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Philosophy and Phenomenological Research: November 2011, Vol. 83, No. 3.

The Role of Visual Language in Berkeley's Account of Generality, KATHERINE DUNLOP

This article presents literary criticism of George Berkley's New Theory of Vision and The Principles of Human Knowledge. It examines the role of visual language on the principles of knowledge formulated by Berkeley. It notes that Berkeley conceives the relations of signification as basic to all generality. The essay argues that Berkeley intends linguistic signification to be understood with reference to the visual language, signifying that human beings experience by touch.

Unenriched Subsentential Illocutions, EROS CORAZZA

In this paper, the author challenges the common wisdom (see Dummett and Davidson) that sentences are the minimal units with which one can perform a speech act or make a move in the language game, arguing, with Perry and Stainton, that subsentences can be used to perform full-fledged speech acts. In the author's discussion, he assumes the traditional framework which distinguishes between the proposition expressed and the thought or mental state one comes to grasp when using or understanding an utterance expressing a proposition. Unlike Stainton, the author will argue that the proposition expressed by a subsentential assertion and its corresponding thought are not the end product of a pragmatic process of free enrichment. He defends the view that a thought may concern something without the thinker having to represent that very thing. This should help us to resist the view that with the utterance of a subsentence enrichment is mandatory. The author further argues that subsentences and their corresponding thoughts are situated. Because of this we can successfully interact and engage in joint ventures using subsentences, and can be guided by thoughts without having to enrich them. The fact that the actors' unenriched thoughts are cosituated may suffice to explain the positive outcome of their joint project. Last but not least, the author shows how the picture he proposes gains further support by taking on board Perry's distinction between reflexive truth conditions and incremental truth conditions (or official content). If this essay is right in arguing that an utterance's reflexive truth conditions are the best tool to classify the semantic features of one's mental state (or sentence in Mentalese), we can further explain mental causation and linguistic communication without appealing to free enrichment.

A Priori Skepticism, JAMES R. BEEBE

This article examines a neglected form of radical skepticism that explores whether any of the logical, mathematical, or other self-evident beliefs count as knowledge. It outlines some of the basic considerations regarding skepticism about the external world that will act as useful starting points for articulating a priori skeptical challenges. The essay argues that a priori skeptics can obtain impossible skeptical hypotheses to present skeptical challenges.

Concessive Knowledge Attributions and Fallibilism, CLAYTON LITTLEJOHN

Lewis thought concessive knowledge attributions (for example, "I know that Harry is a zebra, but it might be that he's just a cleverly disguised mule") caused serious trouble for fallibilists. As he saw it, CKAs are overt statements of the fallibilist view and they are contradictory. Dougherty and Rysiew have argued that CKAs are pragmatically defective rather than semantically defective. Stanley thinks that their pragmatic response to Lewis fails, but the fallibilist cause is not lost because Lewis was wrong about the commitments of fallibilism. There are problems with Dougherty and Rysiew's response to Stanley, and there are problems with Stanley's response to Lewis. This paper offers a defense of fallibilism, showing that fallibilists need not worry about CKAs.

Deriving Ethics from Action: A Nietzschean Version of Constitutivism, PAUL KATSAFANAS

This essay considers the usage of constitutivism as an attractive justificatory strategy within ethics. It examines the structure of human motivation by engaging in philosophical psychology. The article focuses on the development of a successful constitutivism through the application of the theory of Friedrich Nietzsche.
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Publication:The Review of Metaphysics
Article Type:Author abstract
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Mar 1, 2012
Previous Article:Philosophy: October 2011, Vol. 86, No. 4.
Next Article:Philosophy and Phenomenological Research: January 2012, Vol. 84, No. 1.

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