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Paternal malparenting and offspring personality disorders: Mediating effect of early maladaptive schemas.

Byline: Naila Batool, Humaira Shehzadi, Muhammad Naveed Riaz and Muhammad Akram Riaz

Abstract

Objective: To examine the mediating role of maladaptive schemas between permissive/authoritarian parenting by fathers and personality disorders, including histrionic, antisocial, narcissistic and depressive attitudes among adults.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan, and comprised university students. Data was collected by administering the parental authority questionnaire, the young schema questionnaire and the personality diagnostic questionnaire. SPSS 23 was used for data analysis. The study was completed in one year. It was started from June 2014 and ended in June 2015.

Results: Of the 200 participants who were handed the questionnaires, 100(50%) returned it fully filled up. Of them, 87(87%) were women and 13(13%) were men. All scales had >0.70 alpha reliability coefficients. The values of skewness for all scales ranged from 0.10 to 0.86.Permissive parenting style had positive correlation with histrionic (p<0.05), narcissistic (p<0.05) and antisocial personality disorders (p<0.01). Authoritarian parenting had positive correlation with early maladaptive schemas (p<0.01) and depressive personality disorder (p0.70 alpha reliability coefficients. The values of skewness for all scales ranged from 0.10 to 0.86. Permissive parenting style had positive correlation with histrionic r (98) = 0.20(p<0.05), narcissistic r (98) = 0.23(p<0.05) and antisocial personality disorders r (98) = 0.31(p<0.01). Authoritarian parenting had positive correlation with early maladaptive schemas r (98) = 0.27(p<0.01) and depressive personality disorder r (98) = 0.28(p<0.05). Early maladaptive schemas had positive correlation with histrionic r (98) = 0.21(p<0.01), antisocial r (98) = 0.38(p<0.01), narcissistic r (98) = 0.52(p<0.01) and depressive personality disorder r (98) = 0.60(p<0.01). Histrionic personality disorder had positive correlation with antisocial r (98) = 0.35(p<0.01), narcissistic r (98) = 0.47(p<0.01) and depressive personality disorder r (98) = 0.25(p<0.05).

Antisocial personality disorder had significant correlation with narcissistic r (98) = 0.42(p<0.01) and depressive personality disorder r (98) = 0.21(p<0.05). Narcissistic personality disorder had significant correlation with depressive personality disorder r (98) = 0.39(p<0.05) (Table-1).

Table-1: Psychometric properties of the study variables.

Variable###M###SD###Min-Max###Skew###1###2###3###4###5###6###7

1. Permissive parenting style###29.25###5.61###13-42###-0.23###(.79)###0.10###0.13###0.20*###0.23*###0.31**###0.07

2. Authoritarian parenting style###31.22###6.98###15-48###-0.12###(0.72)###0.27**###0.05###0.04###0.15###0.28*

3. Early maladaptive schemas###251.02###58.54###137-445###0.34###(0.96)###0.21**###0.38**###0.53**###0.60**

4. Histrionic personality disorder###3.66###1.54###0-7###0.10###(0.72)###0.35**###0.47**###0.25*

5. Antisocial personality disorder###2.89###2.52###0-13###0.86###(0.77)###0.42**###0.21*

6. Narcissistic personality disorder###3.42###2.06###0-9###0.31###(0.71)###0.39**

7. Depressive personality disorder###2.79###1.77###0-7###0.49###(0.76)

Regression weights for histrionic dropped from 0.06 to 0.05 and that of antisocial personality disorder from 0.10 to 0.08. However, maladaptive schemas partially mediated between paternal permissive parenting style and narcissistic personality disorder because regression weights fell from 0.12 to 0.09. Maladaptive schemas partially mediated between paternal authoritarian parenting style and depressive personality disorder among adults. The regression weights decreased from 0.07 to 0.04 (Table-2).

Table-2: Mediating role of maladaptive schemas between paternal parenting styles and personality disorders in adults.

###Model 2

Predictors###Model 1 B###B###95% CI LL, UL###Outcome

(Constant)###2.03*###0.53###[-2.20, 1.63]###Histrionic personality disorder

Permissive parenting style###0.06*###0.05###[-.02, 0.07]

Early maladaptive schemas###0.01**###[.00, 0.01]

R2###0.04###0.11

F###4.17*###7.78**

[?]R2###0.07

[?]F###6.12**

(Constant)###-0.13###-3.33*###[-6.30, -0.35]###Antisocial personality disorder

Permissive parenting style###0.10*###0.08###[0.00, 0.17]

Early maladaptive schemas###0.02***###[0.01, 0.02]

R2###0.05###0.17

F###5.45*###14.23***

[?]R2###0.12

[?]F###10.21***

(Constant)###0.07###-3.68**###[-5.85, -1.51]###Narcissistic personality disorder

Permissive parenting style###0.12**###0.09**###[.03, 0.15]

Early maladaptive schemas###0.02***###[0.01, 0.02]

R2###0.10###0.35

F###10.58**###36.82***

[?]R2###0.25

[?]F###25.63***

(Constant)###5.65***###0.12###[-2.82, 2.58]###Depressive personality disorder

Authoritarian parenting style###0.07*###0.04###[-0.09, 0.02]

Early maladaptive schemas###0.18***###[0.01, 0.02]

R2###0.05###0.37

F###4.68*###50.38***

[?]R2###0.32

[?]F###28.71***

Discussion

Maladaptive schemas build up from unmet or frustrated developmental and emotional needs early in life, and these unfulfilled needs - due to negative parenting styles - lead towards greater risk of psychopathology.21,22 According to research findings, these maladaptive schemas are the central part of personality disorders among adults.22,23 The findings of the present study confirmed the hypothesis that maladaptive schemas mediate between paternal negative parenting styles and personality disorders in offspring. Parental rearing behaviour with offspring during the childhood years - in which many negative schemas are developed due to negative parenting15,24 - is associated with high risk for offspring personality disorders later in adulthood.

Low parental warmth (permissive parenting) and aversive parental raring behaviour (authoritarian parenting) during childhood years are connected with higher risk for personality disorders in offspring during adulthood.1,5-8 In a similar scientific inquiry, Johnson et al.8 confirmed that those adults who suffer from low parental warmth and affection and aversive parenting in their childhood are at higher risk to develop personality disorders in early adulthood. Another study conducted in China found associations between parenting and personality disorders among college students. Conflictive parenting is strongly associated with personality disorders in offspring.6

Permissive parenting is characterised by neglect, lack of guidance and indifference. This neglect leaves the adults at stake and its negative effects are long-lasting as children develop histrionic personality disorder which involves excessive emotionality and attention seeking. The deficits of paternal attention in the personality of children create a vacuum in their personalities and their early maladaptive schemas stimulate them to fill this vacuum by becoming more emotional and attention seekers. Similarly, due to permissive parenting by fathers, children fail to socialise in an appropriate manner and as a result they develop antisocial personality disorder at adult age. Individuals with antisocial personality disorder have disregard for and violation of the rights of others. Because fathers fail to intervene when their guidance and control is required, children develop maladaptive schemas and become antisocial in adult life.

Another result of paternal permissive parenting is narcissistic personality disorder characterised by grandiosity, need for admiration and lack of empathy. It is because permissive fathers neither let their children realise their true potentials and personalities nor do they set rules or show supremacy in rearing. Therefore, their offspring develop maladaptive schemas which involve them in self-love and they consider themselves exceptionally good and important. Another form of malparenting is authoritarian parenting characterised by strict, harsh and stringent parenting. Due to the strict rearing by fathers, personality of children is suppressed. Consequently, they develop maladaptive schemas and carry depressive personality disorder at later stages of lifespan. In the same manner, the early maladaptive schemas mediated between authoritarian paternal parenting and depressive personality disorder among adult offspring.17,25

Although the study shared applied insights, it still had some limitations which must be addressed in the future researches conducted in the same domain. Firstly, the study concentrated on four personality disorders, other disorders should also be taken under investigation. The study measured role of overall schemas instead of investigating the effect of eighteen schemas which can make this study even more comprehensive. Moreover, the study investigated the entire phenomenon of personality disorders from the lenses of paternal malparenting, inclusion of maternal parenting styles in future research will help in understanding the role of overall parenting in maladaptive schemas and personality disorders. On the basis of larger nation-wide data taken from broader locales, broader generalisations can be made. Demographic differences in the variables should also be investigated in future scientific studies.

Parental problematic behaviour with their offspring may be associated with higher risk for wide range of personality disorders among offspring.8 The same hypothesis was tested in the present study. Children are mistreated by parents in two ways i.e. child neglect (permissive parenting) and child abuse (authoritarian parenting) which are also known as omission and commission respectively.26 Fathers' inappropriate treatment of their children develops maladaptive schemas among youngsters as their cognitions and thought patterns are being developed. These maladaptive schemas lead towards long lasting adverse consequences. These schemas cause distortions in smooth and health personality development and at later stages manifest themselves in the form of personality disorders. Both permissive and authoritarian parenting styles, also known as omission and commission, respectively,26 have their own issues and parents need to be made conscious about them.

Conclusion

The present study shed light on the same phenomenon as either side of malparenting by fathers resulted in personality disorders among their offspring at adult age. Parenting may end earlier but its consequences are life-long. The study supported the Young's Schema Theory which posits that due to malparenting, early maladaptive schemas are developed among offspring at early age and these schemas leads towards the development of personality disorder in adult life.

Disclaimer: None.

Conflict of Interest: None.

Source of Funding: None.

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Publication:Journal of Pakistan Medical Association
Date:Apr 30, 2017
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