Printer Friendly

Pharmacological review of medicinal trees spontaneous in Iran: a historical and modern study.

Introduction

People understand the gentle strength of natural remedies. Medicinal plants are now becoming more widely used by people all over the world. Because of the varied history of medicinal plants, the multitude of names has grown confusing. On the other hand, the trees, especially in the Iranian platform, have not comprehensibly been reviewed in the literature. This study reviews historically and pharmacologically almost all the known medicinal trees in modern and historical views in the Iranian traditional herbal medicine.

Methodology:

The authors have reviewed all important historical and modern literature about the medicinal trees and shrub used in Iranian traditional medicine. Then we selected the major references and collected the data. We compare the modern and traditional documented herbal medicine of our country and edited them as follow. All data about the terminology (if necessary some etymological information have been provided), local and native names, comparison the modern and traditional terminology and postulations about the plants, description about the medicinal parts of the plant, and finally the proposed medicinal and pharmacological activities of the trees have been presented. The detailed references have been provided for each data.

Results:

The data were collected and represented as 57 species of trees and shrubs which are reported as spontaneous in Iran. All data about these plants, which have been described in the classical texts of Iranian herbal medicine have been provided. Some traditional herbalists described the common use of tree medicines as an infusion or a decoction. The data represented as follow.

[1] Acacia nilotica Del:

The acacia has another synonym as Acacia arabica (Lam.) Willd., hence it is called in Persian as samgh-arabi or akasiya [10]. It grows in the southern coasts of Iran in Bandar-Lengeh and Bandar-Abbas [11]. The medicinal parts are the bark, the gum and the fruit of the plant [6]. In classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, it is called Ummi-ghaylan and used for urinary ulcers and diarrhea [9].

Pharmacological effects:

This plant is rich of tannins. The drug has an astringent effect [6].

[2] Acer spp. L.:

The maple has nearly 6 species in Iran mostly growing in the northern forests, and called in Persian afra [10]. Usually Acer rubrum (Red Maple) has medicinal importance. The medicinal part of the tree is the bark.

Pharmacological effects:

Red maple has an astringent effect [6]

[3] Alnus glutinosa L.:

The Black Alder or tuska in Persian, grows in the northern forests of Iran. Persian name perhaps is derived from tus or tut (berry) and kal (unripe) in the Iranian northern dialects [12]. According to our best knowledge, it has not been described in the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine.

Description:

The medicinal parts of the plant are the bark and leaves.

Pharmacological effects:

The decoction is a tonic and has astringent and hemostatic properties, which may be due to the tannins (20%), flavones glycosides and triterpenes [6].

[4] Buxus hyrcana Pojark:

The boxwood or box tree is called in Persian as semsad or semsad-jangali. This single species of the genus exclusively grows in northern parts of Iran [10]. In the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, a plant called 'ataq perhaps may be related to Buxus hyrcana Pojark [7].

Description:

The medicinal parts are the dried Boxwood tree leaves and the woody aerial parts of the plant. The main compounds of this plant are steroid alkaloids, including cyclobuxine-D, cyclobuxine-B, cycloprotobuxine-A, and cycloprotobule.

Pharmacological effects:

The cycloprotobuxine in the drug was shown to have a cytotoxic effect in vitro as well as an inhibitory effect on the growth of mycobacterium tuberculosis. In animal tests, an inhibition of motility, including tetanus, spinal paralysis and respiratory paralysis, was demonstrated. A hypotensive effect has been described [6].

[5] Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb.:

The bonduc or boducella belongs to a genus, called in Persian as abrisam-mesri. This single species is spontaneous in Iran. Other species have been introduced and cultivated in Iran [10]. In the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, a plant called bateh perhaps may be related to Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. [7].

Description:

The medicinal part of the plant is seed.

Pharmacological effects:

Bonduc is a febrifuge and tonic [6]

[6] Carica papaya L.:

The papaya, papain or papaw tree is a introduced and cultivated species in Iran. It is called kharbozeh-derkhti in Persian (Mozaffarian, 1998:101). But it is said that, in the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, a plant called babihah, papihat or papitah is related to Carica papaya L. [7].

Description:

Medicinal Parts: The medicinal parts are the leaves and fruits.

Pharmacological effects of raw papain:

The proteolytic activity of the' raw papain enzymes can be used within the parameters of enzyme substitution for digestive complaints, particularly pancreatic conditions. Papain has an antimicrobial, anthelmintic and anti-ulcerative effect.

The results of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects are contradictory. Experiments have shown that papain has an edema-reducing effect. The fibrinogenous effect has not been sufficiently proven.

Pharmacological effects of papaya leaves:

No information is available [6].

[7] Castanea sativa Mill.:

The chestnut tree is called sah-balut in Persian language. In the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, it is called balut-ol-malek or exactly in Arabic as ballut-ul-malik [7,12].

Description:

The medicinal parts are the leaves collected and dried in autumn, and preparations of the fresh leaves.

Pharmacological effects:

No information is available [6].

[8] Ceratonia siliqua L.:

The carob tree is called in Persian as kharnub

[10]. It is also mentioned in the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine [7].

Description:

The medicinal parts are the fruit and the bark.

Pharmacological effects:

In various test series and studies, the effect of carob gum on the serum glucose level, the secretion and activity of digestive enzymes, the secretion of gastrointestinal hormones as well as on the serum lipid level was proven. The hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effect is attributed to an increase in viscosity of the gastrointestinal content. Effects on nitrogen balance, efficacy in infantile diarrhea, as well as an anti-exudative, anticoagulant and antiviral effects have been demonstrated [6].

[9] Cinnamomum aromaticum Nees.:

The Chinese cinnamon is called kafur in Persian related to camphor. It is said to be an introduced and cultivated species in Iran [10]. Different plants, due to have an aromatic property, may be related to here. A plant called dar-s n , literally meaning Chinese tree, is more properly related to this species [7].

Description:

The medicinal parts are the flowers collected and dried after they have finished blossoming, and the whole or partly peeled, dried bark of thin and young branches, as well the oil extracted from them.

Pharmacological effects:

The essential oil and its main constituent cinnamaldehyde are antibacterial, fungistatic, improve immune resistance in animal tests (inhibiting allergic reactions Type I and II), promote motility, inhibit ulcers and act on the digestive tract (tannin content) [6].

[10] Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Nees. & Eberm.:

The camphor tree is called kafur in Persian, and it is said to be an introduced and cultivated species in Iran (Mozaffarian, 1998:127). Nevertheless, it is an famous tree in the Persian classics and in the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, it has been ubiquitously mentioned [7].

Description:

The medicinal part is camphor oil extracted from the tree.

Pharmacological effects:

Used externally, camphor acts as a bronchial secretolytic and hyperemia. Internally, the effect is that of a respiratory analeptic and bronchospasmolytic. It should be noted that the effect only sets in at dosages considered toxic. An antibacterial effect has been noted in vitro, with cineol the main active principle [6].

[11] Cinnamomum verum J. Presl:

The cinnamon is also called kafur in Persian (see Cinnamomum aromaticum Nees., and Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Nees. & Eberm.). It is said to be an introduced and cultivated species in Iran (Mozaffarian, 1998:127). Different plants, due to have an aromatic property, may be related to here. A plant called dar-sini, literally meaning Chinese tree, is more properly related to this species [7].

Description:

The medicinal parts are the cinnamon oil extracted from the bark, the cinnamon bark of younger branches and the cinnamon leaf oil.

Pharmacological effects:

The cinnmaldehyde in the cinnamon bark's essential oil is antibacterial, fungistatic and promotes motility. It has a mildly positive estrogen effect on the genital system of animals in tests, although the constituent responsible is unidentified. Cinnamon increases gastric secretions slightly and is an insecticide due to the diterpenes cinnzeylanin and cinnceylanol [6].

[12] Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle:

The lime is so famous in Persian, and called as limu tors or limu 'ammani, which is spontaneous in Iran [10].

Description:

The medicinal component is the bergamot oil extracted from the plant.

Pharmacological effects:

Lime acts as an antiscorbutic and refrigerant as well as a vitamin C supplement [6].

[13] Citrus aurantium L.:

The sour or bitter orange is called in Persian as narenj, which is spontaneous in Iran [10]. In the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, it is also called utruj and perhaps limu [7].

Description:

The medicinal parts are the fresh and dried fruit peel, the flowers, the seeds and the extracted essential oil.

Pharmacological effects of bitter orange flower and flower oil:

No substantiated information available. Efficacy of the use of an extraction of the blossoms as a neurostimulant is not confirmed.

Pharmacological effects of bitter orange peel:

Bitter Orange has a mild spasmolytic effect on the gastrointestinal tract and increases gastric juice secretion [6].

[14] Citrus limonum L.:

The lemon is called in Persian as limu. It is spontaneous in Iran, in the northern and southern regions [12]. In classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, it has been extensively described [7].

Description:

The medicinal parts are the juice, peel and oil of the fruit.

Pharmacological effects:

The flavonoids in lemon affect vascular permeability and are anti-inflammatory, diuretic and a source of vitamin C [6].

[15] Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck:

The sweet orange in now very famous in Iran, but it has been introduced and cultivated in different regions of Iran [10]. It has not been mentioned in the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine.

Description:

The medicinal parts are the fresh and dried peel as well as the oil extracted from the peel.

Pharmacological effects:

Sweet Orange promotes gastric juice secretion [6].

[16] Cornus spp. L.:

The dogwood has three species in Iran, almost in the northern regions. Different species are called al or siyah-al, zoghal-akhteh and saft [12].

Description:

The medicinal part of the tree is the fruit. The pharmacological compounds found in these plants are as follow:

Iridoids: iridoid glycosides, including loganin, cornuside, sweroside, morronoside

Tannins: gallotannins, including cornusiens-A to -G, tellimagrandin I and II, camptothins-A and -B;

Triterpenes: including oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, Anthocyans.

Pharmacological effects:

The drug has an astringent effect due to its tannin content. It has exhibited diuretic, blood pressure-lowering and leukocytopoiesis-promoting effects in clinical tests [6].

[17] Corylus avellana L.:

The hazelnut is called fandoq in Persian. It is one of the important trees in Iran as the fruit of this plant is used as a main part of Iranian dry nuts (ajil). The bark and the leaves are also used. They contain Tannins (5%): including hamamelitannin Catechins: including (+)-catechin, (+)-gallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin gallate (III), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (III).

[18] Crataegus persica A. Pojark:

The hawthorn has different species (12) in Iran. They called generally zalzalak [10]. In classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, a plant called zo'rur perhaps may be related to Crataegus spp. [7].

Description:

The medicinal parts are generally white thorn flowers, leaves, fruit, and various mixtures of different plant parts.

Pharmacological effects:

The active principles are procyanidins and flavonoids. They cause an increase in coronary blood flow due to dilatory effects resulting in an improvement of myocardial blood flow. The drug is positively inotropic and positively chronotropic. The cardiotropic effect of Crataegus is said to be caused by the increased membrane permeability for calcium as well as the inhibition of phosphodiesterase with an increase of intracellular cylco-AMP concentrations. Increased coronary and myocardial circulatory perfusion and reduction in peripheral vascular resistance were observed. High doses may cause sedation. This effect has been attributed to the oligomeric procyanidins.

Crataegus extract has been found to prolong the refractory period and increase the action potential duration in guinea pig papillary muscle. One study demonstrated that a Crataegus extract blocked the repolarizing potassium currents in ventricular myocytes of guinea pigs. This effect is similar to that of class HI antiarrhythmic drugs and may explain the antiarrhythmic effect of Hawmorn [6].

[19] Cupressus sempervirens L.:

The cypress has one spontaneous species in Iran and it is called in Persian as sarv [10]. It has been mentioned also as sarv in the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine [7].

Description:

The medicinal parts are the cones, branches and oil.

Pharmacological effects:

Cypress acts as an expectorant [6].

[20] Cydonia oblongata Mill.:

The quince is called in Persian as beh. It is spontaneous in Iran [10]. In the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, it has been mentioned as its Arabic names as safarjal [7].

Description:

The medicinal parts are the fruit and seeds.

Pharmacological effects:

The main active principles are mucilage, some tannins and vitamin C. There is no information is available on the mode of action [6].

[21] Euonymus spp. L.:

The euonymus or evonymus has two species spontaneous in Iran and other five species have been introduced and cultivated in Iran. It is called in Persian as semsad or gusvarak [10]. In the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, a plant called baqs perhaps may be related to Euonymus spp. L. [7].

Description:

The medicinal parts are the trunk and root bark and the fruit.

Pharmacological effects of root bark and fruit:

The drug is reported to be a laxative and a choleretic. Larger doses have an effect on the heart [6].

[22] Ficus carica L.:

The figs are called in Persian as anj r and there are three spontaneous species in Iran [10]. In the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, a plant called tin-e-barri perhaps may be related to Ficus carica L. [7].

Description:

The medicinal parts are the fruit and the tree sap latex.

Pharmacological effects:

No information is available [6].

[23] Fraxinus excelsior L.:

The ash tree is called in Persian as zabangonjesk or van [10]. In the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, a plant called lisan-ul-'asafir perhaps may be related to Fraxinus excelsior L. [7].

Description:

The medicinal parts are the dried leaves, the fresh bark, the branch bark, and the fresh leaves.

Pharmacological effects of ash bark:

The main active principle is coumarin. Preparations of fresh ash bark showed an analgesic, anti-oxidative, and antiphlogistic action. Cyclo AMP phosphodiesterase is inhibited and an anti-oxidative (radical trapping action) effect was proven for scopoletine, isofraxin and fraxin.

[24] Ilex aquifolium L.:

The holly tree is called in Persian as khas. in the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, a plant called jidar perhaps may be related to Ilex aquifolium L. [7].

Description:

The medicinal parts are the dried foliage leaves, the fresh leaves, the young leafy branches with the ripe berries and the flowers of the branch tips with the leaves.

Pharmacological effects:

No information is available [6].

[25] Juglans regia L.:

The Persian walnut ...

Description:

The medicinal parts are the bark of the tree and root.

The pharmacological compounds of this tree include: Fatty oil, Tannins, Juglone and Juglandis folium.

Pharmacological effects:

Vermifuge, laxative, tonic [6].

[26] Juniperus communis L.:

The juniper is called in Persian as arbas or sarve-kuhi [10]. In the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, a plant called 'ar'ar perhaps may be related to Juniperus communis L. [7].

Description:

The medicinal parts are the essential oil from the berry cones; the ripe, dried berry cones; the ripe fresh berry cones; the fresh or dried pseudo fruit or berry; and the ripe berry.

Pharmacological effects:

The diuretic effect is attributed to the essential oil content. The drug works to lower blood pressure and as an antidiabetic. In animal experiments a hypotensive, antidiabetic and antiexudative effect was proven. In vitro, an antiviral effect was also demonstrated [6].

[27] Lawsonia inermis L.:

The henna is called in Persian as hana [10]. In the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, it is also called hana [7].

Description:

The medicinal parts are the pulverized leaves, the fruit and the bark.

Pharmacological effects:

The drug is an astringent and a diuretic, and has an antibacterial effect [6].

[28] Lycium barbartum Dun.:

The lycium berries (Go-Qi-Zi) is called in Persian as divkhar-e-minabi [10]. In the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, a plant called 'awsaj perhaps may be related to [7].

Description:

The medicinal part is the fruit.

Pharmacological effects:

A possible immunostimulating and hypoglycemic effect has been described, The plant contains a mydriatic acting protein [6].

[29] Malus domestica L.:

The apple tree is called in Persian as derakht-e-sib [10]. Higher variants has been introduced and cultivated in Iran. In the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, it is called as tuffah, and is more akin to Malus orientalis Ugl. [7].

Description:

The medicinal parts are the fresh false fruit, the dried fruit peels, and the inflorescences with their leaves and solid peduncles.

Pharmacological effects:

Pectin is a swelling agent. Apple pectins have a mild binding effect [6].

[30] Malva sylvestris L.:

The high mallow is called in Persian as panirak [10]. In the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, a plant called khubbazi perhaps may be related to Malva sylvestris L. [7].

Description:

The medicinal parts are the dried flowers, the dried leaves and the whole of the flowering fresh plant.

Pharmacological effects of Malva leaf and flower:

The main active principles of the leaves are polysaccharides, flavonoids. tannins; And the main active principles of the flowers are polysaccharides and flavonoids.

The drug has a mucous membrane-protective effect: it relieves irritation because of the high level of mucilaginous material [6].

[31] Moringa oleifera Lam.:

The behen or drumstick is called in Persian as gaz-e-roghani. It has been introduced and cultivated in Iran, especially in Bushehr [10]. In the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, a plant called habbul-alban perhaps may be related to Moringa oleifera Lam. [7].

Description:

The medicinal parts of the plant are the leaves, bark, nuts and root, which have had numerous uses in traditional medicine.

Pharmacological effects of behen root:

The root is antimicrobial in effect, due to the mustard oils it contains. Applied as a cataplasm, it triggers local hyperemias due to the irritating effect of the isothiocyanates. Dried extracts of the root are abortive and contraceptive in their effect.

Pharmacological effects of behen seeds:

The seeds are antimicrobial in effect, due to the mustard oils they contain [6].

[32] Morus nigra L.:

The black mulberry is called in Persian as sahtut [10]. It has not been mentioned in the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, a plant called tut perhaps may be related to Morus alba L. [7].

Description:

The medicinal parts are the ripe berries and the root bark.

Pharmacological effects:

The active agents are sugar, acids, pectin and rutin, but there is no information available regarding their effects [6].

[33] Musa x paradisiaca L.

The plantain tree is called in Persian as derakhte-moz [10]. In the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, a plant called talh may improbably be related to Musa x paradisiaca L. [7].

Description:

The medicinal part of the plant is the fruit.

Pharmacological effects:

The starchy fruit has antiulcerogenic and cholesterol-reducing effects, and is a source of potassium. In East Africa and elsewhere, Plantain is used to prepare a narcotic drink [7].

[34] Myrtus communis L.

The myrtle is called in Persian as murd [10]. In the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, this plant was known and mentioned.

Description:

The medicinal parts are the leaves (dried and as a source of oil), twigs and the fresh, flowering branches.

Pharmacological effects of myrtle oil:

The oil's mono- and sesquiterterpenes display antibacterial, fungicidal and disinfectant activity.

Pharmacological effects of myrtle leaves:

The leaves, which contain essential oil and tannins, display antimicrobial activity. An anti-edemic and hypoglycemic effect was demonstrated in animal experiments. An effect on the central nervous system (an increase in the duration of sleep) was also proven. The efficacy in cold infections may be attributable to the deodorizing and bronchosecretolytic effect of the essential oil [6].

[37] Nerium oleander L.:

The oleander is called in Persian as kharzahreh [10]. In the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, a plant called defli perhaps may be related to Nerium oleander L. [7].

Description:

The leaves are the medicinal part of the plant.

Pharmacological effects:

Oleander is positively inotropic and negatively chronotropic. The cardenolide glycosides of the drug are qualitatively digitoxin-like in their action, but generally weaker, probably due to the lower rate of absorption.

[38] Olea europaea L.:

The olive is called in Persian as zeytun [10]. In the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, it is also called zeytun [7].

Description:

The medicinal parts are the dried leaves, the oil extracted from the ripe drupes, and the fresh branches containing leaves and clusters of flowers.

Pharmacological effects of olive leaves:

Animal tests demonstrated hypotensive, antiarrhythmic and spasmolytic effects on the smooth muscle of the intestine, caused by the terpenes and phenols of die drug [6].

[39] Paeonia officinalis Retz.:

The peony is called in Persian as gol-e-sadtumani [10]. In the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, a plant called ward-ul-himar may improbably be related to Paeonia officinalis Retz. [7].

Description:

The medicinal parts are the dried ripe seeds, the fresh underground parts harvested in spring and the fresh root.

Pharmacological effects of European peony flowers:

The plant contains anthocyanin glycosides and tannins (main active principle: paeonidin-3, 5-diglucoside). Animal tests have demonstrated strong uterine contraction, tone reduction in the gastrointestinal tract and a drop in blood pressure. Anticonvulsive and analgesic effects could not be demonstrated, although hypertonia has been reported in animal tests.

Pharmacological effects of European peony root:

The plant contains anthocyanin glycosides and tannins (main active principle: paeonidin-3, 5-diglucoside. Animal tests have demonstrated strong uterine contraction, tone reduction in the gastrointestinal tract and a drop in blood pressure. Anticonvulsive and analgesic effects could not be demonstrated.

[40] Pistacia lentiscus L.:

The mastic tree is called in Persian as pesteh or boneh. Some species of this genus are spontnaneous in Iran [10]. In the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, a plant called mastaki or zarow perhaps may be related to Pistacia lentiscus L. [7].

Description:

The medicinal part is the resin.

Pharmacological effects:

In animal experiments Mastic is ulcer protective. The amaroids and essential oil are astringent and aromatic [6].

[41] Populus spp.:

The poplar is called in Persian as sanubar [10]. In the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, a plant called hur perhaps may be related to Populus spp. [7].

Description:

The medicinal parts are the bark, leaves and leaf buds.

Pharmacological effects:

Poplar bark and leaves have antiphlogistic, analgesic, antibacterial and spasmolytic effects. The salicylate acid derivatives and flavonoids are resp onsible for the antiphlogistic, analgesic, spasmolytic and antibacterial characteristics of the drug. The beneficial effect in micturition complaints due to prostate hypertrophy may be due to the content of zinc lignans in the drug [6].

[42] Prunus spp. L:.

The plum trees are called in Persian as alu or gowjeh [10]. Several species have been mentioned in the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine [7].

Description:

The medicinal parts are the dried leaves.

Pharmacological effects:

The drug acts as a tonic for the stomach, an anti-irritant and a sedative [6].

[43] Punica granatum L.:

The (wild) pomegranate is called in Persian as anar-e-vahsi [10]. It is already is so famous, which in the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, the plant names of nar, jolnar etc. perhaps may be related to Punica granatum L. [7].

Description:

The medicinal parts are the root, the bark, the fruits, the peel of the fruit and the flowers. Pharmacological effects:

The drug, which contains tannins and alkaloids, is anthelmintic and amoeboid [6].

[44] Pyrus communis L.:

The pear tree is called in Persian as golab or khaj [10]. In the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, a plant called kommathri is related to Pyrus communis L. [7].

Description:

The medicinal part is the fruit. Pharmacological effects:

In folk remedies, Pear is said to be astringent and cooling [6].

[45] Quercus infectoria Oliv. subsp. boissieri (Reut.) Schwarz:

The gall oak is called in Persian as mazuj [10]. In the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, a plant called 'afs or mazu perhaps may be related to Quercus infectoria Oliv. [7].

Description:

The medicinal part of the plant is the leaf.

Pharmacological effects:

The astringent quality of the drug can be explained by the tannins it contains. The dry extract exhibits analgesic, hypoglycemic and sedative-hypnotic efficacy [6].

[46] Quercus robur L.:

The oak is commonly called in Persian as balut [10]. In the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, some plants mentioned, which they may be related to Quercus genus.

Description:

The medicinal parts are the dried bark of the young branches and the lateral shoots, the dried bark of the trunk and branches, the dried leaves of various oak species and the seed kernels without the seed coats.

Pharmacological effects:

The drug, which contains tannins, is astringent, antiphlogistic, antiviral and anthelmintic [6].

[47] Rhamnus spp. L.:

The cascara sagrada or buckthorn is called in Persian as siyah-tangras or arjang [10]. In the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, some plants, namely 'awsaj, perhaps may be related to Rhamnus spp. L. [7]. However, it is not convincing.

Description:

The medicinal part is the dried bark.

Pharmacological effects (laxative effects):

The anthranoid compounds of Cascara are carried unabsorbed to the large intestine where the active aglycon is released by bacterial hydrolysis of the sugar. The intestinal bacterial flora reduces anthraquinone aglycons to the active components of 1,8-dihydroxy-anthracene derivatives, which have the laxative effect [5]. The anthranoids are antiabsorptive, hydrogogic and inhibit the absorption of electrolytes and water from die colon. The laxative effect is caused by an increase in the volume of the intestinal contents with the resulting increase in pressure and stimulation of intestinal peristalsis. In addition, stimulation of the active chloride secretion into the intestine by nitricoxide- donating compounds or nitric oxide itself increases water and electrolyte content [8]. Aloin and other anthranoid derivatives stimulate prostaglandin production in isolated segments of intestinal tissue, thus contributing to die cathartic action [4,3,6].

[48] Ricinus communis L.:

The castor oil plant is called in Persian as karchak [10]. In the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, a plant called kheru' and tamreh perhaps may be related to [7].

Description:

The medicinal parts are the oil extracted from the seeds, the fat extracted from the oil, the ripe seeds and the dried seeds.

Pharmacological effects:

The laxative principle of Castor Oil is the ricinolic acid. Ricinolic acid is anti-absorptive and secretogogic. In animal experiments, stimulation of PgE2 synthesis in the small intestine was proven. The possible reason for effectiveness of ricini semen is the antimicrobial activity of the seeds (ricin is highly toxic) [6].

[49] Salix spp. L.:

The white willow is called in Persian as b d [10]. In the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, a plant called khelaf perhaps may be related to [7].

Description:

The medicinal part is the bark. Salix nigra is American Willow.

Pharmacological effects:

The efficacy of the drug is due mainly to the proportion of salicin present. After splitting of the acyl residue, the salicin glycosides convert to salicin, the precursor of salicylic acid. Salicylic acid is antipyretic, antiphlogistic and analgesic. White Willow bark is the phytotherapeutic precursor to acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin). The salicin component is responsible for the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects. The tannin content has astringent properties on mucous membranes [6].

[50] Sambucus spp. L.:

The elder or bore tree is called in Persian as savand, palam and aqti [10]. In the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, a plant called khaman perhaps may be related to [7].

Description:

The medicinal parts are the bark peeled from the branches in spring and freed from the cork, the air dried flowers, the fresh and dried leaves, the fresh and dried ripe fruit, the dried roots, and the fresh leaves and inflorescences in equal parts.

Pharmacological effects:

Animal tests have shown that Alder increases bronchial secretion. A diaphoretic effect is apparent, but the mechanism is unknown [6].

[51] Sophora spp. L.:

The pagoda tree is called in Persian as talkhbayan [10]. In the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, a plant called safira perhaps may be related to Sophora spp. L. [7].

Description:

The medicinal parts are the ripe seeds.

Pharmacological effects:

The active agent, rutin, increases the permeability of the capillaries [6].

[52] Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crant.:

The wild service tree is called in Persian as baranak [10]. In the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, a plant called maysan perhaps may be related to [7].

Description:

The medicinal parts are the ripe fruit. It is always the fruit that is used in the various preparations.

Pharmacological effects:

No information is available [6].

[53] Taxus baccata L.:

The yew is called in Persian as sorkh-dar [10]. In the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, a plant called zarnab or rijl-ul-jirad perhaps may be related to Taxus baccata L. [7].

Description:

The medicinal parts are the fresh leaves, the branch twig tips, and the branches.

Pharmacological effects:

In animal experiments, the taxin, a mixture of different ester alkaloids, leads to an improvement in cardiac metabolism. The motility-inhibiting effect may be attributable to the biflavonoid fraction. In higher doses the drug is cardiotoxic and can cause tachycardiac arrhythmia leading to diastolic cardiac arrest [6].

[54] Tilia spp. L.:

The linden tree is called in Persian as zirfun or narmdar [10]. In the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, it is also called zirfun [7].

Description:

The medicinal parts are the fresh and dried flowers.

Pharmacological effects of linden leaf:

The apparent diaphoretic effect has not been proven.

Pharmacological effects of silver linden flower:

A possible sedative-anxiolytic effect and an antistress effect are under investigation. The flavone-like substances in the drug are thought to be responsible for these effects.

Pharmacological effects of linden charcoal:

No information is available.

Pharmacological effects of linden wood:

The hypotensive, and choleretic effects ascribed to the drug are insufficiently documented. In animal experiments, an increase of bile secretion and a lowering of arterial pressure have been described. Aqueous extracts of the drug are antimicrobial.

Pharmacological effects of linden flower:

The antitussive, astringent, diaphoretic, diuretic, sedative, and analgesic effects attributed to the drug have not yet been widely supported by experimental data. The toxic principle is unknown. An alcoholic extract of the flowers is antimicrobial in vitro with the tannins, glycosides, and the essential oil the active components. Tilia flavonoids, which have not been described in detail, are anti-edemic in animal experiments. In addition, Timeotal results point to a sedative effect. The diaphoretic effect is controversial. After steam inhalation with a lime flower additive, an improvement of the symptoms of uncomplicated colds was observed in comparison to a control group (only steam) [6].

[55] Ulmus spp.:

The Elm trees are called in Persian as narvan. There is four species in Iran, which Ulmus minor is common and Ulmus boissieri Grundz. inclusively grows in Iran [10]. In the classical texts of Persian herbal medicine, a plant called wajj perhaps may be related to Ulmus minor L. [7].

Description:

The medicinal part is the inner bark of the young branches.

Pharmacological effects:

The drug has diuretic and astringent properties [6].

[56] Viburnum lantana L.:

The Wayfaring tree is called in Persian as haft-kul [10].

Description:

The medicinal part is the bark of the trunk and the root.

Pharmacological effects:

The drug has a spasmolytic and, to date, an undefined effect on the uterus [6].

[57] Viscum album L.:

The white or European Mistletoe is called darvas in Persian [10]. In the Persian classical texts of herbal medicine, a plant called debq perhaps may be related to Viscum album L. [7].

Description:

The medicinal parts are the leaves and twigs collected before the berries form, the fresh herbs of certain host plants, the fresh leafy twigs with fruit collected in the autumn, the whole fresh plant collected from apple trees, the leaves and the berries.

Pharmacological effects:

The Mistletoe lectins in the drug are hypotensive, cytotoxic and immune stimulating. It causes significant improvement of the symptoms of chronic joint conditions, and a significant lengthening of survival times of cancer patients as well an improvement of quality of life [6].

Discussion and Conclusion:

Although the trees and shrubs have been deep effects on phytomedicine, but according to our best knowledge, there have been no comprehensive studies about the influence of the trees and the shrubs and its extent in the traditional medicine. The herbal medicine all over its history, have been firmly considered herbs and weeds used as medicines. These data show that almost all of these trees were known to Iranian scholars from Arabic, Indic or Greek-Roman tradition without seeing them closely. We think that, these data will be useful for the future researches in this area. We propose more researches about these plants and the authentic effects of the medicinal plants of Iranian herbal medicine.

References

[1.] Bisler, H., R. Pfeifer, N. Kluken, P. Pauschinger, 1986. Wirkung von Ropkastaniensamen extrakt auf die transkapillare Filtration bei chronischer venoser Insuffizien. Z Dtsch Med Wschr, 111: 1321-1328.

[2.] Calabrese, C., P. Preston, 1993. Report of the results of a double-blind, randomized, single-dose trial of a topical 2% escon gel versus placebo in the acute treatment of experimentally-induced hematoma volunteers. Planta Med., 59: 394-397.

[3.] Capasso, F., N. Mascolo, 1983. Autore G: Duraccio MR. Effect of indomethacin on aloin and 1,8 dioxianthraquinone-induced production of prostaglandins in rat isolated colon. Prostaglandins, 26(4): 557-62.

[4.] Cohen, M.M., 1982. The effect of cathartics on prostaglandin synthesis by rat gastrointestinal tract. Prostaglandins Leukot Med, 8(4): 389-97.

[5.] de Witte, P., L. Lemli, 1990. The metabolism of anthranoid laxatives. Hepatogastroenterology, 37(6): 601-5.

[6.] Fleming, T., 2000. PDR for herbal medicine. Medical Economics Company.

[7.] Ghahreman, A., A.R. Okhovvat, 2009. Matching the old descriptions of medicinal plants with the scientific ones. Tehran University Publication. [In Persian].

[8.] Izzo, A.A., N. Mascolo, F. Capasso, 1998. Nitric oxide as a modulator of intestinal water and electrolyte transport. Dig Dis Sci., 43(8): 160520.

[9.] Khorasani, A., 1844. Collection of Drugs; material medica (Makhzan-ul-'Adwiyyah). Calcutta. [In Persian].

[10.] Mozaffarian, V., 1998. A dictionary of Iranian plant names: Latin-English-Persian. [In Persian].

[11.] Mozaffarian, V., 2004. Trees and Shrubs of Iran. [In Persian].

[12.] Sabeti, H., 2006. Forests, trees and shrubs of Iran. Yazd University Publication. [In Persian].

[13.] Steiner, M., 1990. Untersuchung zur odemvermindernden und odemprotektiven Wirkung von RoBkastanienextrakt. In: Phlebol Proktol., 19: 239-242.

(1) Peyman Mikaili, (2) Massoumeh Sharifi, (3) Shadi Sarahroodi, (4) Jalal Shayegh

(1) Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.

(2) Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Urmia, Iran.

(3) Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran.

(4) Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary, Shabestar branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran.

Corresponding Author

Peyman Mikaili, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.

E-mail: peyman_mikaili@yahoo.com
COPYRIGHT 2012 American-Eurasian Network for Scientific Information
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2012 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Mikaili, Peyman; Sharifi, Massoumeh; Sarahroodi, Shadi; Shayegh, Jalal
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Jan 1, 2012
Words:5909
Previous Article:Effect of different seed priming on germination rate and seedling growth of Ziziphus spina-christi.
Next Article:Effects of cognitive-behavioral stress management training on the syndrome of burnout in employed women nurses: a case study in hospitals of Ahvaz...
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters