Performance evaluation of web-based cloud services in a browser-scripting approach.
The emerging vast cloud services and applications have brought forth research interests in the user perceived performance quality . Emerging applications and services can be scaled up flexibly through the cloud platforms, such as cloud-assisted mobile Ad-hoc networks , cloud gaming systems , mobile cloud streaming systems , and so on. These studies focus on improving the application performance using the cost controlling knobs provided by the cloud infrastructure. Cloud service providers are interested in understanding what the user and applications perceive of their service is actually what they are delivering. In heterogeneous networks (such as 3G/4G, Wi-Fi, etc.), the services and applications may exhibit dramatically different service performance . This drives the need for conducting such application-layer measurements. It is important to enable cloud service providers to evaluate their service performance from the perspective of end-users. To overcome the different system architectures and the Internet firewalls, web-based network measurements have dominated the current application-layer performance measurements in instead of using the prohibitively expensive custom measurement utilities on end-systems .
In this paper, we conducted a measurement study of evaluating the application-layer delay performance of web-based cloud services using an integrated measurement platform. In addition to the delay accuracy, we also investigated the impact of possible link packet loss, measurement overhead, the time cost of measurement duration using Java applet, Flash, and the JSP dynamic web page method to gain insights into the cloud performance. Our measurement platform includes three web-scripting measurement modules and the classic Ping module operated in real Internet environments. In order to have a deep understanding on the web-based delay measurements, we collected the measurement traces at the packet level in the real network environments. These traces reveal different features compared with the basic web-based measurement. Some preliminary results have been presented in  and more measurement results and data analysis are provided in this paper. We also reported the results when our testbed was deployed on the Baidu cloud to investigate the accuracy and overhead for these three different measurement approaches. Our major findings are summarized as follows.
* In an integrated web-based measurement, the application-layer delay can serve as a reference to the network-layer delay under the network conditions which has small disturbance such as the clean lab network environment. The application-layer delay is quite close to the network-layer delay with only 1%-2% deviation with the lab settings.
* The application-layer measurement packets may be retransmitted due to the TCP retransmission in complex real network environments. These spike measurements may be significantly larger than the real network-layer delay. Based on the analysis of the traced measurement data, these spikes are closely correlated to the link packet loss. In the measurement process, we can utilize a threshold (e.g. 500ms) to estimate the lost packets from the overall measurement results.
* Web-based network measurement approaches utilize the HTTP and TCP protocols to transmit the measurement traffic. These measurements may exhibit different characteristics due to diversing measurement packet size, measurement pre-loading time and overhead. Flash shows the most accurate measurement results and the least overhead in the application-layer delay than Java applet and JSP, whereas it has the most pre-loading time among these measurement methods.
* We deployed the proposed integrated application-layer measurement platform on the Baidu cloud infrastructure and analyzed the difference between the network-layer and application-layer delays. We also investigated the accuracy and the overhead of the delay measurements using different popular web browsers. We found that the application-layer delay may exhibit quite different characteristics of different web browsers. From the overall experiments, Google Chrome presents the most accuracy and the least overhead than Microsoft Explorer (IE) and Mozilla FireFox.
The rest of the paper is organized as follows. We proceed to discuss the proposed integrated web-based network measurement platform and compare different application-layer delay measurements in Section 2. In Section 3, we present in details our browser-based measurement testbed on the Internet. We present an analysis of the delay measurement results using our measurement testbed on real Internet paths and the Baidu cloud in Section 4. Finally, we conclude this paper in Section 5.
2. Browser-Scripting Methods
1) Two primary steps are required to accomplish during the initialization. First, measurement objects are transmitted in HTTP packets between the measurement server and the measurement clients. After HTTP objects are successfully transferred, a client initializes a TCP connection with a three-way handshake. Denote this initialization period as [t.sub.i], which is consists of [t.sub.http] and [t.sub.tcp]. [t.sub.http] is the application HTTP page pre-loading time and [t.sub.tcp] is the socket initialization time under different application measurements.
2) In the measurement phase, a client probes the server to measure the connection characteristics on top of TCP, such as delay, bandwidth, packet loss etc., for a period of time. Browser-scripting measurements are conducted at the application layer, and this application-layer delay, denoted as [t.sub.m], is usually larger than the network-layer delay which is measured by ICMP probes in practice.
3) A measurement session may last for a fixed or variable duration depending on the convergence conditions. If necessary, the server collects the measurement results from the clients and store them for further analysis. Although this post-processing duration is not a necessary component for the measurement, it can be treated as the application-layer measurement overhead, which is defined as [t.sub.d].
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
Fig. 1 illustrates a browser-scripting delay measurement scenario. The difference is depicted between the network-layer delay and the application-layer in Phase 2 of the measurement process. The network-layer delay characterizes the link latency occurred on the network layers between two end hosts, while the application-layer delay stands for the link latency on the application layers between two end hosts. As shown in Fig. 1, compared with the network delay, the application delay consists of the additional application processing latency which can reveal the application service transferring or processing overhead at the application layer. Hence, the application delay is larger than the network delay due to its additional time cost by the application service.
As discussed previously, the whole scripting measurement round time [T.sub.r] can be defined in Equation (1). In different measurements, the application-delay results ([t.sub.m]) may exhibit quite similar behaviors on the same link. However, the measurement overhead may deviate very much. Further quantitative discussions based on practical measurements can be found in Section 4.
[T.sub.r] - [t.sub.i] + [t.sub.m] + [t.sub.d] (1)
3. An Integrated Web-Based Measurement Platform
A web-based measurement platform provides a convenient, fast and suitable environment for mass measurements . It is possible to allow large-scale measurements since the measurement scale is directly proportional to the number of clients visit this web platform. Such a web-based platform does not need any additional measurement configuration support on the client side as long as clients have a web browser.
In order to implement and compare various delay measurement approaches fairly, we first choose the measurement technology which can be supported by most of modern web browsers, such as Chrome, IE, Safari etc., then we construct an integrated web-based measurement platform. This platform implements three browser-scripting delay measurement modules including Flash ActionScript, Java applet and JSP to understand their measurement behaviors. It is deployed on the Internet to collect measurement results and provide a quantitative comparison analysis. It also integrates a Ping variate, a network-layer delay measurement tool, to allow us to study the deviation between the network-layer delay and the application-layer delay.
3.1 Platform Design
As shown in Fig. 2, this platform, consisting of a web measurement server and many measurement clients, is deployed on the Internet. The measurement sever is located on a campus network in Wuhan with a Linux Fedora Core system of Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU 2.40GHz and 32GB memory. A typical measurement client is located on a telecom ADSL network in Wuhan with Windows OS of Intel (R) Core(R) 2.5GHz and 8GB memory. The software installed on the server is Oracle JDK suite 1.60 with Eclipse Jetty Web Server 8, a series of customized measurement tools including the socket adaption, the results storage, the measurement thread control module, etc. A client machine is installed with various web browsers: Chrome, Firefox and Internet Explorer. Li et al. has shown that the application-delay measurement accuracy is only affected slightly with different web browsers . We instrumented a measurement client with various web browsers to access the web server for delay measurement. We also introduced real Internet delay into the experiments in order to investigate the internal relationship between the application-layer delay and the network-layer delay.
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
3.2 Fair Comparison
We conducted a series of delay measurement experiments during May 2014. To ensure a fair comparison at the same conditions, different measurement modules were executed in a piggy-back fashion round-by-round. The measurement experiments were conducted every 60s interval between each measurement module during one round. During each round, the different measurements were triggered by the scripts to perform the measurement procedures simultaneously. This script control aims to ensure the measurement results observed on the same link during the approximately same period.
To harvest measurement results efficiently, additional control and data collection scripts were developed to automate the above procedures. Upon executing on the client browser successfully, each measurement tool under the measurement interface is invoked and triggered through the web container pages to initiate the different measurement process at different web pages. During each measurement period, each measurement module collects a group of raw delay measurement results; the statistical results such as the average, the minimal and the maximal values were then computed and stored with the raw measurement dataset. In order to ensure that none of the tools were exposed with unfavorable overhead, they were all configured with their suggested optimal parameter settings following the related literature.
When we obtained the link application-layer delays through the web-base measurement platform, the link network-layer delays were also obtained at the same time using the integrated Ping module. Every round measurement results would be tagged with the time stamps at measurement. Then, the data results which have the same time stamps would be chosen as a group delay set. We carefully chose the measurement result groups for the data analysis. The aim of the experiment was to capture the reference data which would provide information on how application-layer delays deviate from the network delays.
In this section, we present the data analysis of the network delay and application delay behaviors as measured using Java applet, Flash ActionScript and JSP, which are implemented in the integrated web-based measurement platform. Then, we proceed to compare the application-layer delay with the network-layer delay measured by the Ping tool.
4.1 Delay Spikes
In a previous study , Sharma and Byers examined the link delay properties and features: these delay characteristics are difficult to capture and predict accurately. Besides, the application-layer delay behavior may deviate far from the network-layer delay 0. With different network conditions and system environments in our dataset, the application delays measured using various web-based tools exhibit much larger delay than the normal Ping results. These significantly large delays, called spikes, are related to the web-based methodologies instead of measurement mistakes or errors. If there exists network congestion on the link or the temporal overloading at client's system, TCP senders may retransmit the lost measurement packets along the path as shown in Fig. 3 instead of one single measurement round, which cause extrmely large delay measurement results .
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
These extremely large delay results can be considered as the outlier measurement samples, which are recommended to be processed as loss . In our dataset, we extracted those outlier samples with threshold > 300m for further analysis as listed in Table 2. The Java applet and JSP spikes are mainly located in the range [500, 1000]ms, and the Flash ActionScript spikes are mainly scattered in [1000, + [infinity])ms. As the ICMP Ping module packet timeout is normally set at 500ms, these web-based measurements spikes (>500ms) are treated as packet loss.
We utilize the Ping loss rate as a reference to remove the bias of those extremely high delay in the browser-scripting delay measurements. Table 3 shows the loss rates of the different web-based measurement modules, which are counted based on the spikes data listed in Table 2. Ping has the smallest loss rate, which reveals the network-layer packet loss, while the other three results show the application-layer packet loss.
The Flash ActionScript method obtains a smaller application loss rate than the other two web-based measurement methods. The TCP connection generated by the Flash ActionScript is controlled directly by the Flash objects embedded in the HTML page; nevertheless, the Java applet and JSP are quite different. Table 2 and 3 provide some threshold settings to improve the browser-scripting delay measurement using the web-based modules, and the Flash ActionScript achieves the smallest application-layer loss rate among the three measurement modules.
4.2 Result Comparison
As the spikes indicate the retransmissions of measurement packets, they are considered as loss instead of being included into the end-to-end application-layer delay. As mentioned in Section 2, the application-layer delay [t.sub.m] is the most focusing metric in these application-layer measurements. Before analyzing the application-layer delay [t.sub.m], these spikes should be excluded from the dataset. We utilize the Ping results as the standard scale plate to appraise the measurement results. Fig. 4 shows that under the normal network conditions, most of the delay measurement results are in the range [40, 80]m. In some worst cases, some delay results are larger than 100m and approach to nearly 300m. The web-based measurement results show that the end-to-end application delay is close to the end-to-end network delay, and the Flash ActionScript measurement results are more centralized than the results of the other two measurement modules. The Java applet and JSP methods show the similar behaviors in the delay measurement.
[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]
Fig. 5 compares the delay statistics of four different methods including the minimum, average, maximum, median, standard deviation and average deviation. The results show that the normal statistics are very close to each other. In these results, we set the Ping results as the benchmark, the overall statistics results, the average, median, standard deviation and average deviation of the Flash AS results are the closest to the Ping results. However, the minimal and maximal delays are the isolated measurement results, so these two metrics can be used to determine whether these three web-based application measurements are applicable to measure the application-layer delay. The standard deviation and the average deviation show the bias of these measurement methods. The Ping and Flash ActionScript methods have the smaller values for the delay deviation, and the Java applet and JSP have the higher values for the delay deviation. This provides a good indication that the Ping and Flash AS measurements are more accurate than the Java applet and JSP, and the delay errors of the formers are smaller than the latter two.
[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]
4.3 Dynamic Characteristics
In order to investigate the dynamic characteristics of the web-based measurements, we also tracked the measurement sessions for long durations. The measurements have been automatically executed and recorded in the data group as the original measurement data. Fig. 6 illustrated the delay measurement results comparison which showed that the measured link delay dynamics under different measurements with respect to the time line. Due to the measurements taken at the same time, the figure utilized the Ping results as the reference and the other three measurement results make the delay comparison with it. In Fig. 6, these three web-based application delay measurements demonstrate the proper delay variation at the different time instants. All the application measurement results are higher than the network delay Ping reference results, and the application delay fluctuations are greatly larger than the network delays.
[FIGURE 6 OMITTED]
We set the Ping delays as the benchmark path delays. Fig. 7 shows the different delay Cumulative Distribution Function(CDF) Curves, in which the red line represents the Ping measurement results, and the Flash AS CDF results are the closest delay curve to the standard delay CDF. The applet and JSP show the similar delay results and characters of the measured path, almost 95% results of them are overlapped with each other. The Flash AS application delay measurement approach shows the better accuracy of the path delay than the other two application delay measurements. All the measurements have the different probabilities to underestimate the application delays, in Fig. 7, about 20% Flash results are lower than the standard delay values, and the same criteria to the 15% of the applet and JSP results. For analyzing the accuracy of the measurements, we use the Ping results [0.9, 1.2] interval as the delay measurement criterion, nearly 90% Flash results and 80% applet and JSP results are located in the valid range.
[FIGURE 7 OMITTED]
4.4 Impact of Script's Pre-loading Time
The web-based delay measurement is advantageous over the classic Ping measurement in that the ICMP ports are commonly blocked on the server side under the security policy; however, the web-based measurement approaches are usually supported due to the need of allowing the web traffic. We conduct additional experiments for analyzing the impact of the script's pre-loading time on the delay basis between the application delay and the network delay. We utilize the Wireshark to capture the measurement packets which are transmitted on the experiment Internet path. Different web-based measurement methods instrument the web pages embedded with the different measurement scripts, the HTTP web page pre-loading time [t.sub.http] and the whole measurement round time [T.sub.r] should also to be considered.
As discussed previously, the measurement round time [T.sub.r] contains the [t.sub.http], [t.sub.tcp], [t.sub.m] and [t.sub.d], which can be used to represent the overhead of the measurement. [t.sub.http] shows how much time the measurement tool downloads from the server side to the client side, and it is normal to show the method tool size and complexity. Investigating these two metrics can help us understand the deep insights into these application-layer measurement characteristics.
Fig. 8 shows the measurement round time [T.sub.r], the HTTP pre-loading time [t.sub.http], the application-layer link delay [t.sub.m] using the Java applet, Flash and JSP three web-based measurement modules. In order to observe the application-layer process time during the delay measurement procedure, we also use the Wireshark to capture the measurement packets transferring on the Internet path. These plots first show that the delay results measured by the tools are much closer to the measurement packets captured on the network layer, and the overhead of the delay handle procedure for all methods are acceptable in practice.
[FIGURE 8 OMITTED]
The HTTP pre-loading time [t.sub.http] results in Fig. 9 show that the applet and JSP have the similar HTTP pre-loading time. It is due to the applet and JSP have the small data and program segment code which can be encapsulated in a single HTTP packet to transfer. This will reduce the measurement pre-loading time before the startup of measurement process. Whereas the Flash needs more time to load some additional "sandbox" security files or cross-domain policy files before the actual measurement session starts, it will require more than one RTT time for the HTTP communication than the other two tools. Hence, the Flash method will cost more time on the measurement pre-loading time than the Java applet and JSP.
[FIGURE 9 OMITTED]
The measurement round time [T.sub.r] results in Fig. 10 illustrate the JSP has the mimimal round time whereas the Flash has the highest one. The JSP has the advantage that it does not need to load the JSP measurement scripts to the client which can be directly executed on the server side. Compared with the other two measurements, it will save the data downloading time and the response time in the measurement process. The applet measurement results exhibit the similar status with the JSP, just a little bit higher for loading a very small additional measurment unit to the client side. On the contrary, the Flash measurement tool costs too much time on the pre-loading time and requires the highest overall measurement round time.
[FIGURE 10 OMITTED]
In Table 4, the Flash ActionScript measurements take the longest duration to accomplish one delay measurement for an end-to-end path which have an average measurement round time about 1589ms. Nevertheless, the Flash method can obtain the most accurate delay measurement result than the other two, and the average delay is the closest to the network reference delay measured by the Ping protocol. The Flash delay bias about 4.16ms is also the minimum among the three. The applet and JSP have the similar results in the following three aspects: pre-loading time, average delay and the delay bias. The only different factor is the measurement round time. The JSP measurement process is shorter than the applet measurement, and both approaches have much shorter measurement processes than the Flash measurement, but the measurement results are less accurate than the Flash.
4.5 Practical Considerations
Based on the overall evaluation experiments, the Flash ActionScript method is recommended if the web browser supports the communication with the Adobe Flash. Although this method requires a relative longer time to obtain the application-layer delay results, it can provide more accurate measurement results compared with the other browser-scripting methods. In addition, the Java applet and JSP present similar ways in the application-layer delay measurement. One difference is that the applet scripts are processed on the measurement client side, whereas the JSP scripts processed on the server side, thus the JSP measurement pre-processing time is shorter than the applet.
During the deployment of the web-based measurement platform, we find that the object creation will affect the measurement results if the measurement method does not handle or control the object creation appropriately. These overhead increases the delay bias Ad siginifcantly. We conducted a simple test to quantify the time overhead due to the object creation using the Java and Flash scripts. In each delay measurement session, the scripts create a new measurement object from the existing class from scratch instead of preloading the exiting one, then we compared the results between the two cases. These results show that the object creation overhead will increase 150 ~ 200ms for the delay measurement results if the measurement tool does not well control the object creation. In order to avoid this possible impairment, the simplest way is not to create any objects of any classes during the measurement process.
4.6 Cloud Deployment
Note that many mobile apps utilize the web interface to provide flexible and broad services for a large number of mobile users. Most cloud services are also provided using the web interface. We are motivated to evaluate the proposed browser-scripting delay measurements on the real cloud platforms for examining performance and overhead issues. We deployed our web-based measurement platform on the Baidu cloud to appraise the application-layer delay measurements.
The Baidu cloud platform offers cloud users to create different cloud service instances using the Baidu Cloud Compute (BCC) virtualization utility. Based on this BCC mechanism, we have successfully built a web server running environment for the integrated web-based measurement platform. The web server running environment provides a standard web server container, e.g. Jetty; a common stored database, e.g. MySQL and a Java Running Environment (JRE) to support the service execution of the measurement web platform. Some extra and advanced configurations, such as the system balance, the maximum consumed memory, the constricted CPU utilization, etc., are maintained with the default values.
To understand the diversity of these application delay measurements, we select the widely-used web browsers: Microsoft Internet Explorer (IE, version 11), Google Chrome (version 44.0) and Mozilla FireFox (version 25.0). To support the interpretation and execution of web-based measurement scripts, these browsers are equipped with Adobe Flash plugins, Java Virtual Machine (JVM) and Java plugins compatible with the measurement platform.
As discussed in the previous sections, the application-layer measurements usually require some time overhead to pre-load the measurement scripts. In order to reduce the measurement duration, we ran each measurement module twice within one round to differentiate the network-layer delay, the application-layer delay and the delay bias between two results. As described in Equation (1), the application-layer delay [t.sub.m], as shown in Equation (2), can be decomposed into the network delay [DELTA]N and the application processing overhead [DELTA]d, which has partly been analyzed in Section 4.4.
[t.sub.m] = [DELTA]N + [DELTA]d (2)
Fig. 11 presents the measurement results caught by the web-based application delay cloud platform using IE, Chrome and FireFox. [DELTA][N.sub.1] denotes the average network-layer delay through the first time measurement; [DELTA][d.sub.1] represents the average delay bias from the first measurement. [DELTA][N.sub.2] and [DELTA][d.sub.2] denote the same metrics for the second round time measurement. These time measurements are obtained by analyzing the traffic captured by Wireshark. As discussed previously in Section 4.5, to reduce the application processing overhead [DELTA]d influenced by the additional programming overhead, we conduct two consecutive measurements as a complete measurement session for each tool.
[FIGURE 11 OMITTED]
The network-layer delay [DELTA]N results on the cloud in Fig. 11 are quite stable with various measurement tools and browsers, due to the advanced network load balancing policies and the high performance hardwares deployed on the cloud side. However, the application-layer delay [t.sub.m] and the application processing overhead [DELTA]d exhibit quite different characteristics with different web tools and browsers. Google Chrome shows the best performance in the minimal application-layer delay [t.sub.m] and the inter-process layer time [DELTA]d using three measurement tools; whereas the results using IE and FireFox fluctuate greatly using the Flash and JSP methods and show much higher application-layer delays and the application processing overhead.
The applet exhibits quite stable characteristics on the application-layer delay results and is sluggish for different browsers. The Flash and JSP are sensitive for the browser clients, and during the measurement process, they cost much time on the [DELTA]d processing using IE and FireFox.
The application-layer delay bias of three measurement tools using different browsers in Fig. 12 ranges from tens of milliseconds to hundreds of milliseconds, which are significantly far from the stable cloud network-layer delay. In Fig. 12, the highest points indicate the maximum values; the lowest points indicate the minimum values. The upper bound of the box indicates the 75% of the data points; the lower bound of the box indicates the 15% of the data points. The Java applet achieves the best accuracy with different browsers, whereas the other two obtain the much more oscillating results with three classic browsers. Note that most cloud and mobile services are instrumented with the web access. The dynamic application-layer delay captures the quality-of-user experiences, which can be used as an important metric to evaluate the cloud services or mobile services.
[FIGURE 12 OMITTED]
6. Related Work
Different applications and services deployed on the clouds may need different performance requirements; therefore, different criteria have been proposed to evaluate the performance of the cloud systems, such as service load balance and transaction , service workload , service delay , and so on. Some studies focus on cost reduction in cloud-assisted multimedia systems with required performance requirements. Han et al. proposed a cloud-assisted P2P overlay to reduce the excessive energy consumption in the 5G MANET when the frequent loss of the end links occurs . To avoid the excessive searching and transaction, a cooperative network maintenance mechanism among the super-peers was designed to save the energy consumption in the MANET. Wu et al. are motivated to design and implementation of a cost-effective video gaming system with low latency . Wu et al. proposed cost-effective mobile cloud video streaming with adaptive threshold-controlled cache . Most methods and tools focus on the cloud system performance which can quantify the powerful processing and computing capabilities for cloud clients. However, the network performance between the cloud systems and cloud clients would influence the perceivable performance of end-users. To date, a few studies have been addressing these performance issues using traditional network criteria to evaluate the cloud network performance; nevertheless, these network metrics may not reveal deep insights into the cloud service at the application-layer. In this paper, we are motivated to apply the browser-scripting approach to evaluate the application-layer delay for these web-based cloud services.
In this paper, we studied the browsing-scripting methods for delay measurement at the application-layer, including Java applet, Flash ActionScript and JSP, in an integrated browser-based network measurement platform to evaluate web-based cloud services. Based on our measurement results, compared with Java applet and JSP, the application-layer delay measurement using the Flash ActionScript is the most accurate. However, the Flash method is not cost-effective among the proposed measurements, and requires the longest pre-loading time and measurement duration. Nevertheless, the Java applet and JSP methods are advantageous in lower overhead and smaller pre-loading time. The browsing-scripting measurement methods can easily cooperate with the cloud-service platforms to provide the network performance monitor by perceived cloud end users. These measurement results may provide some insights into designing new cloud services with enhanced quality-of-experience perceived by cloud users.
The preliminary results in this paper have been presented in the IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China, Shenzhen, China, 2-4 November, 2015 . This work was supported partially by the national natural science foundation of China (No. 61370231) and the fundamental research fund for the central universities (HUST: 2014QN156). The corresponding author is Xiaojun Hei (firstname.lastname@example.org).
We would like to thank anonymous reviewers' constructive comments. These comments help us to improve the manuscript significantly. We also thank Fengtao Teng, Xin Huang, Robert Kwadwo Nketia, Botan Suleman Ismail and Yao Yeboah for their contributions in the early stage of this research.
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Chengwei Zhang received the B.S. degrees in computer science and the M.S. degrees in electronics and information engineering from Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China, in 2001 and 2004, respectively, and is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree at the School of Electronic Information and Communications, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China. His research interests include network measurement and performance evaluation.
Xiaojun Hei (S'02-M'07) received the B. Eng. Degree from the Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China, in 1998, and the M. Phil. and Ph.D. degrees from the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong, in 2000 and 2008, respectively. Since 2008, he has been an Associate Professor with the School of Electronic Information and Communications, Huazhong University of Science and Technology. His current research interests include network measurement and software-defined networks.
Wenqing Cheng (M'07) received the B.S. degree in telecommunication engineering and Ph.D. degree in electronics and information engineering from the Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China, in 1985 and 2005, respectively. She is currently a Professor with the School of Electronic Information and Communications, Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Her research interests include information systems and e-learning applications.
Chengwei Zhang, Xiaojun Hei and Wenqing Cheng
School of Electronic Information and Communications, Huazhong University of Science and Technology Wuhan, China, 430074
[Email: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com]
Received February 25, 2016; revised April 30, 2016; accepted May 12, 2016; published June 30, 2016
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|Author:||Zhang, Chengwei; Hei, Xiaojun; Cheng, Wenqing|
|Publication:||KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems|
|Date:||Jun 1, 2016|
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