Phytochemical screening, analgesic, antimicrobial and anti-oxidant activities of bark extracts of Adenanthera pavonina L. (Fabaceae).
Plants have been a valuable source of medication and gradually becoming popular throughout the world. Plant secondary metabolites play an important role in medical care for a good percentage of world population. Approximately half of the worlds 25 best selling pharmaceuticals agents are derived from natural products (Abalson 1990). Thus, emphasis is now given on the standardization of herbal medicines by screening of biological activities of medicinal plants and isolation active principles from them. Adenanthera pavonina L. (Family: Fabaceae) commonly known in Bangladesh as 'Rakta Kombol', is an important medicinal plant native to tropical Asia, Western and Eastern Africa as well as in most islands of both the Pacific and Caribbean regions. The tree is generally erect, ranges in height from 6-15 m with diameter up to 45 cm (depending upon location) and young parts glabrous with spreading crown. Bark is dark brown to greyish in colour. Various parts of this plant have also been known to be used in traditional medicine for the treatment of asthma, boil, diarrhea, gout, inflammations, rheumatism, tumour and ulcers, and as a tonic (Burkil, 1994; Kirtikar and Basu, 1981; Watt et al., 1962; Anonymous 1985; Ghani 2003). Previous phytochemical investigation of the plant reported the presence of robinetin, chalcone, butin and flavanol ampelopsin, stigmasterol glucosides, oleanolic acid, echinocystic acid, sapogenins and many other bioactive phyto-constituents (Yadev N., et al., 1976; Yeoh et al., 1984; Chandra et al., 1982; Mesbah U.A. et al., 2002.; Shaiq A.M., et al., 2005; Enuo Y. et al., 2007; Adedapo et al., 2009). The analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, cytotoxic and blood pressure reducing activities of the leaf and seed extracts and its isolated compounds have been reported (Nigam S. K et al., 1973; Neerja Y. et al., 1976; Adedapo et al., 2009; Rodrigo et al., 2007; Jayasinghe et al., 2006; Olajide O.A. et al., 2004; Mayuren C et al., 2009). In continuation of our studies on medicinal plants available in Bangladesh we have designed the present work to explore the analgesic, anti-oxidant, antimicrobial activity with identification of phyto-constituents present in the extracts of Adenanthera pavonina L.
Material and methods
Chemicals and Solvents:
The solvents petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and acetic acid were of the BDH laboratory grade, diclofenac sodium was collected from Square Pharmaceutical Ltd, Bangladesh, Indomethacin from Incepta Pharmaceutical Ltd, Bangladesh, Dimethylsulfoxide and Tween-80 from Sigma-Aldrich and rest of the chemicals used were of BDH and E-Merck analytical grade.
The bark of Adenanthera pavonina L. was collected from the Jahangirnagar University campus, Savar, Dhaka-1342, Bangladesh, in March 2008 at the mature stage. The plant sample was identified and a voucher specimen (accession No.-DACB 34196) was deposited in the National Herbarium of Bangladesh for future reference. Collected plant parts, after cutting into small pieces and were dried in shade at temperature between 21-30[degrees]C for 15-20 days. The cutting pieces were pulverized by a mechanical grinder and passed through a 60 mesh sieve to obtain fine powder and stored into an air-tight container.
Extraction and Sample Preparation:
A portion of pulverized powder (1 kg) was extracted successively with petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol (2 L of each) by cold extraction process. The sample was stirred continuously and was kept for almost 72 hours in each portion. All the extracts were filtered off and evaporated to dryness (45 [degrees]C) under reduced pressure by rotary evaporator. The yields of the petroleum ether (PE), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA) and methanol (ME) extracts were 2.1 g (0.21%), 3.7 g (0.37%), 2.5 g (0.25%) and 30.0 g (3.0%), respectively. Finally the extracts were defatted by refrigeration at 4[degrees] C temperature.
Phytochemical Screening of Bark Powder Extracts:
The freshly prepared crude extract was qualitatively tested by standard phytochemical methods (Ghani A. 2003; Sofowara 1993; Trease and Evans 1989 and Harborne 1973).
1) Saponins: Small quantity of each extract was boiled with 5 ml of distilled water, filtered and cooled.
a. Frothing: To the filtrate (2.5 ml) about 10 ml of distilled water was added and shaken vigorously for 2 minutes. Frothing observed indicates a positive test.
b. Emulsification: To the filtrate (2.5 ml) added 3 drops of olive oil and shaken vigorously for 2 minutes. An emulsified layer indicates a positive test.
2) Alkaloids: Small quantity of each extract was stirred with 5 mL of 1% hydrochloric acid for five minutes on a water bath and then filtered. Of the filtrate of each extract was divided into two portions. Mayer's reagent was added to one portion; occurrence of creamy white precipitate was taken as positive. To the second portion few drops of Dragendorff's reagent was added and appearance of orange red precipitate was regarded as positive for the presence of alkaloids.
a) Molisch's test: Small quantity of each extract was dissolved in 5 ml of distilled water and taken in a test tube. Two drops of freshly prepared 10 % alcoholic solution of a-napthol was added and mixed thoroughly. Conc. [H.sub.2]S[O.sub.4] (2 ml) was allowed to flow down the side of the test tube. A red or reddish violet ring in the two layers indicated a positive test. It was shaken and allowed to stand for two minutes and diluted with 5 ml of water. Immediately a dull violet precipitate indicated carbohydrates.
b) Burfoed's test Monosaccharide: Small quantity of each extract was dissolved in 5 ml of distilled water and filtered. One ml of the filtrate of each extract was then mixed with 1 ml of Burfoed's reagent in a test tube and then heated on water bath for a period of 2 minutes. Red precipitate of cuprous oxide is formed considered as a positive test.
c) Fehling's Test for Free Reducing Sugar: Small quantity of each extract was dissolved in 5 ml of distilled water and filtered. Each filtrate was heated with 5 ml of equal volume of Fehling's solution A and B in a test tube. A red or brick-red precipitate indicated a positive test of reducing sugar.
d) Fehling Test for Combined Reducing Sugar: Small quantity of each extract was hydrolyzed by boiling with 5 ml of dilute HCl and the resulting solution neutralized with NaOH solution. To these, few drops of Fehling's solution was added and then heated on water bath for 2 minutes. Appearance of reddish-brown precipitates indicates the presence of combined reducing sugar.
4) Cardiac Glycosides (Keller-killiani Test): Small quantity of each extract was diluted in 5 ml of distilled water. Added 2 ml of glacial acetic acid containing one drop of ferric chloride solution (3.5%) to each. This was underlay with 1 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid. A radish brown ring is formed at the interface and upper layer turns bluish green on standing indicates the presence of a deoxy sugar characteristic of cardiac glycosides.
5) Cyanogenetic Glycosides: Small quantity of each extract moistened with 5 ml in distilled water and filtered. Few drops of chloroform were added to each (to enhance enzymatic activity). A sodium picrate-saturated filter paper strip was hanged at the neck of the flask with the help of the cork and warmed the flask. The filter paper strip turned brick-red or maroon is indicated the presence of cyanogenetic glycosides.
a) Ferric Chloride Test: Small quantity of each extract was boiled in 10 ml of water in a test tube and then filtered while hot and a few drops of 0.1% ferric chloride solution were added to the filtrate. A brownish green or a blue-black coloration indicates as a positive test.
b) Lead Acetate Test: Small quantity of each extract was taken in a test tube and diluted with 5 ml of distilled water. Add few drops of a 1% solution of lead acetate to each. A yellow or red precipitate indicates a positive test.
7) Flavonoids: Three methods were used to determine the presence of flavonoids in the extracts.
a) Method-1: Dilute ammonia solution (5 ml) was added to aqueous filtrate of each extract followed by addition of concentrated [H.sub.2]S[O.sub.4] acid (1 ml). A yellow colouration that disappears on standing indicates the presence of flavonoids.
b) Method-2: Few drops of 1% aluminium solution were added to aqueous filtrate of the each extract. A yellow coloration indicates the presence of flavonoids.
c) Method -3: A small portion of the each extract was heated with 10 ml of ethyl acetate over a steam bath for 3 min. The mixture was filtered and 4 ml of the filtrate was shaken with 1 ml of dilute ammonia solution. A yellow coloration indicates the presence of flavonoids.
8) Salkowski's Test for Terpenoids: To the portion of each extract, added two milliliters of chloroform. Concentrated [H.sub.2]S[O.sub.4] (3 ml) was carefully added to each portion to form a layer. A reddish brown coloration of the interface indicates the presence of terpenoids.
9) Liebermann-burchard's Test for Steroids: Small amount of each extract was dissolved in1 ml of chloroform. Added 2 ml of acetic anhydride and 1 ml of concentrated [H.sub.2]S[O.sub.4] acid to each portion. A greenish color is produced which turns blue on standing indicates the presence of steroids.
10) Anthraquinones: A small portion of each extract was boiled with 10 ml of sulfuric acid, traces of ferric chloride solution was added and filtered while hot. The filtrate was shaken with 5 ml of chloroform. The chloroform layer was taken into another test tube and 1 ml of dilute ammonia was added to each portion. Rose-pink color in the aqueous layer indicates the presence of anthraquinones.
Experimental Animals for Analgesic Activity:
Swiss albino mice (weighing 20-25 g) of either sex were collected from the animal house of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases and Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR, B). The animals were given standard feed developed by ICDDR,B and water ad libitum and kept in polyvinyl cages in groups of five animals each under controlled room temperature (25[+ or -]2 [degrees]C) in the laboratory environment (12 h dark/12 h light cycle) for seven days for acclimatization. Animals were fasted overnight and weighed before the experiment. The design and performance of research study involving mice have been approved by the Ethical Review Committee, Faculty of Biological Science, University of Dhaka through the submission of a research protocol before the study.
Acetic Acid Induced Writhing Response:
The peripheral analgesic activity of the crude extracts of PE, DCM, EA and ME were determined by the acetic acid induced writhing inhibition method (Whittle BA. 1964). The pre-screened Swiss albino mice employed for this experiment were divided into groups (5 animals in each group). The groups were treated as control (saline, i.p.), standards (diclofenac sodium 10 mg/kg i.p. and indomethacin 8 mg/kg i.p) and test groups (each group received PE, DCM, EA and ME extract at the dosages of 100 and 200 mg/kg i.p). Acetic acid solution 0.7% w/v (0.1 ml/10g) was injected intraperitoneally 30 min after each treatment. The number of writhes i.e. index of pain reaction against chemical stimuli characterized by abdominal muscle contraction together with turning of trunk and extension of hind limbs was counted over a period of 10 min. Analgesic activity was expressed as percentage of inhibition of writhes in comparison to control group (Table 2). The percent inhibition of writhing was calculated using the following formula.
% Inhibition of writhing = Wc - Wt/Wc x 100
Where Wc is the average number of writhing reflex in the control group and Wt is the average number of writhing in the test groups.
The disc diffusion method (Bauer, A.W. et al., 1966; Radovanovic et al., 2009) was used to test antimicrobial and antifungal strains against five gram positive, eight gram negative organisms and three fungi. The bacterial and fungal strains used for the experiment were collected as pure culture from the Institute of Nutrition and Food Sciences (INFS), University of Dhaka. The test samples were made by dissolving in calculated volumes of solvents separately and applied to sterile discs (6 mm diameter) at a concentration of 100, 200 and 400 [micro]g/disc and carefully dried to evaporate the residual solvents. Discs containing the test material were placed on nutrient agar medium uniformly seeded with the test microorganisms. Standard antibiotic Kanamycin (30 [micro]g/disc) discs and blank discs (impregnated with solvents) were used as positive and negative control respectively. The antimicrobial activity of the test agent was determined by measuring the diameter of zone of inhibition expressed in millimeter. The experiment was carried out in triplicate.
The antioxidant activity of the extracts on the stable radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was determined by the method of Brand-Williams (1995). In the experiment, 2 mg of each of the extracts was dissolved in methanol. Solution of varying concentrations such as 500 [micro]g/mL, 250 [micro]g/mL, 125 [micro]g/mL, 62.50 [micro]g/mL, 32.25 [micro]g/mL, 15.625 [micro]g/mL, 7.813 [micro]g/mL, 3.906 [micro]g/mL, 1.953 [micro]g/mL and 0.977 [micro]g/ mL were obtained by serial dilution technique. Two milliliters of a methanol solution of the extract of each concentration was mixed with 3 mL of a DPPH-methanol solution (20 mg/L) and allowed to stand for 30 min for the reaction. Then the absorbance was measured at 517 nm using an Analytic Jene Spekel 1300 UV-spectrophotometer and from these values, the corresponding percentage of inhibitions were calculated by using the following equation:
% inhibition = [1-(AB[S.sub.sample]/AB[S.sub.control])] x 100
Then per cent inhibitions were plotted against respective concentrations. The I[C.sub.50] values were calculated as the concentration of each sample required to give 50% DPPH radical scavenging activity from the graph. Ascorbic acid and BHT (tert-butyl-1-hydroxytoluene) a potential antioxidant, was used as positive control. The experiment was performed thrice and the result was expressed as mean [+ or -]SD in every case.
The results were analyzed for analgesic activity with statistical significance using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's t-tests. Values with p<0.01 were considered significant.
Result and discussion
As a part of continuous studies on medicinal plants Adenanthera pavonina (Family: Fabaceae) was collected and identified. The bark of the plant was dried, powdered and successively extracted with pet ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol. The solvents were evaporated to dryness in a rotary evaporator with 0.21%, 0.37%, 0.25% and 3.0% yield respectively. The presence of valuable phyto-constituents was detected in respective extracts. The analgesic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the each extract was evaluated in this study.
The phytochemical screening of the bark powder extracts (PE, DCM, EA and ME) showed the presence of various phyto-constituents (Table-1). The EA and ME extracts showed the presence of saponins, alkaloids, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, steroids and terpenoids. The presence of anthraquinone was only detected in ME extract. Cyanogenitic glycosides were absent in all these extracts. In the PE extract only steroids were present. Alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and steroids were present in DCM extracts.
The writhing test method is based on the i.p administration of a 0.7% solution of acetic acid, an agent that induces endogenous pain mediators, such as prostaglandins, histamine and bradykinin, which stimulate the pain sensation locally (Bispo, M.D. et al., 2001). In the first 30 min after acetic acid injection, the levels of prostaglandins PGE2 and PGF2[alpha] increase during writhing test (Deraedt et al., 1980). From the experimental data (Table-2) it is found the extracts of PE, DCM, EA and ME at dosage of 100 and 200 mg/kg in body weight showed significant inhibition (p<0.01) of writhing reflex in 10 min i.e. (23.35, 29.95 %), (58.38, 72.08 %), (36.04, 42.64 %), (40.61, 46.19 %) respectively. The DCM extract exhibited 72.08% and 58.38% inhibition of writhing at 200mg and 100 mg dose level in comparison to control. This effect is significantly (p<0.01) higher than the reference drug diclofenac sodium (60.91%) and indomethacin (56.35%) at doses level of 10mg/kg and 8 mg/kg body weight respectively. At the dose of 100 mg/kg of PE extract exhibited the minimum activity (23.35%) which is significant at p<0.05 level. At 100 mg/kg body weight the dose showed almost similar to the reference standard. The results shows that peripheral analgesic activity is in descending order like DCM>ME>EA>PE.
This highest analgesic activity may be due to the presence of steroid in the DCM extract which inhibited prostaglandins synthesis. Considerable analgesic activity was observed in ME and EA extract at dose level of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. The ME extract contains steroid, flavonoids and tannins abundantly and EA extract contains these phyto-constituents moderately. The activity showed by ME and EA extracts may be due to the presence of steroids, flavonoids and tannins which also inhibit the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Previously it has been observed that tanins, flavonoids and steroidal compounds possess good analgesic activity by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis (Ramaswamy S et al., 1985; Ramadan A. et al., 1994).
Thus this supports peripheral analgesic activity and the activity may be because of the inhibition of PG synthesis observed for the period of 10 minutes. The abdominal constriction is related to the sensitization of nociceptive receptors by prostaglandins. It is therefore, possible that the plant exert analgesic effect probably by inhibiting bio-synthesis or action of prostaglandins. It is speculated that the extract was able to inhibit the prostaglandins release.
The crude extracts of PE, DCM, EA and ME (100, 200, 400 [micro]g/disc of each) were screened against 13 test bacteria (5 gram positive and 8 gram negative organisms) and 3 fungi (Table-3). In the dose of 400 L g/disc, the ME extract showed the strongest inhibitory activity against two gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus & Sarcina lutea) and one gram negative (Vibrio mimicus), bacteria having the zone size 13 mm. The other extract (PE, DCM and EA) showed the lowest inhibitory activity (7-8mm zone size) at the same dose level. The PE, DCM and ME extracts showed very weak inhibitory activity (7-8mm zone size) against the entire tested organism at the 200 L g/disc dose level while the EA extract showed insensitive to the entire tested organism. In dose of 100 [micro]g/disc, the DCM, PE and EA extracts were insensitive to the all tested microorganism except ME extract. It has been documented that sponins, alkaloids, tannins and flavanoids are known to have curative activity against several pathogenic bacteria and fungus (Hassan et al., 2004). The broad antibacterial activities of these extracts could be as a result of these compounds (sponins, alkaloids, tannins and flavanoids). Moreover, the ME extract possess high concentration of these constituents. Thus it may be a great potential as antimicrobial compounds against microorganism. It appeared that, the ME extract have significant activity against microorganisms indicating the presence of active constituents which are responsible for this antibacterial activity and it may be used in the treatment of infection.
The I[C.sub.50] values of DPPH radicals scavenging for the PE, DCM, EA and ME extracts were 390.33[+ or -]2.78, 32.13[+ or -]0.34, 8.72[+ or -]0.11 and 6.44[+ or -]0.04 [micro]g/mL respectively, which are comparable to the reference standards tert-butyl-1-hydroxytoluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid (ASA) (Table-4). In case of antioxidant screening the crude ME extract showed very strong free radical scavenging activity (I[C.sub.50] value of 6.44[+ or -]0.04 [micro]g/mL) whereas the PE extract showed very weak antioxidant activity (I[C.sub.50] value 390.33[+ or -]2.78[micro]g/mL). The EA and ME extracts showed higher scavenging activity (I[C.sub.50] value 8.72[+ or -]0.11 [micro]g/mL and 6.44 [+ or -]0.04[micro]g/mL) than the standard BHT (I[C.sub.50] value 27.42[+ or -]0.99 [micro]g/mL), where DCM extract (I[C.sub.50] value 32.13[+ or -]0.34 [micro]g/mL) showed almost similar scavenging activity. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the EA and ME extract were also comparable to the reference standard ASA (I[C.sub.50] value 5.71[+ or -]0.01 [micro]g/mL) which were observed almost similar in scavenging activity. Flavanoids and tannins are phenolic compounds. Plant poly-phenols are a major group of compounds that act as primary antioxidants or free radical scavengers (Polterait O. 1997). The phytochemical screening of the crude extracts revealed the presence of flavanoids and tannins in bark extracts; these may be responsible for the antioxidant action.
The medicinal value of plants lies in some chemical substances that produce a definite physiologic action on the human body. The phytochemical research based on ethno-pharmacological information is generally considered an effective approach in the discovery of new anti-infective agents from higher plants. The results of the present investigation clearly indicate that the antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic and antioxidant activity vary with the different extracts of the bark powder of Adenanthera pavonina \L. The results are encouraging enough to pursue bioactivity guided fractionation of this extracts and structure elucidation of the active phyto-constituents from the extracts of this plant. Thus the study ascertains the value of Adenanthera pavonina L bark powder and its extract which may be exploited in traditional use and development of new drugs.
The authors are thankful to Chairman Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh for giving permission and facilities for biological experiments. One of the authors AA is grateful to the University Grants Commission (UGC), Bangladesh, for the award of a fellowship.
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Corresponding Author: Sitesh Chandra Bachar, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: +88-02-9661900-79 Fax: +88-02-8612069, 8615583
(1) Arzumand Ara, (1) Md. Moshfekus Saleh-e-In, (4) Nazim Uddin Ahmed, (3) Meshbahuddin Ahmed, 1Md. Abul Hashem, (2) Sitesh Chandra Bachar.
(1) Department of Chemistry, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka-1342, Bangladesh, (2) Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh, (3) Gono Bishwabidyalay, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh (4) Drugs and Toxin Research Division, BCSIR Laboratories, Chittagong-4220, Bangladesh.
Arzumand Ara, Md. Moshfekus Saleh-e-In, Nazim Uddin Ahmed, Meshbahuddin Ahmed, Md. Abul Hashem, Sitesh Chandra Bachar: Phytochemical Screening, Analgesic, Antimicrobial, and Anti-oxidant Activities of Bark Extracts of Adenanthera Pavonina L. (Fabaceae).
Table 1: Phytochemical screening of different extracts (PE, DCM, EA and ME) of Adenanthera pavonina L. bark. SL No. Group PE DCM 1 Test for saponins a) (-) a) (-), a) Frothing b) (-) b) (-) b) Emulsification 2 Test for alkaloids a) (-) a) (+), a) Mayers' reagents b) (-) b) (+), b) Dragendorff's reagent 3 Carbohydrates a) (-) a) (-), a) Molisch's test b) (-) b) (-) b) Burford's test c) (-) c) (-) c) Fehling (reducing sugar) d) (-) d) (-) test d)Fehling (combined reducing sugar) test 4 Cardiac glycosides a) (-) a) (-) a) Keller-Killiani test 5 Cyanogenetic glycosides a) (-) a) (-) a) Sodium picrate test 6 Tannins: a) (-) a) (+) a) Ferric chloride test b) (-) b) (+) b) Lead acetate test 7 Flavonoids a) (-) a) (+) a)Method -1 a) (-) a) (+) b)Method -2 a) (-) a) (+) c)Method -3 8 Steroids a) (++) a)(+++) a) Liebermann-Burchard's test 9 Terpenoids a) (++) a)(+++) a) Salkowski's test 10 Anthraquinone a) (-) a) (-) SL No. Group EA ME 1 Test for saponins a) (+), a) (+++), a) Frothing b) (+) b) (+++), b) Emulsification 2 Test for alkaloids a) (+), a) (+), a) Mayers' reagents b) (+), b) (+), b) Dragendorff's reagent 3 Carbohydrates a) (+), a) (++), a) Molisch's test b) (+), b) (++), b) Burford's test c) (+) c) (++), c) Fehling (reducing sugar) d) (+) d) (++) test d)Fehling (combined reducing sugar) test 4 Cardiac glycosides a) (+) a) (+++) a) Keller-Killiani test 5 Cyanogenetic glycosides a) (-) a) (-) a) Sodium picrate test 6 Tannins: a) (++) a) (+++) a) Ferric chloride test b) (++) b) (+++) b) Lead acetate test 7 Flavonoids a) (++) a) (+++) a)Method -1 a) (++) a) (+++) b)Method -2 a) (++) a) (+++) c)Method -3 8 Steroids a) (++) a) (++) a) Liebermann-Burchard's test 9 Terpenoids a) (++) a) (++) a) Salkowski's test 10 Anthraquinone a) (-) a) (+) (-) = negative (absent), (+) = Positive (slightly present), (++)= Positive (moderately present), (+++) = Positive (Abundantly present). Table 2: Analgesic activity of crud extracts (PE, DCM, EA and ME) of Adenanthera pavonina L. at dosages of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. Group Dose mg/kg Writhing Control -- 41, 32, 37, 42, 45 PE 100 27, 26, 34, 28, 36 PE 200 28, 23, 30, 25, 32 DCM 100 19, 10, 17, 14, 22 DCM 200 9, 10, 10, 14, 12 EA 100 24, 19, 27, 26, 30 EA 200 28, 17, 18, 24, 26 ME 100 27, 16, 20, 24, 30 ME 200 19, 15, 20, 30, 22 DIC 10 11, 23, 16, 13, 14 IDM 8 22, 16, 13, 16, 19 One-way F ANOVA df p Group Mean [+ or -] SEM % of Inhibition Control 39.40 [+ or -] 2.249 0 PE 30.20 [+ or -] 2.010 * 23.35 PE 27.60 [+ or -] 1.631 * 29.95 DCM 16.40 [+ or -] 2.064 58.38 DCM 11.00 [+ or -] 0.894 72.08 EA 25.20 [+ or -] 1.828 36.04 EA 22.60 [+ or -] 2.182 42.64 ME 23.40 [+ or -] 2.482 40.61 ME 21.20 [+ or -] 2.478 46.19 DIC 15.40 [+ or -] 2.064 60.91 IDM 17.20 [+ or -] 1.530 56.35 One-way 15.771 ANOVA 10, 44 <0.0001 Values are Mean [+ or -] SEM (n = 5); p<0.01; * p<0.05; compared to control. PE=pet-ether extract, DCM=Dichloromethane extract, EA= Ethyl acetate extract, ME=methanol extract, DIC= Diclofenac sodium and IDM= Indomethacin. Table 3: Antimicrobial activity of the Adenanthera pavonina L. extracts (PE, DCM, EA & ME) at the dosages of 100, 200 and 400 [micro]g/disc and Kanamycin (30[micro]g/disc). Test microorganisms Diameter of zone of inhibition (mm) PE ([micro]g/disc) Gram positive bacteria A B C Bacillus megaterium -- -- 7 Bacillus subtilis -- -- 7 Staphylococcus aureus -- 8 7 Sarcina lutea -- -- 7 Bacillus sereus -- 7 7 Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli -- -- 8 Pseudomonas aureus -- 7 7 Salmonella paratyphi -- -- 7 Salmonella typhi -- -- 7 Shigella dysenteriae -- -- 7 Shigella boydii -- -- 7 Vibrio mimicus -- -- 7 Vibrio parahemolyticus -- 7 7 Fungi Candida albicans -- 7 7 Aspergillus niger -- 8 7 Sacharomyces cerevaceae -- -- 7 Test microorganisms Diameter of zone of inhibition (mm) DCM ([micro]g/disc) Gram positive bacteria A B C Bacillus megaterium -- -- 8 Bacillus subtilis -- -- 9 Staphylococcus aureus -- 8 7 Sarcina lutea -- -- 9 Bacillus sereus -- 7 8 Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli -- -- 9 Pseudomonas aureus -- 7 8 Salmonella paratyphi -- -- 8 Salmonella typhi -- -- 8 Shigella dysenteriae -- -- 8 Shigella boydii -- -- 8 Vibrio mimicus -- -- 8 Vibrio parahemolyticus -- -- 7 Fungi Candida albicans -- 7 8 Aspergillus niger -- 8 8 Sacharomyces cerevaceae -- -- 8 Test microorganisms Diameter of zone of inhibition (mm) EA ([micro]g/disc) Gram positive bacteria A B C Bacillus megaterium -- -- 7 Bacillus subtilis -- -- 7 Staphylococcus aureus -- -- -- Sarcina lutea -- -- -- Bacillus sereus -- -- -- Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli -- -- -- Pseudomonas aureus -- -- -- Salmonella paratyphi -- -- 7 Salmonella typhi -- -- -- Shigella dysenteriae -- -- -- Shigella boydii -- -- -- Vibrio mimicus -- -- -- Vibrio parahemolyticus -- -- -- Fungi Candida albicans -- -- -- Aspergillus niger -- -- -- Sacharomyces cerevaceae -- -- -- Test microorganisms Diameter of zone of inhibition (mm) ME KAN ([micro]g/disc) ([micro]g/disc) Gram positive bacteria A B C D Bacillus megaterium 8 -- 10 37 Bacillus subtilis 8 8 11 37 Staphylococcus aureus 8 -- 13 37 Sarcina lutea -- -- 13 36 Bacillus sereus -- -- 12 37 Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli -- 7 12 36 Pseudomonas aureus -- -- 11 36 Salmonella paratyphi 7 8 12 36 Salmonella typhi 8 7 10 35 Shigella dysenteriae -- -- 10 37 Shigella boydii 7 -- 10 37 Vibrio mimicus 7 7 13 35 Vibrio parahemolyticus 7 7 12 35 Fungi Candida albicans -- -- 10 35 Aspergillus niger -- 7 12 35 Sacharomyces cerevaceae -- -- 12 37 A=100 [micro]g/disc, B=200 [micro]g/disc, C=400 [micro]g/disc and D=30 [micro]g/disc, PE: Pet Ether Extract; DCM: Dichloromethane Extract; EA: Ethyl Acetate Extract; ME: Methanolic extract; KAN: Kanamycin; "--" no zone inhibition. A diameter of zone of inhibition less than 7 mm was considered inactive. Table 4: [IC.sub.50] values of different extracts (PE,DCM, EA & ME) and standards of Adenanthera pavonina L. bark Test Sample [IC.sub.50] Value ([micro]g/ml) (Mean [+ or -] SD) Petroleum ether extract (PE) 390.33 [+ or -] 2.78 Dichloromethane extract (DCM) 32.13 [+ or -] 0.34 Ethyl acetate extract (EA) 8.72 [+ or -] 0.11 Methanol extract (ME) 6.44 [+ or -] 0.04 BHT (tert-butyl-1-hydroxytoluene) (Standard) 27.42 [+ or -] 0.99 ASA (Ascorbic acid) (Standard) 5.71 [+ or -] 0.01
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|Title Annotation:||Original Article|
|Author:||Ara, Arzumand; Saleh-e-In, Moshfekus; Ahmed, Nazim Uddin; Ahmed, Meshbahuddin; Hashem, Abul; Bachar,|
|Publication:||Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences|
|Date:||Sep 1, 2010|
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