Physical inactivity is an independent risk factor for schizophrenia.
PARIS--Low physical activity in childhood and adolescence was independently associated with later development of schizophrenia and other nonaffective psychotic disorders in the large, prospective, population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns cohort study, Jarmo Hietala, MD, PhD, reported at the annual congress of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology.
The key question now: Is this risk factor remediable? That is, will a pediatric exercise intervention that results in improved physical fitness also reduce the risk of later nonaffective psychosis? Given that there are really no downsides to physical activity, the Finnish data make a strong case for including exercise and physical activity interventions in investigational psychosis prevention programs targeting high-risk youth, according to Dr. Hietala, professor of psychiatry at the University of Turku (Finland).
The ongoing landmark Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study began in 1980 with enrollment of 3,596 nationally representative Finns aged 3-18 years. Their physical activity level was assessed by means of a brief, validated self-report questionnaire in 1980, 1983, and again in 1986. Based upon the questionnaire results, participants were scored on a 5-14 physical activity index, with 5 representing the most extreme sedentary end of spectrum.
Dr. Hietala and his coinvestigators tapped into comprehensive national registries in order to identify all study participants with a psychiatric diagnosis of sufficient severity to have resulted in hospitalization up to 2012. Forty-one patients were hospitalized for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, 47 for other forms of nonaffective psychosis, 43 for personality disorders, 111 for affective disorders, and 49 with alcohol and other substance use disorders.
In a multivariate analysis adjusted for sex, age, body mass index, birth weight, non-preterm birth, and maternal mental disorders, each 1-point decrement in the pediatric physical activity index was associated with a 26% increase in the risk of developing any nonaffective psychosis and, more specifically, a 43% increased risk of schizophrenia.
Moreover, nonparticipation in organized sports competitions was independently associated with a 2.58-fold increased risk of any nonaffective psychosis and a 4.88-fold increased risk of schizophrenia. Social isolation as reflected in spending less time in common activities with friends during leisure time was associated with a 71% increased risk of nonaffective psychosis and a 76% increased risk of schizophrenia.
Of note, schizophrenia was the only psychiatric disorder associated with low physical activity in childhood and adolescence. Sedentary youths were not at increased risk of later hospitalization for affective disorders or other forms of mental illness.
"Our results have relevance for preemptive psychiatry and provide rationale for including exercise in early interventions for psychosis," Dr. Hietala said.
He reported having no financial conflicts regarding the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study, which is supported by the Academy of Finland, the Social Insurance Institution of Finland, and grants from nonprofit foundations.
BY BRUCE JANCIN
REPORTING FROM THE ECNP CONGRESS
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|Title Annotation:||CHILD/ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY|
|Publication:||Clinical Psychiatry News|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2018|
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