Physicochemical and microbiological stability of mixed nectar of orange and uvaia/ Estabilidade fisico-quimica e microbiologica de nectar misto de laranja e uvaza.
The addition of Cerrado fruits to juice and nectar formulations is an interesting alternative for the beverage industry, since it allows developing innovative products with different sensory characteristics, besides contributing with the incorporation of nutritive and bioactive compounds in foods (MATSUURA; ROLIM, 2002; NEVES et al., 2011; MORZELLE et al., 2011).
The fruits of the Brazilian Cerrado contain a great variety of bioactive compounds (phenolic compounds, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fibers), making the fruits relevant for both consumption in natura and industrial processing. In this context, uvaia (Eugenia uvalha Cambess) stands out, which grows in the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Parana, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, and Minas Gerais, consisting of edible fruits of yellow or orange color, capable to be used in the manufacture of soft drinks, ice cream, and jams. (REITZ et al., 1988; SILVA et al., 2008; GOMES, 2012).
Concentration of phenolic compounds in uvaia is higher when compared to many Brazilian fruits such as tamarind, passion fruit, papaya, pineapple, mango and cashew (RUFINO et al., 2010; SILVA et al., 2014). These compounds have a high capacity to sequester free radicals, and can contribute to the reduction of oxidative stress and the increase of the antioxidant defense mechanism, aiding in the prevention and treatment of many chronic diseases (RUFINO et al., 2009; RUFINO et al 2010; GUERRA et al, 2011; LOPES et al, 2018). Moreover, its unique composition, associated to its size, shape, and peel color, can contribute to a greater acceptance of the fruit in the consumer market (SCALON et al., 2004; ZILLO et al., 2013)
Considering the prominent position of Brazil in the industrialization of orange juice and the cultivation of this fruit (NEVES et al., 2010), along with the current trend towards the consumption of exotic fruits and the improvement of the techniques of production, transport, and marketing, uvaia (Eugeniapyriformis Cambess) has a great technological potential for the production of an orange-based mixed nectar.
Thus, to explore the potential of uvaia fruits for the development of an innovative nonalcoholic beverage, and considering the lack of information on the industrial processing of these fruits, the present research aimed to produce and evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of mixed nectar of orange and uvaia during the storage period.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Oranges were purchased from local market in Uberaba--MG, and the uvaia fruits were purchased from the Fruit Industry of the Federal Institute of Education, Science, and Technology of the Triangulo Mineiro (IFTM), at Uberaba campus. Commercial crystal sugar and mineral water were used in the production of the nectar.
The fruits were sent to the Fruit and Vegetable Processing Sector at IFTM, and selected for maturation stage and presence of injuries. Then, they were washed in running water, immersed in a sanitizing solution containing 100 ppm of sodium hypochlorite for 5 minutes, and again washed in running water.
The orange juice was extracted in an electric juicer (6215 Philips Walita), and the uvaia fruits were pulped in a stainless steel brush type pulping machine (0.25 df, Itametal) with a sieve of 1.0 mm of diameter.
The nectars containing 60% fruit pulp were formulated as the Brazilian legislation (BRASIL, 2013), in the following proportions: 60% orange juice (Formulation 1--control); 40% orange juice + 20% uvaia pulp (Formulation 2); and 30% orange juice + 30% uvaia pulp (Formulation 3), using mineral water and crystal sugar to standardize the total soluble solids at 15[degrees]Brix, followed by stirring until complete homogenization.
The nectar formulations were bottled in 200 mL sterilized glass bottles, capped with plastic screw cap, and heat-treated at 90[degrees]C in a water bath for 5 minutes and then cooled in running water to 25[degrees]C, and stored at room temperature for the physicochemical and microbiological characterization during 0, 15, 30, and 45 days of storage.
For the physicochemical characterization of the raw materials and nectars, the following parameters were determined: total soluble solids (TSS) using a bench refractometer (AR200, Reichert), and the results expressed as Brix (IAL, 2008); total titratable acidity (TA) by titration of the sample with 0.1 N NaOH and the results expressed as g citric acid. 100 [mL.sup.-1] (IAL, 2008); and ascorbic acid according to the Tillmans method (2.6 dichlorophenol indophenol) and the results expressed as mg ascorbic acid. 100 [mL.sup.-1] (IAL, 2008). The pH of the samples was measured in a potentiometer (TEC11, Tecnal). The TSS/TA ratio was calculated for both the orange juice and uvaia pulp by dividing the total soluble solids ([degrees]Brix) and the total titratable acidity values. The reducing sugars were determined according to the LANE & EYNON method (1934) using a Redutec apparatus (Marconi), and the total phenolic compounds (FOLIN; CIOCALTEU, 1927) of the nectars were determined during the storage.
The most probable number (MPN) of coliforms at 35[degrees]C was determined in the nectars using 2% Brilliant Green Bile broth (VB); lactic acid bacteria were enumerated by standard plate counting using Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar (MRS); and mold and yeasts were determined by standard plate counting using Dicloran Rosa Bengal Chloramphenicol agar (DRBC), as described by SILVA et al. (2007).
The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design (CRD) in a 3x4 factorial scheme and three replicates, with the first factor corresponding to the nectar formulations (60% orange juice--F1:control; 40% orange juice + 20% uvaia pulp--F2; and 30% orange juice + 30% uvaia pulp--F3), and the second factor corresponding to the storage time (0, 15, 30, and 45 days).
Results were analyzed by analysis of variance, using the F test (ANOVA), and the means were compared by the Tukey's test, considering the level of significance of 5% (p<0.05), using the statistical program Sisvar (FERREIRA, 2000).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Uvaia pulp presented higher total acidity, soluble solids, and ascorbic acid levels, while the Brix/TA ratio and pH were lower when compared to the orange nectar (Table 1). The ascorbic acid level in uvaia was 40% higher than that eported in orange, which is relevant for the technological and nutritional quality of the beverage. Although the higher acidity of the uvaia pulp may contribute to the inhibition of the microbial growth, this parameter can lead to a reduction of the Brix/TA ratio, besides affecting the sensory characteristics of the final product.
During the storage at room temperature, significant (p<0.05) changes were observed in the nectars for the parameters Brix, pH, total acidity, ascorbic acid, and reducing sugars, while the concentration of phenolic compounds differed statistically only among the treatments.
No significant differences were observed for the total soluble solids (TSS) of all formulations at the beginning of the storage. However, after the 15th day of storage, higher TSS values were observed in the formulations containing higher uvaia pulp concentrations, remaining constant for the nectar made without the addition of uvaia pulp (Figure 1). This result may be probably due to the water absorption by the solid constituents of uvaia, thus increasing the concentration of dissolved solids in the beverage.
The mixed nectar presented lower pH values when compared to the control formulation, due to the intrinsic characteristics of the uvaia pulp (Figure 2). During the 45 days of storage, little changes were observed for this parameter, which remained within an acidic range <4.5, which is a threshold value for the development of some spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms (FRANCO, LANDGRAF, 2008).
The total acidity was significantly higher (p <0.05) in the mixed nectar, which increased with the increase in uvaia pulp concentration (Figure 3). During the storage period, the acidity moderately reduced for both treatments, with values higher than 0.8 g.100 [mL.sup.-1] for the formulation containing higher uvaia pulp concentrations. According to BEDETTI et al. (2013), the maintenance of pH and acidity levels of cagaita nectar may have contributed to the oxidative stability of the product during storage. Thus, uvaia has a high technological potential for the production of nectars, once the oxidative reactions may intensify the darkening of the product, thus compromising its acceptance by consumers (MATTIETTO et al., 2007).
The ascorbic acid levels were significantly higher in the mixed nectar, with an increase with the higher concentration of uvaia pulp. The ascorbic acid level in the freshly prepared mixed nectar was 90% higher for the formulation F3 when compared to the control (Figure 4).
During the storage, a reduction of the ascorbic acid levels was observed for both treatments, showing a tendency to stabilize after the 30th day of storage. Despite this reduction, the ascorbic acid levels were higher for the mixed nectar (F2 and F3) after 45 days of storage (Figure 4). The stability of the ascorbic acid increases in acidic environments (BEDETTI et al., 2013), thus the typical acidity of the uvaia pulp may have contributed to the maintenance of higher ascorbic acid concentrations in the mixed nectar at the end of the storage.
DAUD et al. (2016) have reported the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, and lipid-lowering properties of ascorbic acid, which can act in the prevention of cancer, osteoporosis, ocular diseases, septisemia, and cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, the addition of 20 to 30% of uvaia pulp to the nectar formulation led to the introduction of important sources of ascorbic acid into the beverage, thus contributing to the development of a product with relevant nutritive and bioactive properties.
No significant differences were observed for the reducing sugars concentration in the freshly prepared nectars; however, a considerable increase was observed in the mixed nectar after 15 days of storage, which was proportional to the increase in the uvaia pulp concentration (Figure 5).
The higher acidity of the uvaia pulp, together with the heat treatment during pasteurization contributed to the sugar hydrolysis, increasing the reducing sugars in the mixed nectar during the storage. SANTOS et al. (2017) also reported higher acidity in mixed nectar of grape and ginger, resulting in an increase in reducing sugars contents in the final product, while SANTOS et al. (2010) reported that the pasteurization of cupuacu nectar was responsible for the higher levels of reducing sugars in the beverage when compared to the fruit pulp.
Significant (p<0.05) differences were observed for the total phenolics contents among the formulations, with higher values for the mixed nectar, which increased with the increase in the uvaia pulp concentration (Table 2). The phenolic compounds have a direct relationship with the antioxidant capacity of many fruits, being responsible for the reduction and prevention of the oxidative processes, once they prevent the formation of free radicals, contributing with the inhibition and reduction of cellular lesions (KUSKOSKI et al., 2006; MAIA, 2007). LOPES, et al (2018) reported that the antioxidant potential of uvaia is associated with the phenolic compounds present in the fruit. These authors suggested, uvaia consumption can reduce both the oxidative stress in individuals with chronic diseases and the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Although, the concentration of these compounds in uvaia was not investiagted in this study, the fruit has high contents of phenolic compounds, allowing the development of a beverage with health benefits.
The Brazilian Resolution RDC 12 of January 2, 2001, which regulates the sanitary microbiological standards for food, has established microbial standards only for coliforms at 35[degrees]C and Salmonella sp. (BRASIL, 2001). However, molds and yeasts and lactic acid bacteria counts were determined in the nectars of the present study to monitor the development of these microorganisms during the storage period.
Lactic bacteria counts were lower than 1 CFU.[mL.sup.-1] for all formulations during 45 days of storage. Molds and yeasts counts were higher for the control treatment over the entire storage period, which increased at 45 days of storage for the mixed nectar containing 20% pulp (F2). The enumeration of coliforms at 35[degrees]C was below 3.0 MPN.[mL.sup.-1] for the nectars with the addition of uvaia, whereas the control treatment (F1) showed higher counts of this microrganims throughout the storage (Table 3).
Probably, the lower acidity of the nectars contributed to the development of these microorganisms in the control treatment, once no pH adjustment was carried out in this sample. The intrinsic characteristics of the uvaia pulp, including the higher acidity and higher concentration of phenolic compounds, conferred an inhibitory character against these microorganisms, demonstrating the technological importance of uvaia in the development of new products.
The findings of this study demonstrated a good physicochemical stability of all mixed nectar formulations during the storage. However, the highest microbiological stability was observed for the formulation with the addition of 30% uvaia pulp. The higher phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid levels in the mixed nectar at the end of the storage period showed a great technological potential of uvaia, which can contribute to the development of a product with relevant nutritive and bioactive properties.
DECLARATION OF CONFLICT OF INTERESTS
The authors declare no conflict of interest. The founding sponsors had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, and in the decision to publish the results.
All authors contributed equally to the experiment. TOMAZ, K. S. and OLIVEIRA FILHO, J.H. carried out the statistical analyzes. OLIVEIRA FILHO, J.H. prepared the manuscript for submission.
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Karla Silva Tomaz (1) Mayara Rodrigues da Silva Ferreira (1) Mercia da Silva Mesquita (1) Jose Humberto de Oliveira Filho (1) * (iD)
(1) Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Triangulo Mineiro (IFTM), 38064-790, Uberaba, MG, Brasil. E- mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
* Corresponding author.
Received 11.08.18 Approved 05.14.19 Returned by the author 06.11.19 CR-2018-0917.R1
Caption: Figure 1--Interaction between the storage time and the total soluble solids of the nectars. Lowercase letters compare averages between formulations at the same time. Uppercase letters compare averages of the same formulation at different times. F1 = 60% orange juice; F2 = 40% orange juice + 20% uvaia pulp; F3 = 30% orange juice + 30% uvaia pulp.
Caption: Figure 2--Interaction between the storage time and pH of the nectars. Lowercase letters compare averages between formulations at the same time. Upper case letters compare averages of the same formulation at different times. F1 = 60% orange juice; F2 = 40% orange juice + 20% uvaia pulp; F3 = 30% orange juice + 30% uvaia pulp.
Caption: Figure 3--Interaction between the storage time and the titratable acidity of the nectars. Lowercase letters compare averages between formulations at the same time. Uppercase letters compare averages of the same formulation at different times. F1 = 60% orange juice; F2 = 40% orange juice + 20% uvaia pulp; F3 = 30% orange juice + 30% uvaia pulp.
Caption: Figure 4--Interaction between the storage time and the ascorbic acid concentration of the nectars. Lowercase letters compare averages between formulations at the same time. Uppercase letters compare averages of the same formulation at different times. F1 = 60% orange juice; F2 = 40% orange juice + 20% uvaia pulp; F3 = 30% orange juice + 30% uvaia pulp.
Caption: Figure 5--Interaction between the storage time and the reducing sugars levels of the nectars. Lowercase letters compare averages between formulations at the same time. Uppercase letters compare averages of the same formulation at different times. F1 = 60% orange juice; F2 = 40% orange juice + 20% uvaia pulp; F3 = 30% orange juice + 30% uvaia pulp.
Table 1--Physicochemical characteristics of orange juice (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) and uvaia pulp (Eugenia pyriformis Cambess). Parameters Orange juice Titratable acidity (citric acid) 0.58 g.100 [mL.sup.-1] Total soluble solids--TSS 7.9 ([degrees]Brix) TSS/TA ratio 13.62 Ascorbic acid 46.24 mg.100 [mL.sup.-1] pH 3.81 Parameters Uvaia pulp Titratable acidity (citric acid) 0.96 g.100 [mL.sup.-1] Total soluble solids--TSS 9.9 ([degrees]Brix) TSS/TA ratio 10.31 Ascorbic acid 76,66 mg.100 [mL.sup.-1] pH 2.93 Table 2--Mean concentration of phenolic compounds of the nectar formulations. Formulation mg galic acid. 100 [mL.sup.-1] F1 108.25 c F2 328.80 b F3 405.90 a Means followed by the same letter did not differ by Tukey's test (p<0.05). F1=60% orange juice; F2 = 40% orange juice + 20% uvaia pulp; F3 = 30% orange juice + 30% uvaia pulp. Table 3--Microbial counts of the nectars during the storage. Formulations Storage time (days) 0 F1 <1 Lactic bacteria F2 <1 (CFU.[mL.sup.-1]) F3 <1 F1 3.2 x [10.sup.2] Molds and yeasts F2 8.0 x [10.sup.1] (CFU.[mL.sup.-1]) F3 4.0 x [10.sup.1] F1 >1100 Total coliforms F2 <3.0 (MPN.[mL.sup.-1]) F3 <3.0 Storage time (days) 15 30 <1 <1 Lactic bacteria <1 <1 (CFU.[mL.sup.-1]) <1 <1 1.1 x [10.sup.2] 5.0 x [10.sup.2] Molds and yeasts 9.0 x [10.sup.1] 6.0 x [10.sup.1] (CFU.[mL.sup.-1]) 2.2 x [10.sup.1] 4.0 x [10.sup.1] <3.0 >1100 Total coliforms <3.0 <3.0 (MPN.[mL.sup.-1]) <3.0 <3.0 Storage time (days) 45 <1 Lactic bacteria <1 (CFU.[mL.sup.-1]) <1 1.1 x [10.sup.2] Molds and yeasts 1.2 x [10.sup.2] (CFU.[mL.sup.-1]) 5.0 x [10.sup.1] >1100 Total coliforms <3.0 (MPN.[mL.sup.-1]) <3.0 CFU = Colony Forming Unit; MPN = Most Probable Number; F1 = 60% orange juice; F2 = 40% orange juice + 20% uvaia pulp; F3 = 30% orange juice + 30% uvaia pulp.
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|Title Annotation:||FOOD TECHNOLOGY|
|Author:||Tomaz, Karla Silva; Ferreira, Mayara Rodrigues da Silva; Mesquita, Mercia da Silva; de Oliveira Filh|
|Date:||Jul 1, 2019|
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