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Phloeotribus pruni (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) associated with peach (Prunus persica) collapse in Coatepec de Harinas, State of Mexico, Mexico.

Ten-year-old peach trees cv. Robin, showing leaf yellowing, defoliation, internal and ascending branch necrosis, tree decline and tree death (Fig. 1A) were found in Apr 2015 in a 2 ha commercial orchard located at 18.9438[degrees]N and 99.8152[degrees]W in Coatepec de Harinas, State of Mexico. Many holes with gum exudate, typical of trunk insect borers were observed on the trunk near the tree crown. Trees died 12 to 18 months after the onset of symptoms.

The bark was removed to reveal insect populations in each tree and 3 samples were taken per tree. One hundred percent incidence of symptomatic trees was found in 10 trees that were selected randomly from the edge and center of the orchard. Mean incidence was 3.3 adults and 4 larvae per 25 [cm.sup.2] of bark in the 10 sampled trees. Insects were collected in 70% alcohol and adults were identified morphologically using the taxonomic keys of Wood (1982) and Equihua and Burgos (2002).

All collected insects were identified morphologically as Phloeotribus pruniWood (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) (Fig. IB, C, D). In addition, a partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) of 1 individual was amplified using the methods proposed by Folmeret al. (1994). A BLAST search was performed obtaining an 84% similarity with other sequences of Phloeotribus species deposited in the NCBI GenBank. The sequence we deposited (KU179443) represents the first for P. pruni. Reference specimens are kept in the Fruit Diseases Laboratory at the Colegio de Postgraduados, in Texcoco, Mexico.

Although P. pruni is considered a pest specific to Prunus serotina Ehrh., it also has been reported in P. persica L. Batsch, P. armeniaca Blanco, and P. domestica (Borkh.) (all Rosales: Rosaceae) as well as In Pinus sp. (Pinales) and Quercus sp. (Fagales) forests. The principal damage takes the form of galleries in branches and trunks of healthy, weak, or cut trees. Phloeotribus pruni is an important pest of P. persica and P. virginiana Du Roi (Rosales: Rosaceae), especially in poorly managed orchards (Atkinson et al. 1986a). Currently, this pest is distributed In the States of Morelos (P. persica, P. serotina, and Pyrus communis Koch [Rosales: Rosaceae]), Puebla (P. persica), Veracruz (P. serotina), and Guerrero (P. serotina). In the state of Mexico, it has been reported In the municipalities of Texcoco (19.4908[degrees]N, 99.8091[degrees]W), Amecameca [P. serotina), Tlalmanalco (19.2088[degrees]N, 98.7577[degrees]W), (Prunus sp. and P. serotina), Cuijingo, Atlautla (P. persica), and Villa del Carbon (P. serotina) (Atkinson & Equihua-Martinez 1985a, b; Atkinson et al. 1986a, b).

This is the first report of Phloeotribus pruni in a peach orchard in Coatepec de Harinas, Mexico. The 100% incidence of attacked trees, and the tree death after 12 to 18 months of the first detection of symptoms and the insect, point out the importance of this pest and the need to design an integrated pest management program to diminish the harvest losses, and to extend the longevity of peaches as an important Income source for growers in this area.

Summary

Phloeotribus pruni Wood (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) is reported for the first time associated with the collapse of peach (Prunus persica) trees in Coatepec de Harinas, State of Mexico, Mexico. One hundred percent incidence of collapsed trees was found in a 2 ha peach orchard. In 10 trees sampled, a mean number of 3.3 adults and 4 larvae per 25 [cm.sup.2] of bark were found. Trees died 12 to 18 months after the onset of symptoms. The 100% incidence of attacked trees, and the tree death 12 to 18 months after the first detection of the insect, point out the Importance of this pest.

Key Words: peach collapse; ascending branch necrosis; tree decline; tree death

Sumario

Se informa por primera vez la asociacion de Phloeotribus pruni Wood (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) con el colapso de los arboles de durazno (Prunus persica: Rosaceae) en Coatepec de Harinas, Estado de Mexico, Mexico. Se encontro una incidencia del cien por ciento de arboles colapsados en un huerto de 2 hectareas de melocotones. En 10 arboles muestreados, se encontro un promedio de 3.3 adultos y 4 larvas por cada 25 [cm.sup.2]de corteza. Los arboles murieron 12-18 meses despues de la aparicion de los sintomas. El 100% de incidencia de arboles atacados y la muerte del arbol 12 para 18 meses despues de la primera deteccion del insecto senalan la importancia de esta plaga.

Palabras Clave: colapso del melocoton; necrosis de rama ascendente; disminucion del arbol; muerte del arbol

References Cited

Atkinson TH, Equihua-Martfnez A. 1985a. Lista comentada de los coleopteros

Scolytidae y Platypodidae del Valle de Mexico. Folia Entomologica Mexicana 65: 63-108.

Atkinson TH, Equihua-Martfnez A. 1985b. Notes on biology and distribution of Mexican and Central American Scolytidae (Coleoptera). I. Hylesininae, Scolytinae except Cryphalini and Corthylini. The Coleopterists Bulletin 39: 227-238.

Atkinson TH, Saucedo-Cespedes E, Martinez-Fernandez E, Burgos-Solorio A. 1986a. Coleopteros Scolytidae y Platypodidae asociados con las comunidades vegetales de clima templado y frio en el estado de Morelos, Mexico. Acta Zoologica Mexicana 17: 1-58.

Atkinson T, Martinez E, Saucedo E, Burgos A. 1986b. Los Scolytidae y Platypodidae (Coleoptera) asociados a Selva baja caducifolia y comunidades derivadas al Estado de Morelos. Folia Entomologica Mexicana 69: 41-82.

Equihua A, Burgos A. 2002. Scolytidae, pp. 538-558 In BousquetsJL, MorroneJJ [eds.], Biodiversidad, Taxonomia y Biogeografia de Artropodos de Mexico: Hacia una Sintesis de su Conocimiento. CONABIO Volumen III, Mexico, D.F., Mexico.

Equihua-Martinez A, Atkinson TH. 1985. Biologia de Phloeotribus pruni Wood (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Memoria de los Simposia Nacionales de Parasitologia Forestal II y III 46: 185.

Folmer O, Black M, Hoch W, Lutz R, Vrijenhoek R. 1994. DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates. Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology 3: 294-299.

Wood SL. 1982. The bark and ambrosia beetles of North and Central America (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), a taxonomic monograph. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 6: 1-1356.

Edith Maldonado-Cruz (1), Pedro Valadez-Ramirez (1), Marisol Basilio-Mora (1), Sandra Vianey Gonzalez-Zavaleta (1), Atonaltzin-Garcia-Jimenez (1), Juan Antonio Salazar-Vicente (1), Berenice Alonso-Barrera (1), Jesus Reyes-Moreno (1), Jose Antonio Mora-Aguilera (2), Elba A. Castaneda-Gonzalez (3), and Daniel Teliz-Ortiz (2,*)

(1) Alumnos del curso Enfermedades de Frutales, Colegio de Posgraduados, Texcoco, 56230, Mexico, E-mail: maldonado.edith@colpos.mx (E. M. C); valadez.pedro@colpos.mx (P. V. R.); basilio.marisol@colpos.mx (M. B. M.); gonzalez.sandra@colpos.mx (S. V. G. Z.); garcia.atonaltzin@colpos.mx (A. G. J.); salazar.juan@colpos.mx (J. A. S. V); balonso@colpos.mx (B. A. B.); reyes.jesus@colpos.mx(J. R. M.)

(2) Profesores del curso. Colegio de Posgraduados, Texcoco, 56230, Mexico, E-mail: aguilera@colpos.mx (J. A. M. A.); dteliz@hotmail.com (D. T. O.)

(3) Investigadora de la Fundacion Salvador Sanchez Colin CICTAMEX SC, Coatepec de Harinas, 51700, Mexico, E-mail: cgelidia@hotmail.com (E. A. C. G.)

(*) Corresponding author; E-mail: dteliz@hotmail.com

Caption: Fig. 1. Peach [Prunus persica) collapse associated with the attack of Phloeotribus pruni. (A) Initial peach collapse symptom. (B) Adult lateral view. (C) Head front view and antennae detail. (D) Phloeotribus pruni adult dorsal view.

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Author:Maldonado-Cruz, Edith; Valadez-Ramirez, Pedro; Basilio-Mora, Marisol; Gonzalez-Zavaleta, Sandra Vian
Publication:Florida Entomologist
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1MEX
Date:Jun 1, 2018
Words:1199
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