Phenolic compounds concentration and appraisal of antioxidant and antityrosinase activities from the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus eryngii.
Pleurotus eryngii is a popular edible and commercially cultivated mushroom in Korea . Mushrooms have long been widely appreciated for their good flavor and texture. It is recognized as a nutritious food as well as an important source of biologically active compounds of medicinal value [2-4].
Antioxidant is well documented in preventing many chronic diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes . Mushrooms accumulate a wide variety of secondary metabolites including phenolic compounds. Phenolics are one of the major groups of non-essential dietary components that have been associated with the inhibition of atherosclerosis and cancer . Free radical formation is associated with the normal natural metabolism of aerobic cells. The oxygen consumption inherent in cell growth leads to the generation of a series of oxygen free radicals . This group of radicals (superoxide, hydroxyl and lipoid peroxides) may interact with biological systems in a clearly cytotoxic manner. In this respect, flavonoids and phenols have shown to possess important antioxidant activities toward these radicals, which are principally based on the redox potentials of their phenolic hydroxyl groups and the structural relationships between different parts of their chemical structure . The catalysis of xanthine by the enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO) can lead to the accumulation of uric acid, and ultimately cause gout. Allopurinol, an XO inhibitor prescribed for chronic gout, acts as a substrate for competitive inhibitors of the enzyme . A potential source of such compounds can be obtained from edible mushrooms . Flavonoids and polyphenolic crude extracts have been reported to possess xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity .
Tyrosinase also known as polyphenol oxidase is a copper-containing multifunctional enzyme widely distributed in fungi, plants and animals. This oxidase catalyzes two distinct reactions of melanin synthesis, the hydroxylation of a monophenol and the conversion of an o-diphenol to the corresponding oquinone . Therefore, tyrosinase inhibitors may be clinically helpful in dealing with skin cancer. In spite of the medicinal importance of P. eryngii or the therapeutic potential, there have not been many studies on physiologically beneficial components. However, comprehensive studies on the antioxidant properties of this mushroom are not available. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antioxidant potentials and tyrosinase inhibitory effects of acetonic, methanolic, and hot water extracts from the fruiting bodies of P. eryngii. The contents of phenolic acid and flavonoid components were also determined.
Materials and methods
Chemicals and Reagents:
[beta]-carotene, linoleic acid, chloroform, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monopalmitate (Tween40), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), [alpha]-tocopherol (TOC), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), L-ascorbic acid, potassium ferricyanide, trichloroacetic acid, ferrous chloride, ferric chloride, ferrozine, Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, gallic acid, methanol, 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA), xanthine, allopurinol, mushroom tyrosinase, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA). All chemicals and solvents were used as HPLC or analytical grade.
Mushroom and Extraction:
Fresh and young fruiting bodies of P. eryngii were obtained from Mushroom Research Institute of Gyeonggi Province in Korea. A pure culture was deposited in Culture Collection and DNA Bank of Mushroom (CCDBM), Division of Life Sciences, University of Incheon, Korea and acquired accession number, IUM-4030. Fruiting bodies were dried with hot air at 40[degrees]C for 48 h and finely pulverized. The acetonic, methanolic, and hot water extractions were prepared according to the method of Alam et al., . Five grams of powdered samples were extracted with 100 ml of 60% acetone and 80% methanol with stirring at 150 rpm for 24 h at 25[degrees]C to obtain acetonic and methanolic extracts. The mixture was filtered through two layers of Whatman No. 1 filter paper. The same quantity of samples was boiled at 100[degrees]C for 3 h with 100 ml deionized distilled water to obtain a hot water extract. The mixture was cooled to room temperature and filtered through Whatman No. 1 filter paper. The residues were then extracted with two additional 100 ml aliquots of acetone, methanol, and deionized water, as described above. The combined extracts were evaporated with a rotary evaporator (Eyela, Saitana, Japan) at 40[degrees]C, and the remaining solvent was removed with a freeze-drier (Optizen, Daejeon, Korea). The yields from the acetonic, methanolic and hot water extracts of P. eryngii were 22.3, 22.4 and 19.1% (w/w), respectively.
Antioxidant Activity by [beta]-Carotene-linoleic Acid:
Antioxidant activity was determined by measuring the inhibition of volatile organic compounds and the conjugated diene hydroperoxides arising from linoleic acid oxidation . A stock solution of a [beta]-carotene-linoleic acid mixture was prepared as following: 0.5 mg [beta]-carotene was dissolved in 1 ml of chloroform, and 25 [micro]l of linoleic acid and 200 mg Tween 40 was added. The chloroform was removed completely using a vacuum evaporator. Then, 100 ml of oxygenated distilled water was added with vigorous shaking; 2.5 ml of this reaction mixture was dispensed to test tubes, 0.5 ml of various concentrations (0.5-20.0 mg/ml) of the extracts in methanol was added, and the reaction mixture was incubated for up to 2 h at 50[degrees]C. The same procedure was repeated with the positive control BHT and TOC, and a blank. After the incubation, the absorbance of the mixtures was measured at 490 nm using a spectrophotometer (Optizen POP; Mecasys Co. Ltd., Daejeon, Korea). The absorbance was measured until the [beta]-carotene color disappeared. The [beta]-carotene bleaching rate (R) was calculated according to Equation (1).
R = ln (a/b)/t (1)
where, ln = natural log, a = absorbance at time t (0), b = absorbance at time t (120 min). The antioxidant activity (AA) was calculated as the percent inhibition relative to the control using Eq. (2).
AA = [(Rcontrol - Rsample)/Rcontrol] x 100 (2)
Antioxidant activities of the extracts were compared with those of BHT and TOC at 0.5 mg/ml and a blank consisting of 0.5 ml methanol.
Reducing power was determined according to the method of Gulcin et al., . Each extract (1-8 mg/ml) in methanol (2.5 ml) was mixed with 2.5 ml of 200 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.6) and 2.5 ml of 1% potassium ferricyanide, and the mixture was incubated at 50[degrees]C for 20 min. Then, 2.5 ml of 10% trichloroacetic acid was added, and the mixture was centrifuged at 200 x g (6K 15; Sigma, Munich, Germany) for 10 min. The upper layer (2.5 ml) was mixed with 2.5 ml of deionized water and 0.5 ml of 0.1% ferric chloride. Finally, the absorbance was measured at 700 nm against a blank. BHT and TOC were used as positive control.
Scavenging Effect on 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl Radicals:
The hydrogen atoms or electrons donation ability of the corresponding extracts and some pure compounds were measured from the bleaching of purple colored DPPH methanol solution . Four ml of various concentrations (0.125-2.0 mg/ml) of the extracts in methanol was added to 1 ml of DPPH radical solution in methanol (final concentration of DPPH was 0.2 mM). The mixture was shaken vigorously and allowed to stand for 30 min, and the absorbance of the resulting solution was measured at 517 nm using a spectrophotometer. Inhibition of the DPPH free radical in percent (I %) was calculated as:
1% = [([A.sub.control] - [A.sub.sample])/[A.sub.control]] x 100
where, [A.sub.control] is the absorbance of the control reaction (containing all reagents except the test compound), and [A.sub.sample] is the absorbance of the test compound. BHT, TOC, and L-ascorbic acid were used as positive controls.
Chelating Effects on Ferrous Ions:
The chelating effect was determined according to the method of Dinis et al., . Briefly, 2 ml of various concentrations (0.063-1.0 mg/ml) of the extracts in methanol was added to a solution of 2 mM Fe[Cl.sub.2] (0.05 ml). The reaction was initiated by adding 5 mM ferrozine (0.2 ml). Total volume was adjusted to 5 ml with methanol, and the mixture was shaken vigorously and left at room temperature for 10 min. The absorbance of the solution was measured spectrophotometrically at 562 nm. The inhibition percentage of the ferrozine-[Fe.sup.2+] complex formation was calculated using the following formula:
Metal chelating effect (%) = [([A.sub.control] - [A.sub.sample])/[A.sub.control]] x 100
where, [A.sub.control] is the absorbance of the control (control contained Fe[Cl.sub.2] and ferrozine; complex formation molecules), and [A.sub.sample] is the absorbance of the test compound. BHT and TOC were used as positive controls.
Analysis of Phenolic Compounds:
Fifteen standard phenolic compounds, including gallic acid, pyrogallol, homogentisic acid, protocatechuic acid, (+) catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, ferulic acid, naringin, resveratrol, naringenin, hesperetin, formononetin, biochanin-A were purchased from Sigma Aldrich and used for calibration curves. The standard stock solutions (50, 100, 250, and 500 ppm) were made with DMSO. Sample compounds were identified based on retention times of authentic standards and were quantified by comparing their peak areas with those of the standard curves.
Sample preparation for the phenolic compound analysis followed Kim et al., . Two grams of dried mushroom powder were mixed with 10 ml of acetonitrile and 2 ml of 0.1 N hydrochloric acid and stirred 150 rpm for 2 h at room temperature. The suspension was filtered through Whatman no. 42 filter paper. The extract was freeze-dried, and the residues were redissolved in 10 ml of 80% aqueous methanol (HPLC grade) and filtered through a 0.45 [micro]M nylon membrane filter (Titan, Rockwood, TN, USA). The 20 [micro]l filtrate was loaded onto an Agilent-1100 series liquid chromatography HPLC system (Agilent Technologies, Waldbronn, Germany). Separation was achieved on a 250 nm x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 [micro]M, YMC-Pack ODS AM (YMC, Kyoto, Japan) column. The mobile phase was distilled water with 0.1% glacial acetic acid (solvent A) and acetonitrile with 0.1% glacial acetic acid (solvent B). The gradient was 0 min, 92% A; 0-2 min, 90% A; 2-27 min, 70% A; 27-50 min, 10% A; 50-51 min, 0% A; 51-60 min, 0% A; 60-63 min, 92% A. The run time was 60 min using a flow rate of 1 ml/min Detection was performed with a diode array detector at a wavelength of 280 nm.
Xanthine Oxidase Inhibition:
In vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of various extracts from the fruiting bodies of L. lepideus was assayed spectrophotometrically under aerobic conditions using xanthine as the substrate . The assay mixture consisted of 1 ml extract of the different concentrations (0.5-8.0 mg/ml), 2.9 ml of phosphate buffer (pH 7.5), and 0.1 ml of xanthine oxidase enzyme solution (0.1 units/ml in phosphate buffer, pH 7.5), which was prepared immediately before use. After pre incubation at 25[degrees]C for 15 min, the reaction was initiated by the addition of 2 ml of the substrate solution (150 [micro]M xanthine in the same buffer). The assay mixture was incubated at 25[degrees]C for 30 min. The reaction was then stopped by the addition of 1 ml of 1N hydrochloric acid and the absorbance was measured at 290 nm using a spectrophotometer. Different concentrations of the extracts were dissolved in DMSO and the final concentration of DMSO was 5%, which did not affect the enzyme assay. Allopurinol (0.5-8.0 mg/ml), a known inhibitor of XO, was used as positive control. One unit of XO is defined as the amount of enzyme required to produce 1 mmol of uric acid/min at 25[degrees]C. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was expressed as the percentage inhibition of XO in the above assay system calculated as
Inhibition (%) = [(A - B) - (C - D)/ (A - B)] x 100
where A is the activity of the enzyme without the extraction, B is the control of A without the extraction and enzyme; C and D are the activities of the extraction with and without XO, respectively.
Tyrosinase inhibition activity was determined using the modified dopachrome method with L-DOPA as substrate . A 96-well microtitre plate was used to measure absorbance at 475 nm with 700 nm as reference. Extract fraction were dissolved in 50% DMSO. Each well contained 40 [micro]l of sample with 80 [micro]l of phosphate buffer (0.1 M, pH 6.8), 40 [micro]l of tyrosinase (31 units/ml), and 40 [micro]l of L-DOPA (2.5 mM). The mixture was incubated for 10 min at 37[degrees]C, and absorbance was measured at 475 nm using a UVM 340 microplate reader (Asys, Eugendrof, Austria). Each sample was accompanied by a blank containing all components except L-DOPA. L-ascorbic acid and kojic acid were used as positive controls. The results were compared with a control consisting of 50% DMSO in place of the sample. The percentage of tyrosinase inhibition was calculated as follows:
[([A.sub.control] - [A.sub.sample])/[A.sub.control]] x 100
Data were expressed as means [+ or -] standard deviations of three replicate determinations and were analyzed by SPSS V.13 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). One way analysis of variance and Duncan's new multiple-range test were used to determine the differences among the means.
Results and discussion
Antioxidant Activity on [beta]-Carotene-linoleic Acid:
The antioxidant activities on [beta]-carotene-linoleic acid of acetonic, methanolic and hot water extracts from the fruiting bodies of P. eryngii were gradually increased with increasing concentration. At 0.5-20.0 mg/ml concentration, antioxidant activities of the acetonic, methanolic, and hot water extracts of P. eryngii ranged from 59.69-95.64, 73.90-95.65, and 41.60-91.22%, respectively (Table 1). The results indicated that the antioxidant activities of P. eryngii were lower than the synthetic antioxidant, BHT and TOC, respectively at 0.5 mg/ml. However, the methanolic and acetonic extracts showed good, hot water extract showed moderate activities at the concentration tested.
The antioxidant activity of carotenoids is based on the radical adducts of carotenoid with free radicals from linoleic acid. The linoleic acid free radical attacks the highly unsaturated [beta]-carotene models. The presence of carotenoid shows, not only a decrease of the free radical concentration, but the reduction of [Fe.sup.3+] to [Fe.sup.2+] by carotenoids. It is probable that the antioxidative components in the mushroom extracts can reduce the extent of [beta]-carotene destruction by neutralizing the linoleate free radical and other free radicals formed in the reaction process . Barros et al.,  reported that antioxidant activities of Leucopaxillus giganteus, Sarcodon imbricatus and Agaricus arvensis in various extracts increased with increasing concentration. Their antioxidant activities were 61.4, 54.3, and 46.7% at 5 mg/ml. It seems that the antioxidant activity of P. eryngii was more effective than those mentioned above.
The reducing power of acetone, methanol, and hot water extracts of P. eryngii as a function of their concentration is shown in Table 2. The reducing power increased with increasing concentration. At 8 mg/ml, the strongest reducing power was determined in acetonic extract with a value of 1.20 and the lowest reducing power (0.76) was exhibited by the hot water extract. Reducing power of BHT and TOC at 1.0 mg/ml were 3.21 and 2.16, respectively (Table 2).
With regard to ethanolic extracts, the reducing power of Pleurotus citrinopileatus was 1.03 at 5 mg/ml  whereas, Agricus bisporus, Pleurotus ferulae and Pleurotus ostreatus showed reducing powers of 0.76, 0.70 and 0.61 at 20 mg/ml, respectively . It can be seen that the reducing power of P. eryngii was lower than that of P. citrinopileatus and higher than those of A. bisporus, P. ferulae and P. ostreatus. It was reported that the reducing power properties are generally associated with the presence of reductones, which have been shown to exert antioxidant action by breaking the free radical chain by donating a hydrogen atom [21, 23].
Scavenging Effect on DPPH:
Scavenging effects of the acetonic, methanolic, and hot water extracts from the fruiting bodies of P. eryngii on DPPH radicals increased with increasing concentration. At 0.125-2.0 mg/ml, the scavenging activities of the acetonic, methanolic, and hot water extracts of P. eryngii on DPPH radical ranged from 34.71-92.75, 32.75-88.46, and 26.41-84.55%, respectively (Fig. 1). The results indicated that the acetonic, methanolic, and hot water extracts, respectively showed good, moderate, and poor activities at the concentration tested. However, at 0.125-2.0 mg/ml, BHA, TOC, and L-ascorbic acid showed the excellent scavenging activities of 85.25-98.74, 67.37-97.78, and 96.74-98.23%, respectively. The scavenging activities on DPPH radicals by ethanolic extracts of Hypsizigus marmoreus, A. bisporus and P. citrinopileatus fruiting bodies were 46.6-68.4% at 5 mg/ml . For cold and hot water extracts, at 20 mg/ml, the scavenging activities of fruiting bodies, mycelia, and filtrate were 20.7-52.3, 37.6-48.3, and 19.6-23.3%, respectively. It seems that the scavenging activity of P. eryngii fruiting bodies was more effective than those mentioned above. Various extracts might react with free radicals, particularly the peroxy radicals, which are the major propagators of the autoxidation chain of fat, thereby terminating the chain reaction . Antioxidant activity of natural antioxidants has been shown to be involved in termination of free radical reaction . Furthermore, Herraiz et al.,  found that an essential amino acid L-tryptophan could react with phenolic aldehydes in food to form phenolic tetrahydro-[beta]-carboline alkaloids that scavenged 2, 2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid effectively. Therefore, the presence of L-tryptophan in various extracts might most likely account for the scavenging activity on DPPH radicals. However, the better activity of acetonic extract might be due to more hydrogen-donating components contained within the extracts.
Chelating Effects on Ferrous Ions:
In the present study, the chelating activity of the acetonic, methanolic, and hot water extracts from the fruiting bodies of P. eryngii at five different concentrations (0.063, 0.125, 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0 mg/ml) toward ferrous ions was investigated. BHT and TOC were used as reference standards on ferrous ions. As can be seen from the Fig. 2, chelating ability of the extracts increased with increasing concentration. The strongest chelating effect (88.10%) obtained from the methanolic extracts at 1.0 mg/ml. At this concentration, the lowest chelating effect was exhibited by TOC and hot water extract (82.55%). All of the extracts evaluated here showed significantly higher chelating effects on ferrous ions than those of the standards, BHT and TOC at the concentration of 0.063, 0.125, and 0.25 mg/ml, respectively.
With regard to hot water extracts at 20 mg/ml, Ganoderma tsugae and Agrocybe cylindracea chelated ferrous ions by 42.6 and 45.8%, respectively [26,27]. A 1-5 mg/ml, the chelating abilities of H. marmoreus and P. citrinopileatus were 75.6-92.6% . It seems that chelating ability of P. eryngii on ferrous-ions was similar to that of H. marmoreus and P. citrinopileatus, while more effective than those of G. tsugae and A. cylindracea. Chelating agents may serve as secondary antioxidants because they reduce the redox potential thereby stabilizing the oxidized form of the metal ions. Since ferrous-ions were the most effective pro-oxidants in food system , the high ferrous-ion chelating abilities of the various extracts from the fruiting bodies of P. eryngii would be beneficial.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
Analysis of Phenolic Compounds:
Gallic acid, pyrogallol, homogentisic acid, protocatechuic acid, (+) catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, ferulic acid, naringin, resveratrol, naringenin, hesperetin, formononetin and biochanin-A were used as standard for the detection of phenolic compounds from the fruiting bodies of P. eryngii. Ten phenolic compounds, Gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, vanillin, ferulic acid, naringin, naringenin, hesperetin, formononetin and biochanin-A were detected from the extract of P. eryngii (Fig. 3). The concentration of total phenolic compound was 288 [micro]g/g. The highest and lowest concentration of phenolic compound was recorded in protocatechuic acid (61 [micro]g/g) and formononetin (14 [micro]g/g), respectively. These findings are comparable to the previous studies on edible mushrooms  in which average total concentration of phenolic compounds was 174 [micro]g/g.
Mushroom species also contained varying numbers of phenolic compounds, ranging from 3 to 15, while gallic acid and protocatechuic acid was reported common phenolic compounds found in edible mushrooms . Thus, the content of phenolic compounds could be used as an important indicator of antioxidant capacity. Several reports have convincingly shown a close relationship between antioxidant activity and phenolic content [31,32]. Mushroom extracts have high levels of phenolic compounds, which are composed of one or more aromatic rings bearing one or more hydroxyl groups, can exhibit extensive free radical-scavenging activities as hydrogen donors or electron-donating agents, as well as metal ion-chelating properties. The greater numbers of hydroxyl groups in the phenolic compounds could contribute higher antioxidant activity [33,34].
Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity:
Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of various extracts of P. eryngii increased with increasing concentration. At 0.5-8.0 mg/ml, the xanthine oxidase inhibition of acetonic, methanolic, and hot water extracts ranged from 3.95-47.52, 2.86-47.09, and 2.02-46.08%, respectively. However, at the same concentrations the positive control, allopurinol showed the excellent xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of 92.31-94.58% (Fig. 4).
The results indicated that the acetonic and methanolic extracts showed good, while hot water extract showed moderate activities at the concentration tested. However, at higher doses of the extract concentration, xanthine oxidase would be significantly inhibited. Flavonoids are a group of polyphenolic compounds, which have been reported to possess xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity . Hence, phenolic and flavonoid concentration in the extract would have exhibited xanthine oxidase inhibition.
Tyrosinase inhibitory activities of the acetonic, methanolic, and hot water extracts from the fruiting bodies of P. eryngii increased with increasing concentration. At 0.125-1.0 mg/ml, the tyrosinase inhibition of acetonic, methanolic, and hot water extracts ranged from 14.90-57.87, 11.60-55.59, and 4.86-49.82%, respectively (Fig. 5). The results indicated that the acetonic and methanolic extracts showed good, while hot water extract showed moderate activities at the concentration tested. However, at 0.125-1.0 mg/ml, L-ascorbic acid and kojic acid used for positive control and showed the excellent tyrosinase inhibitory activities of 75.12-92.74 and 91.23-99.00%.
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
The inhibition of tyrosinase ability might depend on the hydroxyl groups of the phenolic compounds of the mushroom extracts that could form a hydrogen bond to active site of the enzyme, leading to a lower enzymatic activity. Some tyrosinase inhibitors act through hydroxyl groups that bind to the active site on tyrosinase, resulting in steric hindrance or changed conformation . Gallic acid, (-)-epicatechin, procyanidin B2 and (-)-epicatechin-3gallate were identified from the mushrooms, proved to be effective inhibitors of tyrosinase activity, as reported by many researchers [12,37]. The antioxidant activity may also be one of the important factors for tyrosinase inhibitory activity.
On the basis of the results, it is suggested that three different extracts from the fruiting bodies of P. eryngii evaluated here could be used as an easily accessible source of natural antioxidants for the nourishment. The study indicated that P. eryngii contained various phenolic compounds that have shown good potential, which can be used for functional foods and medicinal purposes. The consumption of P. eryngii might be somewhat beneficial to the antioxidant protection system of the human body against oxidative damages. Overall our report from the present analysis could be useful information for investigating new mushroom materials for functional food additives.
[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]
This study was supported by a research grant from the Korea National Research Resource Center Program (2011-0000525) through National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) for Culture Collection and DNA Bank of Mushroom (CCDBM), University of Incheon.
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Nuhu Alam, Ki Nam Yoon, Kyung Rim Lee, Jae Seong Lee and Tae Soo Lee
Division of Life Sciences, University of Incheon, Incheon 406-840, Republic of Korea.
Tae Soo Lee, Division of Life Sciences University of Incheon, Incheon 406-840, Republic of Korea E-mail: email@example.com; Tel.: +82-32-835-8242; Fax: +82-32-835-0763
Table 1: Antioxidant activity against [beta]-carotene-linoleic acid of different concentrations of various extracts from the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus eryngii. Solvent and Sample concentration (mg/ml) control 0.5 2.0 Acetone 59.69 [+ or -] 0.62 d 85.80 [+ or -] 0.59 a,b Methanol 73.90 [+ or -] 0.24 c 87.52 [+ or -] 0.12 a Hot water 41.60 [+ or -] 0.44 e 62.03 [+ or -] 0.32 c BHT 95.21 [+ or -] 0.17 a -- TOC 96.02 [+ or -] 0.18 a -- Solvent and Sample concentration (mg/ml) control 8.0 20.0 Acetone 92.68 [+ or -] 0.23 a 95.64 [+ or -] 0.18 a Methanol 91.14 [+ or -] 0.09 a 95.65 [+ or -] 0.02 a Hot water 85.60 [+ or -] 0.11 b 91.22 [+ or -] 0.07 a BHT -- -- TOC -- -- Values expressed as means [+ or -] SD (n = 3). -, not analyzed; BHT, butylated hydroxytoluene; TOC, [alpha]-tocopherol. Means with different letters within a column are significantly different (p [less than or equal to] 0.05). Table 2: Reducing power of different concentrations of various extracts from the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus eryngii. Solvent and Sample concentration (mg/ml) control 1.0 2.0 Acetone 0.317 [+ or -] 0.05 e 0.475 [+ or -] 0.06 a Methanol 0.293 [+ or -] 0.04 e 0.432 [+ or -] 0.05 a Hot water 0.199 [+ or -] 0.03 f 0.278 [+ or -] 0.08 c BHT 3.212 [+ or -] 0.49 a -- TOC 2.162 [+ or -] 0.32 b -- Solvent and Sample concentration (mg/ml) control 4.0 8.0 Acetone 0.746 [+ or -] 0.14 a 1.203 [+ or -] 0.12 a Methanol 0.646 [+ or -] 0.16 b 1.025 [+ or -] 0.19 b Hot water 0.409 [+ or -] 0.16 d 0.755 [+ or -] 0.14 d BHT -- -- TOC -- -- Values expressed as means [+ or -] SD (n = 3). -, not analyzed; BHT, butylated hydroxytoluene; TOC, [alpha]-tocopherol. Means with different letters within a column are significantly different (p [less than or equal to] 0.05).
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|Title Annotation:||Original Article|
|Author:||Alam, Nuhu; Yoon, Ki Nam; Lee, Kyung Rim; Lee, Jae Seong; Lee, Tae Soo|
|Publication:||Advances in Environmental Biology|
|Date:||May 1, 2011|
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