Printer Friendly

Physiological and Anatomical Response of Fragrant Rosa Species with Treated and Untreated Wastewater.

Byline: Muhammad Ahsan, Atif Riaz, Muhammad Jafar Jaskani and Mansoor Hameed

Abstract

The present study assessed the response of physiological and anatomical characteristics of four widely cultivated fragrant Rosa species. Water analysis showed that all minerals and chemicals were in permissible level in canal water and treated wastewater, whereas untreated wastewater contained higher EC, biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and heavy metals like Cd, Co, Cu, Pb. There was considerable variations among different Rosa species regarding response to wastewater irrigations. Under treated wastewater, R. bourboniana showed highest photosynthetic rate, high transpiration rate and maximum chlorophyll contents than other Rosa species whereas stomatal conductance of R. gruss-anteplitz was highest under treated wastewater.

Leaf anatomical characteristics showed that R. Gruss-an-Teplitz under untreated wastewater showed large cortical cell area, vascular bundle area, large spongy cell area and thick midrib while large epidermal thickness of R. centifolia was recorded under treated wastewater. Large palisade cell and phloem area and thick leaves (lamina) were found in R. damascena under treated wastewater while large metaxylem area of R. bourboniana in untreated wastewater. The study showed that treated wastewater was most suitable and desirable irrigation treatment than canal water and untreated wastewater while R. bourboniana and R. Gruss-an-Teplitz was dominant Rosa species regarding physiological characteristics, while all species showed great diversity in leaf tissue architecture under treated and untreated wastewater.

Keywords: Physiology; Anatomy; Municipal wastewater effluent; Roses

Introduction

Rose is one of the most imperative ornamental crops in floricultural industry. It is woody perennial flowering plant which belongs to subfamily Rosoideae and family Rosaceae. Its genus Rosa encompasses more than 200 species and 20,000 cultivars, which are distributed globally (Younis et al., 2013). Many of these cultivars and species are cultivated for different sort of purposes and used in various industries e.g. garden and indoor plant, cut flower and making different kind of food stuffs (Nybon, 2009). There are four main fragrant species of roses grown for essential oil production in Pakistan with Rosa damascena as top ranked and extensively cultivated in Bulgaria (70-80%), China, Turkey, Russia and India (Nasir et al., 2007). Second one is Rosa centifolia, commonly grown in France, Egypt and Morocco. Later, Rosa bourboniana and Rosa Gruss-an-Teplitz were introduced in France and China respectively (Laurie and Ries, 1950).

Water is the most important need of plants which comprise 50-97% of plant body and also the most poorly managed reserve in the world (Khurana and Singh, 2012).

Irrigation is by far the prime user of fresh water (70-90%) in both developed and developing countries (Ensink et al., 2002; Pedrero et al., 2010) with increasing continuously demand (FAOWATER, 2008). Industries and anthropogenic activities are main cause of exaggerated use of water resources to a crisis level (Rusan et al., 2007; Safi et al., 2007).

The use of wastewater for irrigation especially to woody plants and fruit vegetables exerts several anatomical (Ogunkune et al., 2013) and physiological modifications (Sun and Wang, 2005). Singh and Agrawal (2010) reported that photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate was high in wastewater irrigated plants than canal water irrigated ones. Petousi et al. (2013) observed that high pH of wastewater does not impose negative effects on carnation physiological characteristics. The supply of wastewater improves pigment concentration in leaves with clear increment in chlorophyll content in different plant species which ultimately resulted in increase of photosynthesis rate in plant leaves (Herteman et al., 2011).

Due to heavy metals toxicity, stomatal size, epidermal size (Noman et al., 2012), xylem and phloem cell size (Mahmood et al., 2005) are altered, while Ogunkune et al. (2013) found that wastewater posed severe hazardous impacts on vascular bundle areas of roots and stems of Amaranthus hybridus in the form of decreased vascular bundle area. Aldesuquy (2014) showed significant increment in lamina thickness, metaxylem vessel area, xylem area, vascular bundle area and number of closed stomata on both upper and lower epidermis occur under wastewater treatment in wheat plants.

There is no literature available about physiological and anatomical characteristics of Rosa species under municipal wastewater irrigation. The present study was therefore carried out to investigate the physio-anatomical attributes of four widely cultivated fragrant Rosa species of Pakistan under untreated and treated municipal wastewater irrigation in peri-urban areas.

Materials and Methods

Experimental Site

The experiment was carried out at the Agronomy Research Area of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (31deg25' N, 73deg09' E and altitude of 300 m above mean sea level) Pakistan, from first week of January, 2012 to January, 2014. This experimental region had a semi-arid climate with less rainfall annually. Soil of this experimental area is clay loam which collects sewage wastewater from the students living hostels of agriculture university and canal water from main canal of the city.

Water Treatment and Analysis

In this experiment, untreated wastewater was treated by natural purification process as discussed by Kiziloglu et al. (2008) to improve its physical and chemical quality using conventional method (Pescod, 1992). Water was treated in three large plastic tanks of 1500 gallons water storage capacity in three step process. First tank was filled by sewage wastewater through a pipe and opening of the pipe covered with 6 mm opening sieve as preliminary treatment to block the way of grits and removal of course solid and other materials often found in wastewater (Pescod, 1992). The upper portion of the tanks was kept to remain open for sun light penetration in wastewater as natural treatment process. These three tanks were connected with each other through plastic pipes and adjusted with valves to transfer water from one tank to another. Wastewater in first tank was kept for five days for the purpose of removal of settle able organic and inorganic solids by sedimentation and removal of floating materials by skimming.

This water was shifted to second tank placed 2.5' away and 2' below than the first tank, water stayed there for next five days for further sedimentation of smaller particles. Then water was shifted to third tank (which was placed 2.5' away and 2' below than the second tank) and kept there for next 5 days. This water treatment process was completed in 15 days and water in third tank obtained after 15 days of treatment was applied to plants as treated wastewater treatment.

Physico-chemical properties of all irrigation water types were determined by standard methods of wastewater examination proposed by Eaton et al. (2005) and all heavy metals and some nutrients like P, K, Na and Ca concentration was determined with the help of inductively couples plasma (ICP-OES) (Optima 2100-DV Perkin Elmer) at Nuclear Institute of Agriculture and Biology (NIAB) Faisalabad.

Soil Analysis

Sixteen soil samples were randomly collected at the depth of 15 and 30 cm into the soil before the start of experiment. Composite soil samples of experimental sites were analyzed according to standard procedures (Table 1).

Experimental Treatments and Measurement of Physiological Anatomical Characteristics of Plants

There were two treatment factors in this experiment i.e., irrigation water and Rosa species. Two years old cuttings of four fragrant Rosa species like Rosa centifolia, R. damascena, R. bourboniana and R. Gruss-an-Teplitz were planted during first week of January 2012 and irrigated by canal water, treated and untreated wastewater. Treatments were set according to randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Data regarding physiological attributes including chlorophyll contents was estimated with the help of chlorophyll meter (CCM-200 plus) after its calibration and average was computed while photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate of five randomly selected leaves within each treatment were measured with the help of infra-red gas analyzer (IRGA) (LCi-SD, ADC-Bioscintific UK). For anatomical studies, one cm piece from the leaf center along the midrib was taken.

The material was preserved in FAA (Formalin Acetic Acid) solution for fixation, which contained formalin 50%, ethyl alcohol 50%, acetic acid 10% and distilled water 35%. The material was transferred in acetic acid solution (one part acetic acid and three parts ethyl alcohol) for long term preservation. Samples were prepared and fixed in Formalin-Acetic acid-Alcohol (FAA). Dehydration, sectioning staining and mounting procedures was followed according to method described by Sass (1951). Sections were measured by the aid of light microscope. Measurement of each anatomical parameter was calculated in twelve sections in keel region in um.

Statistical Analysis

Data collected for all parameters were analyzed by performing Fisher`s analysis of variance technique (ANOVA) using Statistica soft 5.5 and treatment means were compared according to least significant difference test (LSD) at 5% level of probability (Steel et al., 1997).

Table 1: Composition of soil before experiment

Soil characteristics Texture###pH###EC###OM (%)###N (%)###P (ppm)###K (ppm)###Pb (ppm)###Cd (ppm)###Ni (ppm)###Zn (ppm)###Cu (ppm)

0015 cm###Clay loam soil###8.20###2.54 1.12###0.041###10.50###194###3.16###0.04###0.36###5.28###3.04

1630 cm###8.20###2.49 1.18###0.041###9.50###134###3.32###0.05###0.34###3.60###2.30

IASS###4-8.5###4.00 >0.86###---###>7###>80###500###1.0###20###250###100

Results

Before experiment, canal water, treated and untreated wastewater was physically and chemically analyzed. Water analysis showed that EC of untreated wastewater was above the standard limit of international irrigation water quality standards (IIWQS) and national environmental quality standards (NEQS) for municipal wastewaters of Pakistan. Untreated wastewater also contained higher biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Co, Cu), sodium and nitrogen while treated wastewater and canal water contained all physical and chemical values within permissible limits (Table 2).

Physiological Characteristics of Rosa Species

Photosynthetic rate (u mol m-2 S-1): Maximum photosynthetic rate was recorded in R. bourboniana followed by R. centifolia under treated wastewater treatment while minimum in R. damascena under canal water treatment. Mean values showed that R. bourboniana gained highest photosynthetic rate among Rosa species and treated wastewater attained highest value regarding irrigation water treatments in 2012. During 2013, R. bourboniana had highest photosynthetic rate followed by R. Gruzz-an-Teplitz under treated wastewater and minimum of it was found in R. centifolia under canal water treatment. Mean values showed that R. bourboniana and treated wastewater was at the top regarding Rosa species and irrigation water treatment respectively (Table 3).

Transpiration rate (mmol m-2 S-1): Higher transpiration rate was recorded in R. damascena under treated wastewater treatment followed by R. bourboniana and R. centifolia under same irrigation treatment respectively during 2012 while minimum in R. damascena under canal water treatment. Mean values regarding Rosa species treatment showed that R. bourboniana and R. centifolia had highest and lowest transpiration rate, respectively while treated wastewater had maximum of it under irrigation water treatment. During 2013, maximum transpiration rate was recorded in R. bourboniana while minimum in R. centifolia under canal water treatment. Mean values revealed that treated wastewater showed maximum value and canal water showed minimum regarding irrigation water treatment and R. bourboniana attained highest transpiration rate in case of Rosa species treatment (Table 3).

Stomatal conductance (mmol m-2 S-1): Rosa Gruss-an-Teplitz had maximum stomatal conductance under treated wastewater followed by R. centifolia under same irrigation water treatment while minimum stomatal conductance was recorded in R. centifolia under canal water treatment during 2012. Mean values showed that R. Gruss-an-Teplitz and treated wastewater treatment showed high values in Rosa species and irrigation wastewater treatments respectively. In 2013, high stomatal conductance was recorded in R. Gruss-an-Teplitz under treated wastewater treatment, while minimum in R. centifolia under canal water treatment. Mean values showed that treated wastewater and R. Gruss-an-Teplitz showed maximum values under irrigation water and Rosa species treatment respectively (Table 3).

Chlorophyll contents (mg g-1): Rosa bourboniana under untreated wastewater contained highest chlorophyll contents while minimum in R. damascena under canal water treatment in 2012. Mean values showed that R. bourboniana in Rosa species with irrigation of canal water contained maximum chlorophyll contents. During 2013, high value was recorded in R. bourboniana under treated wastewater treatment followed by R. Gruss-an-Teplitz in same irrigation treatment while minimum in R. damascena under canal water treatment. Mean values showed similar trend of highest chlorophyll contents in R. bourboniana and lowest in R. damascena in Rosa species and treated wastewater contained maximum value under irrigation water treatments (Table 3).

Anatomical Characteristics of Rosa Species

Cortical cell area (um2): Rosa Gruss-an-Teplitz was dominated in all irrigation water treatments as compared to other Rosa species during both years of experiment (Fig. 1). In 2012, maximum cortical cell area was recorded in untreated wastewater, treated wastewater and canal water treatment with values of 851.75 um2, 815.96 um2 and 728.64 um2 respectively. Cortical cell area (um2) of R. bourboniana and R. centifolia was in medium range and minimum value was recorded in R. damascena (373.05 um2) in canal water treatment. During 2013, R. Gruss-an-Teplitz (721.72 um2, 620.13 um2 and 618.79 um2) in treated wastewater, canal water and untreated wastewater treatment had maximum values, respectively while R. damascena (425.75 um2) in canal water treatment exhibited minimum cortical cell area.

Epidermal thickness (um): Results showed that all Rosa species showed significant variations but R. centifolia was dominant in all irrigation water treatments during 2012 and maximum epidermal thickness was recorded under treated wastewater treatment (359.47 um) followed by untreated wastewater with value of 309.47 um and minimum in R. bourboniana (100.52 um) in untreated wastewater treatment.

Table 2: Composition of canal water, treated and untreated wastewater utilized in the experiment

Parameters###Canal Water###Treated Water###Untreated Water###IIWQS/NEQS**

EC (S/L)###1.13###1.44###2.11###1.5

pH###7.42###7.58###8.31###6-9.2

Color###----###Rust Brown###Greyish###--

Turbidity###43###29.12###155###--

Hardness (mg/L)###184###416###536###--

DO (mg/L)###4###2.38###1.36###--

BOD (mg/L)###---###267###432###300

COD (mg/L)###---###481###669###500

TDS (mg/L)###218###1281###1678###2500

SS (mg/L)###0.9###0.15###1.1###--

Total Solids (mg/L)###218###982###1372###--

TSS (mg/L)###24###63###194###400

Chlorides (mg/L)###138###290###436###1000

Cadmium (mg/L)###0.001###0.01###0.013###0.01

Nickel (mg/L)###0.10###0.08###0.12###0.2

Arsenic (mg/L)###ND###0.004###0.005###0.1

Zinc (mg/L)###0.18###2.62###3.48###5.0

Potassium (mg/L)###30.41###17.61###40.73###--

Lead (mg/L)###0.021###0.42###0.66###0.5

Iron (mg/L)###0.32###3.47###4.82###5.0

Cobalt (mg/L)###0.17###0.029###0.079###0.05

Copper (mg/L)###0.05###0.13###0.24###0.2

Chromium (mg/L)###0.04###0.067###0.093###0.1

Calcium (mg/L)###28.1###39.72###54.29###230

Sodium (mg/L)###36.47###178.23###252.77###230

Magnesium (mg/L)###30###47###63###100

Phosphorus (mg/L)###0.39###1.76###2.49###15

Total Nitrogen (mg/L)###4###5.72###8.0###5.0

Table 3: Physiological characteristics of Rosa species under different irrigations

Rosa###2012###2013

species###Photosynthetic rate

###CW###TW###UTW###Mean###CW###TW###UTW###Mean

R.B.###8.62+-0.4cdef###11.38+-0.5a###10.15+-0.8abc###10.05a###8.15+-0.5bc###10.54+-0.5a###9.72+-0.6ab###9.47a

R.C###7.02+-0.7ef###10.74+-0.7ab###8.95+-0.9bcde###8.90bc###6.48+-0.6d###10.23+-0.6a###8.36+-0.6bc###8.36bc

G.T###8.44+-0.7cdef###10.35+-0.8abc###8.86+-0.7bcde###9.22ab###8.21+-0.6bc###10.43+-0.4a###8.23+-0.5bc###8.96ab

R.D###6.77+-0.4f###9.44+-0.4abcd###7.94+-0.5def###8.05c###6.56+-0.6d###9.62+-0.3ab###7.35+-0.6cd###7.84c

Average###7.71c###10.47a###8.97b###7.35c###10.20a###8.41b

###Transpiration rate

R.B.###0.788+-0.04bc###0.923+-0.04ab###0.81+-0.04abc###0.84a###0.72+-0.05d###0.901+-0.04a###0.774+-0.02abcd###0.80a

R.C###0.657+-0.03c###0.885+-0.07ab###0.761+-0.04bc###0.77a###0.561+-0.06e###0.85+-0.07abc###0.742+-0.03cd###0.72b

G.T###0.762+-0.11bc###0.84+-0.04ab###0.802+-0.08abc###0.80a###0.713+-0.07d###0.799+-0.04abcd###0.756+-0.04bcd###0.76ab

R.D###0.645+-0.02c###0.967+-0.07a###0.784+-0.05bc###0.79a###0.571+-0.06e###0.883+-0.04ab###0.726+-0.05cd###0.73ab

Average###0.713b###0.904a###0.789b###0.641c###0.858a###0.749b

###Stomatal conductance

R.B.###88.78+-4.5abc###92.22+-4.4ab###90.5+-4.5abc###90.50a###85.12+-5.7cde###87.98+-3.7bcde###86.63+-3.3bcde###86.58ab

R.C###76.74+-3.7c###101.61+-4.9a###86.63+-3.8bc###88.33a###66.91+-3.5f###97.12+-3.0ab###77.3+-5.4ef###80.44b

G.T###88.46+-5.3abc###102.67+-6.1a###96.37+-4.5ab###95.83a###81.38+-4.9de###102.99+-3.7a###92.31+-3.1abcd###92.23a

R.D###86.84+-7.2bc###99.54+-5.2ab###93.49+-5.1ab###93.29a###77.71+-3.7ef###96.17+-5.9abc###85.93+-4.9bcde###86.60ab

Average###85.20b###99.01a###91.74ab###77.78c###96.06a###85.54b

###Chlorophyll contents

R.B.###34.45+-3.0abc###37.23+-3.8ab###37.56+-3.3a###36.41a###33.61+-1.7abc###37.53+-2.6a###34.53+-2.8abc###35.22a

R.C###29.51+-2.5bcd###35.81+-3.1abc###32.6+-1.6abc###32.64ab###28.3+-2.4cd###34.2+-1.7abc###33.16+-2.4abc###31.89ab

G.T###29.23+-2.2cd###34.86+-4.1abc###31.1+-2.9abcd###31.73b###31.21+-1.7abcd###36.1+-2.4ab###32.26+-2.1abcd###33.19a

R.D###24.76+-1.5d###31.11+-4.1abcd###29.96+-2.8abcd###28.61b###26.75+-1.4d###28.96+-2.2cd###29.85+-2.6bcd###28.52b

Average###29.49b###34.75a###32.80ab###29.96b###34.19a###32.45ab

During 2013, R. centifolia (334.18 um) in treated wastewater was at the top followed by same Rosa species in canal water and untreated wastewater treatments with values of 332.31 um and 317.03 um respectively while minimum epidermal thickness was recorded in R. bourboniana (117.73 um) in untreated wastewater treatment (Fig. 1).

Midrib thickness (um): Results showed that R. Gruss-an-Teplitz dominated in all irrigation water treatments than other Rosa species (Fig. 1). Maximum midrib thickness during both years was found in R. Gruss-an-Teplitz (737.01 um and 823.61 um) in untreated wastewater followed by same species (656.08 um and 702.98 um) in treated wastewater and R. centifolia (570.90 um and 644.68 um) in untreated wastewater treatment while minimum value was recorded in R. bourboniana (398.47 um and 431.63 um) in canal water treatment. All species during 2013 showed comparatively larger midrib thickness than 2012 in all irrigation treatments.

Vascular bundle area (um2): Rosa Gruss-an-Teplitz contained highest vascular bundle area than other species and maximum value was recorded under untreated wastewater (64924.9 um2) followed by same Rosa species in treated wastewater (57953.6 um2) and canal water (50285.7 um2) during 2012, while minimum of it in R. bourboniana (15882.6 um2) in canal water treatment. During 2013, maximum vascular bundle area was recorded in R. Gruss-an-Teplitz (60638.8 um2) in treated wastewater treatment followed by same Rosa species (57207.9 um2) in untreated wastewater treatment while minimum in R. bourboniana (21016.3 um2) in canal water treatment. Cortical cell area of R. centifolia and R. bourboniana was in medium range between R. Gruss-an-Teplitz and R. bourboniana during both years (Fig. 2).

Metaxylem area (um2): There was significant variation in metaxylem area in Rosa species and R. bourboniana was dominant in all irrigation treatments during both years (Fig. 2). Maximum metaxylem area was recorded in untreated wastewater treatment (435.53 um2 and 379.8 um2) followed by treated wastewater (399.27 um2 and 366.05 um2) during 2012 and 2013, respectively while minimum in R. damascena (85.80 um2 and 78.44 um2) for untreated wastewater treatment. Metaxylem area of R. Gruss-an-Teplitz and R. centifolia was in medium range between R. bourboniana and R. damascena in all irrigation treatments during both years of experiment.

Phloem area (um2): Results showed that R. damascena (236.67 um2) in treated wastewater had maximum phloem area followed by R. Gruss-an-Teplitz (225.48 um2) in same irrigation water treatment during 2012 while minimum value was recorded in R. bourboniana (109.62 um2) in untreated wastewater. During 2013, R. Gruss-an-Teplitz (238.44 um2) in treated wastewater obtained highest phloem area followed by R. damascena in treated wastewater with value of 223.47 um2 while minimum phloem area was recorded in R. bourboniana (129.84 um2) in untreated wastewater treatment (Fig. 3).

Palisade cell area (um2): Results showed that during 2012, R. damascena (495.41 um2) in treated wastewater obtained maximum palisade cell area followed by R. centifolia (409.44 um2) and R. damascena (406.08 um2) in treated wastewater and canal water treatment respectively while minimum of it was found in R. bourboniana (136.11 um2) for untreated wastewater. During 2013, R. damascena (492.2 um2) in treated wastewater treatment again showed maximum palisade cell area while minimum value was recorded in R. bourboniana (139.68 um2) in untreated wastewater (Fig. 3).

Spongy cell area (um2): Results showed that R. Gruss-an-Teplitz was at the top during both years as compared to other Rosa species in all irrigation waters. Maximum spongy cell area was recorded in untreated wastewater (459.44 um2) followed by treated wastewater and canal water treatment with values of 386.8 um2 and 341.89 um2 respectively while minimum of it in R. bourboniana (119.44 um2) under canal water treatment. During 2013, R. Grussan-Teplitz in treated wastewater (385.92 um2) had maximum spongy cell area followed by same species (355.68 um2) in canal water while minimum value was recorded in leaves of R. bourboniana (153.68 um2) in canal water (Fig. 3).

Lamina thickness (um): Data showed that R. damascena (193.28 um) in treated wastewater was at the top followed by same Rosa species in canal water and untreated wastewater with leaf thickness values of 177.31 um and 171.01 um respectively during 2012, while minimum of it was recorded in R. bourboniana (104.16 um) in untreated wastewater. Results during 2013 illustrated that R. damascena (198.56 um) in treated wastewater was at the top followed by same species (191.42 um) and R. centifolia (183.00 um) in untreated wastewater and treated wastewater treatment respectively whereas minimum of it was recorded in R. bourboniana (125.88 um) under canal water. All species during 2013 showed comparatively higher lamina thickness than 2012 (Fig. 3). Transverse sections of leaf anatomical characteristics of fragrant Rosa species under canal water, treated and untreated wastewaters were presented in Fig. 4.

Discussion

Water used in this experiment was basic in nature as its pH was more than 7 and EC of untreated wastewater was more than standard values set by IIWQS and NEQS for municipal wastewaters of Pakistan while all other minerals and chemicals in treated wastewater and canal water treatment were in permissible range. Untreated wastewater contained high concentration of some minerals and toxic heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Co, Cu) and for this reason its BOD and COD were high (Kakar et al., 2011). Plants were silent sufferers and their response against untreated wastewater reduces growth and physiological disturbance as compared to canal water and treated wastewater treatments.

All physiological parameters considered in this experiment increased under treated wastewater treatment due to optimum concentration of nutrients in treated water as compared to canal water and untreated wastewater treatment. Due to higher concentrations of EC, BOD, COD, Pb, Cd, Co and Na in untreated wastewater, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were reduced in all Rosa species during both years while chlorophyll contents slightly increased in R. bourboniana and R. Gruss-an-Teplitz during second year of experiment. Cornic (2000) and Flexas and Medrano (2002) reported that due to chemical stress, stomatal closure takes place which limits photosynthesis. Stomatal limitation reduces photosynthetic rate which ultimately results in inhibition of metabolism in plants (Cornic, 2000).

Copper and nickel are essential metals for higher plants particularly for physiological processes i.e., photosynthesis (Chatterjee et al., 2006; Mahmood and Islam, 2006) and its toxicity leads to distance in metabolic pathways and damage to macromolecules (Neelima and Reddy, 2002; Singh and Tiwari, 2003; Demirevska-kapova et al., 2004). Kannaiyan (2001) and Saravanamoorthy and Kumari (2007) reported that optimum mineral nutrient status resulted in higher concentrations of chlorophyll in plants and elevated metals and salts concentration in irrigation water reduces the chlorophyll contents in Rosa species (Niu et al., 2008).

Photosynthesis inhibition in landscape plants was also reported by Azza et al. (2007) and Munns and Tester (2008) due to high salt and metal concentration. Singh and Agrawal (2010) found that in Beta vulgaris, photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance were higher in wastewater irrigated sites as compared to ground water irrigated ones and concluded that these positive response of physiological characteristics of the plants at wastewater irrigated site suggest that the concentration of toxic metals may not be up to the extent causing adverse effects on photosynthetic apparatus. Khaleel et al. (2013) confirmed the results of this experiment and argued that treated wastewater treatment elevated the chlorophyll contents in Abelmoschus esculentus.

Enhancement of chlorophyll could be due to enhanced nutrient uptake, synthesis and translocation probably facilitated by optimum availability of some of the beneficiary plant nutrients and also due to reduction in phenol compounds due to the dilution effect. Results of this study are also similar with the findings of Kakar et al. (2010) who argued that optimum chemical concentration in irrigation water increased stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and photosynthetic rate while untreated wastewater with high load of contamination strongly reduced the physiological parameters.

Large cortical cell area, epidermal thickness, midrib thickness, vascular bundle area, metaxylem area and spongy cell area in leaves increased in all Rosa species as contamination increased in irrigation waters and R. Gruss-an-Teplitz produced highest cortical cell area as compared to other species. It could be due to the reason that most of salts and heavy metals in polluted waters were in permissible range to apply for irrigation to plants. Aldesuquy (2014) reported that wastewater increased vascular bundle area and xylem area in leaves of wheat plants. Tyagi et al. (2013) reported that anatomical characteristics were reduced as pollution increased in irrigation water treatments. Nawaz et al. (2011) showed similar results and argued that R. Gruss-an-Teplitz had larger cortical cell area, thick midrib, larger vascular bundles and metaxylem area as compared to other Rosa species.

Plants shows gradual changes in leaf structure with an upturn in heavy metals concentration (Maruthi et al., 2005; Shanker et al., 2005; Valerie et al., 2006). Optimum concentration of nutrients and heavy metals delayed the entry of metals into the roots by stimulating a lignified exodermis and thereby subsidized to a higher metal tolerance (Cheng et al., 2012).

Conclusion

From this study, it can be concluded that there were substantial variations among Rosa species regarding response to wastewater irrigations. Treated wastewater regarding irrigation water and R. Gruss-an-Teplitz among Rosa species was dominant treatment and plants grown under treated wastewater produced highest values of physiological characteristics while leaf structural features of Rosa species showed diversity in their response to treated and untreated wastewater irrigation treatments.

References

Aldesuquy, H.S., 2014. Effect of spermine and spermidine on wheat plants irrigated with waste water: Conductive canals of flag leaf and peduncle in relation to grain yield. J. Stress Physiol. Biochem., 10: 145-166

Azza, M.A.M., E.M. Fatma EL-Quensi and M.M. Farahat, 2007. Responses of ornamental plants and woody trees to salinity. World J. Agric. Sci., 3: 386-395

Chatterjee, C., R. Gopal, and B.K. Dube, 2006. Physiological and biochemical responses of French bean to excess cobalt. J. Plant Nutri., 29: 127-136

Cheng, H., Y.S. Wang, Z.H. Ye, D.T. Chen, Y.L. Peng and L.Y. Wang, 2012. Influence of N deficiency and salinity on metal (Pb, Zn and Cu) accumulation and tolerance by Rhizophora stylosa in relation to root anatomy and permeability. Environ. Pollut., 164: 110-117

Cornic, G., 2000. Drought stress inhibits photosynthesis by decreasing stomatal aperture-not by affecting ATP synthesis. Trends Plant Sci., 5: 187-188

Demirevska-Kepova, K., L. Simova-Stoilova, Z. Stoyanova, R. Holzer and U. Feller, 2004. Biochemical changes in barley plants after excessive supply of copper and manganese. Environ. Exp. Bot., 52: 253-266

Eaton, A.D., L.S. Glescer, E.W. Rice and A.E. Greenberg, 2005. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 21st edition. American Public Health Association, Washington, USA

Ensink, J.H.J., W. van der Hoek, Y. Matsuno, S. Munir and M.R. Aslam., 2002. Use of Untreated Wastewater in Peri-urban Agriculture in Pakistan: Risks and Opportunities. Res. Rep. 64. International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka

FAOWATER, 2008. Water at a Glance: The Relationship between Water, Agriculture, Food Security and Poverty. Water Development and Management Unit. Available at: http:// www.fao.org/nr/water/docs/waterataglance.pdf (accessed 21 January 2011)

Flexas, J. and H. Medrano, 2002. Drought inhibition of photosynthesis in C3 plants: stomatal and non stomatal limitations revisited. Ann. Bot., 89: 183-189

Herteman, M., F. Fromard and L. Lambs, 2011. Effects of pretreated domestic wastewater supplies on leaf pigment content, photosynthesis rate and growth of mangrove trees. Ecol. Eng., 37: 1283-1291

Kakar, S.R. A. Wahid, R.B. Tareen, S.A. Kakar, M. Tariq and S.A. Kayani, 2010. Impact of municipal wastewater of Quetta city on biomass, physiology and yield of canola (Brassica napus L.). Pak. J. Bot., 42: 317-328

Kakar, S.R., A. Wahid, R.B. Tareen, S.A. Kakar and R. Jabeen, 2011. Impact of municipal wastewaters of Quetta city on some oilseed crops of Pakistan: Effects on biomass, physiology and yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Pak. J. Bot., 43: 1477-1484

Kannaiyan, S., 2001. Use of poor quality water and sugar industrial effluent in agriculture. Proc. of National Seminar on Use of a Poor Quality Water and Sugar Industrial Effluent in Agriculture, pp: 1-23

Khaleel, R.I., N. Ismail and M.H. Ibrahim, 2013. The impact of wastewater treatments on seed germination and biochemical parameter of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Soc. Behav. Sci., 91: 453-460

Khurana, M.P.S. and P. Singh, 2012. Wastewater use in crop production: A Review. Resour. Environ., 2: 116-131

Kiziloglu, F.M., M. Turan, U. Sahin, Y. Kuslu and A. Dursun, 2008. Effects of untreated and treated wastewater irrigation on some chemical properties of cauliflower (Brassica olerecea L. var. Botrytis) and red cabbage (Brassica olerecea L. var. Rubra) grown on calcareous soil in Turkey. Agric. Water Manage., 95: 716-724

Laurie, A. and V.H. Ries, 1950. Floriculture: Fundamentals and Practices, 2nd edition. McGraw Hill Book Co., New York, USA

Mahmood, Q., P. Zheng, E. Islam, Y. Hayat, M.J. Hassan, G. Jilani and R.C. Jin, 2005. Lab scale studies on water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) for biotreatment of textile wastewater. Caspian J. Env. Sci., 3: 83-88

Mahmood, T. and K.R. Islam, 2006. Response of rice seedlings to copper toxicity and acidity. J. Plant Nutri., 29: 943-957

Maruthi, B.B., S.V. Diehl, F.X. Hanc, D.L. Monts and Y. Sub, 2005. Anatomical changes due to uptake and accumulation of Zn and Cd in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). Environ. Exp. Bot., 54: 131-141

Munns, R. and M. Tester, 2008. Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol., 59: 651-681

Nasir, M.H., R. Nadeem, K. Akhtar, M.A. Hanif and A.M. Khalid, 2007. Efficacy of modified distillation sludge of rose (Rosa centifolia) petals for lead (II) and zinc (II) removal from aqueous solutions. J. Hazard Mater., 147: 1006-1014

Nawaz, T., M. Hameed, M. Ashraf, F. Al-Qurainy, M.S.A. Ahmad, A. Younis and M. Hayat, 2011. Ecological significance of diversity in leaf tissue architecture of some species/cultivars of the genus Rosa L. Pak. J. Bot., 43: 873-883

Neelima, P. and K.J. Reddy, 2002. Interaction of copper and cadmium with seedlings growth and biochemical responses in Solanum melongena. Environ. Pollut. Technol., 1: 285-290

Niu, G., S.D. Rodriguez and L. Aguiniga, 2008. Effect of saline water irrigation on growth and physiological responses of three rose rootstocks. HortSci., 43: 1479-1492

Noman, A., M. Hammed, Q. Ali and M. Aqeel, 2012. Foliar tissue architectural diversity among three species of genus Hibiscus for better adaptability under industrial environment. Int. J. Environ. Sci., 2: 2212-2222

Nybon, H., 2009. Introduction to Rosa. In: Plant Genetics and Genomics: Genetics and Genomics of Rosaceae, Crops and Models, pp: 167-171.

Folta, K.M. and S.E. Gardiner (eds.). Springer Science, Business Media, Dordrecht, The Netherlands

Ogunkune, C.O., A.A. Abdulrahman, T.A. Aluko, O.S. Kolawolf, PO. Fatoba and F.A. Oladele, 2013. Anatomical response of Amaranthus hybridus Linn. as influenced by pharmaceutical effluents. Not. Sci. Biol., 5: 431-437

Pedrero, F., I. Kalavrouziotis, J.J. Alarcon, P. Koukoulakis, and T. Asano, 2010. Use of treated municipal wastewater in irrigated agriculture. Review of some practices in Spain and Greece. Agric. Water Manage., 97: 1233-1241

Pescod, M.B., 1992. Wastewater Treatment and Use in Agriculture. Irrigation and Drainage paper 47. FAO, Rome, Italy

Petousi, I., N. Stavroulaki, M. Fountoulakis, M. Papadimitriou, E.I. Stentiford and T. Manios, 2013. Application of treated wastewater for cultivation of carnations. Water Prac. Technol., 8: 457-460

Rusan, M.J.M., S. Hinnawi and L. Rousan, 2007. Long term effect of wastewater irrigation of forage crops on soil and plant quality parameters. Desalination, 215: 143-152

Safi, M.I., A. Fardous, M. Muddaber, S. El-Zuraiqi, A. Balawenth, L. Al-Hadidi and I. Bashabsheh, 2007. Long term effects of reclaimed water on rose and carnation cut flower crops in soil and soilless media. J. Appl. Sci., 7: 1191-1198

Saravanamoorthy, M.D. and B.D.R. Kumari, 2007. Effect of textile water on morphology and yield on two varieties of peanut (Arachis hypogea L.). J. Agric. Technol., 3: 335-343

Sass, J.E., 1951. Botanical Micro Technique. The Iowa State College Press, Ames. Iowa, USA

Shanker, A.K., C. Cervantes, H. Loza-Tavera and S. Avudainayagam, 2005. Chromium toxicity in plants. Environ. Int., 31: 739-753

Singh, A. and M. Agrawal, 2010. Effects of municipal waste water irrigation on availability of heavy metals and morpho-physiological characteristics of Beta vulgaris L. J. Environ. Biol., 31: 727-736

Singh, P.K. and S.K. Tewari, 2003. Cadmium toxicity induced changes in plant water relations and oxidative metabolism of Brassica juncea L. plants. J. Environ. Biol., 24: 107-117

Steel, R.G.D., J.H. Torrie and D.A. Dickey, 1997. Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A Biometric Approach, 3rd edition. McGraw Hill Book Co., New York, USA

Sun, S. and H. Wang, 2005. The primary studies on the physiological changes and mechanisms of damage to macrophytes by the pollution of cadmium. Acta Bot. Physiol., 11: 113-121

Tyagi, K., S. Sharma, S. Kumar and S. Ayub, 2013. Cytological, morphological and anatomical studies of Ricinus communis Linn. grown under the influence of industrial effluent-A comparative study. J. Pharm. Res., 7: 454-458

Valerie, P., L. Renee-Claire and F. Urs, 2006. Partitioning of zinc, cadmium, manganese and cobalt in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and lupin (Lupinus albus) and further release into the soil. Environ. Exp. Bot., 58: 269-278

Younis, A., A. Riaz, S. Aslam, M. Ahsan, U. Tariq, F. Javaid, M. Nadeem and M. Hameed, 2013. Effect of different pruning dates on growth and flowering of Rosa centifolia. Pak. J. Agric. Sci., 50: 605-609
COPYRIGHT 2017 Asianet-Pakistan
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2017 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Ahsan, Muhammad; Riaz, Atif; Jaskani, Muhammad Jafar; Hameed, Mansoor
Publication:International Journal of Agriculture and Biology
Article Type:Report
Date:Feb 28, 2017
Words:6367
Previous Article:Effect of Sclerotium rolfsii on Uptake of Heavy Metal Copper in Pea (Pisum sativum).
Next Article:Boron Seed Priming Improves the Seedling Emergence, Growth, Grain Yield and Grain Biofortification of Bread Wheat.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2020 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters