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People's programme its possible role for the welfare of masses.

Development plans and programmes are designed to fulfill the needs of the people. Hence direct involvement of people in the implementation of these plans is essential. In the absence of no functional agencies, at the district, taluka or union council level, there is possibility that planning may result into an un-integrated exercise for resources far in excess of availabilities and programmes uncoordinated and unrelated to the felt needs. Planning for development becomes fragmentary on unintegrated if it lack, spatial of dimension. similarly a national plan has to be formulated through an archly of integrated regional or sub-regional or district or taluka or union council plan. In their preparation due consideration is to be given to regional or local problems area varying widely in land use and their potential population problems, resources, infrastructure and processing needs. If this is accomplished, the plans of different areas can then be integrated into a mutually consistent national plan.

Pakistan's villages hold the key to her future. During our struggle for independence, therefore, the nations leaders made it clear that they wanted freedom, not because they thought that it would make it possible for them to bring about social and economic development of the masses of people through raising the standard of living and reducing the inequalities perpetuated over long centuries of foreign rule. But the main pity in that neither the politicians nor the administrator could devise such strategy that could have direct attack on poverty by having provision of basic needs of the people. The programmes like village aid, which was basically for bringing revolution in the field of industry and agriculture through mass participation. This was thrust upon us under aid agreement based on experience of other countries. The prime objective was not achieved on being introduced on ad hoc basis. Similarly, was the fate of basic democracies which were based on five tiers, having direct reach at grass root level, but failed because of achieving more political designs rather than to come over socioeconomic problems of society in a strategic manner. Again Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) was introduced which was meant to switch over to secondary and tertiary sectors mainly of agriculture. This programme also remained as unrealistic on being thrust upon us by foreign elements as was in case of village aid. However, in India great success have been attained on being decision taken by the government was of economic nature. Through this sense of community participation has been nurtured greatly. The background and forward linkages have been made in each assisted project more effectively. Again during late Zia's era Five Points Programme based on grave problems that nation had been facing but remained in chaos if it is associated in the light of results attained. Now a fresh peoples programme by fresh government has been envisaged with the prime objective to help peoples welfare in wider perspective.

The problems of rural development in Pakistan is multidimensional and complex and its crux is in removal of poverty and ignorance. With this ends in view, a member of rural development programmes have been devised. These programmes can broadly be classified under categories 1) Programmes relating making provision of basic socio-economic infrastructure facilities; 2) Housing to the poor; 3) Agro-based cottage industry complex with relaxation in policy and removal of red-tapism; 4) Emphasis on development of laggard areas to remove regional disparity in a most strategic way and 5) Emphasis on planning of neglected fields through direct involvement of people.

The people's programme in reality is to eradicate poverty which denotes deprivation. Such deprivation has three features. First, it is deprivation of the basic necessities of life-food, clothing and housing, from which, according to me, all other accompanying deprivations flow, educational and intellectual deprivation, cultural and moral deprivtions, what anthropologists have come to call the culture of poverty. Second, deprivation means being deprived of what one is entitled to. Everyone is entitled, has a right, to a decent standard of living, and deprivation negates this entitlement and right. Third, there are various degrees of deprivation which we in this country have covered by inventing such terms as the poorest of the poor, the very poor and the poor in a disguised form of vedera or Rais; Small Farmers, Haris, Artisan; Labourers, Kamis of service class like sweepers; cobblers; washermen; barbers; street beggars etc.

The fact is that our development is entering a new phase which demands a radical change in our policies, procedures and institutions. The liberal policy adopted by the present regime, specially step towards gradual denationalization process, encouraging privatisation under liberal relaxed and flexible policy will certainly bring bright and active results. Turkish government has attained its objective in encouraging private entrepreneurs for investment through envisaging such liberal policy. What is needed is to have a vigilant look over implementation of such measures. We must meet the rising aspirations of our people and galvanize fully the capabilities that have been build up to promote more rapid development. The major issues which needs realistic strategy based on the experience gained from former related programme envisaged by the previous government are:-

-- Meeting defined basket of essential needs in an acceptable time frame:

-- Improving literacy rate for forming strong public opinion;

-- Reducing rate of population growth;

-- Generating productive employment on a much large scale;

-- Enhance existing productivity in real term;

-- Using decentralized process for removing inter and inter-regional disparity;

-- Giving priority to productive efficiency and application of source and technology in all sectors;

-- Conserving and enhancing the resources base for development specially in energy and agriculture and its allied fields.

The postulations of People's Programme have yet to be emphasized in a most clear cut way, fact of which have been doubted in various circles of society. It should have recognition and acceptance of people as a whole as on it depends future prosperity and socioeconomic stability. For such a development programme which is basically meant for the betterment of people should not have become controversial issue at any level.

A half billion to one billion people in developing countries live in poverty so severe as to assault our ethical standards. This is particularly so, given the concurrence of the parlors state of food intake in the poor countries with large surpluses of food production capacity in the rich countries. The largest concentration of the world's poor people is in Asia that makes up Bangladesh, the People's Republic of China, India and Pakistan. If the poor of developing countries are to lead a healthy life with dignity, there must be high accelerated growth in food and agricultural production. The increased food needs are so great aht over the long run they are unlikely to be met by imports from developed countries. But, far more imporant, the purchasing power of the massive members of rural poor can only be enhanced on a sustainable basis by development strategies that raise incomes where those people - largely in the agricultural region of developing countries which Pakistan is no exception. The bulk of the poor in developing countries are widely scattered throughout the rural areas and are largely occupied in agriculture or related occupation. For years to come, lack of capital will make it impossible to absorb more than a small portion of these people outside the rural sector. Fortunately in rural areas, agriculture based, employment-oriented strategy of development is not only possible but optimal as well one of the major problems of development is marshalling capital adequate to provide the massive number of productive jobs required by rapid population growth and initial under employment of labour. Making capital go further, by using it largely in types of jobs that require little capital is essential to poverty reduction. The first element is a well-operating market system. An agriculture-led, employment-oriented strategy requires myriad small farmers, landless and small entrepreneurs to invest and make government to regulate government has a critical role to play in providing facilitative service and facilities. The second element is an indigenous agricultural research system. That system must apply modern service to bring to the agricultural sector productivity-increasing innovations that are adapted to the specific conditions of each sub-region of the country. The third element encompasses many sub-elements, but its base is massive investment in physical rural infrastructure. Agricultural development requires purchased inputs to accompany the new technology suiting to local conditions and gradual local manufacturing reducing reliance on imports are the most important driving force. Complex institutional structures with trained personnel are needed to forward these processes, and those trained people, who must live in rural areas demand urban amenities. The rural development requires road, electric power, safe water, health, recreational facilities and other communications. Such an infrastructure is essential to attain development in overall perspective. We in fact should extend our joining hands to make this People's Programme a success which have afforded us an extraordinary opportunity to largely end hunger and poverty in Pakistan by pursuit of an agriculture-led-employment-oriented growth strategy. The most valuable elements are to create technological innovations through the use of scientific and higher education capacities to grow more rapidly to facilitate employment growth on which depends our future economic stability. It is the economic viability alone on which rests the development of education, social, cultural, health, sanitation, recreational and psychological aspects of life.
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Title Annotation:Pakistan's economic development
Author:Khan, Rao Abdul Rauf
Publication:Economic Review
Date:Jan 1, 1990
Previous Article:Democracy on trial.
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