Phytogeography and floristic affinities of the limestone flora of Mt. Exianling, Hainan Island, China.
Because of the great diversity of edaphic conditions and topography, vegetation types on limestone landform are extremely diverse and rich in endemic taxa. One of the most extensive and arguably most impressive limestone regions of the world is the Sino-Vietnamese limestone area, which is characterized by dense karst pinnacles and high biodiversity (Clements et al., 2006; Chung et al., 2014). Limestone in tropical China occurs mainly in Yunnan and Guangxi Provinces of southern China, and extensive botanical studies have been conducted in this well-formed karst region (Liang et al., 1985; Zhu, 2002; Zhu et al., 2003). The tropical island of Hainan, at the southernmost tip of China in the South China Sea, has very limited limestone formation. Of the ca. 33,000 [km.sup.2] land area, only some 1200 km consists of limestone geology. These limestone blocks are scattered in the southwestern part of the island, with the highest concentration along the Changhua River flowing towards the Gulf of Tonkin.
Despite their inaccessibility and inferiority for farming, much of the original limestone vegetation in southern China has been degraded. Valuable timbers have been taken out and farmers cleared every accessible depressions and hillslopes for subsistent agriculture. Limestone ecosystem is particularly susceptible to degradation as vegetation recovery is much slower on the usually thin top soils. Our research was conducted in one of the last remaining primary tropical limestone forest blocks in China, the spectacular Mt. Exianling (hereinafter EXIANLING) of Hainan Island, where more than 90% of the total forested area is limestone (Qin, 2006; Qin et al., 2014; Zhang et al., 2005; Zhang, 2007; Zhang et al., 2007). Primary floristic and vegetation works at EXIANLING and other areas on Hainan Island have been reported elsewhere (Qin, 2006; Qin et al., 2005, 2007, 2012; Tian, 2013; Wang, 2012; Wang, et al., 2006; Wei et al., 2016; Yuan, 2016; Zhang, 2007, 2015; Zhang et al., 2005; Zhang et al., 2007; Zhong et al., 2014). This paper represents a synthesis of the floristics, physiognomy, and biogeographical affinities of Exianling, and conservation status of Exianling's flora.
Hainan is a mountainous island at the northern margin of tropical Southeast Asia, it is part of the Indo-Burma Biodiversity Hotspot and is China's largest island after Taiwan (Fig. 1). Exianling is an east-west running limestone outcrop located in the western part of the island, with an altitude range of 150 m asl in the southwest to 1232 m asl at the highest summit towards the northeast. The limestone area of Exianling is ca. 20 [km.sup.2] in size and is characterized by karst landscape with underground rivers, caves, and vertical cliffs. The area experiences typical tropical monsoon climate with an annual mean temperature of 24.5[degrees]C, and annual precipitation of ca. 1620 mm, of which more than 80% falls during the rainy season between May and October (The Local Chronicles Compilation Committee of Changjing Li Minority Autonomous County, 1998). Rock substrate is hard limestone of Ordovician and Carboniferous origin with a rugged topography. The soil is mainly brown, coarse in texture, and composed of loamy limestone with a pH of ca. 7 and ca. 4% organic matter (Gong et al., 2004).
A complete floristic inventory was made based on the identification of more than 6000 plant specimens collected from limestone habitats of Exianling during 2003-2013 and deposited mainly at the herbarium of South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Qin, 2006; Zhang, 2007). The limestone flora of Exianling consists of 171 families of vascular plants, including 620 genera and 1121 species. An initial floristic analysis was made based on the inventory (Qin, 2006; Zhang, 2007). Five main vegetation types occur at Exianling: (1) Tropical limestone ravine rainforest; (2) tropical limestone evergreen forest; (3) tropical limestone semi-evergreen forest; (4) tropical limestone montane dwarf forest; and (5) monsoon rainforest.
Botanical plots were established in all five vegetation types as follow: one plot of 2300[m.sup.2] for Type 1; eight separate plots ranging in size from 1400m to 2200[m.sup.2] for Type 2; one plot of 1300[m.sup.2] for Type 3, four separate plots ranging in size from 500[m.sup.2] to 1600[m.sup.2] for Type 4, four separate plots ranging in size from 600 [m.sup.2] to 800 [m.sup.2] for Type 5. The different plot sizes reflect differential coverage of forest type and topographic restrictions. Structure and species composition of the limestone vegetation were analyzed based on plot data, and are already published (Zhang et al., 2005; Zhang et al., 2007; Zhang, 2007). In the present paper, plant inventory lists of the five main vegetation types were compiled from sample plots separately for the physiognomic (life form and leaf size) analysis. For criteria of life form and leaf size classes we followed Raunkiaer (1934). Ecological species groups were categorized from field observation and correspond to groups used in Shimizu (1964) and Chin (1977, 1979). Species-level biogeographical affinities were assessed for the total flora of the limestone vegetation at EXIANLING.
Significant Records from Mt. Exianling
Hainan Island has been separated from the continent since early Quaternary by a shallow strait. Although the first scientific botanical collection for Hainan was made by A. Dahl as early as 1790 (Henry, 1886), no botanists have ever visited Exianling until the late 1980s, as it is located in the rugged central highlands without vehicular access until recent decades. The first botanical exploration of the area was made in April 1988 by botanists from the South China Botanical Garden, when several new records were found (Li & Xing 1990). Since the early twenty-first century, we carried out extensive botanical fieldwork on the flora, vegetation and community ecology of the area. So far, 79 significant records have been found, including 11 species new to science and 57 species new to Hainan; nine genera and one family were also newly recorded for Hainan, as well as one new genus for China. For details see Appendix Table 8.
Classification of Limestone Vegetation on Mt. Exianling
Based on plant physiognomy, forest profile, floristic composition, and habitat, the primary limestone vegetation can be classified into five major vegetation types Within these, twelve formations (Wu, 1980; Zhang, 2007), including seventeen communities, were recognized:
(1) Ravine rainforest (including the sole formation Dehaasia hainanensis + Homalium hainanense + Bischofia javanica + Firmiana hainanensis + Cephalotaxus mannii + Dimocarpus longan + Lasiococca comberi var. pseudoverticill + Streblus ilicifolius)
(2) Tropical evergreen rainforest (including the following six formations: Lasiococca comberi var. pseudoverticill, Lasiococca comberi var. pseudoverticill + Streblus ilicifolius, Antidesma montanum, Ostodes paniculata, Vatica mangachapoi, Elaeocarpus sylvestris + Litchi chinensis + Lasiococca comberi var. pseudoverticill and Streblus ilicifolius + Arenga pinnata)
(3) Tropical semi-evergreen rainforest (including the sole formation Lagerstroemia balansae + Streblus ilicifolius + Terminalia hainaensis)',
(4) Tropical montane dwarf forest (including the following two formations: Quercus bawanglingensis and Drypetes hainanensis + Firmiana pulcherrima)-,
(5) Monsoon rainforest (including the sole formation Streblus ilicifolius + Terminalia hainaensis + Lagerstroemia balansae)',
Detailed descriptions and ecological analyses of the communities have been reported elsewhere (Zhang et al., 2005; Zhang et al., 2007; Zhang, 2007). Here, classification of the limestone vegetation of EXIANLING is concisely enumerated so that the biogeographical components of the limestone vegetation can be better understood.
Limestone ravine rainforest represents Southeast Asian tropical rainforest at its latitudinal and altitudinal limits, and shares characteristics with other non-limestone ravine rainforests of Hainan Island. These forests are evergreen, and emergent layer can reach 45 m in height. At Exianling this forest type occurs mainly in the large and deep wet valleys below 1000 m asl. This same forest type also occurs in southern Yunnan (Zhu et al., 2003) and North Vietnam (Thin, 1997), although different terms (Zhu et al, 2003; Thin, 1997) were used to describe them. The ecological structure of this forest type is almost identical to the tropical non-limestone ravine rainforest of Hainan Island (Zhang, 2007). Most species in the tropical limestone ravine rainforest of Exianling are also found in adjacent non-limestone ravine rainforest and seasonal rainforest, but the latters are more diverse with additional species, which are absent on limestone.
Tropical Evergreen Rainforest
Tropical evergreen rainforest occurs on the middle and upper limestone slopes ranging from 400 to 1000 m asl at Exianling. Emergent layer can reach 30 m in height. This vegetation type was called monsoon forest by some Chinese authors (Liu, 1987; Wu, 1980; Guangdong Institute of Botany, 1976). The term tropical evergreen rainforest is preferred here because the forest is not equivalent to Schimper's monsoon forest (Schimper, 1903) and the tropical seasonal moist forest of Xishuangbanna of southern Yunnan (Zhu et al., 2003; Zhu, 2005; Wang et al., 1997), in spite of the fact that it is also affected by seasonal dryness and contains a variable percentage of deciduous tree species.
The seasonal dryness at Exianling is compensated to some extent by dense fog accompanied by low temperatures between November and April (Whitmore, 1984). This forest types mainly occurs on shaded slopes of Exianling, contributing to water conservation for the limestone forest. A small percentage of deciduous trees, such as Streblus ilicifolius, Walsura cochinchinensis, Lagerstroemia balansae and Terminalia hainaensis can be found, which shed leaves toward the end of the dry season. This suggests that deciduousness of the EXIANLING forest is influenced mainly by local microclimates rather than climatic factors of the region. Therefore, using the term monsoon forest for the evergreen or semi-evergreen forest on limestone is confusing because Schimper's monsoon forest is more or less completely leafless during the dry season (Schimper, 1903).
Tropical Semi-Evergreen Rainforest
Tropical semi-evergreen rainforest occurs mainly on lower slopes ranging from 200 to 600 m asl at EXIANLING. Emergent layer can reach 25 m (sometimes 30 m) in height. The substrate is hard limestone rock with little soil, so it's very dry during the dry season. There are some deciduous trees with the IV of 36.49%, such as Lagerstroemia balansae, Streblus ilicifolius, Terminalia hainanensis, Walsura cochinchinensis and Toon a microcarpa, etc. And the dominant species of this forest are mainly Lagerstroemia balansae, Streblus ilicifolius and Terminalia hainanensis. The forest floor is very dry almost year round. Many species grow lowly and with thorns, such as Streblus ilicifolius and Terminalia hainanensis. This forest type is of limited extent at Exianling.
Tropical Montane Dwarf Forest
Montane dwarf forest occurs only on hilltops and summits at altitudes above 300 m asl at Exianling. There is only one dwarf tree layer with a canopy height of 2-7 m. Epiphytic species and small woody climbers, such as Nephrolepis cordifolia, Acampe rigida, Eria rosea, Rhaphidophora hongkongensis, Dischidia chinensis, Aristolochia polymorpha, and non-vascular epiphytes (e.g. lichens) are abundant.
Monsoon rainforest occurs mainly on lower sun-facing slopes from 200 to 600 m asl at Exianling where deciduous tree species dominate, and almost all the leaves fall during dry season. The ground is covered with hard limestone rock with little soil layer. Emergent layer can reach 15 m in height.
Plant Physiognomy or Attributes
From our plot data, life form spectra (Raunkiaer 1934) of the four main forest types (i.e. ravine rainforest, tropical evergreen rainforest, tropical montane dwarf forest and monsoon rainforest) are compiled in Table 1. Leaf size spectra, leaf form, and leaf texture are shown in Table 2. The four forest types were dominated by phanerophytes, including lianas, epiphanerophytes and stem-succulent phanerophytes.
Ecological Species Group
Based on studies of limestone floras in Japan and Taiwan, Shimizu (1964) divided limestone plants into five ecological groups:
(1) plants exclusive to limestone habitat;
(2) plants selective for and found mainly in limestone;
(3) plants preferring and dominant on limestone;
(4) taxa indifferent, with no special association with limestone;
(5) plants found only occasionally on limestone or strangers to limestone.
According to Shimizu (1964), the first three groups were characteristic species of limestone habitats and in particular his exclusive and selective taxa were calcicoles. Chin (1977, 1979) accepted the classification and similarly categorized plants on limestone in the Malay Peninsula into four groups, combining selective and prefeient plants, and he indicated the first two groups are mostly calcicoles. Similar ecological species groups have been later recognized by Chinese botanists (Liang et al., 1985; Liu et al, 1994; Zhu et al., 2003).
Following these classifications, we divided the endemic limestone flora of Exianling into four major ecological species groups (Table 3). In our study, plants exclusive to limestone make up about 2.4% of the total limestone flora of Exianling, which is far lower than the results from Nonggang limestone forest (exclusive taxa, 13%) (Liang et al., 1985) and Longhua limestone forest (exclusive taxa, 10%) (Liu et al., 1994) of Guangxi Province, and southern Yunnan limestone forest (exclusive taxa, about 10%) (Zhu et al., 2003) in China. In Exianling the combined total of exclusive and preferent taxa make up only 8.6% of the total sum, which could be termed as characteristic species for limestone habitats. Our result indicates that forest composition of Exianling is dissimilar to those from extensive limestone regions, such as Nonggang in Guangxi (with characteristic species making up 20% of the total sum) (Liang et al., 1985), Xishuangbanna in Yunnan (22.3% of the total sum) (Zhu et al., 2003) and limestone forest of Malay Peninsula (27.5% of the total sum) (Chin 1977, 1979).
The Flora and Its Biogeography
In the limestone forest of Exianling, 171 families of vascular plants including 620 genera and 1121 species and varieties, were recorded, of which seed plants compose of 137 families, 557 genera, and 972 species. More than 90% of these species also occur in non-limestone habitats of Hainan Island. Qin et al. (2007) prepared a checklist of vascular plant flora on limestone of Hainan Island with 1409 native species belonging to 711 genera and 179 families. EXIANLING, being the largest limestone outcrop of the island, makes up about ca. 69% of the total limestone vascular plant species in Hainan Island. Xing et al., (2012) reported a total of 4456 native vascular plant species belonging to 1239 genera and 274 families for Hainan Island, and the limestone flora makes up about 31.6% of the total species of the Hainan flora.
The distribution types of Chinese seed plants at the generic level were documented by Wu (1991) for the representative communities of the 5 main forest types, namely limestone ravine rainforest, tropical evergreen rainforest, tropical semi-evergreen rainforest, tropical montane dwarf forest and monsoon rainforest. Of which, the genera of seed plants of three communication types were documented based on Wu's document. They can be divided into 11 distribution types or geographic elements (9 genera of the Lasiococca comberi var. pseudoverticillata forest and 6 genera of the Quercus bawanglingensis forest, which are cosmopolitan in distribution, are not included in the geographic statistics) (Table 4).
Fourteen limestone-specialist species endemic to Hainan, belonging to 13 families and 14 genera, were recorded at Exianling, of which ten are endemic to Exianling (Table 5). At the generic level, the geographic elements of tropical distribution (16, Table 4) compose 90% of the total genera; the geographic elements of temperate distribution (7-10, Table 4) make up only 6.7% and the remaining 3.3% are of worldwide distribution. This indicates that the limestone flora at Exianling is predominantly tropical in nature and represents the tropical Asian flora at its northern margin.
Prior to our botanical exploration in 1988, the biodiversity value of Exianling was little known. Subsequent studies and surveys by ecologists and conservationists confirmed the conservation significance of this limestone outcrop (Lee & Lu, 2007; Lu & Chen, 2007). Despite the recognized conservation value Exianling is not yet a statutory protected area, and the site is being degraded by overexploitation of wildlife, valuable timber and other non-timber forest products as such orchids. The fragrant rosewood Dalbergia odorifera, in particular, is in high demand for the timber market and fetches USD $1000/kg, and wood from the Exianling area is considered to be of the best quality. As such, gangs of illegal loggers comb the forest cutting all mature trees of the species, and use explosives to extract the stumps and roots amongst limestone rocks. Hunters and orchid collectors are also threatening the biodiversity of this limestone forest. Exianling has been subject to environmental threats from mining activities as well in the past two decades. Kadoorie Conservation China has heavily involved in the conservation of Exianling limestone forest and partially financed the above floristic studies. A nature reserve station was constructed in 2009. Recently, activities in exploiting of the gold mining in Exianling has been stopped by the nature reserve. In addition, the local government is putting efforts into protection of EXIANLING by organizing a team of full-time rangers patrolling the forest and the authority is in the process of establishing a nature reserve which includes all limestone habitats of Exianling.
Of the flora of Exianling a total of 26 species (2% of the total sum) belonging to 25 genera and 19 families have been assessed by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (IUCN, 2016), of which 16 are globally threatened. These include 7 species classified as Endangered (EN) and 9 species considered Vulnerable (VU). Table 6 provides an overview of the IUCN Red List status of plant species known from Exianling.
Of the flora of Exianling, all species have been assessed by the Biodiversity Red List of China (the Ministry of Environmental Protection of the people's Republic of China, the Chinese Academy of Science, 2013), of which, a total of 122 species (10.9% of the total sum) belonging to 93 genera and 55 families are considered nationally threatened with extinction (Table 7). These include 1 species classified as Regionally Extinct (RE), 6 considered Critically Endangered (CR), 24 species considered Endangered (EN), 33 species considered Near Threatened (NT) and 58 species considered Vulnerable (VU). Table 7 provides an overview of the Biodiversity Red List of China status of plant species known from EXIANLING.
Exianling is unequivocally the best-preserved tropical limestone rainforest on Hainan Island, and arguably the best in China. Based on our long-term botanical studies, the four major forest types at Exianling are: (1) tropical limestone ravine rainforest; (2) tropical limestone evergreen forest; (3) tropical limestone montane dwarf forest; (4) monsoon rainforest. The limestone flora of Exianling is principally tropical in nature and represents the tropical Asian flora at its northern margin, which is not closely affiliated with the floras of the Sino-Vietnamese limestone as one might have expected based on proximity.
With limited limestone area on Hainan Island, forest composition of Exianling is dissimilar to those from extensive and continuous limestone regions of Indochina; nevertheless a good number of significant records have been found including new species and species new to China. A total of 14 species belonging to 14 genera and 13 families are endemic to limestone forests of Hainan Island, of which 10 species belonging to 10 genera and 10 families are point endemic to Exianling. Enhanced conservation measures and systematic botanical studies are required to protect this unique limestone ecosystem.
Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the Forestry Department of Hainan Province for granting permission for conducting fieldwork. We thank Li Fei of Kadooric Farm and Botanic Garden for kindly producing Fig. 1. and Chen Qing of Bawangling National Nature Reserve for assistance in fieldwork. The villagers of Nanlang provided much logistic supports for fieldwork and lodging. The senior author is grateful to Philip Lo of Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden for his assistance and advice in conducting this study. This project was funded by The National Natural Science Foundation of China (41001028, 41471046), and Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden.
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Appendix Table 8 Checklist of significant plant records of Mt. Exianling, Hainan Island, China Num. Family name Latin name 1 Euphorbiaceae Acalypha chuniana H.G.Ye, Y.S.Ye, X.S.Qin & F.W.Xing, sp.nov. 2 Aceraceae Acer cordatum Pax 3 Adiantaceae Adiantum capillus-veneris L. 4 Adiantaceae A. edgewothii Hook. Sp. 5 Adiantaceae A. juxtapositum Ching 6 Sinopteridaceae Aleuritopteris pseudofarinosa Ching et S.K.Wu 7 Athyriaceae Allantodia alata (Christ) Ching 8 Zingiberaceae Alpinia tonkinensis Gagnep. 9 Aspleniaceae Asplenium austrochinense Ching 10 Aspleniaceae A. coenobiale Hance 11 Aspleniaceae A. planicaule Wall. 12 Aspleniaceae A. sampsoni Hance 13 Aspleniaceae A. saxicola Rosenstock 14 Aspidiaceae Ataxipteris dianguiensis W.M.Chu & H.G.Zhou 15 Balanophoraceae Balanophora saxicola Xing et Z. X.Li, sp.nov. 16 Acanthaceae Blepharis maderaspatensis (Linn.)Roth 17 Papilionaceae 18 Ulmaceae Celtis biondii Pamp. 19 Sinopteridaceae Cheilosoria chusana (Hook.)Ching et Shing 20 Orchidaceae Cleisostoma menghaiense Z.H.Tsi 21 Ranunculaceae Clematis uncinata Champ. 22 Aspidiaceae Ctenitis rhodolepis (Clarke)Ching 23 Labiatae Coleus carnosifolius (Hemsl.)Dunn. 24 Thelypteridaceae Cyclosoms calvescens China 25 Dryopteridaceae Cyrtomium fortunei J. Sm. 26 Dryopteridaceae C. hemionitis Christ 27 Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea changjiangensis Xing et Z.X.Li.sp.nov. 28 Boraginaceae Ehretia changjiangensis Xing et Z.X.Li, sp.,nov. 29 Gesneriaceae Epithema camosum Benth. 30 Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia hainanensis Croizat 31 Araliaceae Hedera nepalensis K. Koch var. sinensis (Tobl.) Rehd. 32 Rubiaceae Hedyotis ovalifolia Cav. 33 Davalliaceae Humata tyermanni Moore 34 Hypodematiaceae Hvpodematium crenatum (Foisk.)Kuhn 35 Hypodematiaceae H.squamuloso-pilosum Ching 36 Aquifoliaceae Ilex latifolia Thunb. 37 Urticaceae Laportea bulbifera (Sieb. Et Zucc.)Weed. 38 Lindsaeaceae Lindsaea conformis Ching 39 Orchidaceae Liparis nervosa (Thunb.) Lindl. 40 Lygodiaceae Lygodium subareolatum Christ 41 Berberidaceae Mahonia hainanensis H.L.X.,sp. nov. 42 Euphorbiaceae Maliotus milliettii Levi. 43 Celastraceae Mavtenus dongfangensis F.W.Xing, X.S.Qin & R.J.Zhang, sp. Nov. 44 Thelypteridaceae Mesopteris tonkinensis (C. Chr.) Ching 45 Dennslaedtiaceae Microlepia platyphylla (Don)J.Sm. 46 Polypodiaeeae Microsorum steerei (Harr.) Ching 47 Orchidaceae Mischobulbum cordifolium (Hook. f.)Schltr. 48 Orchidaceae Mischobulbum longiscapum Seilenf ex H.Tumer 49 Rutaceae Murrava euchrestifolia Hayata 50 Aspleniaceae Neottopteris humbertii (Tard-Blot)Tagawa 51 Orchidaceae Nervilia fordii (Hance) Schltr. 52 Gesneriaceae Paraboea changjiangensis Xing et Z.X.Li 53 Gesneriaceae P. dictyoneura (Hance) Burtt 54 Piperaceae Peperomia cavaleriei C. DC. 55 Dryopteridaceae Polystichum deitodon (Bak.) Diels 56 Simarubaceae Picrasma quassioides Benn. 57 Urticaceae Pilea cavaleriei Levi. 58 Urticaceae P. peltata Hance 59 Polygalaceae Polygala bawanglingensis F.W.Xing & Z.X.Li 60 Dryopteridaceae Polystichum kwangtungense Ching 61 Pteridaceae Pteris changjiangensis X.-L.Zheng & F.-W.Xing 62 Pteridaceae Pteris decrescens Christ 63 Pteridaceae Pteris majestica Ching ex Ching et S. H. Wu 64 Polypodiaceae Pyrrosia calvata (Bak.)Ching 65 Fagaceae Quercus bawanglingensis Huang.Li et Xing ,sp.nov. 66 Rhamnaceae Rhamnus brachypoda C.Y.Wu 67 Rosaceae Rubus pinfaensis Levi. Et Vant. 68 Rhamnaceae Sageretia thea (Osbeck) Johnst. 69 Euphorbiaceae Sapium insigne Benth. Et Hook. 70 Saxifragaceae Schizophragma integrifolium (Franch.) Oliv. 71 Orchidaceae Schoenorchis venoverbeghii Ames 72 Crassulaeeae Sedum stellariifolium Franch. 73 Selaginellaceae Selaginella moellendorffii Hieron 74 Selaginellaceae S. pulvinata (Hook, et Grev.) Maxim 75 Rubiaceae Serissa serissoides (DC.)Druce 76 Rubiaceae Sinoadina racemosa (Sieb. Et Zucc.) Ridsdale 77 Sapotaceae Sinosideroxylon wightianum (Hook. et Am.) Aubr. 78 Aspidiaceae Tectaria polymorpha (Wall. Ex Hook.) Copel. 79 Compositae Tithonia diversifolia A. Gray 80 Orchidaceae Tropidia angulosa (Lindl.)Bl. 81 Ulmaceae Ulmus changii Cheng var. kunmingensis (Cheng) Cheng et L. K. Fu. Num. Family name Specimen Depository 1 Euphorbiaceae Fuwu Xing et al. 14,983 (holotype IBSC; isotype TNM) 2 Aceraceae Fuwu Xing,et al. IBSC 13,768; Zexian Li & Fuwu Xing 4185 3 Adiantaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing 5114 4 Adiantaceae Fuwu Xing s.n. IBSC 5 Adiantaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu Xing5291 6 Sinopteridaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing 5106 7 Athyriaceae Fuwu Xing,et al. IBSC 14759,15,031,15,034 8 Zingiberaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu Xing5101 9 Aspleniaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing3588 10 Aspleniaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing5077 11 Aspleniaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing5070 12 Aspleniaceae Fuwu Xing,et al. IBSC 13,689 13 Aspleniaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing5078 14 Aspidiaceae Shiyong Dong 1062 PE 15 Balanophoraceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing5251(holotype); Zexian Li & Fuwu Xing5368 16 Acanthaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing 5087 17 Papilionaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing5080 18 Ulmaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing5081 19 Sinopteridaceae Fuwu Xing.et al. IBSC 13,701 20 Orchidaceae Xiqiang Song 060802 PE 21 Ranunculaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing 5100 22 Aspidiaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing4221 23 Labiatae Zexian Li & Fuwu [BSC Xing4215 24 Thelypteridaceae Kerui Huang, Hui CSH Shang, Jiangping Shu & Jinhong Wei SG2886 25 Dryopteridaceae Xinsheng Qin 849 IBSC 26 Dryopteridaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu Xing5292 27 Dioscoreaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing 5116(holotype) 28 Boraginaceae Fuwu Xing5136 (Typus SCBI),5139 29 Gesneriaceae Xilong Zheng 835 IBSC 30 Euphorbiaceae Xinsheng Qin & IBSC Rongjing Zhang 529;Zexian Li & Fuwu Xing 6287 31 Araliaceae Fuwu Xing.et al. IBSC 13.770 32 Rubiaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu Xing5093 33 Davalliaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing 5110 34 Hypodematiaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing5079 35 Hypodematiaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing 5123 36 Aquifoliaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu Xing5111 37 Urticaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu Xing5094 38 Lindsaeaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing4360 39 Orchidaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing 5108 40 Lygodiaceae Fuwu Xing, et al. IBSC 13,889 41 Berberidaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu Holotypus IBSC Xing 5117, 5275 42 Euphorbiaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing5091 43 Celastraceae Xinsheng Qm et al. 942(Holotype:IBSC) 44 Thelypteridaceae Kerui Huang, Hui CSH Shang, Jiangping Shu & Jinhong Wei SG2883, SG2888 45 Dennslaedtiaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing4303 46 Polypodiaeeae Fuwu Xing,et al. IBSC 14.826 47 Orchidaceae Xiqiang Song 060502 PE 48 Orchidaceae Lin Li 057 IBSC 49 Rutaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing 5120 50 Aspleniaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing4195 51 Orchidaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu Xing5095 52 Gesneriaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing 5134(holotype);Fuwu Xing5142 53 Gesneriaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu Xing5294 54 Piperaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing4174 55 Dryopteridaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu Xing5289 56 Simarubaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing4198 57 Urticaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing5082 58 Urticaceae Xinsheng Qin et al. IBSC 192. 59 Polygalaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing 5140(holo.,SCBI)1989.5.20.; Fuwu Xing & Xinsheng Qin 13,765 60 Dryopteridaceae Xinsheng Qin 965 IBSC 61 Pteridaceae Xilong Zheng IBSC 733(holotype);Xilong Zheng 1019(paratype) 62 Pteridaceae Fuwu Xing.et al.13900 IBSC 63 Pteridaceae Fuwu Xing.et al.15015 IBSC 64 Polypodiaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing4165 65 Fagaceae Fuwu Xing IBSC s.n.(fruit,holotype); Zexian Li 4148(male inflorescence specimen) 66 Rhamnaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing4140 67 Rosaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing3172 68 Rhamnaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu Xing5112 69 Euphorbiaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu Xing5090 70 Saxifragaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing3877 71 Orchidaceae Xinsheng Qin et al. IBSC 803 72 Crassulaeeae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing 5122 73 Selaginellaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing5088 74 Selaginellaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing 5109 75 Rubiaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing5083 76 Rubiaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing 5097 77 Sapotaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing4150 78 Aspidiaceae Shiyong Dong 1057, PE 1060 79 Compositae Fuwu Xing. et al. IBSC 14,085 80 Orchidaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing 5104 81 Ulmaceae Zexian Li & Fuwu IBSC Xing 5102 Num. Family name Collecting time 1 Euphorbiaceae 2004.4.15. 2 Aceraceae 1988.5.5.; 2003.3.31. 3 Adiantaceae 1989.3.20. 4 Adiantaceae 1989.4.5. 5 Adiantaceae 1991.11.17. 6 Sinopteridaceae 1989.3.25. 7 Athyriaceae 2003.10.24.; 2004.4.10.- ;2004.4.15. 8 Zingiberaceae 1989.3.25. 9 Aspleniaceae 1988.4.21. 10 Aspleniaceae 1988.10.20. 11 Aspleniaceae 1988.4.21. 12 Aspleniaceae 2003.4.1. 13 Aspleniaceae 1988.10.20. 14 Aspidiaceae 15 Balanophoraceae 1991.11.16.; 1991.11.28. 16 Acanthaceae 1989.10.1. 17 Papilionaceae 1988.10.15. 18 Ulmaceae 1988.10.20. 19 Sinopteridaceae 2003.4.1 20 Orchidaceae 2006.5.20. 21 Ranunculaceae 1989.3.25. 22 Aspidiaceae 1988.5.5. 23 Labiatae 1988.5.5. 24 Thelypteridaceae 2015.3.22. 25 Dryopteridaceae 2005.1.17. 26 Dryopteridaceae 1991.11.17. 27 Dioscoreaceae 1989.3.28. 28 Boraginaceae 1989.07.24. 29 Gesneriaceae 2007.9. 18. 30 Euphorbiaceae 1940 31 Araliaceae 2003.3.31. 32 Rubiaceae 1989.10.1. 33 Davalliaceae 1989.3.26. 34 Hypodematiaceae 1988.10.20. 35 Hypodematiaceae 1989.3.27. 36 Aquifoliaceae 1989.3.26. 37 Urticaceae 1989.10.1. 38 Lindsaeaceae 1988.6.10. 39 Orchidaceae 1989.3.25. 40 Lygodiaceae 2003.4.1 41 Berberidaceae 1994 42 Euphorbiaceae 1989.10.1. 43 Celastraceae 2005.1.20. 44 Thelypteridaceae 2015.3.22. 45 Dennslaedtiaceae 1988.5.10. 46 Polypodiaeeae 2004.3.26. 47 Orchidaceae 2006.5.10. 48 Orchidaceae 2006.7.16. 49 Rutaceae 1989.3.25. 50 Aspleniaceae 1988.5.5. 51 Orchidaceae 1989.10.1. 52 Gesneriaceae 1989.7.25.; 1989.9.30. 53 Gesneriaceae 1991.11.27. 54 Piperaceae 1988.5.5. 55 Dryopteridaceae 1991.11.17. 56 Simarubaceae 1988.5.5. 57 Urticaceae 1988.10.20. 58 Urticaceae 2004.7 .13. 59 Polygalaceae 1989.5.20. 60 Dryopteridaceae 2005.1.20. 61 Pteridaceae 2007.9.16.; 2007.10.10. 62 Pteridaceae 2003.3.30. 63 Pteridaceae 2004.4.15. 64 Polypodiaceae 1988.5.5. 65 Fagaceae 1988.11.5. 66 Rhamnaceae 1988.5.5. 67 Rosaceae 1988.4.15. 68 Rhamnaceae 1989.3.26. 69 Euphorbiaceae 1989.9.29. 70 Saxifragaceae 1988.4.27. 71 Orchidaceae 2005.1.11. 72 Crassulaeeae 1989.3.27. 73 Selaginellaceae 1989.9.29. 74 Selaginellaceae 1989.3.25. 75 Rubiaceae 1988.10.20. 76 Rubiaceae 1989.3.15. 77 Sapotaceae 1988.5.5. 78 Aspidiaceae 79 Compositae 2003.3.27. 80 Orchidaceae 1989.3.25. 81 Ulmaceae 1989.3.25. Num. Family name Collecting location 1 Euphorbiaceae Wangxia, on limestone mountains, alt.700 m 2 Aceraceae on the limestone in Wangxia 3 Adiantaceae at the gully of Wangxia, alt. 700 m 4 Adiantaceae on the limestone in Wangxia 5 Adiantaceae the limestone mountain of Wangxia, alt. 1100 m 6 Sinopteridaceae on the limestone in Wangxia, 1000 m 7 Athyriaceae Wangxia, alt. 700 m;Wangxia, alt. 750 m; Sanpai village of Wangxia town,alt. 650 m 8 Zingiberaceae in the limestone monsoon forest of Wangxia, alt. 1000 m 9 Aspleniaceae on the tree stem of the limestone towards Bawangling Mountain, alt. 1100 m 10 Aspleniaceae on the limestone towards Bawangling Mountain, alt. 950 m 11 Aspleniaceae on the limestone towards Bawangling Mountain, alt. 1000 m 12 Aspleniaceae on the limestone in Wangxia 13 Aspleniaceae on the limestone towards Bawangling Mountain, alt. 950 m 14 Aspidiaceae Exian mountain, alt. 900-980 m 15 Balanophoraceae the limestone of Wulie, alt.350 m; the limestone of Houmiling in Dongfang, alt. 390 m 16 Acanthaceae on the limestone in Wangxia, alt. 800 m 17 Papilionaceae 18 Ulmaceae on the limestone towards Bawangling Mountain, alt. 950 m 19 Sinopteridaceae on the limestone in Wangxia 20 Orchidaceae Exian mountain 21 Ranunculaceae between the limestone of Wangxia, alt. 1000 m 22 Aspidiaceae in the dense forest of the limestone mountain towards Bawangling, alt. 900 m 23 Labiatae on the limestone towards Bawangling Mountain, alt. 900 m 24 Thelypteridaceae on the limestone evergreen broadleaf forest of Mt. Exianling, alt. 900-1000 m 25 Dryopteridaceae Jiulong Mountain of Nanlang village in Donghe town, alt.l 100 m 26 Dryopteridaceae in the limestone monsoon forest of Wangxia, alt. 1100 m 27 Dioscoreaceae the limestone mountain of Wangxia, alt. 380 m 28 Boraginaceae the top of the limestone mountain towards Bawangling Mountain,300 m 29 Gesneriaceae Sanpai village of Wangxia, on the sheer cliff of limestone mountain, alt 400-600 m 30 Euphorbiaceae the top of the mountain at Nanlang; the limestone mountain of Wangxia 31 Araliaceae on the limestone in Wangxia 32 Rubiaceae on the limestone of Wangxia, alt.800 m 33 Davalliaceae on the limestone in Wangxia, 1100 m 34 Hypodematiaceae on the limestone towards Bawangling Mountain, alt. 950 m 35 Hypodematiaceae on the limestone in Wangxia,400 m 36 Aquifoliaceae in the limestone monsoon forest of Wangxia, alt. 1000 m 37 Urticaceae Wangxia, in the sparse forest on the limestone hilltop, alt. 850 m 38 Lindsaeaceae in the forest of the limestone mountain towards Bawangling Mountain, alt. 900 m 39 Orchidaceae on the limestone in Wangxia, alt. 700 m 40 Lygodiaceae on the limestone in Wangxia,alt.500 m 41 Berberidaceae on the limestone in Wangxia, alt. 800-1250 42 Euphorbiaceae between the limestone in Wangxia, alt. 1000 m 43 Celastraceae Donghe Town, Nanlang village, Jiulong ML, alt.900 m, on the top of limestone mountains 44 Thelypteridaceae on the limestone evergreen broadleaf forest of Mt. Exianling, alt. 900-1000 m 45 Dennslaedtiaceae at the margin of the limestone gully towards Bawangling Mountain, alt. 900 m 46 Polypodiaeeae Wangxia, alt. 800 m, 47 Orchidaceae Exian mountain 48 Orchidaceae on the limestone in Wangxia, alt. 680 m 49 Rutaceae on the limestone in Wangxia, alt. 1000 m 50 Aspleniaceae on the limestone towards Bawangling Mountain, alt. 900 m 51 Orchidaceae on the grassland on the limestone hilltop of Wangxia, alt. 800 m 52 Gesneriaceae on the limestone in Wangxia, alt. 600 m 53 Gesneriaceae in the limestone monsoon forest of Wangxia, alt. 1000 m 54 Piperaceae on the limestone towards Bawangling Mountain, alt. 900 m 55 Dryopteridaceae in the limestone monsoon forest of Wangxia, alt. 1100 m 56 Simarubaceae on the limestone towards Bawangling Mountain, alt. 900 m 57 Urticaceae on the limestone towards Bawangling Mountain, alt Q SO m 58 Urticaceae ait. yjKj m on the top of the limestone mountain in Wangxia, alt. 600-1000 m 59 Polygalaceae the limestone mountain of Wangxia, alt. 1000 m;between the limestone of Wangxia 60 Dryopteridaceae Jiulong Mountain ofNanlang village in Donghe town, alt.900 m 61 Pteridaceae on the limestone in Wangxia, alt. 400-800 m 62 Pteridaceae Wangxia, in the forest on limestone, alt. 600 m 63 Pteridaceae Sanpai village of Wangxia town, on the limestone mountain, alt. 700 m 64 Polypodiaceae on the limestone towards Bawangling Mountain, alt. 900 m 65 Fagaceae the limestone mountain towards Bawangling Mountain, alt. 980 m, 900 m 66 Rhamnaceae on the limestone towards Bawangling Mountain, alt QSO m 67 Rosaceae an. yj\j m at the forest margin of the limestone mountain towards Bawangling, alt. 900 m 68 Rhamnaceae in the limestone monsoon forest of Wangxia. alt. 1000 m 69 Euphorbiaceae between the limestone in Wangxia, alt.850 m 70 Saxifragaceae in the forest of the limestone mountain towards Bawangling, ait. 1000 m 71 Orchidaceae the tree stem on the top of Nanlang, alt. 1100 m 72 Crassulaeeae between the limestone on the limestone mountain of Wangxia, alt. 1200 m 73 Selaginellaceae between the limestone in Wangxia, alt. 1000 m 74 Selaginellaceae on the limestone in Wangxia, 1100 m 75 Rubiaceae on the limestone towards Bawangling Mountain. alt. 950 m 76 Rubiaceae on the top of limestone mountain in Wangxia, alt. 1000 m 77 Sapotaceae on the limestone towards Bawangling Mountain. alt. 950 m 78 Aspidiaceae in the forest of Exian mountain, alt. 500-1500 m 79 Compositae on the sandbeach at the foot of the Tiger mountain of Baoyou village, Qichai town, alt. 42 m; Nanlang 80 Orchidaceae in the dense forest on the limestone in Wangxia, alt. son m 81 Ulmaceae ouu m on the limestone in Wangxia, 1000 m Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae and Flora of China are the authoritative sources for specific and infraspecific names except for those with recently revised taxonomy in IPNI (www.ipni.org) and TROPICOS (http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html). Family names of angiosperms follow the Angiospcrm Phylogeny Website (http://www.mobot. org/MOBOT/rescarch/APweb/) SH new record for Hainan, NS new species, GSH newly recorded genera & species for Hainan, FGSH newly recorded family, genera & species for Hainan. GSC newly recorded genera & species for China IBSC South China Botanical Garden Herbarium, PF. Herbarium, Institute of Botany, CAS
Rongjing Zhang (1) * Xinsheng Qin (2) * Hongfeng Chen (3) * Bosco Pui Lok Chan (4) * Fuwu Xing (3,5) * Zhe Xu (1)
(1) College of Life Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642, People's Republic of China
(2) College of Forestry, South China Agricultural University. Guangzhou. Guangdong 510642, People's Republic of China
(3) South China Botanical Garden, The Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510650, People's Republic of China
(4) Kadoorie Conservation China, Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden, Lam Kam Road, New Territories, Hong Kong
(5) Author for Correspondence; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Published online: 4 April 2017
Caption: Fig. 1 Location of Mt. Exianling, Hainan Island, China (Prepared by Li Fci)
Table 1 Life form of the limestone forest at Mt. Exianling, Hainan Island, China Vegetation Meg Mes Mic N Ravine rainforest N of spp. 8 45 19 4 % of total species 6.6 36.9 15.6 3.3 Tropical evergreen N of spp. 4 79 32 9 rainforest % of total spp. 2.5 48.5 19.6 5.5 Tropical montane N of spp. 2 24 28 19 dwarf forest % of total species 1.5 17.9 20.9 14.2 Monsoon rainforest N. of spp. 0 22 16 6 % of total species 0 26.5 19.3 7.2 Vegetation L E S Hph Ravine rainforest N of spp. 22 5 1 14 % of total species 18.0 4.1 0.8 11.5 Tropical evergreen N of spp. 28 1 0 1 rainforest % of total spp. 17.2 0.6 0 0.6 Tropical montane N of spp. 22 6 6 17 dwarf forest % of total species 16.4 4.5 4.5 12.7 Monsoon rainforest N. of spp. 20 3 0 3 % of total species 24.1 3.6 0 3.6 Vegetation C G Th All Ravine rainforest N of spp. 1 2 1 122 % of total species 0.8 1.6 0.8 Tropical evergreen N of spp. 8 1 1 164 rainforest % of total spp. 4.9 0.6 0.6 Tropical montane N of spp. 0 1 9 134 dwarf forest % of total species 0 74.6 6.7 Monsoon rainforest N. of spp. 11 1 1 83 % of total species 13.3 1.2 1.2 Meg Megaphanerophytes, Mes Mesophanerophytes, Mic Mierophanerophytes, N Nanophanerophytes, L Linophanerophytes, E Epiphanerophytes, S Succulent phanerophytes, Hph Hemicryptophytes, C Chamae-phytes, G Geophytes, Th Therophytes (Raunkiaer, 1934) Table 2 Leaf form, texture and size of the limestone forest at Mt. Exianling. Hainan Island, China Forest type Leaf form S c Ravine rainforest N of spp. 100 22 % of total species 82.0 18.0 Tropical evergreen N. of spp. 138 26 rainforest % of total species 84.2 15.9 Tropical montane N. of spp. 109 25 dwarf forest % of total species 81.3 18.7 Monsoon rainforest N. of spp. 58 25 % of total species 69.9 30.1 Forest type Leaf texture H Co F M Ravine rainforest N of spp. 16 97 4 5 % of total species 13.1 79.5 3.3 4.1 Tropical evergreen N. of spp. 62 94 3 5 rainforest % of total species 37.8 57.3 1.8 3.1 Tropical montane N. of spp. 33 84 17 0 dwarf forest % of total species 24.6 62.7 12.7 0 Monsoon rainforest N. of spp. 33 36 9 5 % of total species 39.8 43.4 10.8 6.0 Forest type Leaf size Meg Ma Me Mi Ravine rainforest N of spp. 8 17 68 26 % of total species 6.7 14.3 57.1 21.9 Tropical evergreen N. of spp. 3 10 116 35 rainforest % of total species 1.8 6.1 70.7 21.3 Tropical montane N. of spp. dwarf forest % of total species Monsoon rainforest N. of spp. 2 9 44 22 % of total species 2.4 10.9 53.0 26.5 S Simple leaves, C Compound leaves, H Herbaceous, Co Coriaceous, F Fleshy, M Membranous, Meg Mcgaphyll (larger than 164,025 [mm.sup.2]), Ma Macrophyll (to 164,025 [mm.sup.2]), Me Mesophyll (to 18,222 [mm.sup.2]), Mi Microphyll (to 2025 [mm.sup.2]) (Raunkiaer, 1934) Table 3 Characteristic ecological species groups of Mt. Exianling, Hainan Island, China Ecological species groups Num. of % of total species species plants exclusive to limestone habitats 27 2.4 plants dominant on limestone 69 6.2 plants no restriction on limestone 870 77.6 Plants found occasionally on limestone 155 13.8 Total 1121 100 Table 4 Genera distribution types of three communities at Mt. Exianling, Hainan Island, China Ravine rainforest Distribution types Genus num. % Per. World 1. Pantropic 25 28.1 2. Trop. Asia & Trop. Amer. disjuncted 2 2.3 3. Old World Tropics 13 14.6 4. Trop. Asia to Trop. Australasia 9 10.1 5. Tropical Asia & Trop. Africa 3 3.4 6. Trop. Asia (India-Malaysia) 31 34.8 7. Temperate 2 2.3 8. E. Asia & N. Amer. disjuncted 9. Old World Temperate 10. E. Asia 3 3.4 11. Endemic to China 1 1.1 Total 89 100 Tropical evergreen rainforest Distribution types Genus num. % Per. World 9 . 1. Pantropic 39 33.3 2. Trop. Asia & Trop. Amer. disjuncted 2 1.7 3. Old World Tropics 10 8.6 4. Trop. Asia to Trop. Australasia 10 8.6 5. Tropical Asia & Trop. Africa 8 6.8 6. Trop. Asia (India-Malaysia) 42 35.9 7. Temperate 1 0.9 8. E. Asia & N. Amer. disjuncted 9. Old World Temperate 10. E. Asia 3 2.6 11. Endemic to China 2 1.7 Total 126 100 Tropical montane dwarf forest Distribution types Genus num. % Per. World 6 4.6 1. Pantropic 40 30.7 2. Trop. Asia & Trop. Amer. disjuncted 2 1.5 3. Old World Tropics 12 9.2 4. Trop. Asia to Trop. Australasia 21 16.2 5. Tropical Asia & Trop. Africa 10 7.7 6. Trop. Asia (India-Malaysia) 32 24.6 7. Temperate 5 3.9 8. E. Asia & N. Amer. disjuncted 3 2.3 9. Old World Temperate 2 1.5 10. E. Asia 3 2.3 11. Endemic to China Total 136 100 Table 5 Limestone specialist species endemic to Hainan found at Mt. Exianling, Hainan Island, China Species Exianling endemics (denoted by "*") 1. Allantodia wangii 2. Mahonia hainanensis * 3. Aristolochia polymorpha * 4. Polygala bawanglingensis * 5. Impatiens hainanensis 6. Acalypha chuniana 7. Euphorbia hainanensis * 8. Quercus bawanglingensis * 9. Maytenus dongfangensi * 10. Balanophora saxicola * 11. Clausena hainanensis * 12. Ardisia crassirhiza 13. Ehretia changjiangensis * 14. Dioscorea changjiangensis * Table 6 Status of plant species in the HJCN Red List of Threatened Species at Mt. Exianling, Hainan Island, China Species Category 1. Cyrtomium hemionitis EN 2. Cycas changjiangensis EN 3. Alphonsea hainanensis EN 4. Vatica mangachapoi EN 5. Begonia peltatifolia EN 6.Gastrochilus calceolaris EN 7. Phalaenopsis hainanensis EN 8. Cephalotaxus mannii VU 9. Alphonsea monogyna VU 10. Chieniodendron hainanense VU 11. Miliusa prolifica VU 12. Aquilaria sinensis VU 13. Hydnocarpus hainanensis VU 14. Firmiana hainanensis VU 15. Dalbergia odorifera VU 16. Litchi chinensis VU 17. Podocarpus neriifolius LC 18. Cephalotaxus sinensis LC 19. Gentum parivifolium LC 20. Bulbophyllum delitescens LC 21. Cratoxylum cochinchinense LR/LC 22. Scleropyrum wallichianum LR/LC 23. Toona ciliata LR/LC 24. Dimocarpus longan LR/NT 25. Pholidota chinensis NT 26. Magnolia paenetalauma DD Table 7 Status of plant specics in the Biodiversity Red List of China at Mt. Exianling, Hainan Island, China Category Num. /% Species RE 1/0.08 Tectaria ebenina CR 6/0.5 Cycas changjiangensis, Dalbergia odorifera, Platea parvifolia, Paranephelium hainanense, Lasianthus calycinus, Phalaenopsis hainanensis EN 24/2.1 Cyrtomium hemionitis, Lygodium merrilii, Oleandra undulata, Pteris tripartita, Aleuritopteris squamosa, Ataxipteris dianguiensis, Cyclosorus terminans, Cephalotaxus mannii, Chieniodendron hainanense, Fissistigma tungfangense, Stephania hainanensis, Tinospora sagittata var. sagittata, Homalium stenophyllum, Lagerstroemia balansae, Syzygium brachyantherum, Firmiana pulcherrima, Euphorbia hainanensis, Ellipanthus glabrifolius, Richeriella gracilis, Acanthephippium striatum, Eria rosea, Liparis fissilabris, Renanthera coccinea, Vanda subconcolor NT 33/2.9 Adiantum diaphanum, A. induratum, Asplenium belangeri, A. saxicola, Dtynaria rigidula, Alphonsea hainanensis, Litsea baviensis, Albertisia laurifolia, Arcangelisia gusanlung, Lagerstroemia fordii, Hibiscus grewiifolius, Impatiens hainanensis, Grewia concolor, Firmiana hainanensis, Bauhinia hainanensis, Christia hainanensi, Mucuna bracteata, Celtis philippensis var. consimilis, Antiaris toxicaria, Clausena hainanensis, Argyreia acuta, Paraboea hainanensis, Tacca chantrieri, Distyliopsis tutcheri, Hybanthus enneaspermus, Scutellaria luzonica var. lotungensis, Scindapsus maclurei, Liparis fargesii, Dendrobium hercoglossum, Nervilia fordii, Oberonia gammiei, Pomatocalpa spicatum, Tropidia angulosa VU 58/5.2 Oleandra hainanensis, Ceratopteris thalictroides, Leptochilus cantoniensis, Pyrrosia longifolia, Pinus latteri, Podocarpus neriifolius, Cephalotaxus sinensis var. sinensis, Alphonsea monogyna, Miliusa prolifica, Orophea hainanensis, Horsfieldia kingii, Aristolochia howii, Aristolochia polymorpha, Polygala bawanglingensis, Aquilaria sinensis, Hydnocarpus hainanensis, Homalium ceylanicum, Ancistroladus tectorius, Vatica mangachapoi, Croton laui, Trigonostemon chinensis, Dalbergia hainanensis, D. peishaensis, Cyclobalanopsis disciformis, Quercus bawanglingensis, Aglaia lawii, Toona ciliata, Cephaelis laui, Scutellaria hainanensis, Hedychium villoswn, Acanthephippium sylhetense, Bulbophyllum delitescens, Ceratostylis hainanensis, Cleisostoma simondii var. guangdongense, C. striatum, Cymbidium ensifolium, C. goeringii, C. kanran, C. sinense, Dendrobium aduncum, D. densiflorum, D. hainanense, D. loddigesii, D. nobile, D. salaccens, Eria lasiopetala, E. obvia, Esmeralda clarkei, Flickingeria angustifolia, Liparis luteola, Phreatia formosana, Vanda pumila
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|Author:||Zhang, Rongjing; Qin, Xinsheng; Chen, Hongfeng; Chan, Bosco Pui Lok; Xing, Fuwu; Xu, Zhe|
|Publication:||The Botanical Review|
|Date:||Mar 1, 2017|
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|Next Article:||Pollination syndromes of Chinese gesneriaceae: a comparative study between Hainan Island and neighboring regions.|