Performance and Instructional Outcomes of Feminist Pedagogy in Boys' ELT Classrooms.
The major aim of the study is to explore the relationship between gender specific pedagogy and academic achievement in EFL learning. The present study aims at investigating the effectiveness of women teaching in the state run boys' schools at primary and elementary level. This is really a very vast field to be discussed. Women put their best step forward to carry out their responsibilities. This concept has become well documented and no more a matter of speculation now. The study has covered different perspectives like gender, education, language acquisition, language teaching and feminist theories etc. All the above stated paradigms cover multi dimensional aspects including social, emotional, cognitive, affective and psycho-neurotic foundations.
Our country shows dismal improvements regarding quality and equity based education, literacy rate and ameliorative steps to promote healthy education on all levels. While it is agreed that Pakistan inherited a very low literacy rate at the time of partition (Ashraf 2004), the massive effort that was required to tide over the situation was never undertaken. Whatever attempts made were at best half baked and without the desired commitment. Least amount of funds (only 2% of GNP) was channelled towards education (Haroon 2000: 421). The allocated funds were mostly pilfered or wasted away on meaningless experiments. Rather than building up on the previous experiment, the new power wielders would scrap it and present another one to promote political interests rather than students interests.
As a result the textbooks kept changing and at the same time the weight of the school bags also kept increasing. But neither the quality nor the literacy rate improved. Today, the literacy rate is just equal to fifty three percent, which is lowest in South Asia and one of the lowest in the world. In the given percentage, 10 to 15% are those who can just sign (Pakistan Country Overview 2006).
However the orthodox scenario is being changed for the last few years, where healthy steps towards betterment of education have been taken by the government of Pakistan. One major step is the recruitment of female teachers in the boys' school (at primary/elementary level) running under government patronage. Previously there was isolated school system for males and females at primary and elementary level (Except girl's primary schools where boys are also being taught in co-classes at primary level). Though, this concept has been common in English medium schools for many decades. But, a vast majority of under privileged students are getting education in the schools running under government supervision. The presence of these female teachers is proving to be auspicious step towards better education (UNESCO 2004: 06). On the other vein however, these women teachers have their own reservations and difficulties while working at the boys' schools.
Another important issue based on gender is the different adaptation of fields by male and female teachers. Men are more likely to teach business, math, science, history and technology, while women are more often found in languages, home economics and special education (Acker, 1989; NCES 2000).
Bhaskara et al (2001) conducted research in E9 countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria and Pakistan). They concluded that women have been proved the best educators not only in the family and schools, but in the community and public life as well. Due to motherhood and traditional family responsibilities, women are prepared to relate to children (Bhaskara et al, 2001: 37). However in later chapters they stressed on professional training of these women teachers (Bhaskara et al 2001: 48). Research paper conducted by APPEAL (Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for all) under the supervision of UNESCO (2000) also emphasized the same phenomenon that women teachers are mandatory especially at school level. In Pakistan different strategies have been identified by the ministry of education in collaboration with UN agencies and NGO's to increase the number of women teachers at schools. But most of them were neither fully implemented nor fully evaluated (UNESCO 2006: 04).
An achievement survey for primary classes showed that both boys and girls in rural and urban areas performed better when taught by women teacher. This is evident from following table:
Table 1.1: Students' composite score according to teacher's Gender. (Pakistan)
Source: Determinants of primary students' achievements; National Survey Results; MSU; Islamabad; 1995. (Cited in "Increasing the Number of Women Teachers In rural Schools" (2000: 07): country case study made by UNESCO and APPEAL.)
Another important aspect of the study is to find the teaching performances and outcomes in boys' language classroom. Learning of English as a second language has always been a conundrum in Pakistan's educational system. Lack of audio visual aids, inexperienced teaching staff and low scaled motivations are some of the problems that educational system of Pakistan is confronting from the beginning. The role of motivation, attitude, personality, self-concept, intelligence, anxiety, age and aptitude counts a greater part in the way of language learning. So the purpose of the study is to validate the pedagogical expertise of women teachers in boys' classrooms. Students of primary and elementary level have been taken for the proposed study to find different levels of motivation, anxiety, self concept and confidence in English language classroom.
Feminisation of teaching
Teaching is relatively low paid occupation that brings little respect to teachers. Teachers, especially at primary and elementary level have never been viewed with high esteem in some countries like Pakistan though they are well esteemed in many other countries such as Japan. Men and women enter in teaching for different reasons. "For many women, teaching is a means of status maintenance, while for men it is more often served as an avenue of social mobility" (Rury 1989: 41). The men who become teachers often have exhausted other career paths or have few opportunities because of their social class and life circumstances. In many countries of the world teaching is the highest status career open to women so they are often over qualified for it. In Pakistan, till late 70's women did not receive as much education as their male counter parts and their illiteracy restricted their participation in teaching profession.
But, gradually women's literacy rates increased for the last three decades and they began to have broader roles in the educational portfolio (UNESCO 2000).
Today, in many countries women look teaching as an appropriate career for them outside the home. While women supposedly have better capacities for nurturance, their entrance into the school system as teachers coincides with increased depersonalisation and institutionalisation of both curricula and relations between the teachers and the students. But the contradictions that evolved in the nineteenth century between the doctrine of maternal love and the practice of a harsh and regimented authority, between the overwhelming presence of the women in the classrooms and the continuing identification of men as the only persons with the capacity to know, are still present in the culture of schooling (Boyle 2004: 03).
Women are more likely to teach younger children as compared with men, as females are internally associated with teaching to the younger students (Skelton et al 2006: 453). In a study of 41 countries, teaching ranks as one of the top nine typically 'female' occupations (Anker 1998). Elementary teaching is the fifth leading occupation for women in Canada and the sixth for women in the USA. Of all the levels of formal teaching, women have the highest representation at the primary level. Teaching at primary level is ever growing female occupation in most of the countries (Anker1998). In countries like Argentina, Brazil, Russia, Philippines, Austria, Germany, Hungry, Sweden, Ireland, Italy, Israel, New Zealand, the UK, and the Czech Republic, women make up 80% or more of the teaching staff in public and private primary education (OECD 2005). In Canada, women are 67% of primary teachers and in the USA 88% (OECD 2005). However this pattern is not shared world wide.
Data collected by UNESCO (2004) reveals that women's entry in academic position varies both by region and country within region. Women have the lowest representation in the regions of South and East Asia, the Arab states and Sub-Saharan Africa, averaging one-third or less of the positions in these regions (UNESCO 2004). In China and India, women make up 49% and 36% of primary teachers respectively and same is the case with Pakistan (OECD 2005). However the ratio of women teachers at secondary to post-graduate levels is observed very much low as compared to male teachers across the world (Skelton et al 2006: 455).
But, there are some researchers who are not in favour of women teachers teaching language in boys' classrooms (Martino etal 2005). They advocated the need to counteract the feminization of boys and schooling through implementing a boy-friendly curriculum, introducing single-sex classes for boys and increasing the number of male teachers particularly in the elementary schools. Addressing to boys' underachievement at schools in Australia (Epstein et al 1998) and in Canadian context ( Kehler and Greig 2005), researchers agree that the boys failure is directly linked to increasing feminization of schooling and the lack of male models in the elementary schools. This harrowing instance of rejection of women teachers was reinforced in the "Boys Educational Lighthouse Program", a project of Australian Parliamentary inquiry on underachievement of boys schooling (Skelton et al 2006: 352). A total of 110 projects involving 230 schools received huge funding to support the implementation of targeted boys education programs.
The report fore grounded the extent to which many schools were committed to develop a pedagogy that could be implemented in single-sex classes. However this opposite effect on feminist pedagogy is mitigated by the "Australian education union's report" as it relates to the issue of quality teaching and gender:
The excellent teaching style is not dictated by gender but a range of attitudes and abilities included an understanding of gender construction and its impacts on students and teachers. The union also argued that affective male teachers need to understand the construction of gender and motivation for violence, and be trained in a way to intervene to deal with inappropriate behaviour. (Skelton et al 2006: 355)
Another alarming and interest provoking report was issued by Stevenaitchison (2007). In his essay 'The feminization of man' the boys were found being more influenced by women. It is a logical assumption that boys are going to be more influenced at the young age than they are when they are older. "Going to this assumption" it is quoted, "if we look at who our children are having the most contact with: nursery teachers; primary school teachers; after school care workers; pre-school care workers. The result is down side that is the feminization of man and masculinization of woman" (Stevenaitchison 2007: 01). This view point can be countered with the beliefs of Susan (1994) who speaks in favour of the feminist pedagogy. He relates good teaching can only be done through women teachers. But at the same time he mentions his fears regarding increasing gender disparity that, in turn, creating atrocities for feminist teachers. He cites:
If feminist pedagogy means teaching in a way that optimizes learning for everyone, what is the essential difference between the good teaching and feminist pedagogy? Is it not time to stop using the f-word? Surely what is needed is good teaching. It is also probably time to drop the feminist label. (Susan 1994: 07)
Classroom climate and academic achievement are related. Whether students feel included, excluded, supported or discouraged in the classroom can not be separated from what and how they learn. A good place to start is by learning student's names, matching eye contact while teaching and moving around the room, to help students feel included in the dialogue the teacher is having with them. And according to the WVU council for women's concern (2008) feminist pedagogy is good teaching way that benefits all the students. Women teachers treat their students with warm affection without breaking the shackles of their ego and self-respect. Male teachers have been found stubborn and some what teasing attitude towards their students (Boyle 2004), no matter the degree of intelligence and competence is many times larger in male teachers compared with the female (Wood 2005). In language classes women teachers were found encouraging the participations from quiet students without calling attention to their reticence.
Instead they were observed using non-verbal cues (such as leaning forward, nodding the head, facial curiosity etc) in order to make their students much included and involved (WVU 2008).
However there are still some opposing attitudes regarding this notion also. A major Australian study countered the belief that having more female teachers in classrooms at primary and elementary level improves boys' academic achievements. Almost 100 students of year 8 and 10 at high school in the New South Wales (NSW) were surveyed by Martin and Marsh (2005) from the University of Western Sidney. Contrary to the popular arguments that boys learn better under female teachers, they found that there existed no such significant interaction between students' gender and teacher's gender. However they do agree on one point, later in their research that "the only sign of interaction emerged was that boys reported better relationships with the female teachers than with the male teachers" (Martin and Marsh 2005: 328).
But the Martin's views can be countered by another study done by Durham University's Curriculum Evaluation and Management (CEM) centre and New Castle University. The study was unveiled at the European association for research on learning and instruction conference in Cypress. Professor Peter Tymms (2005) director of the CEM centre challenged the claim that matching teachers and pupils by gender, improved children's attitudes. He considers the male students performing much better under the female teachers and vice versa. He cites: "There has been a view that we are in crises with boy's performance because we have not good men teaching them. This is totally a wrong notion. Rather the boys taught by a women teacher had more positive attitudes to school generally and performance wise much better practically" (NLT 2007: 02).
International aid agencies (working world wide on gender disparity issues) and feminist researchers consider women teachers more supportive regarding students' aspirations and achievements. Motivation, low anxiety in classroom, good personality of teacher, positive attitude towards learning EFL, dominated self-concept, high self-esteem and maternal affections are the key roles in successful way of learning EFL. And researchers agree on this viewpoint that in the presence of the female teachers especially at primary and elementary level class rooms, students propagate the aforesaid qualities efficiently that, in consequence, affect positively in learning a foreign language (Bacon 1992).
Status education and female teachers in Pakistan
When Pakistan came into being the ones who had to acquire education were divided into two distinct categories. One category was educated in Urdu medium schools and religious seminaries, while the other was the product of English medium schools. The latter had been established after Macaulay's education reforms in India in 1835 (Haroon 2000: 421-425). With the introduction of distorted and dualistic educational system, it gave opportunities to the sons and wards of the nobles to acquire education in English medium schools. Equipped with modern education, they enjoyed distinct advantage in terms of career building and job opportunities. The under privileged in the sub-standard Urdu medium schools, the product of which was looked down upon, devalued and considered invalid for the high post jobs. The upper strata got divided into two categories; Oxford, Cambridge, Grammar and Convent schools product and the other of state run public schools.
The great majority with lesser incomes had to contend with low quality government schools, whose product was ever denied in making any opportunity for upward social mobility. The lower class living in rural areas mostly opted for Deeni Madaras, which imparted religious training only. The students of the Madaras were to be Taliban in making. Many among them were those who had run away from their homes and were provided food, shelter and education free of cost by the religious teachers of Madaras (Haroon 2000). The middle class started to produce a 'hybrid generation', lectured in eastern values, but helpless before the avalanche from the west. Its language, the deluges of fascinating western culture perforated through print media, music and books nuances and even thoughts. As a result, this class remained torn between the two worlds and became an amalgam of half Pakistani and half Western (Haroon 2000).
Educational system of Pakistan has always been endeavouring to its last hiccups to attain the developed and successful infrastructure. Foreign donor agencies have also been making concerned efforts in the shape of multifaceted developmental plans in the area of education. For this purpose ministry of Education has been given a vital assistance from World Bank, Asian Development Bank, United Nations Development Program, UNESCO, UNICEF, ODA, Japan International Operating Agency, NORAD, GTZ, OPEC, EEC and other donor agencies.
But the conditions are still hostile and atrocious. Nearly 25000 primary schools are still without buildings. According to the National Educational Policy (1998-2010), our educational status as a nation is very dismal. About 25% of our children are not enrolled in primary schools and 50% of this enrolled, dropout before completing primary schools. Pakistan ranks at number 31 out of 35 Muslims countries. The policy also highlights the unhealthy trend of teachers' absenteeism, lack of commitment and motivation. Harsh behaviours and uncongenial teaching methodology is common malady in schools (Ministry of Education 1998-2010: 117).
Bhaskara (2001) in his study of E9 countries commissioned by UNESCO, projects the obstacles of female teachers and mentions the need to reach the levels of professionalism. In Pakistan he cites "where most of the population lives in rural areas (66.7%), there are fewer women teachers, as they are unwilling to go to remote places" Bhaskara (2001: 41). The problem is basically cultural as it is not accepted that women in rural areas go to teach in schools. In educational system of Pakistan, women have been feeling the tightening noose of limited expectations, societal scorn and inadequate role models for many decades. But, since last decade, the scenario has been changed a little bit.
There have been efforts to counter these slights. Now some educators as well as non-educators claim that there has been over-compensation, and that, in fact girls and young women are given more importance in educational settings than boys and young men, especially at primary and elementary level (UNESCO 2004). But, still there is a very long way to meet the challenges of gender-equity.
According to the educational consensus of 1998, there were 339,500 teachers at the primary level. Out of this 117,600 were female teachers. It covered about 35% of the total number, and acute shortage of female teachers especially in rural areas (Ministry of Education 1998-2010: 26). This was also a hunch of hindrance in achieving the educational targets, as it is claimed that women proved to be better teachers. The reason of this shortage was low qualification and political, social and religious constraints. While establishing National Educational Policy (1998-2010), the Ministry of education tried to resolve this problem by granting relaxation regarding qualification and age of female teachers to facilitate their entry into the profession (Ministry of Education 1998-2010: 30).
UNESCO's (2003-2004) EFA global monitoring report shows the portion of female teachers from region to region. The percentage of female primary teachers is typically 90% in Central Eastern Europe and Central Asia, 80% in Western Europe, North America, Latin America and the Caribbean, 70% in East Asia and Pacific, 50% in the Arab states and 40% South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. The harrowing aspect of this umbrella issue was that the countries with lowest number of women teachers at the primary level were those that had highest gender disparities in their educational system (UNESCO 2000: 23). Pakistan is among the top ten countries that are confronting with the highest gender disparities bearing very low numbered female teachers at the schools (Warwick and Jatoi 1994).
Most of the parents felt that the presence of at least one female teacher makes them feel more secure regarding their children. According to these studies, children were also reported to be more comfortable with women teachers in most classes. Both girls and boys are considered to be more gender sensitive. The synthesis of country case study made by APPEAL and UNESCO (2000) in South Asia cites: "Evidence from Pakistan suggests a positive link between the presence of women teachers and the academic performance of the students".
The proposed study highlighted the effects of feminist pedagogy in boys' ELT classroom. A same kind of study was carried at Ph. D level by Haroona Jatoi (1991) at Harvard University. Her study, however, was based on the effect of feminist pedagogy in mathematics classroom. But, it can be correlated with the EFL classroom as well. This study was conducted in the Pakistan schools regarding teachers' gender and the students' achievement in mathematics. It was observed that the boys taught by women had the lowest average in mathematics' achievement scores (Jatoi 1991). Moreover it suggested that female teachers in Pakistani primary schools were the major cause of low student achievement in the mathematics (Warwick and Jatoi 1994). But the study seems to lack the actual classroom conditions or pedagogical scenario.
Nevertheless it is generally claimed that women teachers are weak in mathematics and, pure and applied sciences but they are very much proficient in language and literature and home economics (Acker 1989). But the researcher (Warwick and Jatoi 1994) prime facie seems to condense her study on surface level only (achievement of the mathematic class). There are many other factors and variables that play their role in the classroom like motivation, anxiety, students' interest, attitude and teacher's personality etc. So, the low achievement of a certain class cannot be attached with the performance of the female teachers. As later on, the study itself accepted that the 15 percent of teachers who hold one or more university degrees, among them the gender gap was shifted to the favour of female teachers. "The size of the gap on both mathematics tests suggests that women holding university degrees do much better at teaching mathematics than men with the same education" (Warwick and Jatoi 1994: 391).
This finding has refuted the hypothesis that women in Pakistan typically have students with lower achievement scores in mathematics than their male counter parts (Jatoi 1991).
The objective of the study was to ascertain:
1. Women teachers' performance in ELT class at primary and elementary level in state run schools. To evaluate their performance in perspectives of different paradigms i.e. adaptation of any particular teaching methodology, teaching grammar and vocabulary, teaching English beyond the syllabus, students dropout ratio, use of AVA, home work tasks and lesson planning.
2. The instructional outcomes of feminist pedagogy in boys ELT classroom*. To check the effects of feminist pedagogy on different social, cognitive and psychoneurotic variables of language learning i.e. motivation, anxiety, interest, attitude, social and emotional development etc.
3. The efficacy of the existing criterion of appointing female teachers in boys schools*.
Methodology and data
The proposed study covers qualitative paradigm. However data collection / analysis tools are qualitative as well as quantitative. Quantitative approach has been adopted for the questionnaires. While qualitative approach facilitates interviews and observations. Data was collected from forty female teachers through questionnaires, interviews and observation. Fourteen head teachers were selected through random sampling and data was obtained using questionnaire and interview. By the same token 300 students were selected randomly from different GPS/GES/GHS/GHSS and data was collected using questionnaire. Observation of 54 classes was done from different schools based at urban as well as rural areas.
The design of the questionnaires was constructed to probe the women teachers' performance and students' outcomes in boys' ELT classes. The nature of the questionnaires designed for the present study was made concise by means of close ended question format. The precision of the questionnaire enabled the efficient operation of the whole process and provided a framework for the subsequent interviews of the informants that were taken at later stages. Three questionnaires were prepared, one for the students, the other for the teachers and the third questionnaire was for the head teachers. The questionnaire for teachers comprised 48 items. The questionnaire for head teachers comprised 17 items. While questionnaire for students had a weightage of 25 items. Most of the questions were closed ended with two or three responses. While last two items in teacher's and head teacher's questionnaires were open-ended questions in which researcher asked informants to give their comments and suggestions.
These questionnaires have been judged quantitatively by simple percentage method.
Interview is generally adopted as a method to offset the limitations of the questionnaire. Instead of writing their responses, the interviewees give the needed information verbally in face to face relationship. The researcher conducted fourteen interviews with the teachers and eight interviews with the head teachers. Some teachers and head teachers cooperated enthusiastically with the researcher, whereas some head teachers responded coldly and showed their reservations in giving their opinions. Moreover, the researcher also employed observation as a tool. The researcher attended fifty four classes (one class two times) and observed the teachers and the students performance. Observation was conducted in three classes (6th, 7th and 8th grades) from one higher secondary school, three classes (3rd, 4th and 7th grades) from three elementary schools and three classes (3rd, 4th and 5th grades) from five primary schools.
Study was restricted to state run public schools of Multan and Lodhran districts only. Population was comprised of the female teachers appointed in the boys schools, students and head teachers of those GPS/GES/GHS/GHSS where women teachers have been appointed according to new criteria.
Results and discussions
The precise results are as follows:
Most of the female teachers (above 58%) adopt GTM (Grammar Translation Method) method in the class.
Nearly 80% women teachers teach grammar and vocabulary items regularly in the class.
Majority of the teachers teach English beyond the curriculum.
Dropout ratio of female teachers' class is found very much low as compared to the dropouts from the classes of their male counterparts. In 78% female teachers' classes, students dropout has been found less than 5 in number.
Use of AVA during teaching is almost remote. However 38% of the teachers are found interested in using AVAs.
Majority of the teachers (78%) prepare lesson plans before delivering lecture. However this trend is not much popular across the female teachers teaching at primary level.
Most of the teachers assign and check students' homework regularly.
Majority of teachers are successful in evoking motivation among their students.
In the presence of women teacher, low scaled anxiety has been observed on the behalf of the students.
Majority of the students are found interested in the class. However there have been very low numbered students who could not develop their interest in the class.
Majority of the students have positive attitude towards learning as well as teacher. However the extent of positive attitude is a bit high towards learning as compared to female teacher.
In government schools, due to large and over burdened classes and students' low educational background, GTM method has been found very conducive and applicable. Mostly female teachers followed GTM, but there were many teachers who used some sort of eclectic approach for ELT. Classroom observation means score of GTM was 3.61* which may be considered as good. The present study indicates that 80% teachers were found to teach grammar and vocabulary items regularly in the class. Mean score of this item is 3.91. Yaqoob (2005) observed primary school teachers totally unfamiliar of using AVA in the class. In this project, no doubt 62% of female teachers did not use any audio visual aids. But, 38% of the teachers using AVA during teaching enlighten their small scaled efforts to meet the current EFL pedagogical challenges. It may be worth an effort to trace down the expertise of women teachers regarding assigning and checking of homework.
Almost 90% of the teachers, strengthening the viewpoint of female teachers to be a savoir and mentor, gave and checked students' homework on regular basis. 60% teachers persuaded to annex their students' interests in homework as well as other activities. During observation most of the teachers were found successful in capturing the interests of the students. Most of the time students were found enthusiastic in taking part in classroom activities.
There were only a few cases of some problematic students who did not feel interest in the women teacher's class. Most of the female teachers were found to prepare lesson plan before delivering the lecture (Mean score 3.01). 87% women teachers were found to complete their English syllabus before time. Moreover many teachers were found interested in teaching English beyond the curriculum (Mean score 3.00). Students' absenteeism and dropout ration has been very common in government schools. But dropout ratio of female teachers' classes was auspiciously less as compared with dropouts of the classes supervised by male teachers. There were only 18% teachers, who possessed a class from where more than five but less than ten students had been left or dropped out in the whole academic year. Only, 4% teachers stated that more than ten students had left of dropped out from her class in one academic year. This ratio is very much low in number as compared with other classes.
100% teachers motivated their students as they regard motivation a bright symbol and useful technique in changing the complexion of our school system. 95% teachers favoured to bear good and impressive personality in order to draw positive effects on learner's performance in ELT class. Most of the female teachers considered themselves successful to invoke students' interests in the language class. Mostly the teachers observed the students' attitude very positive towards teacher as well as learning. But some teachers felt no hesitations in affirming that their students bear negative attitudes towards teacher sometimes. Most of the teachers (80%) asserted the opinion that their students never felt any anxiety in the class, which is a very healthy sign towards language learning. Moreover data collected from students' questionnaires, head teachers' interviews and observations, it was proved a definite fact that students felt very low-scaled anxiety in the classroom.
85% teachers consider it important to motivate and encourage their students in ELT class, asserting high self-esteem to them. This attitude is considered very valid in language learning as well as achieving high objectives in almost every field of life.
62% teachers were completely satisfied with the ongoing criteria of appointing women teachers in male schools. On the contrary, 25% teachers were not satisfied with the present criterion. An overview of the findings based on questionnaires, interviews and observations suggests that women teachers can contribute a great deal to teaching ELT in the boys classroom. The data analyses has proved and given evidence that in order to appoint female teachers in male schools at basic education level, change in language learning outcomes is inevitable. The results of observations are prepared quantitatively as well. Almost all the aspects have mean score from 2.6 to 4.41, which indicates that most frequencies fall in between the satisfactory to very good. The weakest aspect was the students' weak command of listening and speaking skills. On the other hand the strongest aspect was the teacher's feed back provided to students.
The mean of the mean is 3.52 which indicates that the overall teachers performances in 54 classes falls between the 'Satisfactory' and 'Good'.
This study may prove very conducive and thought provoking for students, teachers, researchers and policy makers, and relevant to those working within ELT education and also more broadly within social sciences. ELT to male students by women teacher in the educational system of Pakistan provided some intriguing queries that motivated the researcher to journey through this enigma. But there is still a huge amount of scope for the replication of the study to discover more aspects of feminist pedagogy in ELT classes. Women teachers' performance in other subjects may also be discovered in the same vein. The educational institutions must remain free from gender biased discrimination and social influences to escape the students from being exploited. In order to keep pace with the fast progressing public schools across the country, there is an urgent need to initiate pragmatic and forward looking programs on ELT in the state run schools.
Male teachers may also wish to establish ground-rules with students to provide parameters for lessening their anxiety and increasing motivation in the EFL teaching class. In order to keep pace with fast developing world, there is an urgent need to initiate pragmatic and forward looking (ELT) teachers training programs. In doing so, it will provide a comprehensible language teaching output and perspective, and will enable, encourage or compel women's pedagogical mobilization in the socially divided school system. More than one female teachers must be appointed in the schools. As a single teacher has been found facing great difficulties on the social, cultural and religious grounds.
The present study of EFL feminist pedagogy in male schools may be proved a fruitful attempt to break into new areas of research in both applied linguistics and 'gender and pedagogical research'. Being innovative and unique in its nature, the study has filled some gaps between woman language teachers, male students and more important state run schools' environment. When compared with the EFL pedagogical expertise and performance of their male colleagues, female teachers can truly be regarded some steps ahead of them. Their prodigious devotion and dedication churned the otherwise jammed wheels of the education and kept them moving regardless of the odds they faced. Therefore, we must examine the micro dynamics of the myriad meaning-making and coping strategies that women teachers of our social background resort to, when confronted with such kind of professional disempowerment.
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* Warwick, D.P. and Jatoi,H (1994). Teacher's gender and student achievement in Pakistan. "Comparative education review" Vol. 38, No. 3.
* Warwick, D. and Reimers, F. (1995). Hope or despair? Learning in Pakistan's primary schools. Praeger publishers: West Port.
* Wood, J. (2005). Gendered Lives: Communication, Gender and Culture. Thomson Wadsworth: California.
* WVU council for women concerns (2008). Gender-Fair teaching is good teaching. President office for social justice. Stewart Hall, Morgantown.
* Yaqoob.M. (2005). Evaluation of primary school teachers in AJK and developing a model for their effective performance. M.Phil unpublished thesis. Islamabad: AIOU.
Ph. D scholar (Linguistics), Department of English, Islamia University of Bahawalpur.
* Purpose of the study is to ascertain instructional outcomes rather than SS achievement.
* State run schools only
* The results of observations are prepared quantitatively. Score of 5 has been given to excellent, 4 to good, 3 to satisfactory, 2 to poor and 1 to very poor.
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|Publication:||International Journal of Arts and Humanities|
|Date:||Dec 31, 2010|
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