Printer Friendly

Physical post-harvest techniques as potential quarantine treatments against Brevipalpus yothersi (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae).

The Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) flat mites are highly polyphagous mites with a broad range of hosts, including citrus, grapes, and many ornamental plants (Childers & Rodrigues 2005). Their role as vectors of citrus leprosis virus, CiLV (Bastianel et al. 2006), has greatly increased their worldwide importance as quarantine pests. Symptoms of citrus leprosis include chlorotic lesions at the mite feeding sites on leaves, twigs, and fruit. In the absence of vector control, the local lesions can coalesce, girdle, and kill leaves and twigs, resulting in severe losses of production. CiLV is widespread in the Caribbean and Central and South America; in North America, it has been detected in Mexico (SINAVEF 2012) but not the United States (Childers et al. 2003). Because Mexico is a major supplier of fresh limes (Spreen 2000), including Persian lime Citrus latifolia (Tanaka ex Yu. Tanaka) Tanaka and key lime Citrus aurantifolia (Cristm.) Swingle (Sapindales: Rutaceae), there is concern that CiLV may enter the United States. Therefore, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Plant Disease Recovery System has identified citrus leprosis as a critical threat to U.S. agricultural production, particularly sweet orange Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and has prepared a recovery plan for this high-priority disease (Hartung et al. 2013).

The standard post-harvest procedures for handling commercial citrus fruits include washing and waxing (Porat et al. 2000; Bosquez-Molina et al. 2004), but there is a current effort to find alternative treatments (e.g., environmentally friendly soaps) that can be used effectively against quarantine mites. Several of these treatments have been considered effective in post-harvest situations (Vincent et al. 2003). For instance, coatings with Primafresh 31[R] (Agro Pro Central America), Sta-Fresh 360HS[R] and Sta-Fresh 600[R] (Bornnet Corporation), and NatureSeal[R] (Mantrose-Haeuser, Co.), have been shown to cause approximately 90% mortality of Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae infesting grapefruits Citrus paradisi Mcfad. (Sapindales: Rutaceae) (Hallman et al. 1994). Gould & McGuire (2000) found that coating Persian limes with petroleum-based oils (AMPOL[R], Caltex Australia, Sydney, New South Wales; and Sunspray Ultra-Fine Spray Oil[R], Sunoco, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA), a natural vegetable oil (Natural Organic oil, Custom Chemicides, Fresno, California, USA), and a soap (Mpede) achieved up to 94% mortality of 2 mealybugs, Planococcus citri (Risso) and Pseudococcus odermatti Miller & Williams (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). This result was considered effective as a post-harvest dip treatment but insufficient to provide quarantine security. Specific data are lacking regarding the effects of these procedures on citrus fruit infested with Brevipalpus mites as mitigating measures to reduce the risk of introduction. Therefore, the objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of commonly used fruit cleaners, soaps, waxes, and mechanical brushing techniques for removal and mortality of each life stage of Brevipalpus mites on citrus, using non-virulent B. yothersi Baker as a model.

Materials and Methods

MITE STOCK COLONY

Maintenance of B. yothersi populations in the laboratory followed the method of Campos & Omoto (2002) used for rearing of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) on store-bought lemons C. limon (L.) Burm.f. ('Meyer') (Sapindales: Rutaceae). Fruits were washed with distilled water, and after drying, the stylar area was dipped in heated wax, leaving an area of approximately 79 [cm.sup.2] to confine the mites. Then, 20 to 30 adult mites, field-collected from infested leaves and branches of Viburnum odoratissimum Ker-Gawl. (Dipsacales: Adoxaceae), were transferred per fruit with the aid of a fine brush. Each mite population was kept at 20 to 25 individuals per fruit. The rearing room was maintained at 26 [+ or -] 2 [degrees]C and 75 to 80% RH, with a photoperiod of 12:12 h L:D. Fruits were renewed every 30 to 35 d.

BIOASSAYS

Products and compounds tested in bioassays were obtained either directly from the manufacturers or from retail stores (Table 1). Six bioassays were conducted at different times of the year, and each bioassay was designated with a number. All stages (eggs, nymphs, and adults) of B. yothersi infesting lemons were counted under a dissecting microscope before treatment. Fifteen lemons were dipped in a 5,400 mL aqueous solution containing each product and dose listed in Table 2. The solution was kept under constant manual agitation for 60 s, and lemons were removed afterwards. Water temperature was maintained at 22 [degrees]C and pH at 7.0 (verified each time before lemons were placed into a solution). A control treatment consisted of 15 lemons dipped for 60 s in water. To determine if any mites were dislodged into the water after treatment, each solution was divided into 15 parts, sieved individually through a P4 18.5 cm Fisher[R] filter paper, and mite density and life stages determined under a microscope. Additional treatments for a bioassay were either manual brushing using bottle brushes (25 [cm.sup.2]) for 1 min or placing each lemon under the brushes of a commercial mite brushing machine (2836 SM, BioQuip Products, California, USA). Mites dislodged were collected in a Petri dish and counted afterwards.

Additionally, some treatments included application of Decco Wax[R] and Shellac[R] (Table 1) to the fruits using a paint brush. Each lemon was placed on a drying rack thereafter and held in a climatic chamber at 25 [degrees]C and approximately 75 to 80% RH. All B. yothersi stages remaining on the lemons were counted under a microscope at 1, 2, 3 and 5 d post-treatment to verify survival and reproduction. Adult and motile immature stages were considered to be dead after treatment if they did not walk when prodded with the tip of a fine brush. Because the effect of treatments on adults and nymphs included dislodging mites from the fruit as well as mite mortality, the data obtained for these 2 stages were expressed as the mean percentage of reduction of mites achieved with each treatment. The data obtained for eggs were expressed as the percentage of eggs dislodged after each treatment. For each bioassay and development stage, data were analyzed separately by 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using a general linear model (SAS v. 9.3 SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, North Carolina, USA); significant ANOVAs were then followed by Fisher least significance difference (LSD) mean separation (P = 0.05). Percentage data were arcsine transformed before statistical analysis to correct for non-linearity of percentages.

Results

Application of most soap and foam solutions (Mold Strip, Saf Foam, Fit, Rebel Green, and Veggie Wash) alone, fruit brushing alone, and mixed treatments with soaps followed by brushing did not result in significant reduction of adult mites 1 d after treatment (Table 2; Bioassays 1-4). However, significant reduction (P = 0.0001; F = 5.96; df = 29, 98) was obtained with 3 fruit treatments in Bioassay 5: application of Shellac alone (91% reduction), dipping in Environne soap solution followed by brushing and Decco Wax application (90% reduction), and dipping in Environne followed by brushing and Shellac coating (88% reduction). In Bioassay 6, there were significant differences among treatments (P = 0.007; F = 1.09; df = 20, 84), with moderate reductions obtained with Clorox alone (77%) and Clorox plus brushing (66%) and greater reductions obtained following treatments with Clorox plus brushing and Decco Wax (87%) and Environne plus brushing and Shellac (100%). Further reduction in adult densities recorded 2 to 5 d after treatment varied between 2 and 48%, but the results were not statistically significant for most treatments as compared with the untreated controls (water immersion) (Table 2).

For motile immature stages, applications of Saf Foam, Rebel Green, and Veggie Wash (alone or in combination with brushing) did not result in significant reduction of infestation 1 d after treatment (Table 3; Bioassays 1, 2, and 4). Mold Strip plus brushing was effective (79% reduction) at a dilution of 1:2,000 (Bioassay 2; P = 0.0006; F = 2.94; df = 19, 70), but not at a dilution of 1:3,000 (Bioassay 1). Other treatments effective at reducing immature stages included Fit soap plus brushing (91%) and brushing alone (74%) in Bioassay 3 (P = 0.001; F = 16.82; df = 12, 42), and Environne plus brushing followed by coating with Decco Wax (59%) or Shellac (60%) in Bioassay 5 (P = 0.01; F = 3.45; df = 20, 84). In Bioassay 6, moderate reductions were observed following treatments with Shellac alone (79%) and Clorox plus brushing plus wax coating (60%); however, these results were not statistically different from the water control treatment, which had a fairly large percentage of reduction (37 [+ or -] 12%). Subsequent mortality of the immature stages 2 to 5 d after treatment was negligible.

Examination of eggs 1 d after treatment indicated that Mold Strip (Table 4, Bioassays 1 and 2) and Fit soap (Bioassay 3) were not effective treatments for dislodging eggs, even when combined with manual brushing. However, percentage of egg reduction was significant for a variety of treatments tested in Bioassay 4 (P = 0.001; F = 3.72; df = 20, 84), Bioassay 5 (P = 0.001; F = 3.89; df = 20, 84), and Bioassay 6 (P = 0.0001; F = 4.61; df = 21, 98). The greatest reduction was obtained with Environne plus brushing and Shellac coating (91%, Bioassay 6), followed by Rebel Green plus brushing (89%, Bioassay 4) and Environne plus brushing and Decco Wax (89%, Bioassay 5).

Discussion

Fruit washing, waxing, and brushing are currently among the treatments used for citrus imported from Mexico. The objectives of this study were to determine whether fruit washing combined with brushing and use of soaps could reduce numbers of B. yothersi from citrus fruits. In our study, a combination of treatments that involved using the soap Environne (1:1,000 dilution) followed by brushing and coating with Shellac wax caused 88 to 100% reduction in adult density. The general trend observed was that mechanical brushing alone caused 40 to 50% reduction, but the addition of a wax coating improved efficacy up to 60 to 91% reduction.

One day after treatment, the percentage of density reduction obtained for adults ranged between 28 and 85%, whereas the ranges for immature stages and eggs were between 23 and 50% and between 28 and 59%, respectively. The use of soaps and brushing, or soaps by themselves, reduced adult mite densities by only 14 to 46%, as compared with the water control. The concentrations of soaps and foams (1:1,000 dilution) used in this study were actually higher than those typically used in packing houses (1:3,000 dilution), underscoring the poor level of mite control provided by standard fruit washing methods.

Another objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of brushing in mite removal. The results obtained in the different bioassays using only water drenches followed by brushing showed that brushing improved mite removal by only 3 to 27% over the water drench alone. The study also investigated the efficacy of waxing in mite reduction. In general, mite densities were low after waxing was performed in all the bioassays. One outcome of this study was that a combination of different treatments, i.e., soaps followed by brushing and then waxing, resulted in fewer mites left on fruits compared with the water drench, which was considered the control. Consequently, a combination of treatments may be most effective to dislodge or cause a significant reduction of all developmental stages.

In a time of increased awareness among consumers that many of the chemical treatments of fruit and vegetables used to control insects, diseases, and physiological disorders are potentially harmful to humans, there is an urgent need to develop effective, non-damaging physical treatments for insect disinfection and disease control in fresh horticultural products (Fallik 2003). The treatments tested here did not provide 100% reduction of all stages of mites as is required for quarantine treatments; therefore, additional treatments should be evaluated, such as radiation (Hallman 1998), controlled atmosphere treatments (Shijum & Mitcham 1998), and fumigant activity of essential oils (Lim et al. 2011) and ethyl formate (Simpson et al. 2007). These treatments have been shown to provide effective control of tetranychid mites and should be evaluated for efficacy on Brevipalpus mites.

Acknowledgments

We thank A. Roda (APHIS-PPQ), Paul Kendra (USDA-ARS), and J. C. Rodrigues-Verle (University of Puerto Rico) for their suggestions to improve this manuscript. This work was supported by an APHIS PPQ grant to J. E. P. Note: Mention of proprietary products does not constitute endorsement for their exclusive use by the University of Florida and USDA.

References Cited

Bastianel M, De Oliveira AC, Cristofani M, Guerrero Filho O, Freitas-Arias J, Rodrigues GV, Astua-Monge G, Machado MA. 2006. Inheritance and heritability of resistance to citrus leprosis. Genetics and Resistance 96: 1092-1096.

Bosquez-Molina E, Dominguez-Soberanes J, Perez-Flores LJ, Leon-Sanchez F, Vernon-Carter J. 2004. Effect of edible coatings on storage of Mexican limes (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) harvested in two different periods In Labrigo L, Galan-Sauco V [eds.], Proceedings of the 26th International Horticultural Congress, Citrus, Subtropical and Tropical Fruit Crops. Acta Horticulture 632: 329-331.

Campos FY, Omoto C. 2002. Resistance to hexythiazox in Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) from Brazilian citrus. Experimental and Applied Acarology 26: 243-251.

Childers CC, Rodrigues JCV 2005. Potential pest mite species collected on ornamental plants from Central America at port of entry to the United States. Florida Entomologist 88: 408-414.

Childers CC, Rodrigues JCV, Derrick KS, Achor DS, French JV, Welbourn WC, Ochoa R, Kitajima EW. 2003. Citrus leprosis and its status in Florida and Texas: past and present. Experimental and Applied Acarology 30: 181-202.

Fallik E. 2003. Prestorage hot water treatments (immersion, rinsing and brushing). Postharvest Biology and Technology 32: 124-134.

Gould WP, McGuire RG. 2000. Hot water treatment and insecticidal coatings for disinfesting limes of mealybugs (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 93: 1017-1020.

Hallman G. 1998. Ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil 27: 313-323.

Hallman G, Nisperos-Carriedo MO, Baldwin E, Campbell C. 1994. Mortality of Caribbean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) immatures in coated fruits. Journal of Economic Entomology 87: 752-757.

Hartung JS, Ochoa R, Brlansky RH, Roy A, Dagraca J, Schneider W. 2013. Recovery plan for citrus leprosis caused by citrus leprosis viruses. USDA National Plant Disease Recovery System, http://www.ars.usda.gov/News/docs. htm?docid=14271 (last accessed 28 Sep 2015).

Lim EG, Roh HS, Coudron TA, Park CG. 2011. Temperature-dependent fumigant activity of essential oils against twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 104: 414-419.

Porat R, Daus A, Weiss B, Cohen L, Fallik E, Droby S. 2000. Reduction of post-harvest decay in organic citrus fruit by a short hot water brushing treatment. Postharvest Biology and Technology 18: 151-157.

Shijum Z, Mitcham E. 1998. Sequential controlled atmosphere treatments for quarantine control of Pacific spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 91: 1427-1432.

Simpson T, Bikoba V, Tipping C, Mitchain EJ. 2007. Ethyl formate as a postharvest fumigant for selected pests of table grapes. Journal of Economic Entomology 100: 1084-1090.

SINAVEF. 2012. Ficha tecnica leprosis de los citricos Citrus leprosis virus. Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia Epidemiologica Fitosanitaria (SINAVEF), Centro Nacional de Referencia Fitosanitaria, Direccion General de Sanidad Vegetal, Mexico, http://www.cesaveson.com/fckeditor/editor/filemanager/connectors/aspx/UserFiles/file/CitrusLeprosis.pdf (last accessed 3 Sep 2015).

Spreen TH. 2000. The citrus industries of the United States and Mexico after NAFTA. Revista Chapingo Serie Horticultura 6: 145-152.

Vincent C, Hallman G, Panneton B, Fleurat-Lessard F. 2003. Management of agricultural insects with physical control methods. Annual Review of Entomology 48: 261-281.

Jorge E. Pena (1) *, Katia Santos (1), Ignacio Baez (2), and Daniel Carrillo (1)

(1) University of Florida, Tropical Research and Education Center, 18905 SW 280th Street, Homestead, Florida 33031, USA

(2) USDA, APHIS-CPHST AQI Lab, Raleigh, North Carolina 27606, USA

* Corresponding author; E-mail: jepena@ufl.edu
Table. 1. List of products used in bioassays of post-harvest
treatments against Brevipalpus yothersi.

Product                Active materials

Mold Strip[R]          Alkaline-based cleaner

SafFoam[R]             Alkaline concentrated cleaner

Fit[R] Organic[TM]     Water, organic ethanol, organic
Fruit & Vegetable      sunflower oil, organic glycerin,
Wash                   potassium hydroxide, organic grapefruit
                       seed oil

Rebel Green[R]         Plant oils, polysorbate-20, grapefruit
Fruit & Veggie Wash    seed extract, lemon-orange extract

Environne[R]           Oils, polysorbate-20, grapefruit seed
                       extract, lemon-orange extract

Veggie Wash[R]         Corn, palm, coconut, citrus oils,
                       sodium citrate, glycerin, grapefruit
                       seed extract

Decco Wax[R]           Carnauba wax, emulsifier, food grade
                       shellac, silicone, non-ionic antifoam

Shellac[R]             Emulsifier, food grade shellac

Clorox[R]              6.15% sodium hypochlorite
                       (1:10 dilution)

Product                Manufacturer

Mold Strip[R]          HDH Agri-Products Inc., Tavares, FL 32778

SafFoam[R]             HDH Agri-Products Inc., Tavares, FL 3277

Fit[R] Organic[TM]     HealthPro Brands Inc., Cincinnati, OH 45242
Fruit & Vegetable
Wash

Rebel Green[R]         Rebel Green LLC, Milwaukee, WI 53202
Fruit & Veggie Wash

Environne[R]           Consumer Health Res, Inc., Roseburg, OR 97470

Veggie Wash[R]         Beaumont Products Inc., Kennesaw, GA 30144

Decco Wax[R]           Decco, Monrovia, CA 91016

Shellac[R]             Shield Brite AP-404, Pace International,
                       Seattle, WA 98101

Clorox[R]              The Clorox Company, Oakland, CA 94612

Table 2. Density reduction (mean % [+ or -] SE) of Brevipalpus
yothersi adults on fruits dipped in soap, foam, and wax solutions
with additional fruit brushing.

Treatment                     Dose        Mean density
                                         before treatment

Bioassay 1
Mold Strip[R]               1:3,000      3.3 [+ or -] 1.0a
Mold Strip[R] + brushing    1:3,000      3.1 [+ or -] 0.6a
SafFoam[R]                  1:3,000      0.9 [+ or -] 0.4b
SafFoam[R] + brushing       1:3,000      3.9 [+ or -] 0.9a
Water                                    3.6 [+ or -] 1.5a

Bioassay 2
Mold Strip [R]              1:2,000      8.7 [+ or -] 1.9a
Mold Strip[R] + brushing    1:2,000      5.1 [+ or -] 1.1a
SafFoam[R]                  1:2,000      8.0 [+ or -] 1.4a
SafFoam[R] + brushing       1:2,000     11.2 [+ or -] 1.9a
Water                                   13.3 [+ or -] 2.6a
Water + brushing                         8.5 [+ or -] 2.0a

Bioassay 3
Fit[R] Organic[TM]          1:2,000     28.6 [+ or -] 8.4a
Fit[R] Organic[TM]          1:2,000     22.5 [+ or -] 4.8a
  + brushing
Water                                   17.4 [+ or -] 5.1a
Water + brushing                        12.7 [+ or -] 2.4a

Bioassay 4
Environne[R]                1:1,000      6.7 [+ or -] 2.6a
Environne[R] + brushing     1:1,000      4.2 [+ or -] 1.0a
Rebel Green[R]              1:1,000      6.3 [+ or -] 3.6a
Rebel Green[R] + brushing   1:1,000      2.5 [+ or -] 0.7a
Veggie Wash[R]              1:1,000      6.9 [+ or -] 2.1a
Veggie Wash[R] + brushing   1:1,000      3.8 [+ or -] 1.0a
Water                                    3.0 [+ or -] 0.7a
Water + brushing                         4.8 [+ or -] 2.4a

Bioassay 5
Environne[R]                1:1,000     11.5 [+ or -] 3.2a
Environne[R] + brushing     1:1,000     11.1 [+ or -] 1.9a
Decco Wax[R]                1:1,000     15.5 [+ or -] 2.5a
Shellac[R]                  1:1,000     16.7 [+ or -] 2.7a
Environne[R] +              1:1,000     14.8 [+ or -] 2.9a
  brushing + Decco Wax[R]
Enviroone[R] + brushing     1:1,000     13.1 [+ or -] 2.6a
  + Shellac[R]
Water                                   16.1 [+ or -] 0.1a

Bioassay 6
Clorox[R]                   1:1,000      7.3 [+ or -] 1.0ab
Clorox[R] + brushing        1:1,000      8.9 [+ or -] 1.0a
Environne[R]                1:1,000      4.0 [+ or -] 0.5cd
Environne[R] + brushing     1:1,000      1.8 [+ or -] 0.5d
Clorox[R] + brushing +      1:1,000      4.4 [+ or -] 0.5bcd
  Decco Wax[R]
Environne[R] + brushing     1:1,000      1.9 [+ or -] 0.5d
  + Shellac[R]
Shellac[R]                  1:1,000      2.6 [+ or -] 0.5d
Water                                    6.1 [+ or -] 1.0abc

                                 % Dislodged and killed

Treatment                         1 DAT                2 DAT

Bioassay 1
Mold Strip[R]                 24 [+ or -] 9a      27 [+ or -] 11a
Mold Strip[R] + brushing      36 [+ or -] 12a     18 [+ or -] 9a
SafFoam[R]                    14 [+ or -] 8a       5 [+ or -] 5a
SafFoam[R] + brushing         38 [+ or -] 12a     10 [+ or -] 7a
Water                         20 [+ or -] 10a     13 [+ or -] 5a

Bioassay 2
Mold Strip [R]                39 [+ or -] 10a     26 [+ or -] 9a
Mold Strip[R] + brushing      48 [+ or -] 11a     17 [+ or -] 7a
SafFoam[R]                    36 [+ or -] 8a      21 [+ or -] 9a
SafFoam[R] + brushing         49 [+ or -] 8a      41 [+ or -] 10a
Water                         43 [+ or -] 10a     21 [+ or -] 7a
Water + brushing              57 [+ or -] 10a     47 [+ or -] 12a

Bioassay 3
Fit[R] Organic[TM]            46 [+ or -] 9a       2 [+ or -] 2b
Fit[R] Organic[TM]            39 [+ or -] 9a      20 [+ or -] 6a

  + brushing
Water                         11 [+ or -] 5a       7 [+ or -] 4b
Water + brushing              14 [+ or -] 5a      48 [+ or -] 1a

Bioassay 4
Environne[R]                  41 [+ or -] 10a     26 [+ or -] 9a
Environne[R] + brushing       59 [+ or -] 13a           0a
Rebel Green[R]                33 [+ or -] 11a     27 [+ or -] 10a
Rebel Green[R] + brushing     66 [+ or -] 12a           0a
Veggie Wash[R]                34 [+ or -] 8a      15 [+ or -] 8a
Veggie Wash[R] + brushing     75 [+ or -] 10a           0a
Water                         33 [+ or -] 10a     16 [+ or -] 11a
Water + brushing              59 [+ or -] 12a     24 [+ or -] 11a

Bioassay 5
Environne[R]                  80 [+ or -] 7ab     22 [+ or -] 9a
Environne[R] + brushing       70 [+ or -] 8ab     31 [+ or -] 11a
Decco Wax[R]                  87 [+ or -] 6ab     33 [+ or -] 13a
Shellac[R]                    91 [+ or -] 6a            0a
Environne[R] +                90 [+ or -] 6a      27 [+ or -] 11a
  brushing + Decco Wax[R]
Enviroone[R] + brushing       88 [+ or -] 6a            0a
  + Shellac[R]
Water                         48 [+ or -] 8b      15 [+ or -] 6a

Bioassay 6
Clorox[R]                     77 [+ or -] 8ab     35 [+ or -] 12abc
Clorox[R] + brushing          66 [+ or -] 19abc   33 [+ or -] 11abc
Environne[R]                  37 [+ or -] 11cde   43 [+ or -] 11abc
Environne[R] + brushing       13 [+ or -] 6e      55 [+ or -] 13a
Clorox[R] + brushing +        87 [+ or -] 9ab           0c
  Decco Wax[R]
Environne[R] + brushing      100 [+ or -] 0a            0c
  + Shellac[R]
Shellac[R]                    60 [+ or -] 13bcd    7 [+ or -] 7bc
Water                         24 [+ or -] 10de    54 [+ or -] 12a

                                  % Dislodged and killed

Treatment                         3 DAT              5 DAT

Bioassay 1
Mold Strip[R]                21 [+ or -] 10a           --
Mold Strip[R] + brushing     23 [+ or -] 8a            --
SafFoam[R]                   10 [+ or -] 7a            --
SafFoam[R] + brushing        12 [+ or -] 7a            --
Water                        28 [+ or -] 1a            --

Bioassay 2
Mold Strip [R]                     --            23 [+ or -] 10a
Mold Strip[R] + brushing            -            24 [+ or -] 8a
SafFoam[R]                         --            28 [+ or -] 10a
SafFoam[R] + brushing              --            31 [+ or -] 11a
Water                              --            15 [+ or -] 5a
Water + brushing                   --            12 [+ or -] 8a

Bioassay 3
Fit[R] Organic[TM]           42 [+ or -] 8a            --
Fit[R] Organic[TM]           54 [+ or -] 9a            --
  + brushing
Water                        20 [+ or -] 9a            --
Water + brushing             19 [+ or -] 8a            --

Bioassay 4
Environne[R]                       --            20 [+ or -] 10a
Environne[R] + brushing            --            13 [+ or -] 9a
Rebel Green[R]                     --            23 [+ or -] 11a
Rebel Green[R] + brushing          --             7 [+ or -] 7a
Veggie Wash[R]                     --            28 [+ or -] 8a
Veggie Wash[R] + brushing          --            20 [+ or -] 11a
Water                              --            27 [+ or -] 11a
Water + brushing                   --            10 [+ or -] 7a

Bioassay 5
Environne[R]                  9 [+ or -] 7a      26 [+ or -] 11a
Environne[R] + brushing      27 [+ or -] 11a     17 [+ or -] 10a
Decco Wax[R]                 28 [+ or -] 11a      8 [+ or -] 7a
Shellac[R]                         0a             7 [+ or -] 7a
Environne[R] +               13 [+ or -] 9a            0a
  brushing + Decco Wax[R]
Enviroone[R] + brushing            0a                  0a
  + Shellac[R]
Water                        28 [+ or -] 11a     28 [+ or -] 10a

Bioassay 6
Clorox[R]                     9 [+ or -] 7a            --
Clorox[R] + brushing         24 [+ or -] 10a           --
Environne[R]                 11 [+ or -] 7a            --
Environne[R] + brushing      11 [+ or -] 5a            --
Clorox[R] + brushing +             0a                  --
  Decco Wax[R]
Environne[R] + brushing            0a                  --
  + Shellac[R]
Shellac[R]                         0a                  --
Water                         7 [+ or -] 6a            --

Numbers followed by the same letter in a column were not significantly
different (P > 0.05). DAT, days after treatment; -- evaluations were
not carried out on these days.

Table 3. Mortality (mean % [+ or -] SE) of Brevipalpus yothersi
immature stages on fruits dipped in soap, foam, and wax
solutions with additional fruit brushing.

Treatment                     Dose     Mean density before
                                          treatment

Bioassay 1
Mold Strip[R]               1:3,000    10.3 [+ or -] 3.4ab
Mold Strip[R] + brushing    1:3,000    15.0 [+ or -] 3.8a
SafFoam[R]                  1:3,000     3.3 [+ or -] 0.9b
SafFoam[R] + brushing       1:3,000    16.6 [+ or -] 4.9a
Water                                   5.8 [+ or -] 1.4b

Bioassay 2
Mold Strip[R]               1:2,000    35.3 [+ or -] 9.6a
Mold Strip[R] + brushing    1:2,000    32.1 [+ or -] 13.0a
SafFoam[R]                  1:2,000     8.3 [+ or -] 2.3a
SafFoam[R] + brushing       1:2,000    13.6 [+ or -] 8.0a
Water                                   8.8 [+ or -] 5.2a
Water + brushing                       10.8 [+ or -] 3.2a

Bioassay 3
Fit[R] Organic[TM]          1:2,000     37.8 [+ or -] 6.6a
Fit[R] Organic[TM]          1:2,000     32.6 [+ or -] 6.7a
  + brushing
Water                                   53.4 [+ or -] 8.3a
Water + brushing                        55.4 [+ or -] 12.4a

Bioassay 4
Environne[R]                1:1,000      9.0 [+ or -] 3.0a
Environne[R] + brushing     1:1,000     10.0 [+ or -] 3.0a
Rebel Green[R]              1:1,000      7.0 [+ or -] 2.0a
Rebel Green[R] + brushing   1:1,000      3.3 [+ or -] 1.6a
Veggie Wash[R]              1:1,000      7.3 [+ or -] 3.0a
Veggie Wash[R] + brushing   1:1,000      9.6 [+ or -] 3.3a
Water                                    8.6 [+ or -] 2.5a
Water + brushing                         3.8 [+ or -] 1.0a

Bioassay 5
Environne[R]                1:1,000     14.5 [+ or -] 3.2a
Environne[R] + brushing     1:1,000     11.1 [+ or -] 2.0a
Decco Wax[R]                1:1,000     15.5 [+ or -] 2.5a
Shellac[R]                  1:1,000     16.7 [+ or -] 2.7a
Environne[R] + brushing     1:1,000     14.8 [+ or -] 2.9a
  + Decco Wax[R]
Enviroone[R] + brushing     1:1,000     13.1 [+ or -] 2.6a
  + Shellac[R]
Water                                   16.6 [+ or -] 3.3a

Bioassay 6
Clorox[R]                   1:1,000      1.5 [+ or -] 1.0b
Clorox[R] + brushing        1:1,000      0.1 [+ or -] 0.1b
Environne[R]                1:1,000     12.1 [+ or -] 2.0a
Environne[R] + brushing     1:1,000     13.2 [+ or -] 2.0a
Clorox[R] + brushing +      1:1,000      1.5 [+ or -] 1.0b
  Decco Wax[R]
Environne[R] + brushing     1:1,000      0.3 [+ or -] 0.1b
  + Shellac[R]
Shellac[R]                  1:1,000      7.0 [+ or -] 1.0ab
Water                                    9.2 [+ or -] 1.0a

                                      % Mortality at

Treatment                         1 DAT               2 DAT

Bioassay 1
Mold Strip[R]                33 [+ or -] 10a      29 [+ or -] 11a
Mold Strip[R] + brushing     32 [+ or -] 11a      19 [+ or -] 8a
SafFoam[R]                   46 [+ or -] 12a      33 [+ or -] 11a
SafFoam[R] + brushing        44 [+ or -] 11a      16 [+ or -] 7a
Water                        56 [+ or -] 11a      18 [+ or -] 6a

Bioassay 2
Mold Strip[R]                38 [+ or -] 10bc     23 [+ or -] 9a
Mold Strip[R] + brushing     79 [+ or -] 8a       11 [+ or -] 7a
SafFoam[R]                   16 [+ or -] 8c       17 [+ or -] 7a
SafFoam[R] + brushing        47 [+ or -] 10abc    16 [+ or -] 7a
Water                        21 [+ or -] 9c       11 [+ or -] 7a
Water + brushing             72 [+ or -] 8abc     16 [+ or -] 9a

Bioassay 3
Fit[R] Organic[TM]            7 [+ or -] 3b       41 [+ or -] 10a
Fit[R] Organic[TM]           91 [+ or -] 3a        1 [+ or -] 1b
  + brushing
Water                        10 [+ or -] 5b        2 [+ or -] 1b
Water + brushing             74 [+ or -] 7a       25 [+ or -] 9a

Bioassay 4
Environne[R]                 14 [+ or -] 11a      11 [+ or -] 6a
Environne[R] + brushing      56 [+ or -] 12a      13 [+ or -] 7a
Rebel Green[R]               33 [+ or -] 9a       12 [+ or -] 4a
Rebel Green[R] + brushing    52 [+ or -] 13a       6 [+ or -] 6a
Veggie Wash[R]               29 [+ or -] 9a       12 [+ or -] 7a
Veggie Wash[R] + brushing    52 [+ or -] 12a       4 [+ or -] 4a
Water                        33 [+ or -] 9a       11 [+ or -] 7a
Water + brushing             37 [+ or -] 7a        7 [+ or -] 3a

Bioassay 5
Environne[R]                  7 [+ or -] 3c        3 [+ or -] 3a
Environne[R] + brushing             0c             7 [+ or -] 7a
Decco Wax[R]                 14 [+ or -] 10b       7 [+ or -] 7a
Shellac[R]                          0c                  0a
Environne[R] + brushing      59 [+ or -] 13a            0a
  + Decco Wax[R]
Enviroone[R] + brushing      60 [+ or -] 13a      13 [+ or -] 9a
  + Shellac[R]
Water                         4 [+ or -] 4c       17 [+ or -] 9a

Bioassay 6
Clorox[R]                     0 [+ or -] 0d       31 [+ or -] 10a
Clorox[R] + brushing                0d            21 [+ or -] 9ab
Environne[R]                 43 [+ or -] 8bcd     11 [+ or -] 4b
Environne[R] + brushing      52 [+ or -] 12ab      2 [+ or -] 2b
Clorox[R] + brushing +       60 [+ or -] 13ab           0b
  Decco Wax[R]
Environne[R] + brushing       6 [+ or -] 6d             0b
  + Shellac[R]
Shellac[R]                   79 [+ or -] 20ab           0b
Water                        37 [+ or -] 12bcd     9 [+ or -] 4b

                                     % Mortality at

Treatment                         3 DAT              5 DAT

Bioassay 1
Mold Strip[R]                12 [+ or -] 7a            --
Mold Strip[R] + brushing      8 [+ or -] 4a            --
SafFoam[R]                   23 [+ or -] 10a           --
SafFoam[R] + brushing        19 [+ or -] 9a            --
Water                        38 [+ or -] 10a           --

Bioassay 2
Mold Strip[R]                      --           36 [+ or -] 10a
Mold Strip[R] + brushing            -            7 [+ or -] 7a
SafFoam[R]                         --            3 [+ or -] 3a
SafFoam[R] + brushing              --            7 [+ or -] 5a
Water                              --            9 [+ or -] 5a
Water + brushing                   --            8 [+ or -] 6a

Bioassay 3
Fit[R] Organic[TM]            4 [+ or -] 3a            --
Fit[R] Organic[TM]           38 [+ or -] 10a           --
  + brushing
Water                        29 [+ or -] 9a            --
Water + brushing              7 [+ or -] 5a            --

Bioassay 4
Environne[R]                       --           30 [+ or -] 10a
Environne[R] + brushing            --           15 [+ or -] 9a
Rebel Green[R]                     --           29 [+ or -] 10a
Rebel Green[R] + brushing          --            6 [+ or -] 6a
Veggie Wash[R]                     --           26 [+ or -] 9a
Veggie Wash[R] + brushing          --           20 [+ or -] 10a
Water                              --           39 [+ or -] 10a
Water + brushing                   --           29 [+ or -] 7a

Bioassay 5
Environne[R]                  3 [+ or -] 3a      7 [+ or -] 7a
Environne[R] + brushing      27 [+ or -] 12a    10 [+ or -] 7a
Decco Wax[R]                       0a                 0a
Shellac[R]                         0a           10 [+ or -] 0a
Environne[R] + brushing            0a                 0a
  + Decco Wax[R]
Enviroone[R] + brushing            0a                 0a
  + Shellac[R]
Water                         5 [+ or -] 5a     12 [+ or -] 8a

Bioassay 6
Clorox[R]                     8 [+ or -] 7ab           --
Clorox[R] + brushing         35 [+ or -] 11ab          --
Environne[R]                 26 [+ or -] 8ab           --
Environne[R] + brushing      17 [+ or -] 8ab           --
Clorox[R] + brushing +        0 [+ or -] 0b            --
  Decco Wax[R]
Environne[R] + brushing            0b                  --
  + Shellac[R]
Shellac[R]                         0b                  --
Water                        9 [+ or -] 6 ab           --

Numbers followed by the same letter in a column were not significantly
different (P > 0.05). DAT, days after treatment; -- data were not
recorded at this time.

Table 4. Number of eggs dislodged after treatment of mite-infested
lemons with soaps, waxes, and brushing

Treatment                         Dose         Mean density
                                             before treatment

Bioassay 1
Mold Strip[R]                    1:3,000    7.7 [+ or -] 1.9a
Mold Strip[R] + brushing         1:3,000    7.1 [+ or -] 1.9a
SafFoam[R]                       1:3,000    6.5 [+ or -] 1.8a
SafFoam[R] + brushing            1:3,000    5.7 [+ or -] 1.5a
Water                                       4.4 [+ or -] 1.3a

Bioassay 2
Mold Strip [R]                   1:2,000    24.7 [+ or -] 5.2a
Mold Strip[R] + brushing         1:2,000    20.3 [+ or -] 4.1a
SafFoam[R]                       1:2,000    36.7 [+ or -] 7.4a
SafFoam[R] + brushing            1:2,000    34.3 [+ or -] 7.3a
Water                                       28.9 [+ or -] 7.6a
Water + brushing                            24.1 [+ or -] 4.8a

Bioassay 3
Fit[R] Organic[TM]               1:2,000    29.6 [+ or -] 7.0a
Fit[R] Organic[TM] + brushing    1:2,000    35.0 [+ or -] 8.8a
Water                                       40.6 [+ or -] 9.2a
Water + brushing                            26.8 [+ or -] 7.5a

Bioassay 4
Environne[R]                     1:1,000    13.2 [+ or -] 2.4a
Environne[R] + brushing          1:1,000    12.0 [+ or -] 2.3a
Rebel Green[R]                   1:1,000    12.5 [+ or -] 2.8a
Rebel Green[R] + brushing        1:1,000    11.1 [+ or -] 1.9a
Veggie Wash[R]                   1:1,000    14.4 [+ or -] 3.6a
Veggie Wash[R] + brushing        1:1,000    14.5 [+ or -] 3.3a
Water                                       12.6 [+ or -] 3.4a
Water + brushing                            10.5 [+ or -] 3.0a

Bioassay 5
Environne[R]                     1:1,000    21.1 [+ or -] 3.9c
Environne[R] + brushing          1:1,000    21.3 [+ or -] 6.7c
Decco Wax[R]                     1:1,000    39.7 [+ or -] 9.3ab
Shellac[R]                       1:1,000    47.3 [+ or -] 5.7a
Environne[R] + brushing +        1:1,000    44.0 [+ or -] 9.2a
Decco Wax[R]
Enviroone[R] + brushing +        1:1,000    38.3 [+ or -] 6.3abc
Shellac[R]
Water                                       25.7 [+ or -] 6.1bc

Bioassay 6
Clorox[R]                        1:1,000    21.4 [+ or -] 7.7a
Clorox[R] + brushing             1:1,000    14.3 [+ or -] 3.1abc
Environne[R]                     1:1,000     1.4 [+ or -] 0.5d
Environne[R] + brushing          1:1,000    10.4 [+ or -] 1.8bcd
Clorox[R] + brushing +           1:1,000    13.7 [+ or -] 2.7abc
Decco Wax[R]
Environne[R] + brushing +        1:1,000    18.6 [+ or -] 3.6ab
Shellac[R]
Shellac[R]                       1:1,000     6.0 [+ or -] 1.4cd
Water                                        8.2 [+ or -] 2.3cd

Treatment                             % Eggs
                                 dislodged 1 DAT

Bioassay 1
Mold Strip[R]                     23 [+ or -] 9a
Mold Strip[R] + brushing          21 [+ or -] 8a

SafFoam[R]                        43 [+ or -] 11a
SafFoam[R] + brushing             37 [+ or -] 11a
Water                             51 [+ or -] 9a

Bioassay 2
Mold Strip [R]                    22 [+ or -] 8ab
Mold Strip[R] + brushing          39 [+ or -] 9ab
SafFoam[R]                        20 [+ or -] 6ab
SafFoam[R] + brushing             34 [+ or -] 7a
Water                             18 [+ or -] 7b
Water + brushing                  50 [+ or -] 9a

Bioassay 3
Fit[R] Organic[TM]                42 [+ or -] 11a
Fit[R] Organic[TM] + brushing     35 [+ or -] 7a
Water                             18 [+ or -] 8a
Water + brushing                  25 [+ or -] 8a

Bioassay 4
Environne[R]                      31 [+ or -] 9bc
Environne[R] + brushing           65 [+ or -] 11ab
Rebel Green[R]                    20 [+ or -] 7c
Rebel Green[R] + brushing         89 [+ or -] 6a
Veggie Wash[R]                    14 [+ or -] 7c
Veggie Wash[R] + brushing         59 [+ or -] 10ab
Water                              8 [+ or -] 4c
Water + brushing                  44 [+ or -] 8bc

Bioassay 5
Environne[R]                      24 [+ or -] 8d
Environne[R] + brushing           31 [+ or -] 10cd
Decco Wax[R]                      84 [+ or -] 5a
Shellac[R]                        62 [+ or -] 4abc
Environne[R] + brushing +         89 [+ or -] 5a
Decco Wax[R]
Enviroone[R] + brushing +         64 [+ or -] 8ab
Shellac[R]
Water                             37 [+ or -] 8bcd

Bioassay 6
Clorox[R]                         11 [+ or -] 7b
Clorox[R] + brushing              28 [+ or -] 9b
Environne[R]                      27 [+ or -] 11b
Environne[R] + brushing           26 [+ or -] 9b
Clorox[R] + brushing +            80 [+ or -] 9a
Decco Wax[R]
Environne[R] + brushing +         91 [+ or -] 4a
Shellac[R]
Shellac[R]                        86 [+ or -] 9a
Water                             29 [+ or -] 12b

* Numbers followed by the same letter in a column were
not significantly different (P > 0.05). DAT, days after treatment.
COPYRIGHT 2015 Florida Entomological Society
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2015 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:Research Papers
Author:Pena, Jorge E.; Santos, Katia; Baez, Ignacio; Carrillo, Daniel
Publication:Florida Entomologist
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Dec 1, 2015
Words:5570
Previous Article:Errata.
Next Article:Five new species of Phyllophaga (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae) of northwestern Mexico.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters