Pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate in a longacting poloxamer 407 gel formulation administered to hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventrallis).
Pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate in a longacting poloxamer 407 gel formulation administered to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventrallis). Lainesse D, Sanchez-Migallon Guzman D, Kynch HK, et al. Am J Vet Res. 2017;78:688-694.
Objective--To determine pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate incorporated into poloxamer 407 (P407) after subcutaneous administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).
Animals--11 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (6 males and 5 females; 11 to 27 years old).
Procedures--A sterile formulation of butorphanol in P407 (But-P407) 25% (percentage determined as [weight of P407/weight of diluent] X 100]) was created (8.3 mg/mL). Five preliminary experiments (2 birds/experiment) were performed to determine the ideal dose for this species. The formulation then was administered (12.5 mg/kg SC) to 8 birds. Blood samples were collected before (time 0) and 0.08, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after drug administration. Some birds were used more than once, with a washout period of [greater than or equal to] 3 months between subsequent treatments. Butorphanol concentrations were quantitated by use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed by use of noncompartmental analysis.
Results--Maximal plasma butorphanol concentration was reached at 1.31 hours. Plasma concentrations of butorphanol remained >100 ng/mL for >3 hours (all birds) or >4 hours (5/8 birds) but <8 hours (all birds). Half-life of the terminal slope was 3.41 hours. No adverse effects were detected.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance--Butorphanol was absorbed well from the But-P407 25% by Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and absorption followed a pharmacokinetic profile compatible with a sustained-release drug. A dose of 12.5 mg/ kg SC would theoretically provide analgesia for 4 to 8 hours. No adverse effects were detected. Studies on the pharmacodynamics of this formulation are necessary to confirm the degree and duration of analgesia.
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|Title Annotation:||Selected Abstracts from the Literature|
|Publication:||Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery|
|Date:||Sep 1, 2017|
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