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Performance analysis of refrigeration system from exhaust gas waste heat of petrol engine.

INTRODUCTION

The vapor absorption system is one of the oldest techniques of producing refrigerating effect. This system can be used in both domestic and large industrial refrigerating plants. The vapor absorption system uses heat energy, rather than mechanical energy. In the vapor absorption system, the compressor is replaced by an absorber, pump, generator and a pressure reducing valve. In the system, the vapor refrigerant from the evaporator is drained in to an absorption unit, wherever it is absorbed by the weak solution of the refrigerant founding a strong solution, which is pumped to the generator, wherever it is heated by some external source. During the heating process, the vapor refrigerant then flows into the evaporator and thus cycle is completed.

The vapor absorption refrigeration system uses at least two fluids. One fluid acts as a refrigerant even though the other as an absorber. The desirable properties of a refrigerant-solvent combinations are the absorber should have higher affinity to absorb the refrigerant, ideal absorbent should go on in liquid state under operating conditions, high boiling point, high specific heat for better heat transfer and low viscosity. However, ARS's not hurtful inexpensive waste heat, solar, biomass or geothermal energy sources for which the cost of supply is small in many cases. Additionally, the working fluids of these methods are environmentally friendly. The overall performance of the absorption cycle in relations of refrigerating effect per unit of energy input generally poor, however, waste heat such as that excluded from a power can be used to realize better overall energy utilization. Ammonia/water (N[H.sub.3]/[H.sub.2]O) systems are broadly used where lower temperature is required. However, water/lithium bromide ([H.sub.2]O/LiBr) system is also broadly used where reasonable temperatures are required (e.g. air conditioning). Ammonia/water (N[H.sub.3]/[H.sub.2]O) refrigerant pair was used in this system.

Experimental Setup:

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Engine specification:
No of cylinders           : 3
No of strokes             : 4
Fuel                      : Petrol
Rated power               : 27.6 @5000 RPM
Cylinder Diameter        : 66.5 mm
Stroke length             : 72 mm
Compression ratio         : 9:2:1
Orifice Diameter          : 35 mm
Dynamometer arm length    : 200 RPM


[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

The experimental setup consisting of the engine coupled to the refrigeration unit put to running mode. Vapor absorption refrigeration system consists of absorber pipe, Condenser, Generator, Evaporator and Generator pipe. The machine is to provide 60 w capacity of refrigerator with the components. The refrigeration system obtained was modified in order to put up the waste heat setting the generator tube to the exhaust pipe. The pipe coming from engine exhaust is coupled to the one end of the generator tube and the other end of the generator tube is free to atmosphere. When the engine starts working the exhaust gases are made to pass through the generator where the heat is recovered, which later discharges in to atmosphere. Aqua-ammonia refrigerant pair was used in this system.

Performance Of Petrol Engine (Maruti 800 Engine Setup):

[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]

Figure 4 shows the performance of multi cylinder petrol engine with increasing speed for various load conditions with and without absorption refrigeration system. TFC is almost same in both conditions.

[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]

Figure 5 shows the performance of multi cylinder petrol engine with increasing speed for various load conditions with and without absorption refrigeration system. SFC is almost same in both conditions.

[FIGURE 6 OMITTED]

Figure 6 shows the performance of multi cylinder petrol engine for increasing speed with various load conditions with and without absorption refrigeration system. Thermal efficiency is almost same for both conditions.

Figure 7 shows the performance of multi cylinder petrol engine for increasing speed with various load conditions with and without absorption refrigeration system. Air fuel ratio shows not much difference in both conditions.

[FIGURE 7 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 8 OMITTED]

Figure 8 shows the heat balance sheet of the engine. The percentage of waste heat from the multi-cylinder petrol engine without absorption system for increasing speed with various load conditions. Heat carried through brake power 10-20%. Heat carried away from exhaust gas 5-10%. Heat carried away from cooling water 4050% and unaccounted heat losses 25-28%. Heat carried away from the cooling water is greater than the engine exhaust heat. In this experiment exhaust gas is the input source for refrigeration system. If cooling water as a heat source for the refrigeration system, it will produce more refrigeration effect.

Utilization Of Waste Heat With Absorption System:

[FIGURE 9 OMITTED]

Figure 9 represents the utilization of exhaust gas from engine. The utilized heat source is used to run the generator in absorption system. The amount of heat utilized is less. 60 W capacity of refrigeration system was used in this experiment. But it is also possible to run high capacity of refrigeration system using this amount of exhaust gas waste heat. The heat balance sheet of engine is analyzed with absorption system for increasing in speed and loading conditions.

Emission Test Comparison With And Without Absorption System:

The emission levels are compared with and without absorption system.

[FIGURE 10 OMITTED]

Figure 10 shows carbon monoxide level with and without absorption system with different brake power levels. There is a slight increase in CO level with absorption system as compared to without absorption, but not significant.

Figure 11 shows hydrocarbon level with and without absorption system with different brake power levels. There is significant reduction in HC level in the presence of absorption system as compared to without absorption system.

[FIGURE 11 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 12 OMITTED]

Figure 12 shows carbon dioxide level with and without absorption system with different brake power levels. There is a slight reduction in C[O.sub.2] level in the presence of absorption system, but not significant.

[FIGURE 13 OMITTED]

Figure 13 shows [O.sub.2] level with absorption and without absorption system. There is not much difference between with and without absorption system.

[FIGURE 14 OMITTED]

Figure 14 N[O.sub.x] level with absorption and without absorption system with different brake power levels. There is a considerable increase in N[O.sub.x] level in the presence of absorption system as compared to without absorption system.

Conclusion:

In the present study, the exhaust pipe line was coupled with vapor absorption refrigeration system. The results like TFC, SFC, Thermal efficiency, and air-fuel ratio show without much difference when comparing between with and without absorption system. Heat carried away from the cooling water is greater than the engine exhaust heat. In this study, exhaust gas is an input source for refrigeration system. If cooling water as a heat source for the refrigeration system, it will produce more refrigeration effect.

The amount of heat utilized was less in the present study. There was only 60 W capacity of refrigeration system was used in this study. But it is also possible to run high capacity refrigeration system utilizing the available exhaust gas waste heat. There is not much difference in the emission level of CO, [O.sub.2], and C[O.sub.2] with and without absorption systems. But there is a considerable reduction in HC emission with absorption system. Considerable increase in N[O.sub.x] emission level is also observed with absorption system as compared to without absorption system. It is suggested that there is no harm using vapor absorption refrigeration system with the advantage of utilizing waste heat from engine exhaust gas.

REFERENCES

[1.] Atishey Mittal, Devesh Shukla, Karan Chauhan, "A refrigeration system for an automobile based on vapor absorption refrigeration cycle using waste heat energy from the engine"

[2.] Ashish Dubey, D.S. Darunde, "Review on exhaust gas heat recovery for I.C engine using refrigeration systems"

[3.] Satish Raghuvanshi, Govind Maheshwari, "Analysis of Ammonia -Water (NH3-H2O) Vapor Absorption Refrigeration System based on First Law of Thermodynamics

[4.] Rahul Singh, Dr. Rajesh Kumar "Theoritical Analysis of [Nh.sub.3]-[H.sub.2]o Refrigeration System Coupled With Diesel Engine: A Thermodynamic Study"

[5.] Krishnadasan, V.B., N.K. Mohammed Sajid, K.A. Shafi, "Performance Analysis of a Triple Fluid Vapor Absorption System using Engine Exhaust Gas".

[6.] Shubham Srivastava, Ravi Kumar Sen, Arpit Thakur, Manish Kumar Tated, "Review paper on analysis of vapour absorption refrigeration system".

[7.] Sachin Kaushik, Dr. S. Singh "Thermodynamic Analysis of Vapor Absorption Refrigeration System and Calculation of COP"

[8.] Horuz, I., 1999. 'Vapor Absorption Refrigeration in Road Transport Vehicles', Journal of Energy Engg, 125: 2.

[9.] Devasi, J., Jotava Prof. D.J. Parmar, "Experimental Investigation of Heat Recovery from Engine Exhaust Gas Used In Electrolux Refrigeration System"

[10.] Jadhao, J.S., D.G. Thombare, " Review on Exhaust Gas Heat Recovery for I.C. Engine".

(1) K. Kartikeyan, (2) P. Kartikeyan, (1) S. Samurudeen, (1) R. Prasanth, (1) P. Vimal, (3) G. Jayabalaji

(1) Department of Mechanical Engineering Sri Ramakrishna Engineering College, Coimbatore 641022, Tamil Nadu, INDIA Karpagam University, Coimbatore-641021, Tamil Nadu, INDIA.

(2) Department of Thermal Engineering Sri Ramakrishna Engineering College, Coimbatore 641022, Tamil Nadu, INDIA Karpagam University, Coimbatore-641021, Tamil Nadu, INDIA.

(3) Department of Automobile Engineering Sri Ramakrishna Engineering College, Coimbatore 641022, Tamil Nadu, INDIA Karpagam University,Coimbatore-641021, Tamil Nadu, INDIA.

Received 25 January 2016; Accepted 28 April 2016; Available 5 May 2016

Address For Correspondence:

K. Kartikeyan, Department of Mechanical Engineering Sri Ramakrishna Engineering College, Coimbatore 641022, Tamil Nadu, INDIA Karpagam University, Coimbatore-641021, Tamil Nadu, INDIA.
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Author:Kartikeyan, K.; Kartikeyan, P.; Samurudeen, S.; Prasanth, R.; Vimal, P.; Jayabalaji, G.
Publication:Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences
Date:May 15, 2016
Words:1559
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