Physicochemical and bacteriological water analyses in AinTemouchent Beaches (Algeria, NW).
The environment is the whole of the factors physical, chemical and biological on which the life and posterity depend on vegetable, animal or human population . To understand the problem of the pollution and the influence of the man on his vital medium, it is necessary to examine the characteristics which define the environment.
The marine environment is the witness and the actor of the planet history, and his chemical composition, summarizes and integrates all the complexity of his evolution.
In fact, we define the water pollution as the introduction of chemical or biological agents in abnormal quality into the aquatic environment. These factors deteriorate the water medium and endanger human to damage the food resources, biological health and the ecosystems, or to deteriorate the tangible properties .
In the last years, The pollution of the environment and the littoral became one fundamental problem of humanity. Pollution worsened with the industrial development, the demographic growth, the agricultural propagation of the activities and take considerable proportions and alarming.
The objective of our work is the determination of the microbiological and physicochemical quality of AinTemouchentwilaya water littoral (case of Terga beach, Sassel and Chatt El Hillal). The period of sampling was among December 2010and April 2011, on the level of the two stations chosen in each beach of study. We based a statistical on a processing and bacteriological and physicochemical analyses carried out.
MATERIAL AND METHOD
2.1- Study area:
Located in western north Algerian, the wilaya of AinTemouchent extends on a surface from 2400 km 2 . characterized by a hot summer and a moderate winter. The weakness and the irregularity of precipitation influence directly the physical environment the economic activity based primarily on to the temperature, the coldest month in the area is 13,31[degrees]C and the hottest month is August when the average temperature is 26,08[degrees]C .
Among the 28 communes which constitute the whole of the wilaya of AinTemouchent, nine are coastal we quote: Oulhaga, Blessed Saf, Sidi Safi, Sidi Ben Adda, OuledKihal, Terga, OuledBoudjemaa, Me Said and Bouzedjar (Figure 1). The latter gather 17 beaches which are: Biaat, SidiDjalloul, Pot, SidiBoucif, Chatt El Hillal, Terga, Madagh, Bouzedjar, El Wardania and Malouse, Sassel, Nedjma, Mordjane, Chatt El Ward, Madrid, Rechgoun and Wells
Sassel remains a place where convivial environment and the personal wellbeing go from pair. It is the more appraisals beach of the western area and a few hundreds of thousands of aestivates forward there during the three summer months. The zone of existing tourist expansion in this area will adds to blow on more for one maximum of comfort (Figure2)
Terga beach is regarded as a small village. Indeed, it counts several villas and bungalows (the majority of them have summers built for the colonial period) . (Figure3)
Chatt El Hillal often known under the name of the beach of Wadi El Hallouf (Figure4) Tourism is, here, a mixture of relaxation and culture, through the waadat of Sidi Sheik in Ouled El Kihal and of the three Marabouts of Sidi Ben Adda.
Two sampling stations in each beach (in fact Chatt El Hillal, Terga and Sassel beaches) were selected (Figure 5), in each one of them, of the water samples were taken (during February, December and April) then analyzed. However, at the base, the choice of these stations are directed by an observation of the various guidelines of the beach (dwellings, presence of wad, station of desalination...) which was the subject of our study.
Nevertheless, taking away of water at summer carried out between 0 and 2 m of distance towards the broad one, and between 20 and 50 cm below the level of water. It should be noted that the samples have summers carried out in the hours of the morning, generally between 10 hour and midday.
2.2.1 Physicochemical analysis:
The objective of the physicochemical analysis of a water is to evaluate the concentrations of the various parameters which them excess in water can cause of the damage for the living organism .
The required parameters are:
ammonium nitrates (N[H.sub.4.sup.+])
2.2.2 Microbiological analysis:
The objective of the bacteriological analysis of a water is to seek the bacteria which are likely to be pathogenic in more the share of the usual examinations.The qualitative and quantitative determinations are established starting from an evaluation by statistical calculation of the most probable number of infectious units (NPP). After distributions of the inoculum in certain numbers of tube of liquid culture medium, and holding count of the respective number of positive <<or " negative " culture " obtained.
The required germs are:
Totals Conform with 37[degrees]
thermo-tolerantColiform with 44[degrees]
Salmonella with 37[degrees] and 42[degrees]c
2.2.3 Statistical processing:
Taking into account the available data, the statistical analysis being able to answer our treatments is :the analysis in principal components (PCA) which accounts for affinities between statistically characterized sets. In our case, it is between the microbiological stations and parameters on the one hand and between the stations and the physicochemical parameters of another share for each beach during the months of taking away.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
During the three months of taking away (December, February and April), the temperature of water varies slightly on the level of Sassel beach it is equal to 15,5 [degrees]C in S1 and 14,9[degrees]C in S2 in December, then it increases slightly in February with respectively 15,8[degrees]C and 15,5[degrees]C in S1 and S2. After that, it continues to increase in April to reach maximum values of 17,3[degrees]C and 17,7[degrees]C in S1 and S2 respectively.
With the level of Terga beach one attends the same variations where the values of the temperature during every month of taking away vary slightly. We note minimal temperatures during February and December in the station S2 with 14,3[degrees]C and 15,5[degrees]C respectively, that is due probably to the localization of the station S1, where the temperatures are maximum, which is located at the level of entered of the Terga wadi. We will record a constant temperature between the two stations about 17,8[degrees]C during April.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
Similarly, on the level of Chatt El Hillal, it is the station S1, which is localized on the level of the station of desalination, offers the maximum values of the temperature in the first two months of taking away with 14,8[degrees]C and 15,7[degrees]C respectively in December and February whereas records of them 14,3[degrees]C in December and 15,5[degrees]C in February in the station S2. On the other hand in the last month, the temperature remains constant in the two stations with 17,8[degrees]C.
The temporal variation of the temperature in the three beaches can be explained by the relation which exists between the atmospheric temperature and the temperature of water whose movement plays the paramount role in the space variation .
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]
It is a parameter which enables us to measure acidity, the alkalinity or the alkalinity of a water . During our period of study we note a light variability of the pH with values from 8,07 to 8,19 on the level of Sassel beach with rates higher than the level of the first station.
The same observations are observed on the level of the Terga beach where the station S1 located on the level of entered of the wadi always offers the most significant rates during the three months of taking away. We recorded a pH which varies between 8,05 and 8,18.
In the same way, on the level of Chatt El Hillal, it is always the station S1 located at the level of the station of desalination which attests the most significant values in the rates of the hydrogen potential of sea water with 8,15 in December, 8,17 in February and 8,19 in April. Whereas the station S2 records 8,11 in December, 8,14 in February and 8,18 in April. It should be noted that the values obtained of the pH in the three beaches during the months of taking away, remain in conformity with the international standards of the quality of water of bathes, (ref).
[FIGURE 6 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 7 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 8 OMITTED]
This light space variation in the pH, between the stations and the three beaches can be due to the nature of the biomass present (phytoplankton which influences the alkalinity of the medium), the external contributions, the nature of the sediments and heard well other suggestions for solution in medium.
To the level of Sassel beach, conductivity offers more significant rates in the first station during the first two months of taking away with 56,4 [micro]S/cm in December and a light increase during February with 57,4 [micro]S/cm. Whereas during the third month, it is the second station which shows the rate higher with 55,57 [micro]S/cm compared to S1 which records 54,75 [micro]S/cm.
In the same way, on the level of Terga beach we record a rate of conductivity on the level of S1 equal to 57,8 [micro]S/cm in December, 56,5 [micro]S/cm in February and 49,02 [micro]S/cm in April. While this rate remains approximately constant in S2 during the three months of taking away.
In the third beach (in fact Chatt El Hillal), we note that the station S2 shows a rate of conductivity more significant than in the station S1 with respectively 57,5 [micro]S/cm and 56,5 [micro]S/cm during December. Then, this rate increases on the level of S1 is reached 57,5 [micro]S/cm and decreases on the level of the station S2 which offers 56,5 [micro]S/cm in February. These rates continue to decrease during April and border 55,68 [micro]S/cm on the level of the station S1 and 55,45 [micro]S/cm in the station S2.
In general the salinity of a water is the rate of NaCl dissolved measured on ground during the taking away, in our case it is calculated by the following formula: Salinity (mg/l) = Conductivity X 0,56 X 1000
On the level of Sassel beach, in time, we note that the concentration in NaCl increases December at February and decreases between February and April with an advantage of this rate for the station S1 which offers a salinity of 31584 mg/l and 32144 mg/l respectively in the first two months of sampling. But in April it is S2 which offers the greatest concentration with 31119,2 mg/l .
Similar, the values of salinity obtained during the three months of study in Terga beach fluctuate in the same way as Sassel beach for the two stations but with different rates.
On the other hand, in Chatt el Hillal, the values of salinity obtained in the second station decrease during the three months of taking away and record a rate of 32200 mg/l in December, 31640 mg/l in February and 31052 mg/l in April. On the other hand, looking in the level of the station S1, one attends an increase in the rate of the salinity which passes from 31640 mg/l to 32200 mg/l between the first two months of taking away. Then, it decreases in April with 31180,8 mg/l. By comparing the two stations, we note that the station S2 shows the highest rate in December, and it is the station S1 which presents it in the two other months. That can be explained by the impact of the station of desalination in this beach located on the level of S1 Chatt El Hillal which rejects salt directly in the sea which increases the rate of salinity lasting February and April owing to the fact that it be inactive lasting December.
It corresponds to the quantity of the rock salt contained in water (anions and cations), its rate is calculated by the following formula:
Mineralization (mg/l) = conductivity X 0,85 X 1000
On the level of Sassel beach, we record an increase in the rate of mineralization from December to February and a reduction between February and April with strong concentration in the station S1 with 41790 mg/l and 48790 mg/l respectively in the first two months of sampling. But during the third month, S2 offers the greatest concentration with 47234,5 mg/l.
On the other hand, on the level of Terga beach, the values of the rates of mineralization obtained in the first station decrease during the period of sampling, where they reach maximum values by report/ratio compared o other beaches and record 49130 mg/l in December, 48025 mg/l in February and 47132,5 mg/l in April . Whereas this rate remains more or stable values on the level of the station S2. That can be explained by the impact of the Terga wadi which brings back a mineral load during the periods of rains what with makes it possible to have maxima in December and February.
On the other hand, in the water took on the level of Chatt El Hillal, we recorded an increase in the rate of mineralization from December to February and a reduction between February and April in the station S1. Whereas this rate decreases temporally in S2.
The ion Ammonium N[H.sub.4.sup.+] is not toxic. It tends to be transformed into Ammonia NH 3 which, is very toxic for him under the action of the pH higher than 7. A lowering of the pH and that Ci become again N[H.sub.4.sup.+] inoffensive. It is a completely chemical process and can be repeated ad infinitum. No bacterial action enters in plays process .
During all our taking away, we recorded ammonium rates lower than 2,5 mg/l (< 2,5) in all the stations of sampling for all the beaches.
The organic matter in water contribute the turbidity by differing degree and repeats the photosynthetic activity with the production of water. It affects directly the watery life knows in a beneficial way one harmful when it is in excess, it causes the eutrophication of the medium by the intermediary of micro-organisms.
On the level of Sassel beach, the rates of the organic matter increase between December and February, then they decrease in April . During the first month of taking away, the station S1 offers the higher rate with 2,5mg/l whereas S2 records only 1,8 mg/l. While during the last two months (February and April), S2 has dominates the concentrations with 3,2 and 2,9 mg/l respectively.
Whereas on Terga beach, we record an increase in the organic matter concentration between December and February in S1, which corresponding to entered of the wadi, largely dominates the taking away with rates equal to 4,7 in December and 5 mg/l in February compared to the second station which offers a concentration of 1,7 mg/l in December and 3,9 mg/l in February .Then, these rates decrease in April.
On the other hand, in Chatt El Hillal, the two stations offer the same organic matter rate equal to 3 mg/l in the first taking away . But in the second taking away, these concentrations increase slightly in S1 with 3,5 mg/l and S3 which records a higher rate ith 4,1 mg/l which remains constant during April.
The results of bacteriological analysis during the three mont show a variability between stations the one month to another. In April, we look that totals Conforms and fecal take the highest values for the two stations (Table 2). Whereas in February it offers values more significant content of the thermo-tolerant water samples of Conforms with 150/100ml and 93/100ml respectively in the stations S1 and S2.
In the same way, we record variations in the fecal rate of Streptococcus with minimal values which do not exceed the concentration of 11/100ml obtained in December in the first station. On the other hand, we note an absence of the Salmonellas and Vibrioscholeraic in our taking away.
On the basis of result of the bacteriological analyses carried out on sea water took on Terga beach, we note that this zone shows the highest rates in the content of pathogenic studied germ (that is for Coliformes totals and fecal, or thermo-tolerant). The latter offers content which exceeds 2400/ml for Conforms totals and 2400/100ml for Conforms fecal (Table 3). Whereas Conforms thermo-tolerant are present with concentrations which vary between 9 with 240/100ml and Streptococcus fecal between 4 with 15/100ml. We always record an absence of the Salmonellas and vibrioscholeraic.
The results of bacteriological analysis obtained during the period of taking away show that Conforms totals are always present with high contents exceed in several samples 2400/ml as well as fecal Conforms which are present with rates also exceeding 2400/100ml (Table 4). Whereas we record variable rates between 11 and 460/100ml of Conforms thermo-tolerant. As for fecal Streptococcus, the concentrations oscillate between 3 and 11/ml.
It should be noted that the cSalmonellas and holeraicVibriosmiss always in our taking Statistical studies:
Figure 6 presents the circle of correlation between the variables. where information is represented on the factorial axis 1 with 79,04% of inertia, show a positive correlation totals Conforms, fecal,Coliforms the Salmonellas and the Vibrioscholeraic. which are closely related to ammonium, thus characterizing a group indicating the role which plays the bacteria in the process of transformation of the organic matter. Another correlation is observed between salinity, conductivity and the mineralization which can be justified by the fact of conductivity in the total mineralisation of water according to the temperature and which make it possible to detect a variation of the concentration of dissolved salt water
The superposition of the circle of correlation on the factorial design explains the non-dependence, thus each month is characterized by factors; Decemberis attached to ammonium and Streptococcus fecal in which they record their maximum values. February is related to the maximum values of salinity, mineralization, conductivity and the organic matter, which caused an increase in thermo-tolerant Conforms. As for April, with the increase in the temperature and the pH, the medium of comes favorable for the proliferation from the microorganisms.
Rings correlation between the variables are represented in figure 7 where information is represented on axis 1 with 81,26% show the positive existence of December and the correlation between Conforms totals and fecal which is in their turn closely related to the temperature. Another correlation is observed between salinity, conductivity and mineralization all correlated with the presence of thermo-tolerant Conforms thus characterizing a grouping translating the relations which exist between the concentration of rock salt and the germs pathogenic.
The superposition of the circle of correlation on the factorial design made the non existence of a connection between each month and the various parameters; December is characterized by the strong concentrations in pathogenic germs thus translating the load of pollution because this beach is influenced by the Terga wadi undergoes during the rain seasons. Whereas April is always attached to the temperature.
rings correlation between the variables are presented in figure 8 where information is represented on the axis factorial 1 with 80,27% highlight positive a correlation between salinity, mineralization, conductivity and ammonium characterizing in their fastening the connection that exists between them in the salt concentration dissolved in sea water. Probably, these strong concentrations come from the rejections of the desalination station rich in rock salt.
The superposition of the correlation circle on the factorial design made it possible to say that each month is characterized by a parameter; in December we attend an increase in the concentrations of Conforms thermotolerant, whereas in April when the temperature is in its maximum value it is the proliferation of Conforms totals and fecal which is observed.
The principal danger of bacteriological pollution to the sea water was exposed with the contamination by sewages rich in faeces coming from direct discharges of urban water. Coliforms, Fecal Streptococcus are usual germs of the intestinal flora of the man and animals. Are regarded as pilot germs offecal contamination.
We noticed that Terga beach presented a bad water quality compared to the other beaches studied (in fact Sassel beach and Chatt El Hillal) during the period of the taking because it receives an urban and industrial pollution of the river on harmful germs exceeded
Moreover, following the problems of the station of purification of factory (ENAD), factory of conservation of fish (localized on the level of the commune ChaabetElham) and worn water rejected which joins the wadi without undergoing a treatment, water concentrate on the level of Terga beach.
The management of the water used in Algeria is governed by a whole of texts of laws and payments which stipulate the need for connecting any dwelling or enters taken rejecting polluted water to the networks of cleansing. Thus, more one moves away from the outlet, more water is clean this is generally with the phenomenon of dilution and the effect of salinity.
In fact, it is significant to stop the contamination of coasts by installing stations of purifications or to deviate the water polluted .
It is in this direction, our study will makes possible to draw the bell alarm and can make move the local authorities to take care of the protection of the marine ecosystems
 ANAT, 2011. Agence Nationale d'Amenagement du Territoire.
 Azzoug, M., K. Lamani, 2005. Contribution a revaluation de la contaminationbacteriologique des eaux littorales : cas de l'emissaire de l'hopital de bainem. Memoired'ingenieur, option environnement littoral. ISMAL. 50pLEGRAND and LEROY
 Frontier, S.., D . Pichod, 1998. V Ecosystemes--structure, fonctionnement, evolution, -Viale, 2nd edition, DUNOD.
 Kettaba, 1981. Traitement des eaux potables. Edition opu. Algerie.
 Kollere, 2004. Traitement des pollutions industrielles ; eau, air, dechets, sols, boues, editiondunod, paris.
 Meliani, H., A. Et Seba, 2006. Contribution a l'etude physico-chimique et bacteriologique des eaux de baignade : cas de Terga plage (wilaya d'Ain-Temouchent).
 ONM, 2012. office nationale meteorologique algerien.
 Rodier, J., 1975. L'analyse de l'eau : eaux naturelles, eaux residuaires, eau de mer. Tome 1, 5 eme edition.
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(1) Habib Meliani, (1) Mohamed Ali Bouzidi, (2) Mustapha Mahmoud DIF and (1) Mohamed Benyahia
(1) Environment department, nature and life science faculty, university of DjilaliLiabes, Sidi bel abbes, 22000
(2) Ecodeveloppement des espaces labora tory, nature and life science faculty, university of DjilaliLiabes, Sidi bel abbes, 22000
Address For Correspondence:
Habib Meliani, Environment department, nature and life science faculty, university of DjilaliLiabes, Sidi bel abbes, 22000 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received 12 January 2016; Accepted 28 February 2016; Available online 10 April 2016
Table 1: physicochemicalsanalyzes. St T pH Salinity 1 st [St.sub.1] 15,5 8,07 31584 sampling Sassel [St.sub.2] 14,9 8,14 31248 27/1 2/2011 Terga [St.sub.1] 14,8 8,05 32368 [St.sub.2] 14,3 8,09 31248 Chatt E1 [St.sub.1] 15,3 8,15 31640 Hillal [St.sub.2] 16,6 8,11 32200 2nd sampling [St.sub.1] 15,8 8,10 32144 14/02/2011 Sassel [St.sub.2] 15,5 8,16 31584 Terga [St.sub.1] 15,7 8,06 31640 [St.sub.2] 15,5 8,15 31080 Chatt E1 [St.sub.1] 16,1 8,17 32200 Hillal [St.sub.2] 15,9 8,14 31640 3eme [St.sub.1] 17,3 8,17 30660 sampling13/0 Sassel [St.sub.2] 17,7 8,19 31119,2 4/2011 Terga [St.sub.1] 17,8 8,07 27451,2 [St.sub.2] 17,8 8,18 31052 Chatt E1 [St.sub.1] 18 8,19 31180,8 Hillal [St.sub.2] 17,9 8,18 31052 St Conductivity Mineralization 1 st [St.sub.1] 56,4 47940 sampling Sassel [St.sub.2] 55,8 47430 27/1 2/2011 Terga [St.sub.1] 57,8 49130 [St.sub.2] 55,8 47430 Chatt E1 [St.sub.1] 56,5 48025 Hillal [St.sub.2] 57,5 48875 2nd sampling [St.sub.1] 57,4 48790 14/02/2011 Sassel [St.sub.2] 56,4 47940 Terga [St.sub.1] 56,5 48025 [St.sub.2] 55,5 47175 Chatt E1 [St.sub.1] 57,5 48875 Hillal [St.sub.2] 56,5 48025 3eme [St.sub.1] 54,75 46537,5 sampling13/0 Sassel [St.sub.2] 55,57 47234,5 4/2011 Terga [St.sub.1] 49,02 41667 [St.sub.2] 55,45 47132,5 Chatt E1 [St.sub.1] 55,68 47328 Hillal [St.sub.2] 55,45 47132,5 St O M E [N[H.sub.4.sup.+] 1 st [St.sub.1] 2,5 -78,2 <2,5 sampling Sassel [St.sub.2] 1,8 -81,3 <2,5 27/1 2/2011 Terga [St.sub.1] 4,7 -80,5 <2,5 [St.sub.2] 1,7 -78,3 <2,5 Chatt E1 [St.sub.1] 3 -82,0 <2,5 Hillal [St.sub.2] 3 -79,4 <2,5 2nd sampling [St.sub.1] 3 -78,1 <2,5 14/02/2011 Sassel [St.sub.2] 3,2 -81,8 <2,5 Terga [St.sub.1] 5 -89,7 <2,5 [St.sub.2] 3,9 -83,7 <2,5 Chatt E1 [St.sub.1] 3,5 -85,2 <2,5 Hillal [St.sub.2] 4,1 -86,4 <2,5 3eme [St.sub.1] 2,5 -85,5 <2,5 sampling13/0 Sassel [St.sub.2] 2,9 -86,8 <2,5 4/2011 Terga [St.sub.1] 3,5 -79,0 <2,5 [St.sub.2] 2 -86,4 <2,5 Chatt E1 [St.sub.1] 3,3 -87,3 <2,5 Hillal [St.sub.2] 4,1 -86,6 <2,5 Table 2: bacteriological analysesresultsinSasselbeach. S1 Germs Unit December Feberary April Total coliforma 37[degrees] /ml 240 150 460 Fecalcoliform44[degrees] /100ml 240 150 240 Fecalstreptococus37[degrees] /100ml 11 4 4 Coliformthermo- /100ml 93 150 7 tolerants44[degrees] Salmonelles a 37[degrees] 1ml Abs Abs Abs et 42[degrees] Vibriocholerae 450ml Abs Abs Abs S2 Germs Decembre Febrery April Total coliforma 37[degrees] 150 210 460 Fecalcoliform44[degrees] 93 93 460 Fecalstreptococus37[degrees] 3 3 4 Coliformthermo- 11 93 4 tolerants44[degrees] Salmonelles a 37[degrees] Abs Abs Abs et 42[degrees] Vibriocholerae Abs Abs Abs Table 3: bacteriological analyses results in Terga beach. S1 Germs Unit Decembre Febrery April Total coliform /ml >2400 1100 1100 Fecalcoliform /100ml >2400 1100 1100 Fecalstreptococus /100ml 4 15 11 Coliformthermo-tolerants /100ml 11 9 15 Salmonela 1ml Abs Abs Abs Vibrions choleriques 450ml Abs Abs Abs S2 Germs December Febrary April Total coliform 240 1100 240 Fecalcoliform 240 1100 93 Fecalstreptococus 9 11 9 Coliformthermo-tolerants 240 210 9 Salmonela Abs Abs Abs Vibrions choleriques Abs Abs Abs Abs : Absence Table 4: bacteriological analyses results in Chatt El Hillal beach. S1 Germes Unit Decembre Febreary April Total coliform /ml 1100 93 >2400 Fecalcoliform /100ml 1100 93 1100 Fecalstreptococus /100ml 7 7 11 Coliformthermo-tolerants /100ml 150 43 9 Salmonela 1ml Abs Abs Abs Vibriocholerae 450ml Abs Abs Abs S2 Germes Decembre Febreary April Total coliform 1100 64 >2400 Fecalcoliform 1100 64 >2400 Fecalstreptococus 4 3 7 Coliformthermo-tolerants 460 39 11 Salmonela Abs Abs Abs Vibriocholerae Abs Abs Abs Abs : Absence
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|Author:||Meliani, Habib; Bouzidi, Mohamed Ali; Dif, Mustapha Mahmoud; Benyahia, Mohamed|
|Publication:||Advances in Environmental Biology|
|Date:||Feb 1, 2016|
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