Personality Measurement in the Male and Female Students.
The topic of the study was measurement of personality with the N=300 comprising of 150 males and females leaving age of (14 - 19 years). Following hypotheses were formed. There will be a difference in rating of personality traits between males and females. This hypothecs is rejected because males and females both rate themselves equally in all traits (female: 50.8% and males 51.25%).
Females rate themselves ore confident as compared to males (90%).
Females show warmth in interaction more as compared to males (62%).
There are certain limitations in this study. By modifying questionnaire, increasing data and using extensive statistical analysis, these limitations can be removed.
Measurement of Personality
Personality is that which permits a predication of what a person will do in a given situation. The dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment. Personality is the sum of the unique psychological qualities of an individual that influence a verity patterns (both overt and covert) in relatively consistent ways across different situations and over time. Psychologist defines personality as the reasonably stable patterns of emotions, motives and behavior that distinguish one person from another.
Early studies of personality attempted to classify people into a number of types. It was assumed that people of the same types had a number of characteristics in common.
Sheldon's Body Builds
Focusing on physical characteristics, Sheldon (1954)_ developed a type theory suggested that there were three types of body build: endomorph, ectomorph and mesomrph. Each type of body build was associated with a particular set of personality characteristics. The endomorph was a short, plump person who was sociable, relaxed and even tempered-the Father Christmas type. The ectomorph wa stall, thin person who was restrained, self-conscious and solitary, while the mesomorph was heavy-set muscular person who was noisy, aggressive and physically active.
Type A and Type B
Another dichotomy suggests that people cab be described as ether Type A or Type B personalities. The Type A person is always running flat out. These people are impatient with others who do thins more slowly; they wan to achieve and spend little time sitting around doing nothing. Type A person are always comparing their performance with that of others they are often irritable and aggressive, and are more likely to experience conflict with others. The Type B person, on the other hand, is more relaxed.
Open to change, likes variety and enjoys life. However few people are clearly one category or the other. Types As does not necessarily perform better or achieve more than Types Bs in spite of being dominated by a desire to achieve and presenting as very busy,;active individuals. |studies (e.g. Humphrise, Carver and Newmann,1983) suggests that the performance of type Bs is better in quality and has fewer errors than the work of Type As. Many social psychologists talk about Type A and Type B behavior, rather than Type as and Type B personality. This distinction has important implications for the development and change of the behavior. If the characteristic, it is generally assumed that it is relatively open to change their behavior to exhibit less extreme Type A or Type B behaviors.
Extroverts and Introverts
Carl Jung proposed that people could be described as extroverts or introverts. An extroverts is a bold, outgoing sort of person, while an introvert is shy, self-centred and retiring. This concept was later developed and Hans Eysenk who suggested that there were two dimensions of personality: introversion/extroversion and instability/stability.
According to Holland's personality theory of occupational choice (Campbell, 1977), individuals may be assigned to one of six board interest areas or types. The extreme model of each Holland's six types can be characterizes as follows:
* Realistic people are practical, physically strong, have good motor coordination skills but lack verbal and interpersonal skills.
* Investigative individuals have a strong scientific orientation, describing themselves as analytical, curious, independent and reserved.
* Artistic people describe themselves as expressive, original, institutive, creative, disorderly, nonconforming, intuitive, creative, disorderly, nonconforming, introspective and independent. The perform well on standard measured of creativity and value aesthetic qualities.
Social people like to work in grouped and enjoy being the center of attention. They have good verbal and interpersonal skills and particular good listening skills. Enterprising individuals seek position do leadership, power and status. The see the themselves a s aggressive, popular, self-confident and sociable, and generally possess high energy levels. Conventional People, like enterprising people, work well in large organizations but they prefer subordinate rather than leadership roles. They describe themselves and efficient, conscientious, obedient and practical. The value material possessions and status. Individuals are not seen as being purely of one type, but are generally seen as being perdominantlyone, two or three types. These are described using the labels separately or in combination. Occupations and jobs have also been categorized by Holland in terms of these types.
For example, the testing of large numbers of engineers led to engineering being coded as realistic-investigative. An important aspect of the career counseling approach used Holland involves matching the person's Holland type with a job type. However, the theory goes beyond this to suggest that there should be a match not only between people's interests and their jobs, but also between their interests and their learning environment, family environment and their leisure activities. For example, Holland has pointed out that investigative, social and conventional types usually do well in school because they have attitudes and values which are compatible with those of their teachers, so they find a school atmosphere supportive.
The psychoanalytic approach
The psychoanalytic approach had its origins in the work of Sigumnd Freud (1856-1939), who was a Viennese physician who developed many of his theories while treating his patients. Most of these patients were middle. Aged women who were suffering from a disorder know at that time as hysteria. Hysteria has puzzling physical symptoms which do not appear to have any physical basis. These symptoms might include the inability to walk or see. From his observation and conversations with many patients over many years Freud gradually developed his theories, which are presented in over 20 different books.
Three parts of mind
Freud argued that the mind was divided into three realms or areas the conscious, the preconscious and unconscious. The conscious consists of all the things of which you are currently aware. These may include the works of the page in this book, the chair on which you are sitting, and possibly your feeling of being to work, too cool or pleasantly comfortable. The preconscious consists awareness but which is not currently part of your conscious awareness but which you could bring to conscious awareness if you chose to do so. If you are asked to state the date of you birth day, you will resend to that request by bringing that information to conscious awareness and providing the correct information. Before you were asked the question you were probably not thinking about the date of your birthday. The unconscious comprises all those things which you cannot readily bring to conscious awareness.
These include things that have happened to you in the past, conflicts that you have not resolved, and things that you really do not want to remember.
Three Structure of personality
Freud suggested that there were three structures that made up the personality: the id, the ego and the superego.
Id: The id consists of all the basis instincts with which people are born. The two primary instincts are the sex instinct and the aggressive instincts.
Ego: The ego develops in the response to the constraints placed on the individual by the immediate environment, Te ego operates according to the reality principle, recognizing what can and cannot be done. It imposes constraints on the id.
Superego: The third process, the superego, is the best thought of as a conscience. It develops at about four or five years of age and reflects the internalization of the teaching and values of the parents and other significant people in the child's school environment.
The developed of personality
Freud suggested that personality thought a number os stages. Each a focused on the part of the body which gives pleasure at the stages. Each stage I focused on the part of the body which gives pleasure at the stage. If people stay too little gratifications, this has implications for the type of personality they will exhibit. Personality development progresses though the stages, which always occur in the same order, although individuals differ in the amount of time they spend at each stages.
The firms stage, the oral stage, starts at birt, The primary focus is the mouth, which is essential to the young child's survival. The infant sucks anything which is placed in its mouth. Adult extensions of oral behavior include smoking, chewing gum, and excessive concern for oral hygiene, sarcasm and being a food or wine expert, a speech purist or a food faddist.
The second stage, the anal stage, which occurs in the second year of life, is concerned with expelling and withholding faces, a behavior which influenced by the child's caregivers as they attempt to toilet train the child, Adult extension include a notable interest in one's bowl movements, a love of bathroom humor, extreme messiness, and interest in statistics.
The phallic stage, which occurs from about three to six years ago, is the time when become interested in their genitals, they are likely o fondle their genitals, much to the concern of Mum and Dad, and they become aware of the physical differences between male and females. Adult behaviors associated with this stage include flirtatiousness, expression of virility, interest in poetry, interest in action, striving for success and excessive modesty.
The child enters a period of latency, from about six to twelve years, when attention is turned to other things. During this time the child develops environment coping skills.
The final stage is the genital stage, during which there is a gradual development of about sexual interest, This stage being at puberty.
Currently there is a renewed interest is some of Freud believed that many of the conflicts and behaviors described by his patients were merely fantasies, that child were interested in different parts of their body and they had a desire to replace the same-sex parent with themselves in relationship with the opposite-se parent. More recently, with the discovery of the extent to which many girls sexually abused, some psychologists are starting to wonder whether Freud's patients descriptions were fantasies, or whether these middle0aged female patients may in fact have been describing things which really happened to them as children (Masson, 1983).
Evaluation of the psychoanalytic approach
Many theorists argue that the psychoanalytic approach is too complicated. It is often criticized for being able to explain in retrospect, but being unable to predict events or characteristics. Some critics argue that it was developed on the basis of observation of an "abnormal" population rather then a normal population. However, there are two command they had typed at the keyboard. In a pretest-post-test study he was able to demonstrate that these children shifted to a belief in a more internal locus of control.
Evaluation of the learning approach
The learning approach to the development of personality assumes that the individual passively respond to the environment, being primary shaped by the expectations of receiving rewards or punishments for engaging in specific behaviors. This view assumes that individual plays no role is attempting to understand or interpret the environment. It also assumes that genetic pre-dispositions irrelevant and that personality is solely dependent on environment factors. Many psychologists believe that learning plays an important role in the development of our behavior and personality, but they general acknowledge that other factors are also important.
The humanistic approach
Many theorists became dissatisfied with the emphasis on determinism and negativity inherent in the psychoanalytic approach and started to consider the possibility that people might, in fact strive to development their potential. One of the first psychologists to adopt this view was Abraham Maslow (1954, 1970).
Maslow' hierarchy needs
Maslow based his observation on healthy people, rather than those who presented for treatment, He notices that most successful people shared certain characteristics, and different fro people who were less successful. He proposed that people are motivated to satisfy their needs. These needs are hierarchically arranged so that the satisfaction of need at one level is necessary before attention is focused on the needs at the next level. The most basic needs are the physiological needs, such as the needs for water, foods and sleep. The next level of needs focuses on safety, our needs at one level is necessary before attention is focused on needs at the next level. The most basic needs are the psychological needs, such as the needs for water, food and sleep, the next level of the next level of needs focuses on safety, our needs to feel safe and secure and out of danger.
At practical level his means heaving somewhere to sleep and to spend our time. \the third level of needs is concerned with belonging and love, the needs a affiliate with other, to be accepted by our family our friends. The next level focuses on self-esteem, the need to feel competent and to recognition our achievements. The fifth level directs attention to our cognitive needs, the need to know more and to understand and explore thins. The sixth level is concerned with aesthetic needs and a desire for order and beauty. The highest level focuses on our needs for self-actualization, to realize our potential and to find fulfillment.
Maslow's approach is consists with common sense, if you are hungry, do you pay attention to what you teachers are saying? If you are feeling neglected by your friends, are you going to study to gain an a in your next exam? Probably not as maslow suggested, you will satisfy the lower order needs before you turn your attention to the concerned about self-actualization, it is necessary to first the lower order needs. You might ask if this is ever possible. As always, it is necessary to remember that different people are satisfied with different levels of achievement. Other humanistic perspectives focus more on the cognitive aspects of personality. They define personality in terms of how we think; our actions and feeling are determined by our thoughts, not vice versa. These theorists assume the behavior occurs within a person's psychological reality. If a person believes that something is true, for that person it is true.
If a person believes these are elves at the bottom of the garden, for the person this is the case. Further, people act like naive scientists, continually developing hypotheses about the nature of the world and modifying these hypotheses in an attempt to develop a more accurate view of the world. Tow of the major theorists in this are George Kelly and Carl Rogers.
George Kelly's personal construct theory
George Kelly (1955-1958) believes that people construct their own view of the world. Each constructs their own view of the world. Each construction is unique to the individual. On way to tap into this construction is to find our characteristics of others individual. On way to tap into this construction is to find out the characteristics of others are important to a person. Kelly uses a test called the role Repertory test, which essentially asks the test about similarities and differences between a number of other people. For example, on the test you might be asked about three people, witch as your mother, your father and your brother. You would be asked to state on dimension on which two of them are the same and the third one is different. You would be asked to repeat this exercise with many sets of three persons. Kelly is interested in the types of dimensions we uses to describe people.
For example, do we focus on physical characteristics,, our emotional responses to people, or some characteristics that they possess? He is not interested in the other people, but in assessment of these people and the type of constructs that we use. Next time you hear someone describing the personality of some on el;se, consider the types of constructs they uses. What is important to the person doing the describing? Often when we talk vides more information about us than about us than about the people were are discussing.
Carl Roger's non-directed therapy
Carl Rogers argues that people know what their problems and know what is good for them. He sees people as striving to achieve self-actualization that is, To maximize their potential, and become the most developed person they can Rogers has a very positive and forward-looking view of personality development. This contrasts with the more retrospective view inherent in psychoanalytic approaches. This constricts with the more retrospective view inherent in psychoanalytic approaches. Many people do not achieve self-actualization because of the experiences they have in interaction with others. One of the major factors which restricts the development of self-actualization is what he calls conditional regard. This really means that a person or some people will only accept the individual if that individual behaves in a certain way. Such people make statements like I love you, but I will only love you if stay on at school.
This type of conditional regard leads to an external definition of the persons needs and desires. The needs for the positive regard from other can have a major impact on our behavior and our personality. This need can become so powerful that we come under the influence of the person whose positive regard we seek. In some case I may lead us to engage in behaviors that otherwise we might have considered inappropriate. However, as conditional regard has been learned, I can be unlearned. According to this approach. The treatment of clients suffering from conditional regard involves developing unconditional regard, that is, to reverse the process. It is based on the belief that each person should be given the right to make their own decisions. For example, the parent should say: I love you, and I would like to a say at school, but if you decide to leave school, I will still love you.
Carl Rogers is particularly known for his non-directive style of therapy n which he encourages clients to express their own thoughts. The therapist acts like a mirror, reflecting these thoughts and encouraging the client to continue to develop these thoughts and express related thoughts.
Evaluation of the humanistic
This approach has the advantages that is recognized that the individual is an active, thinking who is able to exert some influence on his or her personal development. It looks forward rather than backward and hence is positive. It places the onus on the individual to develop, rather than to blame his or her history. As is common with the psychoanalytic and learning perspectives.
The Measurement of Personality
One way to assess personality is through the observation of a person's behavior over a wide range oe situations. This is what most of us do when range situation's This is what most of us do when were are making informal assignment of the personalities of ourselves or our friends. As you have already found, the conclusions drawn party depend on the situations in which you have observed the person, and party on your perceptions-you may not reach the same conclusion as is reached by someone else who is assessing the same person. If you adopt the Sheldon approach to the study of personality and believe that personality is related to body build, observation is a particularly useful means of assessing personality.
Interviewing a person is another means on gathering information about personality. The interviews can focus the questioning to gain more information about those aspects of personality relevant to the present purpose, For example, the selection process for most jobs includes an interview. The purpose of the interview is to only gain information about the person's skills and experience, but to evaluate his or her personality in relation to the position.
When using observation or interviewing techniques to gain an understanding of the personality of another person we often use rating scales to qualify our observations. A rating scale is usually a straight line, with a number of figures along it which represent different amounts of characteristic, and end points which describe the scale. On other occasion, we may have a series of herbals, each with an associated numerical value, and be asked to indicate the appropriate label. The advantage of rating scales is that we have numerical scores, or ratees, or can be compared across raters, or ratees, or can be used in terms of physical aggression and verbal aggression in terms of physical aggression and verbal aggression. Rather than our observing or interviewing another person, we might as the perso to answer a number of questions describing themselves.
Often when assessing types or traits we ask people to answer a whole series of questions are referred to as personality inventories. Such inventories usually consist of relatively extensive list of items. Respondents might be asked to state whether the statement does or does not describe them, or they might be asked to choose between two statements and say which one is better description of them. The use of inventories is likely to be more accurate than casual observation, as the person can reflect on his or her behavior in a wide variety of situations. However, the usefulness of such assessment depends both n the quality of the tests and the level of cooperation of the person being tested. A good test must have clearly written items, detailed instructions for administration and scoring, and established reliability and validity.
Subject cooperation in personality testing
From the perspective of the respondent, it is generally assumed that he or she understands the items and gives an honest answer, This assumption may not be valid. Some people may misunderstand the items, or they may not be verbally fluent or familiar with the mode of expression. Other people may choose to give the answer they believe to be socially acceptable rather than the answer they believe to be accurate. Still other people tend to agree with most statements, irrespective of whether they are really true or not true for them. The degree of honestly may depend on the purpose for which the test is being taken, If you are typing to get a job, you are trying to understand yourself better, you might be motivated to be honest.
The Barnum Effect
You will find may personality tests published I popular magazines. Sometimes descriptions of personality are presented in elation to scores gained on a so-called test, and sometimes they are horoscope predictions, based merely on a date of birth or some other characteristic. For example you pride yourself on your independence, and think carefully before accepting the judgments of others, but might be influenced by their opinions if you perceive them to be accurate, Occasionally you doubt your own decisions, wondering whether you have made the right or wrong decision, Generally you are a sociable, friendly person, who enjoys the company of others, but sometimes you like a little solitude to reflect and recuperate. Some of your aspirations are a trifle unrealistic, but generally you go some way towards achieving your goals.
Most of your would probably be able to accept the above description as a decryption of your own personality, Now read the next description and see if it is accurate. You are a boring, hateful, lazy slob. People dislike you and you dislike them. Generally you can successful steal other peoples ideas and pass them off as your own. You make instant decisions, and stick with them though tick and thin. You might be less likely to accept the second description. You are also unlikely to find the second description in many horoscopes or popular magazines. The tendency for most descriptions to be ones with most people can identify is often referred to as Barnum effect. Barnum was a circus showman who believed there's a sucker born every minute. His success lay in his answer ness of the need to have something for everyone. This is exactly what the unscientific personality profiles do.
They make very general, vague, essentially positive statement that can be very broadly interpreted to fit almost any person in almost any situation. The way to avoid the Barnum effect is to be aware that all purpose descriptions and prophecies could apply to everyone, and be aware that most people are very selective in their perception, recalling the thing that are consistent with exceptions and failing to recall the things that are inconsistent with them.
Evaluation personality inventories
As stated above, the usefulness of personality inventory depends on the adequacy of the inventory which you select ad the level of cooperation of the person completing the inventory. There are some very good personality inventories, with established test norms' reliability and validity, but there are many poor tests which are readily available to be general public.
Those who adopt a psychoanalytic approach are more likely to use projective methods of personality assessment. These methods assume that a person will project their motives, thoughts and conflicts onto and unstructured stimulus. These tests are designed to explore the person's private personality. Two of the most commonly known projective tests are Rorschach Test and the Thematic Apperception Tests.
Thematic Apperception Tests (TAT)
The Thematic Apperception Test, commonly referred to as the TAT, consists of a person or scene. Each person is shown 20 of these pictures and asked to make up a story explain what is going what is going on in the picture, what happened afterwards. The analysis consists of looking for recurrent theme, motives and interaction patterns.
Evaluation of projective techniques
These techniques are used only by person who have had extensive training in the theories underlying them and in the uses and interpretation o the tests. The tests are frequently criticized for being extremely unreliable, as tow testers will often interpret the responses differently. Consequently, the validity of these tests is questioned by many psychologists.
Use of personality testing devices
The ready availability so-called tests of personality in popular magazines bears testimony to the frequency with which people want to find out about themselves. Tests are also used for professional purpose. For example, they are used by carrier advisers, personnel selection companies and officers, school guidance officers and clinicians. Vocational Guidance: some of you may have been assessed by carriers teachers at school or by psychologists who specializes in vocational guidance, these people aim to identify your abilities and interests so as to recommend jobs which you might find satisfying. The client usually completes a battery of aptitude tests and also an interest profile or a personality profiles to ones which have been shown to be successful in particular areas of employment. On the basis of the test results, and interviews with the person, the adviser will recommend carriers to which the person might be suited.
Personnel Selection: Personal selection is the opposite side of the coin from vocational guidance. Whereas vocational guidance starts with a client and involve recommendations of jobs, personnel selection starts with all he applicant for a particular position and involves the use of tests of select the person who is most likely to be successful in that position. The process is similar, but the emphasis is different. People working in vocational guidance or personnel selection are likely to use personality inventories.
Clinical p psychologists
Often people go to psychologists or psychiatrists when they feel that they are not coping with the demand of daily living and need helps. Clinical psychologists use tests to assist them in their diagnosis of the problems which are troubling their clients. These practitioners are more likely to use diagnostic tests, and may use projective tests. Often their firm aim is to diagnose the nature of the problem which is concerning the client, so as to refer the client to an appropriate person or to implement some type of treatment.
Abuses of personality measuring instruments
As with intelligence tests, there are problems in labeling people as having or not having particular characteristics. The ways people respond to there labels very from positive to negative to ignoring the statements. Similarly, people may use the tests scores to compare themselves negatively or favorably with others. Not only are we affected by knowing the test results, but having these results may influence the behavior of other people towards us. We might be given a job or a place in a course because our results are consistent with those considered to be appropriate, or we may be kept out of a job or a course because our results are not consistent with those wanted.
We must always that a score is the one owe gained on a test on a particular occasion. On another test we might obtain a different score. Or if we were in a different situation and were answering the same questions in a different context, we must see test scores for what they are scores obtained on a particular test on a particular day.
Method of study is as following:
Tools: It is not a standardized inventory. It is an adoption of cattle 16 PF. In this research instead of questioner personality traits are being used. In front of every personality trait there is an opposite personality trait.
Sample: A purposive sample of 300 students was taken. Our sample consisted of 150 males and 150 females students leaving age range of (14 to 19 years).
Procedure: First of all the topic of the study was selected and the questionnaire was formed accordingly. The sample was specified and data was collected. The results was analyzed and discussed in the end.
There will be difference in rating of personality traits between males and females. This hypothesis is rejected because males and females both rate themselves equally in all traits (female students 50.8% Males students 25%). Females rates themselves more confident as compare to males students (90%) Females show warmth in interaction more as compared to males students (62%).
Personality is the character pattern of behavior and modes of thinking that determine a persons adjustment to the environment. We measure personality changes by different factors. Cattle introduce the measurement of personality which measure the traits that exist in every person. To them Cattle called source traits. In this inventory 16 traits are being measured. In every traits there is described an opposite traints. The data was collected from boys and girls, to know that which personality traits is common. It was hypothesized that these will be a difference in rating personality traints between males and females. This hypothesis is rejected males and females both rate themselves equally in all traits, as calm submissive, casual, practical conservation etc, and females students 50.8% males students 51.29%. Because in modern society males and females have equal values and rights male rate themselves more confident as compared to females 10%.
This hypothesis is also rejected because now females are working in almost every field of life, due to advancement technology, media, parenting style and especially due to education. The trait "warmth" found 49% in boys and 62% in girls. It proves that girls show more warmth in social interaction then the boys, by showing warmth ness in society we can improve our internal relationship. The traits bright is common in boys and girls which is 92% and 8% are dull, which shows that no one consider himself as a dull person. There is also a difference between the intelligence of bys and girls. Usually people think that girls are stable and boys are emotionally unstable. Males are more dominances because girls are submissive in our society. It is bee observed that boys are submissive (50%) and girls are sensitive (64) and boys are (54%). It proves that girls are more sensitive and effeminate. In our study we observe that inventories. Suspecting polished, self sufficiency traints are common both in girls and boys.
The opinion of people about the girls that they are more conventional and practical as compared to males but in our study both are 50% conventional. Usually people think that males are more tense then the boys are bur our results shows that girls are more tense because in modern age women get progressed but their tension increased day by day because their responsibilities are increased hey deal with their families, co-worker and also all society. It refer to relatively anodizing dispositions tendencies to act, think or feel in a certain manner in any circumstances. That distinguishes on person from another. Usually behavior in referred as publics personality, which means how other observes the individual. Public personality includes expressive features and mannerisms, general disposition, the way one reacts to threatening situations. The attitudes one expression and much more.
Along with public personality, there is a hidden part of personality can be labeled as private personality. It includes the fantasies, thoughts and experiences. That one does not show with other Special memories childish or embossing, wishes dreams and very special memories one does not share.
* Clarke. V and Gillet (1977) Psychology. International Thompson company, New Youk.
* Fathus A (2001) Essential of Psychology. Wards worth Thomson Learning Canada.
* Shahnaz R. (2012) An approach to psychology. Bukhari Print Press. Lahore.
* Zimbardo G (1967) psychology and life. Schott, Foreman and company Genview llinois London.
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|Author:||Sughra, Ghulam; Ashraf, Shaheen; Abbas, Nazar|
|Publication:||International Journal of Arts and Humanities|
|Date:||Dec 31, 2017|
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