Printer Friendly

Participative management and job satisfaction: lessons for management leadership.

Introduction

One of the leading challenges in public management has been implementing effective human capital strategies to enhance government performance and accountability. As a result of the emphasis on performance and results-oriented government services, researchers in public administration and government agencies have stressed effective human resources management strategies such as job satisfaction, team empowerment, participative management, and strategic planning (Noer 1993; deLeon and Taher 1996; DeSantis and Durst 1996; Rago 1996; Ting 1996; MSPB 1998a, b; GAO 1999).

For years, researchers (Brayfield and Crockett 1955; Petty, McGee, and Cavender 1984; Iaffaldano and Muchinsky 1985) have disputed the extent to which increased job satisfaction leads to improved performance. Iaffaldano and Muchinsky (1985) conclude that the relationship has been only weakly manifested. Brayfield and Crockett (1955) conclude there is no evidence of a relationship between job satisfaction and performance. On the other hand, based on a meta-analysis, Petty, McGee, and Cavender (1984) demonstrate a strong relationship between job satisfaction and performance. Despite researchers' disagreement about the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity (Brayfield and Crockett 1955; Petty, McGee, and Cavender, 1984; Iaffaldano and Muchinsky 1985), studies reveal that satisfied employees are more likely to have low absenteeism and turnover (Carsten and Spector 1987; Locke 1976; Tett and Meyer 1993; Hackman and Oldham 1975; Farrell and Stamm 1988; Brooke and Price 1989; Barling, Wade, Fullagar 1990; Kemery et al. 1985; Kemery, Mossholder, and Bedeian 1987; Pierce, Rubenfeld, Morgan 1991; Eby et al. 1999).

With respect to organizational performance and individual productivity, absenteeism and retention are significant targets for current human resource management in both the private and public sectors (Carsten and Spector 1987; Locke 1976; Eby et al. 1999). Specifically, several researchers (Eby et al. 1999; Pierce, Rubenfeld, Morgan 1991; Thomas and Velthouse 1990) have argued that enhancing individuals' perceptions of empowerment and fair treatment may intensify affective reactions toward work and, ultimately, reduce rates of turnover and absenteeism. Given the significant cost of employee absenteeism and turnover for organizational performance, scholars must clearly identify variables such as empowerment, participative management, quality of work life, and the role of managers, that affect job satisfaction in government agencies (Bruce and Blackburn 1992; Rainey 1997).

Several researchers have found that strategic planning has been widely implemented in federal, (1) state, and local governments (Berman and West 1998; Berry and Wechsler 1995). Berman and West (1998) find that strategic planning is the most widely used productivity-improvement strategy in both municipalities and nonprofit organizations. Although there is considerable research showing that participative management positively affects employees' job satisfaction (Drucker 1954, 1974; Likert 1967; Daley 1986; Bernstein 1993), little empirical research has been conducted on the relationship between the participative management of strategic planning processes and employees' job satisfaction in the public sector. Government agencies' widespread use of strategic planning raises a research question regarding the relationship between employees' participation in strategic planning processes and job satisfaction in the public sector.

The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between participatory management in the context of the strategic planning and job satisfaction in local government agencies. This study extends research on the organizational contexts of strategic planning, such as managers' use of a participative management style, employees' participation in strategic planning, supervisors' skill in effective communications, and their consequences for job satisfaction. Using employee survey data collected by Clark County in Nevada, an empirical analysis is conducted to examine these relationships in local government agencies.

This article begins with a review of the literature on participative management and job satisfaction in both the private and public sectors. Next, it discusses issues and concerns in a participative strategic planning process, supervisory communications, and job satisfaction. Three hypotheses tested in this study are presented at the end of the literature review. The major findings demonstrate the positive relationship between participative management and job satisfaction. The final section of the article also discusses lessons and implications of the findings for management leadership and public management.

Literature Review and Hypotheses

Participative Management and Job Satisfaction

Historically, management theory (Argyris 1957; Bennis 1966; Herzberg 1966, 1968; Likert 1967; Maslow 1954) has emphasized the importance of coordinating the organization-human relationship to enhance productivity and develop human capital. Focusing on human motivation and its impact on job satisfaction and productivity, scholars have conducted research on participative management and empowerment (Drucker 1954, 1974; Likert 1967; Spreitzer, Kizilos, and Nason 1997; Ouchi 1981; Pascale and Athos 1981). Participation is a process in which influence is shared among individuals who are otherwise hierarchical unequals (Locke and Schweiger 1979; Wagner 1994). Participatory management practices balance the involvement of managers and their subordinates in information-processing, decision-making, or problem-solving endeavors (Wagner 1994).

In line with the research on participative management, participative decision making has been emphasized in relation to job satisfaction (Cotton et al. 1988; Macy, Peterson, and Norton 1989). Several studies have demonstrated that participative decision making can be beneficial to workers' mental health and job satisfaction (Spector 1986; Miller and Monge 1986; Fisher 1989). Daniels and Bailey (1999), however, argue the evidence regarding the impact of participative decision making on job satisfaction has not been consistent. The relationship between participative decision making and job satisfaction could be nonlinear and contingent on individual and situational variables (Cotton 1993, 1995; Daniels and Guppy 1994).

On the other hand, Spreitzer, Kizilos, and Nason (1997) argue that the notion of empowerment is derived from theories of participative management and employee involvement. According to these authors, the basic assumption of participative management is that sharing managers' decision-making power with employees will enhance performance and work satisfaction. They maintain that the main issues of the quality-of-life movement are enhancing employee satisfaction, improving intrinsic motivation, and helping employees to feel good about their work and jobs. Therefore, job satisfaction was one of the earliest anticipated outcomes of empowerment.

Many managers, union leaders, and scholars share the belief that participative management practices have substantial positive effects on performance and satisfaction at work (Jackson 1983; Hoerr 1989; Peterson and Hillkirk 1991; Bluestone and Bluestone 1992; Bemstein 1993). In recent research regarding public-service motivation, Brewer, Selden, and Facer (2000) suggest that policy makers and public managers should consider employees in decision-making processes as one of the strategies for advancing public-service motivation. Thus, the following hypothesis is examined in this study:
   Hypothesis 1: Employees who believe that managers in their units use a
   participative management style are more likely to express higher levels of
   satisfaction with their jobs.


Participative Strategic Planning Process and Job Satisfaction

Based on a survey of state agencies, Berry and Wechsler (1995) find that 60 percent of agencies reported engaging in some form of strategic planning. According to Berman and West (1998), strategic planning is the most widely used productivity improvement strategy in both municipalities and nonprofit organizations. (2) Berry and Wechsler (1995, 159) define strategic planning as "a systematic process for managing the organization and its future direction in relation to its environment and the demands of external stakeholders, including strategy formulation, analysis of agency strengths and weaknesses, identification of agency stakeholders, implementation of strategic actions, and issue management." Bryson (1988, 5) further defines strategic planning as "a disciplined effort to produce fundamental decisions and actions that shape and guide what an organization is, what it does, and why it does."

An organization's strategy is its long-term direction and objectives (Johnson and Scholes 1993), which affect the whole of the organization (Hickson et al. 1986). Strategic decisions concern the fundamental nature of the organization, including decisions about activities the organization should engage in, the acquisition and divestment of resources, and the nature and pace of change (Asch and Bowman 1989). Individuals who participate in strategic decision-making processes are able to influence their working environment in the broadest possible manner. Given the importance of strategic decisions to work environments (Hickson et al. 1986), Daniels and Bailey (1999) argue that the context within which individuals participate in decisions concerning the fundamental nature of their work environment may be a key moderator of the relationship between participative decision making and job satisfaction. Therefore, the context in which strategies are developed is likely to moderate the relationship between participative decision making and job satisfaction (Daniels and Bailey 1999).

Hart and Banbury (1994) indicate that different processes of strategy development or strategic decision making occur across organizations and even within the same organization. Given the complexity of strategic decision making, defining strategic goals and analyzing strategic options are of great importance in the planning process. Based on a survey of state agencies, Berry and Wechsler (1995) find that a participatory process, such as lower level staff's inclusion in strategic plan development, is one of the trends in strategic planning evolution in state agencies.

Through participation in strategic planning, employees can have a clear understanding of strategic goals and precise plans for their implementation. In addition, employees can clarify their roles to reduce role ambiguity and role conflict during the implementation of strategic plans. Furthermore, involvement in the process of defining strategic objectives and selecting strategic options may increase influence over the organizational environment (Daniels and Bailey 1999). However, there is little empirical evidence on the relationship between employees' perceptions of their level of participation in strategic planning processes and employees' job satisfaction and productivity in the public sector. Therefore, this study analyzes the relationship between participative strategic planning processes and employees' job satisfaction.
   Hypothesis 2: Employees who perceive strategic planning processes in their
   work units as more participative are more likely to express higher levels
   of satisfaction with their jobs.


Supervisory Communications and Job Satisfaction

Several researchers (Hackman and Lawler 1971; Hackman and Oldham 1975, 1976; Ting 1996) have emphasized that individuals are motivated not only by their extrinsic needs, but also by positive job-related factors such as task clarity, skill utilization, task significance, and social interactions. Research shows that an accurate understanding of job tasks helps employees to reduce job uncertainty (Wanous 1977; Bedeian and Armenakis 1981; Glisson and Durick 1988; Ting 1996). Studies also demonstrate that relationships with co-workers and supervisors affect job satisfaction (Brass 1981; Daley 1986; Emmert and Taher 1992).

The literature increasingly reveals a relationship between supervisor characteristics and levels of job satisfaction (Daley 1986; Harrick, Vanek, and Michlitsch 1986; Emmert and Taher 1992; Oldham and Cummings 1996; London and Larsen 1999). For instance, Oldham and Cummings (1996) find that employees produce the most creative outcomes when they work on complex, challenging jobs and are supervised in a supportive, noncontrolling way. London and Larsen (1999) conclude that an employee's immediate supervisor has an important role in creating a noncontrolling environment that empowers self-development. For example, supportive supervisors encourage subordinates to voice their own concerns, provide positive and mainly informational feedback, and facilitate employee skill development (London and Larsen 1999). Emmert and Taher (1992) also find social environment and job-related feedback to be important determinants of job satisfaction for both public professionals and blue-collar employees. In general, their research finds that people who have positive perceptions of their job environment and who relate well with their fellow employees and supervisors display higher levels of job satisfaction than workers with negative perceptions of both. This study explores the relationship between supervisory communications and employees' job satisfaction. The study tests the following hypothesis:
   Hypothesis 3: Employees who believe they have effective communications with
   their supervisors in their work units are more likely to express higher
   levels of job satisfaction.


Research Method

This study is based on data from the Clark County employee survey conducted in 1999. In order to improve employees' work environment, Clark County, (3) Nevada, has been conducting an employee survey every two years since 1993. In 1999, Clark County conducted a survey of employees' work environments and the process of strategic planning in agencies. For the 1999 survey, Clark County contracted with the Cannon Center for Survey Research (CCSR) at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas to collect, enter, and analyze the data (Clark County 1999b). The Department of Administrative Services and the CCSR collaborated to develop the survey items considering the work environments at Clark County. The following section will discuss specific data collection procedures and survey measures.

Sample Selection and Survey Administration

After the CCSR provided an original copy of the 1999 Clark County employee opinion survey, the county's Department of Administrative Services coordinated the printing and distribution of the surveys (Clark County 1999b). Payroll clerks distributed the surveys with the March 23, 1999, payroll checks and sent reminders with the April 9 payroll checks to employees in 24 departments. (4) Employees were given three options for returning the surveys: placing them in locked drop boxes located in County buildings; direct mailing to CCSR; or direct faxing to CCSR. Surveys from the drop boxes were picked up during the week of April 19, and surveys by mail and fax were accepted until data entry was complete. The survey was distributed to 4,097 employees; 1,576 employees responded to the survey, for a response rate of 38.5 percent. Response rates among departments ranged from 30 percent to 80 percent.

Survey Measures

Fourteen items (see appendix) were developed to measure managers' use of a participative management style, the existence of a participatory strategic planning process, and the effectiveness of supervisory communications as independent variables, and job satisfaction as a dependent variable. Eleven items were measured on a five-point Likert-type scale, with 1 representing "strongly agree" and 5 "strongly disagree." Three items were measured on a scale of excellent, good, fair, poor, and no opinion. Four control variables were included in the survey: teamwork experience, union membership, position (management/nonmanagement), and years of employment in a department. A factor analysis indicated that the items designed to measure the three independent variables loaded on three separate factors. As shown in table 1, the factor loadings support the use of these items as indicators of the underlying constructs they were designed to measure. (5)

Independent Variables

Managers' Use of a Participative Management Style. Managers' use of a participative management style was defined using four indicators: (1) "Within the last two years, managers in my department have made an attempt to allow employees to improve our own work process"; (2) "Within the last two years, I have seen a positive change in the management style in my department"; (3) "In general, managers in my department have made an effort within the past two years to improve communication"; and (4) "In general, managers in my department have made an effort to increase employee involvement in decision-making."

Use of a Participative Strategic Planning Process. Employees' perceptions of a participatory strategic planning process comprised three items: (1) "My understanding of department's strategic plan mission, vision and goals is (excellent, good, fair, poor, no opinion)"; (2) "I feel that I had input in the development of my department's strategic planning process"; and (3) "I understand my role in accomplishing the goals in my department's strategic plan."

Effective Supervisory Communications. Supervisors' skill in communication was defined using three indicators: (1) "If I have a suggestion to make, my supervisor (the person I directly report to) will listen, even if he or she does not agree with me"; (2) "My supervisor and I communicate well with each other about work related topics"; and (3) "I have a clear understanding of what is expected of me in my work."

Dependent Variable

Job satisfaction. Job satisfaction comprised four items from the survey instrument: (1) "Overall, compared to other places I could work, Clark County is: excellent, good, fair, poor, no opinion"; (2) "Compared to other places I could work, I feel my career opportunities at Clark County are: excellent, good, fair, poor, no opinion"; (3) "My job provides me with a sense of accomplishment"; and (4) I receive the recognition that I deserve for my work. The coefficient alpha for this scale was 0.81.

Control Variables

Four control variables were included in the survey: teamwork experience, union membership, position (management/nonmanagement), and years of employment in a department. Teamwork experience was used as a control because it has been shown to positively influence job satisfaction (Cordery, Mueller, and Smith 1991; Kirkman and Rosen 1999). The following item was used for the teamwork experience: "In the past two years, I participated in -- work and/or improvement teams." A numerical scale, 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 or more, was provided for this measure. Previous research has also shown that having a professional or managerial-level job is associated with higher levels of job satisfaction (deLeon and Taher 1996; Lewis 1992). Using a dummy variable, the variable of position was measured by the following indicator: "I am on the Management or Executive Plan." The study controlled for union membership among participants using a dummy variable. The study also included years of work in a department as a control variable: "How many years have you worked in your department?" (0-3 years, 4-7 years, 8-10 years, more than 10 years).

Results and Findings

Table 2 provides descriptive statistics and correlation coefficients for all variables. The majority of respondents were from nonmanagement positions (94 percent). Among the survey respondents, only 203 (12.9 percent) had participated in teamwork more than three times. Thirty-eight percent of the survey respondents were union members. The years of work at the department were distributed as follows: 0-3 years (39 percent), 4-7 years (26 percent), 8-10 years (11 percent), and more than 10 years (23 percent). Managers' use of a participatory management style correlated positively with job satisfaction and a participative strategic planning process. As expected, effective communication with supervisors was positively correlated with job satisfaction and a participative strategic planning process (see table 2).

The results of the ordinary least squares multiple regression analysis appear in table 3. As predicted, managers' use of a participative management style, participative strategic planning processes, and effective supervisory communications were positively associated with high levels of employee job satisfaction. Thus, hypotheses 1, 2, and 3 were supported in this study (see table 3).

The findings in table 3 indicate that managers' use of a participative management style is significantly associated with employee job satisfaction. The results show that employees who believe in managers' use of a participative management style report a higher level of job satisfaction than employees who do not believe in managers' use of participative management style in their work unit ([beta] = .36, p < .001). Several studies (Wagner 1994; Bemstein 1993; Bluestone and Bluestone 1992; Hoerr 1989; Peterson and Hillkirk 1991) show that participative management practices have positive effects on performance and job satisfaction. Results from the present study lend further support to this conclusion. Therefore, the present study provides robust support of hypothesis 1.

The regression analysis also finds that a participative strategic planning process is significantly associated with job satisfaction ([beta] = .15, p < .001), suggesting that employees who believe they have input into strategic planning are more likely to report a higher level of job satisfaction than employees who do not. Therefore, hypothesis 2 was supported in this study. The regression results also support hypothesis 3. Employees who believe they have effective communications with their supervisor express a higher level of job satisfaction than those who do not believe they have effective communications with their supervisors ([beta] = .32, p < .001). This result is consistent with previous research on supervisory relationships and levels of job satisfaction (Daley 1986; Harrick, Vanek, and Michlitsch 1986; Emmert and Taher 1992; Oldham and Cummings 1996; London and Larsen 1999). Among the control variables, only the years of work in a department was significantly related to job satisfaction. It shows that employees who have worked in their department for a shorter period are more likely to express higher levels of satisfaction with their jobs.

Implications and Discussion

Although researchers point out there is no consistent relationship between job satisfaction and individual performance (Brayfield and Crockett 1955; Iaffaldano and Muchinsky 1985), there is consistent evidence that low job satisfaction results in absenteeism, reduced commitment to organizations, turnover, and stress (Carsten and Spector 1987; Locke 1976; Tett and Meyer 1993; Hackman and Oldham 1975; Farrell and Stamm 1988; Brooke and Price 1989; Barling, Wade, and Fullagar 1990; Kemery et al. 1985; Kemery, Mossholder, and Bedeian 1987; Pierce, Rubenfeld, Morgan 1991; Eby et al. 1999). Hence, it is important for researchers to clarify the factors affecting employees' job satisfaction in the context of organizational environment changes.

This study examined participative management and job satisfaction in local government agencies. It extended research on the relationship between participative management in the context of strategic planning process and job satisfaction. What are the implications of the findings of this study for public management? The essential implication is that executive leaders and managers should become aware of the importance of manager's use of participative management, employees' participation in strategic planning processes, and the role of effective avenues of communication with supervisors. When agencies implement leadership development programs or other training for managers and supervisors, they should consider including participative management and employee empowerment techniques as key components of the programs.

In addition, the study's findings demonstrate that a participative strategic planning process positively affects employee job satisfaction. To the extent that job satisfaction reduces absenteeism and turnover, the study's findings suggest that employee participation in strategic planning contributes to organizational effectiveness. As Daniels and Bailey (1999) indicate, individuals who participate in strategic decision-making processes are able to influence their work environments in the broadest possible ways. In this respect, strategic planning procedures in agencies should include the employee as a key stakeholder who is necessary to successful implementation of the strategic plan. More generally, employees' clear understanding of the objectives of the strategic plan and their role within it affect the success of strategic planning in public agencies.

Effective communications between supervisors and employees should be emphasized to facilitate the process of strategic planning among executive leaders, managers, and front-line employees. Effective communications between supervisor and employee are a significant factor in informing employees of the objectives and job expectations under existing or, particularly, new organizational structure. Ting (1996) finds that task clarity is an important determinant of job satisfaction. The present study also found that employees' effective communication with their supervisors is significantly associated with job satisfaction. Supervisory communications might be a primary means to link the participative strategic planning process to employees' job satisfaction.

None of the above suggestions can be easily accomplished without organizational leaders' commitment to changing organizational culture from the traditional patterns of hierarchical structure to participative management and empowerment in agencies. Several studies (Northouse 1997; Tichy and DeVanna 1990; Zajac and Al-Kazemi 1997) have emphasized transformational leadership, in which leaders actively respond to fundamental changes in the environment to engage in programs of learning, change, and renewal in the organization. To respond to the new needs of employees and the environmental changes of the organization under strategic planning, executive leaders and managers should consider several efforts to facilitate participative management. For example, the regular distribution of newsletters and memoranda can be expected to provide employees with information on strategic planning procedures. Second, management can set up regular focus group meetings with employees and supervisors from different work units to discuss issues of strategic planning related to operational system changes, relationships among work units, and organizational effectiveness. Training programs for managers and supervisors that emphasize participative management and effective communication skills would be expected to facilitate implementation of strategic planning, as well as participative management in agencies.

Conclusion

This study examined the positive relationship between participative management and job satisfaction in local government agencies. It also demonstrated the positive relationship between a participative strategic planning process and job satisfaction. Furthermore, the study emphasized effective supervisory communications as a factor affecting employee job satisfaction. Results from this study suggest several important directions for future research. For example, multiple studies of the association between participative management and job satisfaction in the public sector will be necessary to validate the present results and to explore the diverse job-related factors that may influence job satisfaction. Researchers could also develop measures for employees' participation in strategic planning processes in government agencies.

Several limitations of the present study should also be noted. First, the measures of participatory management used in this study were perceptual rather than objective. To analyze managers'leadership of participative management, more empirical data based on in-depth interviews and participatory observation should be collected beyond the survey method. Second, the present study did not collect information regarding gender, family structure, education, and age. Researchers have demonstrated that demographic variables, including gender, education, and age, are significantly related to job satisfaction. Findings suggest that older, educated, male employees in full-time positions are more satisfied than younger, less educated, female, and part-time employees (Mottaz 1988; deLeon and Taher 1996). Furthermore, to analyze the impact of work-family conflict on employee job satisfaction, family structure should be considered in future research. The future study should include these variables as individual characteristics affecting job satisfaction.

In conclusion, the findings reported in this study show how managers' use of a participative management style, use of participative strategic planning processes, and effective supervisory communications affect job satisfaction. Thus, the study suggests that emphasizing participative management and fostering effective supervisory communications can enhance employee job satisfaction. In this regard, organizational leaders' commitment to changing organizational culture from the traditional patterns of hierarchical structure to participative management and empowerment should be emphasized in the public sector.

Appendix

Items were measured on a five-point Likert-type scale, with 1 representing "strongly agree" and 5 representing "strongly disagree" unless otherwise noted.

Survey Measures

Manager's use of a participative management style (coefficient alpha: 0.93)

1. Within the last two years, managers in my department have made an attempt to allow employees to improve our own work process.

2. Within the last two years, I have seen a positive change in the management style in my department.

3. In general, managers in my department have made an effort within the past two years to improve communication.

4. Managers in my department have made an effort to increase employee involvement in decision making.

Participative strategic planning processes (coefficient alpha: 0.83)

1. My understanding of department's strategic plan mission, vision and goals is (excellent, good, fair, poor, no opinion).

2. I feel that I had input in the development of my department's strategic planning process.

3. I understand my role in accomplishing the goals in my department's strategic plan.

Supervisory communications (coefficient alpha: 0.80)

1. If I have a suggestion to make, my supervisor (the person I directly report to) will listen, even if he or she does not agree with me.

2. My supervisor and I communicate well with each other about work related topics.

3. I have a clear understanding of what is expected of me in my work.

Job satisfaction (coefficient alpha: 0.81)

1. Overall, compared to other places I could work, Clark County is: excellent, good, fair, poor, no opinion.

2. Compared to other places I could work, I feel my career opportunities at Clark County are: excellent, good, fair, poor, no opinion.

3. My job provides me with a sense of accomplishment.

4. I receive the recognition that I deserve for my work.

Control Variables

1. Teamwork experience: In the past two years, I participated in -- work and/or improvement teams. Numerical scales were provided for this measure: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or more.

2. Position: I am on the Management or Executive Plan (Yes, No).

3. Union membership: I am a member of a collective bargaining unit (union) (Yes, No).

4. Years of work at the department: How many years have you worked in your department? (0-3 years, 4-7 years, 8-10 years, more than 10 years).
Table 1 Factor Analysis of the Survey Items (a)
(Principal Component Analysis, Varimax Method)

Items                       1. Managers'    2. Partici-   3. Effecti-
                               use of         pative       veness of
                            participative    strategic    supervisory
                             management      planning       communi-
                                style        processes      cations

1. A positive change in
   the management style         0.85           0.23           0.21
2. Manager's efforts to
   increase employee
   involvement                  0.84           0.28           0.21
3. Manager's efforts to
   improve communication        0.83           0.24           0.24
4. Manager's attempt to
   allow employee to
   improve the work
   process                      0.79           0.28           0.28

1. Understanding of
   strategic plan               0.20           0.84           0.15
2. Role clarity in
   strategic plan               0.27           0.82           0.23
3. Input in the
   development of
   strategic plan               0.42           0.73           0.13

1. Effective
   communication with
   supervisors                  0.19           0.14           0.89
2. Supervisors' listening
   skills                       0.25           0.14           0.83
3. Clear understanding of
   the expectation of work      0.29           0.22           0.66

Eigenvalues                     6.12           1.24           1.05

Percent of common
  variance                     55.6           11.3            9.56

(a) N = 1,576
Table 2 Descriptive Statistics and Correlations (a)

Variable (range)                              Mean (N)     Stan. dev.

1. Job satisfaction (1-5)                   2.38 (1,576)     0.82

2. Managers' use of a participative
   management style (1-5)                   3.09 (1,538)     1.05

3. Participative strategic planning (1-5)   2.93 (1,572)     1.02

4. Effective communications with
   supervisors (1-5)                        2.18 (1,576)     0.89

5. Teamwork experience (0-4)                 .97 (1,521)     1.26

6. Management position (0-1)                 .02 (1,542)     0.24

7. Union membership (0-1)                    .38 (1,551)     0.48

8. Years of work (1-4)                      2.19 (1,555)     1.18

Variable (range)                               1         2          3

1. Job satisfaction (1-5)                   1

2. Managers' use of a participative
   management style (1-5)                    .65 **   1

3. Participative strategic planning (1-5)    .54 **    .63 **   1

4. Effective communications with
   supervisors (1-5)                         .60 **    .57 **    .46 **

5. Teamwork experience (0-4)                -.18 **   -.26 **   -.37 **

6. Management position (0-1)                -.17 **   -.20 **   -.29 **

7. Union membership (0-1)                    .13 **    .14 **    .14 **

8. Years of work (1-4)                       .07 **    .05      -.01

Variable (range)                               4         5         6

1. Job satisfaction (1-5)

2. Managers' use of a participative
   management style (1-5)

3. Participative strategic planning (1-5)

4. Effective communications with
   supervisors (1-5)                        1

5. Teamwork experience (0-4)                -.16 **   1

6. Management position (0-1)                 .10 **    .24 **   1

7. Union membership (0-1)                    .11 **   -.05 *    -.15 **

8. Years of work (1-4)                       .01       .13 **    .09 **

Variable (range)                              7       8

1. Job satisfaction (1-5)

2. Managers' use of a participative
   management style (1-5)

3. Participative strategic planning (1-5)

4. Effective communications with
   supervisors (1-5)

5. Teamwork experience (0-4)

6. Management position (0-1)

7. Union membership (0-1)                   1

8. Years of work (1-4)                       .13 **   1

(a) N = 1,576

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
(Years of work, 1 = 0-3 years, 2 = 4-7 years, 3 = 8-10 years,
4 = more than 10 years; Management position, 1 = yes, and 0 = no;
Union membership, 1 = yes, and 0 = no.)
Table 3 Results of Regression Analysis
(Participative Management and Job Satisfaction) (a)

Independent                   Standardized     Standard       t
variables                      regression       error
                               coefficient
                                ([beta])

Managers' use of a
  participative
  management style                 0.36          0.03     13.03 ***
Effective supervisory
  communications                   0.32          0.02     13.38 ***
Participation in strategic
  planning processes               0.15          0.03      5.63 ***

Control variables
Teamwork experience                0.01          0.02      0.41
Management position               -0.03          0.09     -1.65
Union membership                  -0.00          0.04     -0.14
Years of work at department        0.04          0.02      1.94 *

Constant                           0.04         -1.30
[R.sup.2]                          0.501
Adjusted [R.sup.2]                 0.498 ***
F                                190.53 ***

(a) N = 1,576

*** p < .001

* p < .05


Acknowledgments

The author thanks Debra Drake at Clark County and colleagues at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, for their help in this research, as well as the comments of anonymous reviewers.

Notes

(1.) Especially since the Government Performance and Results Act in 1993, federal agencies have emphasized their efforts on strategic planning and performance measurement.

(2.) Clark County has established a variety of organizational planning and quality initiatives including Total Quality Management and strategic planning and performance measurement over the past decade (Clark County 1999a; Drake 1999). In 1997, the county's Department of Administrative Services and the Board of County Commissioners proposed the County-wide Strategic Plan. The county manager formed a County-wide Strategic Planning Team and developed a model and a process that would provide for the consistent development of strategic plans and performance measurements for the departments within Clark County government. Each department was required to appoint a strategic planning liaison, who acted as the point of contact for all strategic planning issues. Training classes were provided to all levels of management and strategic planning liaisons on the strategic planning model and process. In 1999, based on a consistent model and incorporating results-focused performance measurements, every department submitted strategic plans. When each department completed its strategic plans, workshops were held for all directors, assistant directors, managers, and strategic planning liaisons to discuss strategies and approaches for implementing their strategic plans. These workshops emphasized the roles of the managers and directors of each department and their responsibilities for ensuring that the plans were carried out. In addition, participants were provided a review concerning the ongoing monitoring of progress and the importance of integrating their strategic plans and performance measures into their daily business operations (Drake 1999). The process of strategic planning in Clark County reveals a traditional top-down communication flow in agencies (Clark County 1999b).

(3.) Clark County, with a population of 1,040,688 (60 percent of state population), is the most populous of Nevada's 17 counties (Clark County 1999a). With annual expenditures of approximately $1.8 billion, Clark County has one of the most complex and distinctive configurations (Clark County 1999a). The county comprises of 7,927 square miles and includes five incorporated cities, Las Vegas, Henderson, North Las Vegas, Boulder City, and Mesquite; 13 unincorporated towns; one school district; four library districts; one urban and two rural fire districts; one sanitation district; one urban and three rural water districts; and 11 judicial townships.

(4.) Participant departments in the survey: Administrative Services, Airport, Assessor, Building, Business License, Center for Enterprise Information Technology, Clerk, Comprehensive Planning, Comptroller, Constable-Henderson, Constable-Las Vegas, Coroner, County Commission/Finance, Family and Youth Services, General Services, Human Resources, Internal Audit, Justice Court-Las Vegas, Public Administrator, Public Works, Recorder, Sanitation, Social Services, and Treasurer.

(5.) Factor scores generated from a separate factor analysis on each of three independent variables were used as variables for a multiple regression analysis.

References

Argyris, Chris. 1957. Personality and Organizations. New York: Harper and Row.

Asch, David, and Cliff Bowman. 1989. Readings in Strategic Management. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan.

Barling, Julian, Bill Wade, and Clive Fullagar. 1990. Predicting Employee Commitment to Company and Union: Divergent Models. Journal of Occupational Psychology 63(1): 49-63.

Bedeian, Arthur G., and Achilles A. Armenakis. 1981. A Path-Analytic Study of the Consequences of Role Conflict and Ambiguity. Academy of Management Journal 24(2): 417-24.

Bennis, Warren. 1966. Changing Organizations. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Berman, Evan M., and Jonathan P. West. 1998. Productivity Enhancement Efforts in Public and Nonprofit Organizations. Public Productivity and Management Review 22(2): 207-19.

Bernstein, Aaron. 1993. Making Teamwork Work and Appeasing Uncle Sam. Business Week, January 25, 101.

Berry, Francis Stokes, and Barton Wechsler. 1995. State Agencies' Experience with Strategic Planning: Findings From a National Survey. Public Administration Review 55(2): 159-68.

Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. 1992. Negotiating the Future: A Labor Perspective on American Business. New York: Basic Books.

Brass, Daniel J. 1981. Structural Relationships, Job Characteristics, and Worker Satisfaction and Performance. Administrative Science Quarterly 26(3): 331-48.

Brayfield, Arthur H., and Walter H. Crockett. 1955. Employee Attitudes and Employee Performance. Psychological Bulletin 52: 396-424.

Brewer, Gene A., Sally Coleman Selden, and Rex L. Facer II. 2000. Individual Conceptions of Public Service Motivation. Public Administration Review 60(3): 254-63.

Brooke, Paul P., and James L. Price. 1989. The Determinants of Employee Absenteeism: An Empirical Test of a Causal Model. Journal of Occupational Psychology 62(1): 1-19.

Bruce, Willa M., and J. Walton Blackburn. 1992. Balancing Job Satisfaction and Performance. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.

Bryson, J. M. 1988. Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organizations: A Guide to Strengthening and Sustaining Organizational Achievement. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Carsten, Jeanne M., and Paul E. Spector. 1987. Unemployment, Job Satisfaction, and Employment Turnover: A Meta-Analytic Test of the Muchinsky Model. Journal of Applied Psychology 72(2): 374-81.

Clark County. 1999a. Clark County Strategic Plan. Available at http://www.co.clark.nv.us. Accessed January 30, 2001.

--. 1999b. Clark County 1999 Employee Opinion Survey. Las Vegas, NV: Cannon Center for Survey Research, University of Nevada.

Cordery, John L., Walter S. Mueller, and Leigh M. Smith. 1991. Attitudinal and Behavioral Effects of Autonomous Group Working: A Longitudinal Field Study. Academy of Management Journal 34(2): 464-76.

Cotton, John L. 1993. Employee Involvement. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

--. 1995. Participation's Effect on Performance and Satisfaction: A Reconsideration of Wagner. Academy of Management Review 20(2): 276-78.

Cotton, John L., David A. Vollrath, Kirk L. Froggatt, Mark L. Lengnick-Hall, and Kenneth R. Jennings. 1988. Employee Participation: Diverse Forms and Different Outcomes. Academy of Management Review 13(1): 8-22.

Daley, Dennis M. 1986. Humanistic Management and Organizational Success: The Effect of Job and Work Environment Characteristics on Organizational Effectiveness, Public Responsiveness, and Job Satisfaction. Public Personnel Management 15(2): 131-42.

Daniels, Kevin, and Andy Bailey. 1999. Strategy Development Processes and Participation in Decision-Making: Predictors of Role Stressors and Job Satisfaction. Journal of Applied Management Studies 8(1): 27-42.

Daniels, Kevin, and Andrew Guppy. 1994. Occupational Stress, Social Support, Job Control and Psychological Well-Being. Human Relations 47(12): 1523-44.

deLeon, Linda, and Walied Taher. 1996. Expectations and Job Satisfaction of Local-Government Professionals. American Review of Public Administration 26(4): 401-16.

DeSantis, Victor S., and Samantha L. Durst. 1996. Comparing Job Satisfaction among Public and Private Sector Employees. American Review of Public Administration 26(3): 327-39.

Drake, Debra. 1999. The Journey from Strategic Planning Performance Measurement: Managing for Results. Unpublished research paper, Department of Administrative Services, Clark County, Nevada.

Drucker, Peter. 1954. The Practice of Management. New York: Harper and Row.

--. 1974. Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices, New York: Harper and Row.

Eby, Lillian T., Deena M. Freeman, Michael C. Rush, and Charles E. Lance. 1999. Motivational Bases of Affective Organizational Commitment: A Partial Test of an Integrative Theoretical Model. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 72(4): 463-83.

Emmert, Mark A., and Walied A. Taher. 1992. Public Sector Professionals: The Effects of Public Sector Jobs on Motivation, Job Satisfaction and Work Involvement. American Review of Public Administration 22(1): 37-48.

Farrell, Dan, and Carol L. Stamm. 1988. Meta-Analysis of the Correlates of Employee Absence. Human Relations 41(3): 211-27.

Fisher. Shirley. 1989. Stress, Control, Worry Prescriptions and the Implications for Health at Work: A Psychological Model. In Job Control and Worker Health, edited by Steven L. Sauter, Joseph J. Hurrell, and Cary L. Cooper, 205-36. Chichester, UK: Wiley.

General Accounting Office (GAO). 1999. Human Capital: A Self-Assessment Checklist for Agency Leaders. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. GAO/GGD-99-179.

Glisson, Charles, and Mark Durick. 1988. Predictors of Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment in Human Service Organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly 33(1): 61-81.

Hackman, Richard J., and Edward E. Lawler. 1971. Employee Reactions to Job Characteristics. Journal of Applied Psychology 55(4): 259-86.

Hackman, Richard J., and Greg R. Oldham. 1975. Development of the Job-Diagnostic Survey. Journal of Applied Psychology 60(2): 161-75.

--. 1976. Motivation through the Design of Work: Test of a Theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 16(2): 250-79.

Harrick, Edward J., Gene R. Vanek, and Joseph F. Michlitsch. 1986. Alternative Work Schedules, Productivity, Leave Usage, and Employee Attitudes: A Field Study. Public Personnel Management 15(2): 159-69.

Hart, Stuart, and Catherine Banbury. 1994. How Strategy-Making Processes Can Make a Difference. Strategic Management Journal 15(4): 251-69.

Herzberg, Frederick. 1966. Work and the Nature of Man. Cleveland, OH: World Publishing.

--. 1968. One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees? Harvard Business Review 46(1): 53-62.

Hickson, David J., Richard J. Butler, David Cray, Geoffrey R. Mallory, and David C. Wilson. 1986. Top Decisions: Strategic Decision Making in Organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Hoerr, John. 1989. The Payoff from Teamwork: The Gains Cue Substantial--So Why Isn't It Spreading Faster? Business Week, July 10, 58-59.

Iaffaldano, Michelle T., and Paul M. Muchinsky. 1985. Job Satisfaction and Job Performance: A Meta-Analysis. Psychological Bulletin 97(2): 251-73.

Jackson, Susan E. 1983. Participation in Decision-Making as a Strategy for Reducing Job-Related Strain. Journal of Applied Psychology 68(1): 3-19.

Johnson, Gery, and Kevan Scholes. 1993. Exploring Corporate Strategy. 3rd ed. London: Prentice Hall.

Kalleberg, Arne L. 1977. Work Values and Job Rewards: A Theory of Job Satisfaction. American Sociological Review 42(1): 124 43.

Kemery, Edward D., Kevin W. Mossholder, and Arthur G. Bedeian. 1987. Role Stress, Physical Symptomology, and Turnover Intentions: A Causal Analysis of Three Alternative Specifications. Journal of Occupational Behavior 8(1): 11-23.

Kemery, Edward D., Arthur G. Bedeian, Kevin W. Mossholder, and John J. Touliatos. 1985. Outcomes of Role Stress: A Multisample Constructive Replication. Academy of Management Journal 28(2): 363-75.

Kirkman, Brandley L., and Benson Rosen. 1999. Beyond Self-Management: Antecedents and Consequences of Team Empowerment. Academy of Management Journal 42(1): 58-74.

Lewis, Gregory B. 1992. Men and Women toward the Top: Backgrounds, Careers, and Potential of Federal Middle Managers. Public Personnel Management 21 (4): 473-91.

Likert, Rensis. 1967. The Human Organization: Its Management and Value. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Locke, Edwin A. 1976. The Nature and Consequences of Job Satisfaction. In Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, edited by M.D. Dunnette, 1297-1349. Chicago: Rand McNally.

Locke, Edwin A., and David M. Schweiger. 1979. Participation in Decision-Making: One More Look. In Research in Organizational Behavior 1, edited by B.M. Staw, 265-339. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

London, Manuel, and Henrik Holt Larsen. 1999. Relationships between Feedback and Self-Development. Group and Organization Management 24(1): 5-27.

Macy, Barry A., Mark F. Peterson, and Larry W. Norton. 1989. A Test of Participation Theory in a Work Redesign Field Setting: Degree of Participation and Comparison Site Contrasts. Human Relations 42(12): 1095-1165.

Maslow, Abraham. 1954. Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper and Row.

McCue, Clifford P., and Gerasimos A. Gianakis. 1997. The Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Performance: The Case of Local Government Finance Officers in Ohio. Public Productivity and Management Review 21(2): 170-91.

McGregor, Douglas. 1960. The Human Side of Enterprise. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Miller, Katherine I., and Peter R. Monge. 1986. Participation, Satisfaction, and Productivity: A Meta-Analytic Review. Academy of Management Journal 29(4): 727-53.

Mottaz, Clifford J. 1988. Determinants of Organizational Commitment. Human Relations 41(6): 467-82.

Noer, David M. 1993. Healing the Wounds: Overcoming the Trauma of Layoffs and Revitalizing Downsized Organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Northouse, Peter G. 1997. Leadership: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Oldham, Greg R., and Anne Cummings. 1996. Employee Creativity: Personal and Contextual Factors at Work. Academy of Management Journal 39(3): 607-34.

Ouchi, William G. 1981. Theory Z. New York: Addison-Wesley.

Pascale, Richard T., and Anthony G. Athos. 1981. The Art of Japanese Management: Applications for American Executives. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Peterson, Donald E., and John Hillkirk. 1991. A Better Idea: Redefining the Way American Companies Work. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.

Petty, M.M., Gail W. McGee, and Jerry W. Cavender. 1984. A Meta-Analysis of the Relationships between Individual Performance. Academy of Management Review 9(4): 712-21.

Pierce, Jon L., Stephen A. Rubenfeld, and Susan Morgan. 1991. Employee Ownership: A Conceptual Model of Process and Effect. Academy of Management Review 16(1): 121-44.

Rago, William V. 1996. Straggles in Transformation: A Study in TQM, Leadership, and Organizational Culture in a Government Agency. Public Administration Review 56(3): 227-34.

Rainey, Hal G. 1997. Understanding and Managing Public Organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Spector, Paul E. 1986. Perceived Control by Employees: A Meta-Analysis of Studies Concerning Autonomy and Participation at Work. Human Relations 39(11): 1005-16.

Spreitzer, Gretchen M., Mark A. Kizilos, and Stephen W. Nason. 1997. A Dimensional Analysis of the Relationship between Psychological Empowerment and Effectiveness, Satisfaction, and Strain. Journal of Management 23(5): 679-704.

Tett, Robert P., and John P. Meyer. 1993. Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, Turnover Intention, and Turnover: Path Analyses Based on Meta-Analytic Findings. Personnel Psychology 46(2): 259-93.

Thomas, Kenneth W., and Betty A. Velthouse. 1990. Cognitive Elements of Empowerment: An Interpretative Model of Intrinsic Task Motivation. Academy of Management Review 15 (4): 666-81.

Tichy, Noel M., and Mary A. DeVanna. 1990. The Transformational Leader. New York: John Wiley.

Ting, Yuan. 1996. Analysis of Job Satisfaction of the Federal White-Collar Work Force: Findings from the Survey of Federal Employees. American Review of Public Administration 26(4): 439-56.

U.S. Merit System Protection Board (MSPB). 1998a. Federal Supervisors and Strategic Human Resources Management. Washington, DC: MSPB.

--. 1998b. The Changing Federal Workplace: Employee Perspectives. Washington, DC: MSPB.

Wagner, John A. III. 1994. Participation's Effect on Performance and Satisfaction: A Reconsideration of Research Evidence. Academy of Management Review 19(2): 312-30.

Wanous, John P. 1977. Organizational Entry: Newcomers Moving from Outside to Inside. Psychological Bulletin 84: 601-18.

Zajac, Gary, and Ali A. Al-Kazemi. 1997. Reinventing Government and Redefining Leadership. Public Productivity and Management Review 20(4): 372-83.

Soonhee Kim is an assistant professor in the Department of Public Administration at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Her teaching and research interests include human resources management, public management, program evaluation, and information resources management. She has authored several journal articles in the areas of public management and human resources management. Email: sokim@ccmail.nevada.edu.
COPYRIGHT 2002 Wiley Subscription Services, Inc.
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2002 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Kim, Soonhee
Publication:Public Administration Review
Article Type:Statistical Data Included
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Mar 1, 2002
Words:7570
Previous Article:Workplace relations: friendship patterns and consequences (according to managers).
Next Article:Live bureaucrats and dead public servants: how people in government are discussed on the floor of the House.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters