatiens
                     hainanensis, Grewia concolor, Firmiana
                     hainanensis, Bauhinia hainanensis,
                     Christia hainanensi, Mucuna bracteata,
                     Celtis philippensis var. consimilis,
                     Antiaris toxicaria, Clausena
                     hainanensis, Argyreia acuta, Paraboea
                     hainanensis, Tacca chantrieri,
                     Distyliopsis tutcheri, Hybanthus
                     enneaspermus, Scutellaria luzonica var.
                     lotungensis, Scindapsus maclurei,
                     Liparis fargesii, Dendrobium
                     hercoglossum, Nervilia fordii, Oberonia
                     gammiei, Pomatocalpa spicatum, Tropidia
                     angulosa

VU         58/5.2    Oleandra hainanensis, Ceratopteris
                     thalictroides, Leptochilus cantoniensis,
                     Pyrrosia longifolia, Pinus latteri,
                     Podocarpus neriifolius, Cephalotaxus
                     sinensis var. sinensis, Alphonsea
                     monogyna, Miliusa prolifica, Orophea
                     hainanensis, Horsfieldia kingii,
                     Aristolochia howii, Aristolochia
                     polymorpha, Polygala bawanglingensis,
                     Aquilaria sinensis, Hydnocarpus
                     hainanensis, Homalium ceylanicum,
                     Ancistroladus tectorius, Vatica
                     mangachapoi, Croton laui,  Trigonostemon
                     chinensis, Dalbergia hainanensis, D.
                     peishaensis, Cyclobalanopsis
                     disciformis, Quercus bawanglingensis,
                     Aglaia lawii, Toona ciliata, Cephaelis
                     laui, Scutellaria hainanensis, Hedychium
                     villoswn, Acanthephippium sylhetense,
                     Bulbophyllum delitescens, Ceratostylis
                     hainanensis, Cleisostoma simondii var.
                     guangdongense, C. striatum, Cymbidium
                     ensifolium, C. goeringii, C. kanran, C.
                     sinense, Dendrobium aduncum, D.
                     densiflorum, D. hainanense, D.
                     loddigesii, D. nobile, D. salaccens,
                     Eria lasiopetala, E. obvia, Esmeralda
                     clarkei, Flickingeria angustifolia,
                     Liparis luteola, Phreatia formosana,
                     Vanda pumila
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Author:Zhang, Rongjing; Qin, Xinsheng; Chen, Hongfeng; Chan, Bosco Pui Lok; Xing, Fuwu; Xu, Zhe
Publication:The Botanical Review
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9CHIN
Date:Mar 1, 2017
Words:8455
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