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Physics and engineering.

Chair: Dr. James Stephens, USM

Vice-Chair: Partha Biswas, USM

Room 214

O10.01

9:15 THE LARGE HADRON COLIDER--A SPECTACULAR SCIENTIFIC TOY

Amin Haque

Alcorn State University

Particle accelerators are very powerful microscopes that can look into very small detail. High Energy Physics (HEP) looks into infinitesimally small dimensions, investigating the fundamental constituents of our universe and the forces that hold them together. The largest scientific "toy" of this decade, the LHC, reproduces conditions of 1 ps after the Big Bang. Superconductivity is the key technology for LHC. It consists of 1750 main superconducting magnets and 8000 superconducting correctors, and four state of the art detectors based on a superconducting magnet of size and energy never before attained. LHC is designed to provide collision at 14 TeV with a beam current of 0.58 A. The main dipoles are designed for possible ultimate operation at 9 T. The magnets are cooled to 1.9 K. About 15 GJ of magnetic energy are stored in superconducting magnets. Billions of particles flying off from each LHC collision are tracked at four detectors, and then collaborating laboratories, to establish when and how they come together and what shapes they take. This could give clear signs of dimensions beyond length, breadth, height and time. Parallel universes could also be hidden within these dimensions. LHC will help to understand new states of matters and is likely to reveal the existence of new particles, for example the Higgs particle and super symmetry particles, and solve some other mysteries of the Universe like the nature of dark matter and dark energy, and strengthen the Standard Model.

O10.02

9:30 THE LARGE HADRON COLLIDER MAY SOLVE MYSTERIES OF THE UNIVERSE

Amin Haque

Alcorn State University

At the earliest moment of the big bang, the very hot Universe consisted of an extremely hot soup of fundamental particles "quarks, leptons and the force carriers" moving independently with very high energy. The "Higgs particle" interacted with these particles to give them mass. As the universe cooled to 1000 billion degrees, the quarks and gluons (carriers of the strong force) combined to form heavier particles like protons and neutrons. Every elementary matter particle has an antimatter partner with equal but opposite properties. Antimatter was created, along with matter, in equal amounts in the Big Bang, but it then disappeared. Ninety six percent of our Universe is Missing or has "Dark Matter" or "Dark Energy". Astronomers detect the gravitational effects of large amounts of matter and energy that cannot be seen. One possible explanation of dark matter is that it consists of supersymmetric particles. Gravity is the fourth force, and much weaker, but physicists do not understand how it fits in with the Standard Model. One explanation may be that our Universe consists of multi-dimensions and that gravity can "leak out" across the dimensions, making it appear weaker. At the Tev energy scale the LHC will recreate conditions that existed 1 ps after the big bang, and should be able to confirm the validity (or invalidity) of the Standard Model which describes the fundamental constituents of our Universe and the forces that hold them together satisfactorily.

010.03

9:45 LYAPUNOV EXPONENTS AND THE INVARIANT DENSITY RECONSTRUCTION OF CHAOTICMAPS: A SWARM INTELLIGENCE APPROACH

Partha Biswas

University of Southern Mississippi

The maximum entropy principle (MEP) is employed to reconstruct Lyapunov exponents and the natural invariant density of some well-known one-dimensional chaotic maps. Using a novel function reconstruction technique that is based on the application of swarm intelligence to maximize the Shannon entropy, an estimate of Lyapunov exponents and the invariant density of the chaotic maps are obtained. The accuracy and the stability of the algorithm are discussed by comparing our results to the exact analytical values whenever available.

O10.04

10:00 CONJECTURE ON THE ANALYTICITY OF PT-SYMMERIC POTENTIALS AND THE REALITY OF SPECTRA

Lawerence R. Mead

University of Southern Mississippi

10:15 BREAK

O10.05

10:30 RECONSTRUCTING HYDROGEN DISTRIBUTION IN AMORPHOUS SILICON: AN INVERSE APPROACH BASED ON NMR AND INFRARED DATA

Rajendra Timilsina, Partha Biswas

University of Southern Mississippi

A method to reconstruct the distribution of hydrogen in amorphous silicon is presented. We study three different model networks with hydrogen concentration in the range from 8% to 25%. Starting with an arbitrary distribution of hydrogen atoms in the network, we impose experimental information such as the moments of the NMR spectrum and the type of hydrogen bonding configuration obtained from infrared spectroscopy. The structural and the electronic properties of the models with reconstructed hydrogen distribution are compared to the available experimental results.

O10.06

10:45 FROM MARKOVIAN TO NONMARKOVIAN TO MARKOVIAN

Katja Schaefer, M. A. Novotny

Mississippi State University

Non-equilibrium systems with a continuous state-space that are described by a Markovian dynamics generally lose their Markovian character by an arbitrary pointwise (with respect to time) projection onto a discrete set of states with nearest neighbor coupling. We will show in theory that with averaging the time-dependence of the transition rates of the projected process, the dynamics can be made Markovian again. As will further discuss, this only conserves quantities of the same time-scale as the averaging procedure, but the information on shorter time-scales is lost.

O10.07

11:00 A COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS APPROACH TO MULTI-SCALE STRUCTURES AND DYNAMICS in BIOFUNCTIONALIZED SOFT NANO-MATERIAL

Ras Pandey

University of Southern Mississippi

Particles, chains and sheets are some of the basic constitutive units to model a range of physical, chemical, and biological systems. Chains and sheets (and heterogeneous objects such as aggregates, microgels, etc) to describe polymer chains, peptides, membranes, etc can be assembled from particles, the smallest units in the coarse-grained descriptions. Covering all scales from atomistic details, for example, in protein folding or nano-bio hybrid composites, is one of the challenging issues in computational science. Therefore, some level of coarse-graining is almost unavoidable in studying such systems. Attempts will be made to show how to incorporate pertinent details in coarse-grained models to address such complex issues as structure and dynamics of proteins, their scaffolding, and self-assembly of bio-functionalized nano materials.

Thursday Afternoon Room 214

O10.08

1:00 PROBING LIGHT PSEUDOSCALAR, AXIAL VECTOR STATES THROUGH [[eta].sub.b] [right arrow] [[tau].sup.+] [[tau].sup.-]

Ahmed Rashed (1), Murugeswaran Duraisamy (1), Alakabha Datta (1)

(1) University of Mississippi, (2) Ain Shams University

In this paper, we explore the decay [[eta].sub.b] [right arrow] [[tau].sup.+] [[tau].sup.-] a probe for a light pseudoscalar or a light axial vector state. We estimate the standard model branching ratio for this decay to be [approximately equal to] 4 x [10.sup.9]. We show that considerably larger branching ratios, up to the present experimental limit of [approximately equal to] 8%, are possible in models with a light pseudoscalar or a light axial vector state. As we do not include possible mixing effects between the light pseudoscalar and the [[eta].sub.b], our results should be reliable when the pseudoscalar mass is away from the [[eta].sub.b] mass.

O10.09

1:15 RADIATION FROM PARTICLES WITH ARBITRARY ENERGY COLLIDING HEAD-ON WITH NONROTATING HIGHER DIMENSIONAL BLACK HOLES

Emanuele Berti, Vitor Cardoso, Barnabas Kipapa

University of Mississippi

We consider point particles with arbitrary energy per unit mass E that fall radially into a higher-dimensional, nonrotating, asymptotically flat black hole. We compute the energy and linear momentum radiated in this process as functions of E and of the spactime dimensionality D=n+2 for n=2, ..., 9 (in some cases we go up to 11). We find that the total energy radiated increases with n for particles falling from rest (E=1). For fixed particle energies 1< E [less than or equal to] 2 we show explicitly that the radiation has a local minimum at some critical value of n, and then it increases with n. We conjecture that such a minimum exists also for higher particle energies. The present point-particle calculation breaks down when n=11, because then the radiated energy becomes larger than the particle mass. Quite interestingly, for n=11 the radiated energy predicted by our calculation would also violate Hawking's area bound. This hints at a qualitative change in gravitational radiation emission for n [greater than or equal to] 11. Our results are in very good agreement with numerical simulations of low energy, unequal-mass black hole collisions in D=5 (that will be reported elsewhere) and they are a useful benchmark for future nonlinear evolutions of the higher-dimensional Einstein equations.

O10.10

1:30 ATOMIC LEVEL UNDERSTANDING OF ESTROGEN RECEPTOR INTERACTIONS WITH ESTROGENIC LIGANDS AND SMALL PEPTIDES

Marcus Johnson (1), Shawn Cole (1), Rajendram Rajnarayanan (2), Pradip Biswas (1)

(1) Tougaloo College, (2) University of Buffalo

Estrogen receptors (ER), upon binding with estrogenic ligands assume conformations suitable for dimerization and binding with signal transmitting coactivator proteins--the ER-dimer binds to DNA and leads to transcription of target genes. About 70% of breast cancers are found to depend on Estrogen Receptors for their growth. Ligands like tamoxifen and raloxifen are anti-estrogenic but tamoxifen resistant breast cancers lead to speculation about hormone-independent activation pathways of ER and possible ER mutants. Consequently, there is a growing need to understand the characteristic changes of ER as induced by estrogenic and anti-estrogenic ligands and to elucidate the effect of mutations. Atomistic simulation of ER-ligand complexes have been performed using GROMACS (GROningen Machine for Chemical Simulations) Molecular Mechanics code and OPLS (Optimized Potentials for Liquid Simulations) force-field to reveal the effect of mutations and estrogenic and anti-estrogenic ligands on the conformations and reactivity of ER. Results concerning the changes in H-bonding profile and the profile of electrostatic interaction energies between liganded-ER and external peptides will be presented.

O10.11

1:45 INVITED LECTURE: APPLICATION OF PHYSICS AND COMPUTATION IN MOLECULAR MODELING AND SIMULATIONS

Pradip Biswas

Tougaloo College

2:15 BREAK

O10.12

2:30 OCEAN-ACOUSTIC PROPAGATION MODELING RELEVANT TO PETROLEUM EXPLORATION AND RECOVERY

Michael Vera

University of Southern Mississippi

Improvements in understanding the propagation of acoustic energy in environments like the Gulf of Mexico can contribute to assessments of both the impact of petroleum exploration efforts and the contamination due to accidental releases. The nature of sound travel in the ocean under these circumstances is investigated by the use of computer simulations. Exploration efforts often involve arrays of airgun sources. These arrays are intended to primarily direct sound vertically downward so that the effect of the seabed on the acoustic energy reflected back toward the surface can be used to identify petroleum reservoirs. However, these sources can excite some horizontally propagating modes and acoustic energy can escape to the far field. Refinements to the modeling efforts associated with the sound that achieves long ranges can improve the assessment of the environmental impact of such sources. An additional investigation with relevance to petroleum efforts involves the possibility of acoustically tracking contaminants from an accidental release. An assumed distribution of a chemical contaminant such as oil is placed in the simulation environment and the travel of a sound pulse through a region of the ocean interior is computed. If there are clear impacts on the structure of the sound from having moved through the oil, then the method may be useful in monitoring actual events.

O10.13

2:45 MARINE ACOUSTIC SIGNALS AND NOISE

James Stephens

University of Southern Mississippi

In the analysis of the acoustic energy radiated by air guns we calculate a sound exposure as the integration of a squared pressure over time. We must choose an analysis window to include the signal: 5% and 95% levels of the integrated flux are commonly chosen to define the window. In the analysis of signals with less optimal signal to noise levels the result becomes very sensitive to the choice of the analysis window, and we are also faced with the need to compensate for the background power level when computing exposure levels. This paper develops a simple rationale to determine the sound exposure due to a transient pulse train in the presence of stationary background noise.

O10.14

3:00 STRING THEORY AND AUM: INVESTIGATIONS INTO A TRUE THEORY OF EVERYTHING

Rich M. Mc Donald, S. Kant Vajpayee, Richard M. McDonald

University of Southern Mississippi

The common thread for humanity the world over has been an insatiable desire to understand the universe. Science and philosophy have struggled through history attempting to definitively explain the reasons for human existence. While the field of science has seen a remarkable revolution in the past century, the proponents of creationism have refused to yield. The scientific realm, long engaged in the search for an answer that would fill the void which lies between Quantum Physics and General Relativity, now believe that a theory of everything is within their grasp. This theory remained elusive until the development of string theory, which posits that everything in the universe is a manifestation of fundamental strings incredibly small in size. This basic belief system has been now refined into what is known as superstring theory, whose basis is the theory rests in the varied vibrations and interactions emanating from these fundamental strings. This presentation will explore the link between the string theory paradigm with the sound vibrations of the Sanskrit syllable Aum. Hinduism holds Aum as the most sacred syllable, considering it to be the origin of the universe itself. The presentation will attempt to show the inherent link between the auditory vibrations created in the recitation of Aum and the vibrations of string theory. If correct, the result would reconcile science and theological creation paradigms, and provide legitimacy to string theory's claim as the theory of everything.

O10.15

3:15 ALERT SYSTEM FOR HOMELAND SECURITY APPLICATION

Norvell Davis (1), Marsalis Charles (1), Kristopher Cooke (1), Jyotirmay Gadewadikar (2), Ognjen Kuljaca (1)

(1) Alcorn State University, (2) Sensors and Automation Laboratory, Alcorn State University, (3) Bodarski Institute

This work focuses on development of a demonstrative test bed to implement a security alert system for a possible Homeland Security Application. In this work we have presented an alert system with the integrated chip circuit. In this work we present a complete procedure including task definition, design of components, simulation, and finally implementation. The procedure described in this work allows one to achieve an alert system circuit which can be used for various applications including Homeland Security. In this work intermediate results and findings towards realizing an alert system are presented. The project is done at Alcorn State University's Department of Advanced Technologies, towards partial fulfillment of the B.S. degree in applied science with a specialization in Electromechanical Engineering Technology, the project is the part of the course Senior Design Project. This work presents an inexpensive way of realizing an alert system and recommends inexpensive of-the-shelf electrical and electronic elements.

O10.16

3:30 MOISTURE DETECTION FOR AGRICULTURAL APPLICATION

Ronderio Hunt (1), Tabari Jones (1), Jyotirmay Gadewadikar (2), Steve Adzanu (2)

(1) Alcorn State University, (2) Sensors and Automation Laboratory, Alcorn State University

In an agriculture application it is a well known practice to provide automatic watering devices, such as sprinklers, in order to supply plants with a proper amount of moisture so that the plants or natural growth will flourish. Time responsive watering devices have been generally found unsatisfactory since a plant's need for water is not solely a function of time, but varies with conditions of the planting medium, the atmospheric temperature, and humidity etc. This work focuses on development of a demonstrative test bed to implement moisture detection for a possible agriculture application. The moisture detector circuit is a water treatment system including a LED bulb, a moisture detector, and a control circuit responsive to the moisture detector to terminate power to the bulb when moisture is detected. In this work we have presented an advanced moisture detection unit with the integrated chip circuit. In this work we offer a complete procedure. The procedure described in this work allows one to achieve a moisture detection circuit which can be used for various applications including agriculture. In this work intermediate results and findings towards realizing a moisture detection system are presented. The project is done at Alcorn State University's Department of Advanced Technologies, towards partial fulfillment of the B.S. degree in applied science with a specialization in Electromechanical Engineering Technology; the project is the part of the course Senior Design Project. This paper presents an inexpensive way of realizing a moisture detection system and recommends inexpensive of-the-shelf electrical and electronic elements.

3:45 Divisional Business Meeting

POSTER SESSION P10.01

TWO PHOTON SPECTROSCOPY OF RUBIDIUM

Charles Young, Kileigh Peturis, Brad Crochet, Alina Gearba

University of Southern Mississippi

We have performed two-photon spectroscopy in a rubidium vapor cell at temperatures above 100[degrees]C. Two-photon transitions in rubidium are relevant as new optical frequency standards in telecommunications. In our experiment, the Rb atom is excited from the 5[S.sub.1/2] ground state directly to the 5[D.sub.5/2] excited state by simultaneous absorption of two identical photons. This two photon transition can occur since the 5[P.sub.3/2] state is nearly in between the 5[S.sub.1/2] and the 5[D.sub.5/2] state. The two photons are provided by two counter-propagating laser beams originating from a single diode laser operating at 778.1 nm. From the 5[D.sub.5/2] state the Rb atom will decay back to the 5[S.sub.1/2] ground state via the 6[P.sub.3/2] intermediate state. We have recorded 420.2 nm light corresponding to decay from the 6[P.sub.3/2] state to the 5[S.sub.1/2] state. We have identified four peaks in the fluorescence spectrum that belong to the [sup.85]Rb and [sup.87]Rb isotopes. We have measured the spacing between these peaks to be consistent with the ground state hyperfine splitting. Our results not only agree with the accepted values, but this experiment provides a baseline to begin a two-photon four-wave mixing experiment by allowing us to test our experiment and method.
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Publication:Journal of the Mississippi Academy of Sciences
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2011
Words:3003
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