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Physico-chemical analysis of ground water of Jharia Coalfield Region, Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India.

Introduction

Amount of the natural resources which constitute the environment on which the entire eco-system thrives, water is of importance second after air. Groundwater is a strategic resource due to its usually high quality and perennial availability. Such an important natural resource, the water regime, generally gets disturbed by different industrial activities, a very common one of which is mining.

In Jharia Coalfield, it has been stated by Ghosh and Ghosh (1991) that over the years, water resource conditions had been affected due to unplanned mining history prior to 1970 and urban sprawl resulting in severe damage to the quality and water table. The field is suffering such unplanned intense mining since about 1925 (Fox, 1930).This situation appears to have improved slightly after nationalization of coal mining industry in India in 1974. Another factor contributing to the damage to groundwater resource here is the area as inferred from increase in settlement--covered land from 8.6% in 1925 through 16% in 1974 (Ghosh, 1989) to 32.3% in 1987 (Ghosh & Ghosh, 1990). This has necessitated the need to develop an adequate groundwater resource management plan of the area with specific reference to identification of the processes responsible and their evaluation. The hydrogeochemical conditions that is responsible for causing significant variations in groundwater quality, if evaluated and assessed statistically, would aid planners and decision makers to take necessary measures to improve the groundwater management plan.

Study Area

Jharia Coalfield is located in Dhanbad district of the state of Jharkhand that is bounded within latitude 23[degrees]39' N and 23[degrees]48' N and longitude 86[degrees]11'E and 86[degrees]27' E covering an area of 450 sq. km. It falls within the Survey of India topographic map numbers 73 I/1, 73 I/2, 73 I/5 and 73 I/6. A map of the Jharia Coalfield along with the sample network stations is shown in Fig.1.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Physiographical Jharia Coalfield represents a low lying flat to gently sloping topographic surface roughly corresponding to the underlying bedding structure. The average altitude of surface varies from 140 to 300 m above MSL. The central area of coalfield shows gentle slopes (1 to 3%) while northern and north western fringe exhibits gently to moderate (3 to5%) slopes. Characteristic slopes have been observed between Chandrapura and Katrasgarh, Chandrapura and Mahuda while Dhanbad-Jharia region shows appreciable variation in ground slope from almost level (0 to 1%) to gentle slope (1 to 3%). Such characteristics slope has also been observed to the south of the Jharia town up to Chasnala. The general climate of the region is of tropical monsoon with four seasons in a year. The drainage is mostly ephemeral and receives much water in rainy season which extends from June to September and also from retreating south-west monsoon during October & November. During this season, most of streams get swell by rain water and quickly drain off to perennial Damodar river.

Tectonically the Gondwana coalfield basin has been formed by the down faulting of the crystalline basement floor, the boundaries of which are marked by high angle normal faults of echelon type. In addition to these marginal faults there are several interbasinal gravity faults within the basin resulting in dislocation of coal seams and also dolerite dykes and sills of mica lamprophyre (Ghosh and Mukhopadhyay, 1985).

Methodology

Representative groundwater samples were collected from various locations have mentioned in Table 1, covering the major section of the Jharia coal field regions during the months of May (pre-monsoon). New five litre polyethylene bottles were used for sample collection and preservation. Water samples were collected from dug wells. Temperature, pH, EC, TDS, were analyzed in situ. The samples were used to determine major ions such as Ca, Na and K using standard procedures.

Discussion

The water quality analysis results have been shown through Table 2. The analysis revealed that the water quality in the region shows variations from location to location, but all the parameters are within the acceptable ranges except pH, TDS, Total hardness and Mg ion. pH is found 9.11 in well no. [GW.sub.20] which is located at Surendra Singh's house, Mahal. Well no [GW.sub.18] contains high TDS, Total hardness and Mg ion which are 1880 mg/l, 760 mg/l and 169 mg/l respectively in the area of Amlabad, Anil Shekher's well.

The correlation between physicochemical parameters have been shown in Table 3. pH has positive correlation with turbidity and sodium ions. Conductivity and TDS strongly related with TDS, Hardness, Alkalinity, [Ca.sup.++], [Mg.sup.++], [Cl.sup.--] and S[O.sub.4.sup.--]. Acidity is proportional to the Alkalinity and sodium ions.[Ca.sup.++] and [Mg.sup.++] they both highly correlated to each other and they also highly related with the [Cl.sup.--] and S[O.sub.4.sup.--]. [Cl.sup.--] is proportional to the S[O.sub.4.sup.--] .

Conclusion

In general groundwater quality of Jharia coalfield region is not harmful to human beings. Except few instances where some parameters such as TDS, Total Hardness and [Mg.sup.++] at Amlabad well water crossed prescribed limits of drinking water (IS: 10500) due to industrial and mining activities, weathering and erosion of bed rocks.

Acknowledgement

We are grateful to Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad for providing laboratory facilities to complete this research work.

References

[1] Bhandari, Narendra Singh and Nayal, Kapil. (2008).Correlation Study on Physico-Chemical Parameters and Quality Assessment of Kosi River Water, Uttarakhand, E-Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 5, No.2, pp.342-346.

[2] Dutta, Mitun. Ghosh, Rekha and Singh, Gurdeep. Impact of Mining on Water Regime in Jharia Coalfield India, its Management. Centre of Mining Environment, ISM, Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India.

[3] Fox, C.S. (1930).The Jharia coalfield, Mem. GSI, Vol. 1.56.225p.

[4] Ghosh, S. K. and Mukhopadhyay, A. (1985). Tectonic History of the Jharia Basin--An Intercratonic Basin in Eastern India. Quart. Geol. Min. Met. Soc. India, 57 (1): 33-58.

[5] Ghosh R (1989). Mining in Jharia coalfield, eastern India: An estimation of its impact Index, Jour. Geol. Soc. Ind. Bangalore, vol. 33, No. 4, pp. 353-360.

[6] Ghosh, R and Ghosh, D.N. (1990). Land use map of Jharia coalfield eastern India, aided by remote sensing photonirvachak. Jour. ISRS. Vol. 18, No.1 & 2, pp. 23-28.

[7] Ghosh, R and Ghosh, D.N. (1991). Impact Assessment of Mining in an Area with a Long Diverse Mining History--A Case of a Coalfield in India, Institution of Engineers (I), Mining, Vol. 72, pp.29-32.

[8] Ghosh, R. (1993). Remote sensing for analysis of groundwater availability in an area with long unplanned mining history. Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing, vol.21, No.3.

[9] Ghosh, Rekha and Singh, Gurdeep. Environmental Protection through Water Resource Management in Jharia coalfield, Jharkhand, Centre of Mining Environment, ISM, Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India.

[10] Mahanta, Bashab N., Sarkar, B.C., Singh, Gurdeep. Saikia, Kalyan. Paul, R. (2004). Multivariate Statistical Modelling And Around Jharia Coalfield, Jharkhand, Proceeding of the National Seminar on Environmental Engineering with special emphasis on Mining Environment, 19-20, March 2004.

[11] Shyamlal, R., Shanthi, M. and Lalitha, P. (2008). Physicochemical Analysis of Bore well water Samples of Telungupalayam Area in Coimbatore District, Tamilnadu, India, E-Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 5, No.2, pp.924-929.

Dipanwita Bhakat (1) *, Prasoon Kumar Singh (2) and Gurdeep Singh

(1,2,3) Department of Environmental Science and Engineering Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad--826004, Jharkhand, India

E-mail: (2) singh.prasoon910@gmail.com, (3) s_gurdeep2001@yahoo.com

* Corresponding Author E-mail: bhakatdipanwita@yahoo.co.in
Table 1: Location of sample network stations.

Sl.No   Location               Well code   Latitude

1       Bansuriya              GW1         23[degrees]47'43" N

2       Muraidih colony        GW2         23[degrees]47'46" N
3       Jamuniatanr            GW3         23[degrees]47'59" N
4       Chandrapura            GW4         23[degrees]45'14" N

5       Churibar village       GW5         23[degrees]47'09" N
6       Dungra more            GW6         23[degrees]47'34" N

7       Mathadih               GW7         23[degrees]47'57" N

8       Tata Sijua             GW8         23[degrees]46'08" N
9       Jorapokhar             GW9         23[degrees]47'18" N
10      Bastacola              GW10        23[degrees]46'08" N
11      Dugdha                 GW11        23[degrees]44'40" N

12      Mahuda                 GW12        23[degrees]44'34" N
13      Kumardih               GW13        23[degrees]43'44" N
14      Samsikhra              GW14        23[degrees]44'33" N

15      Dumari Basti (upper)   GW15        23[degrees]42'15" N
16      Patherdih              GW16        23[degrees]42'05" N
17      Makunda                GW17        23[degrees]43'54" N
18      Amlaband               GW18        23[degrees]39'26" N
19      Gosala Moti Nagar      GW19        23[degrees]39'15" N
20      Mahal                  GW20        23[degrees]39'05" N

Sl.No   Longitude             Location detail

1       86[degrees]11'48" E   Kalimandev, infront
                                of temple
2       86[degrees]14'25" E   Near thana Barora
3       86[degrees]19'00" E   Permanand Mondal
4       86[degrees]07'23" E   Near railway station,
                                infront of shiv mandir
5       86[degrees]09'37" E   Tola Ganpati
6       86[degrees]13'05" E   Main road beside computer
                                institute
7       86[degrees]16'22" E   Main road to left turn,
                                big ground,beside
                                the well many shopes spl
                                sudha dairy
8       86[degrees]19'03" E   -
9       86[degrees]23'44" E   -
10      86[degrees]24'41" E   Mine rescue
11      86[degrees]11'52" E   Bhuridih road side, Santosh
                                Giri, press reporter
12      86[degrees]13'27" E   Main road 32,well inside mandir
13      86[degrees]15'44" E   Saraswati Vidya Mandir School
14      86[degrees]20'50" E   Well on the road, 2 km away
                                from mandir
15      86[degrees]23'09" E   -
16      86[degrees]25'06" E   Trilok Singh, Jagjit Singh
17      86[degrees]26'39" E   -
18      86[degrees]22'45" E   Anil Shekher
19      86[degrees]28'08" E   Just before BIT Sindhri
20      86[degrees]24'01" E   Surendra Singh

Table 2: Concentration of various parameters of study area.

Well code\             GW1     GW      GW3     GW4     GW5    GW6
Parameters                     2

[P.sup.H]              7.98    7.54    7.49    7.76    8.46   8.64
Conductivity           1.05    1.1     1.09    0.89    0.51   0.52
(ms)
Turbidity              0.35    0.34    0.35    0.76    0.81   1.43
(NTU)
TDS(mg/l)              745     778     774     634     357    366
Total Hardness         376     346     426     130     162    108
Alkalinity             18      17      13      14      13     12
Acidity                13      7       9       4       8      2
DO                     6.4     6       8       6.4     7      4.8
Sodium ion             34.6    52.3    21.2    67.9    13.2   31
(mg/l)
Potassium ion          10.4    3       1.6     30.4    1.6    5.9
(mg/l)
Calcium ion            44.2    35.05   39.6    33.13   20.5   19.48
(mg/l)
Magnesium ion          53.31   55.73   45.53   7.08    27.2   13.03
(mg/l)
Chloride ion (mg/l)    157     125     109     130     102    117
Sulphate ion (mg/l)    87      75      82      55      38     25

Well code\             GW7    GW8     GW 9    GW      GW      GW
Parameters                                    10      11      12

[P.sup.H]              7.9    7.14    8.16    8.11    7.87    7.38
Conductivity           1.33   1.13    1.35    0.49    1.04    1.42
(ms)
Turbidity              1      0.31    0.37    0.36    1.1     0.39
(NTU)
TDS(mg/l)              940    805     877     349     735     1000
Total Hardness         474    294     316     94      276     442
Alkalinity             20     28      37      4       25      19
Acidity                19     18      27      6       2       10
DO                     7.6    7.2     4.8     6.8     5       6.4
Sodium ion             51     83.2    143     33.4    67.7    49.8
(mg/l)
Potassium ion          8.5    9.9     5.9     3.5     6.4     6
(mg/l)
Calcium ion            33.9   38.6    34.76   26.35   39.25   63.51
(mg/l)
Magnesium ion          108    34.33   42.26   3.46    50.95   39.19
(mg/l)
Chloride ion (mg/l)    172    78      125     65      97      165
Sulphate ion (mg/l)    130    22      102     20      43      118

Well code\             GW      GW     GW     GW     GW      GW
Parameters             13      14     15     16     17      18

[P.sup.H]              7.98    7.91   7.52   7.59   7.85    8.02
Conductivity           0.84    0.37   0.64   1.16   1.58    2.66
(ms)
Turbidity              0.43    0.35   0.59   0.38   0.37    0.35
(NTU)
TDS(mg/l)              594     262    456    824    1120    1880
Total Hardness         214     86     180    194    334     760
Alkalinity             17      5      14     28     30      32
Acidity                12      7      12     20     13      6
DO                     3.9     5.2    6      6.6    4.1     4
Sodium ion             25.4    13.1   24.2   86.5   110.8   36.9
(mg/l)
Potassium ion          1.5     5.2    11.7   0.7    1       12.3
(mg/l)
Calcium ion            28.37   15.9   26.1   22.2   39.73   65.8
(mg/l)
Magnesium ion          39.92   4.59   22.4   0.2    6.69    169
(mg/l)
Chloride ion (mg/l)    81      55     64     73     132     186
Sulphate ion (mg/l)    40      20     48     29     104     129

Well code\             GW      GW     Drinking
Parameters             19      20     water
                                      Standars
                                      IS:
                                      10500
                                      (1983)

[P.sup.H]              7.1     9.11   6.5-8.5
Conductivity           1.5     1.06   -
(ms)
Turbidity              0.56    0.36   5-10
(NTU)
TDS(mg/l)              1060    754    500
Total Hardness         262     170    300
Alkalinity             47      20     -
Acidity                25      4      -
DO                     5.1     7      6
Sodium ion             90.3    168    -
(mg/l)
Potassium ion          26.5    4.6    -
(mg/l)
Calcium ion            36.47   33.7   75
(mg/l)
Magnesium ion          61.36   0.49   30
(mg/l)
Chloride ion (mg/l)    108     74     -
Sulphate ion (mg/l)    69      20     -

Table 3: Pearson Correlation Matrix of study area.

               pH      Conductivity   Turbidity   TDS     Hardness

pH             1.000   -.225          .291        -.234   -.251

Conductivity           1.000          -.280       .999    .875

Turbidity                             1.000       -.278   -.225

TDS                                               1.000   .876

Hardness                                                  1.000

Alkalinity

Acidity

DO

[NA.sup.++]

[K.sup.++]

[Ca.sup.++]

[Mg.sup.++]

               Alkalinity   Acidity   DO      [NA.sup.++]   [K.sup.++]

pH             -.313        -.441     -.090   .190          -.318

Conductivity   .710         .276      -.294   .322          .189

Turbidity      -.140        -.296     -.063   -.206         .158

TDS            .697         .253      -.282   .304          .194

Hardness       .425         .162      -.091   -.020         .010

Alkalinity     1.000        .665      -.350   .603          .308

Acidity                     1.000     .011    .359          .120

DO                                    1.000   -.059         -.044

[NA.sup.++]                                   1.000         .081

[K.sup.++]                                                  1.000

[Ca.sup.++]

[Mg.sup.++]

               [Ca.sup.++]   [Mg.sup.++]   C[L.sub.4.   S[O.sub.4.
                                             sup.-2]      sup.-2]

pH             -.277         -.163         -.057        -.231

Conductivity   .816          .743          .678         .730

Turbidity      -.300         .019          .122         -.128

TDS            .819          .743          .675         .720

Hardness       .846          .874          .784         .843

Alkalinity     .410          .383          .297         .390

Acidity        .014          .128          .066         .304

DO             -.110         -.178         -.104        -.119

[NA.sup.++]    .123          -.185         -.026        .036

[K.sup.++]     .179          .184          .222         .115

[Ca.sup.++]    1.000         .637          .720         .726

[Mg.sup.++]                  1.000         .695         .690
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Author:Bhakat, Dipanwita; Singh, Prasoon Kumar; Singh, Gurdeep
Publication:International Journal of Applied Environmental Sciences
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Nov 1, 2010
Words:2449
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