Part I United Nations views on peace support operations.
Since the ending of the Cold War there has been an upsurge in the global demand for peace support operations, (1)) more specifically for peacekeeping, as a mechanism to assist conflict-ridden countries to create conditions for sustainable peace. These operations form part of a broad range of multilateral peace missions that, amongst others, monitor and observe ceasefire agreements; serve as confidence-building measures; protect the delivery of humanitarian assistance; assist with the post-conflict demobilisation and reintegration process; strengthen institutional capacities in the areas of the judiciary, the rule of law, policing and human rights; provide electoral support; and assist in economic and social development. For example, in 2005 a total of 58 multilateral peace missions were conducted across the world, deploying 289 500 military and 17 500 civilian personnel. These included United Nations (UN) peace missions administered by the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and the UN Department of Political Affairs (DPA), for example the UN Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC) and the UN Integrated Office in Sierra Leone (UNIOSIL); peace missions conducted or led by regional organisations and alliances, both in and out of area, for example the African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS[AU]) and European Union Police Mission in Kinshasa (DRC) (EUPOL Kinshasa); and peace missions led by non-standing coalitions, for example foreign military intervention undertaken by the Multinational Force in Iraq (MNF-1) and the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission (NNSC) monitoring the Armistice Agreement, 1953 between the two Koreas. (2))
A similar and equally unprecedented increase has occurred in the number and size of United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations. The current upsurge in UN peacekeeping deployment began in 2003 and peaked in late 2006, with 18 ongoing peace operations in Africa (8), the Caribbean (1), the Middle East (3), Europe (3) and South and Southeast Asia (3). This includes 16 peacekeeping missions and two special political-peacebuilding missions directed and supported by respectively the DPKO and DPA, as well as by the General Assembly's Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations. (3)) The recently mandated deployments proposed for the Sudan and Timor-Leste have contributed to the record-breaking number of personnel in the field, currently standing at 80 976 military and police personnel and some 15 000 civilians. The previous peak, in the 58 years of UN peacekeeping operations, was in 1993 when 78 444 uniformed personnel were deployed. The total number of staff members is expected to increase to 140 000 by 2007, posing the possibility of political and operational overstretch. The peacekeeping personnel come from some 112 countries, with Ghana, Ethiopia, Nigeria and South Africa being among the top ten contributors. Peacekeeping is paid for by all member states, according to an agreed upon formula, with the main contributors being the United States of America and Japan who together contribute 46 per cent. The 2006 budget of US$4,75 billion is expected to increase to US$7 billion, with outstanding contributions of US$2,5 billion. (4))
Apart from representing a growing confidence in UN peacekeeping as a means to build stability after conflict, these new demands and deployments have brought unprecedented challenges to the UN in the areas of personnel, resources, management, logistical support, quality assurance, professionalism, oversight and the maintenance of the political engagement of member states. (5)) However, in order to fully comprehend this phenomenon, cognisance must be taken of the normative, political, legal (international law) and institutional context of these peace support operations.
There exist various methods of settling international disputes, amongst others intervention by an international agency to facilitate peaceful settlement or to undertake collective action to restore order when international peace has been compromised. Against this background, the basic framework for and basis of UN peace support operations is the Charter of the United Nations. As an international treaty it identifies the maintenance of international peace and security as one of the primary purposes and a central part of the UN mandate. The Charter furthermore designates the Security Council as the UN organ with the primary responsibility for dealing with issues of international peace and security, complemented by the General Assembly and the Secretary-General.
Concerning the involvement and role of the Security Council, a distinction is made between the peaceful settlement of disputes (Chapter VI of the Charter) and collective security in terms of enforceable measures (sanctions and military actions) with respect to threats to the peace, breaches of the peace and acts of aggression (Chapter VII of the UN Charter). These two pillars of peace and security, more specifically collective security to the extent that it is based on the notion that all nations share a primary interest in the maintenance of peace, have become the preferred methods (as opposed to balance of power) of controlling war and conflict in a world of sovereign states. Nonetheless, the UN collective security system--especially concrete measures in terms of the Chapter VII provisions--neither functioned effectively nor was applied in its ideal-type format. This was mainly due to the intrinsic limitations and weaknesses of collective security and to the realities of world politics. (6))
The failure of collective security called for substitute innovations that could contribute to international peace and security in situations that did not respond to peaceful settlement procedures. These alternatives included, amongst others, the involvement of regional arrangements in accordance with Chapter VIII of the Charter; the residual role of the General Assembly in terms of the Uniting for Peace resolution adopted on 3 November 1950; and peacekeeping as an innovative process that involves the deployment of military forces as a measure short of armed force--the so-called 'six and a half option, according to former Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjold, since it does not match the classical pattern of peaceful settlement or that of collective security.
Chapter VIII of the Charter specifically makes provision for regional arrangements or agencies to deal with matters relating to the maintenance of peace and security that are appropriate for regional action, and also for the utilisation of these regional arrangements by the Security Council for enforcement action under its authority. The residual function of the General Assembly is based on Articles 10, 11 and 12 of the Charter that allows the organ to "discuss any questions or any matters within the scope of the present Charter ... and to make recommendations ... on any such questions or matters" and to "discuss any questions relating to the maintenance of international peace and security brought before it by ... the Security Council". The liberal interpretation of these articles, encapsulated in the Uniting for Peace resolution, adds specific means of dealing with breaches of peace to the authority of the General Assembly should the Security Council be immobilised by disagreement among its permanent members and by the subsequent exercise of vetoes. In the absence of collective security measures mandated by the Security Council, uniting for peace provides for the collective legitimisation of collective action undertaken by member states, including the use of armed force, on the recommendation of the General Assembly.
The concept of peacekeeping is not specifically mentioned or described in the Charter but was pioneered and developed by the UN. It has its origins in the fact that the Security Council has maintained flexibility and has dealt with most situations without reference to any specific Charter provision. This practice has not only blurred the distinction between peaceful settlement and collective action, but has also produced peacekeeping as an evolving process. As such peacekeeping transcends the diplomatic means for the peaceful settlement of disputes, but falls short of enforcement provisions. In practice, peacekeeping operations are instituted and mandated by the Security Council, whereas the Secretary-General reports to the Security Council on the carrying out of operations. (7))
Following its introduction, the nature and practice of UN peacekeeping and of peace support operations at large have undergone significant change over the past 60 years. UN peacekeeping operations commenced in May 1948 with the first deployment of a UN mission in the form of the (still active) UN Truce Supervision Organisation (UNTSO) to monitor the armistice between Egypt, Israel, Lebanon and Syria (see Security Council Resolution 50 (1948). For the first five decades (1948-1989), covering the Cold War period, the deployments took the form of first generation 'traditional' or 'Chapter VI operations'. These were mandated to perform limited functions, mostly following inter-state wars, such as the monitoring of ceasefires; interpositioning between the parties to conflicts; assisting in troop-withdrawals; and maintaining buffer zones (see, for example, Security Council Resolution 143 (1960) on the UN Operation in the Congo--UNOC). Since the end of the Cold War (1990-2006), mainly on account of the dramatic changes in the nature and patterns of (inter- and intra-state) conflict and in the international community's response to these conflicts, the mandates expanded beyond these initial discreet tasks and traditional responsibilities (see, for example, Security Council Resolution 1547 (2004) on the UN Advance Mission in the Sudan--UNAMIS; and Security Council Resolution 1590 (2005) on the UN Mission in the Sudan--UNMIS). Presently, they include a spectrum of peace missions ranging from, on the one end of the spectrum, Chapter VI peacemaking, through peacekeeping, peace-building, humanitarian support and security sector reform to, on the other end of the spectrum, Chapter VII powers culminating in legitimate peace enforcement. (8)) Thus, in addition to military related aspects, peacekeeping now also has a large civilian dimension and has, in effect, become integrated peace missions. (9))
Although peacekeeping has changed over the past six decades, its wide-ranging connotations were evident from the outset. Despite the fact that it originated and settled in the domain and under the authority of the Security Council, peacekeeping soon became closely associated with other techniques by the time it matured during the term of UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjold in the early 1960s. Based on the initiatives of the Secretary-General, undertaken in terms of the Charter provision that he/she "shall perform such other functions as are entrusted to him by these (main) organs (of the United Nations)" (Art 98), peacekeeping became part of an innovative approach and a broader alternative to maintain and promote peace, namely that of preventive diplomacy. The latter included skilful negotiations in the form of what Hammarskjold termed quite diplomacy; and a UN presence at the scene of conflict through conventional peacekeeping missions as well as through the presence of personal representatives of the Secretary-General, UN mediators, commissions of good office or conciliation, and observer groups. (10))
After the end of the Cold War, due to the changing context of world politics, this extension of peacekeeping settled in peace support operations and eventually in generic peace missions. The framework for this was An Agenda for Peace--the June 1992 report of the Secretary-General, Boutros Boutros-Ghali, pursuant to the January 1992 Summit Meeting of the Security Council--and the 1995 Supplement to An Agenda for Peace. This agenda broadened the nature and scope of United Nations engagement and activities to cover the principal but simultaneous and overlapping areas of preventive diplomacy, peacemaking, peacekeeping, peace enforcement and peace-building.
These developments also necessitated a comprehensive review of peacekeeping operations. The review of peacekeeping operations, however, has a long history. It dates back to the establishment in 1965 of a Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations under the auspices of the General Assembly (see General Assembly Resolution 2006 (19)). Since then, this committee has remained seized of the matter and has periodically reviewed and reported on the whole question of peacekeeping operations in all their aspects, also to the extent that this review has become a regular agenda item of the Special Political and Decolonization Committee (Fourth Committee) of the General Assembly. The most definitive review of these operations, that also produced very specific recommendations, was the 2000 Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations (the Brahimi Report) commissioned by the Secretary-General. The Security Council also responded to and endorsed the Brahimi Report through Resolution 1327 (2000). Essentially, the aforesaid required clear, credible and achievable mandates for peacekeeping operations.
The global community's shared responsibility for this endeavour and the kinds of policies and institutions required for the UN to effectively respond to the threats facing humankind in the 21st century, were the focus of several documents that provided a broader normative and political context for UN peace missions and peacekeeping operations. These were the 2000 Millennium Report of the Secretary-General entitled 'We the Peoples': The Role of the United Nations in the 21st Century, endorsed by the United Nations Millennium Declaration, 2000; the December 2004 Report of the Secretary-General's Highlevel Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change entitled A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility, commissioned by Secretary-General Kofi Annan; and the subsequent report for decision by heads of states and government in September 2005, entitled In Larger Freedom: Towards Development, Security and Human Rights for All. In pursuit of 'larger freedom', these reports and declaration inter alia focussed on 'freedom from fear' and reiterated the need for a comprehensive vision of collective action and the revitalisation of existing multilateral frameworks. On the one hand, they provided the ethical and political justification for peace support operations. On the other hand, they extended the multidimensionality of integrated peace missions well beyond the confines of traditional peacekeeping operations.
These reports also invoked and directed the peace support operations of regional organisations, specifically those of Africa. For example, the 2004 report, A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility, specifically made provision for supporting stronger relations between the UN and regional organisations, including the development and implementation of a 10-year plan for capacity building with the African Union (AU). This was due to the fact that Africa had become the major theatre of peacekeeping operations; a theatre that poses enormous challenges to the international system as it struggles to meet the increasing demands for peacekeeping. The African emphasis, however, is not new. It dates back to the 1992 An Agenda for Peace and has since been a recurrent theme of various reports of the Secretary-General to the General Assembly and of a succession of General Assembly and Security Council resolutions and statements. The 2000 Brahimi Report also linked the issue of standby arrangements to regional co-operation.
Most notable were the 1998 report on The causes of conflict and the promotion of durable peace and sustainable development in Africa; the 1999 and 2004 reports on the Enhancement of African peacekeeping capacity; the January 2003 General Assembly Resolution 57/48 on Cooperation between the United Nations and the African Union; the October 2005 Security Council Resolution 1631 (2006); and the September 2006 Statement S/PRST/2006/39 of the President of the Security Council. These documents emphasised the role of African regional and subregional organisations in peacekeeping and the need for co-ordinated co-operation between the UN and the AU, but also covered the role of the emerging African Standby Force capable of a rapid, flexible and integrated response to complex emergencies.
The future of UN peace support operations is anticipated in a 2005 inter-office memorandum of the DPKO, entitled Peace Operations 2010. It contemplates a goal-orientated plan of action in support of UN peace operations but also concurs that the extended notion of peacekeeping, apart from being a fixture of the international system, remains subject to change and evolution.
In summary, the evolutionary trajectory of peace support operations (alternatively multilateral peace missions) is characterised by distinct phases. As a first phase, in an ideal and normative sense, the point of departure was the system of collective security framed by the UN Charter and Chapter VII in particular. The second phase, mainly due to the impaired ability of the Security Council during the Cold War, involved the pursuit of innovative alternatives by enhancing the residual and ancillary responsibilities of the General Assembly and regional agencies, but also by developing the idea and practice of peacekeeping. However, as a third phase, from the outset and on account of the initiatives of Dag Hammarskjold, peacekeeping was expanded and inextricably linked to preventive diplomacy, more specifically skilful quiet diplomacy and an extended UN presence. The enlargement and expansion of peace support operations after the end of the Cold War constituted a fourth phase. Beyond preventive diplomacy and within the context of a peace agenda, this phase saw the expansion of peacekeeping to and its linkage with peacemaking, post-conflict peace-building, enforcement action and disarmament. This expansion was extended in a fifth post-millennium phase in pursuit of larger freedom, more specifically freedom from fear, that included a revision of collective security, the reduction of the prevalence of war through integrated multilateral peace missions, and the enhancement of the capacity of regional and subregional organisations to undertake in-area peace missions.
From the aforesaid it is evident that UN peace support operations, peacekeeping operations (or missions) in particular, form a core element of international conflict response; involve a massive enterprise; enjoy a high success rate; are a cost-effective conflict management and resolution response; make a difference where it matters most; and continue to evolve. (11)) In conclusion, this evolving UN framework provides the point of departure for, and contextualises, legitimises and legalises the African, Southern African and South African views on and activities regarding peace support operations.
1. Conceptual ambiguity exists, both in an historical and an analytical context, regarding the often confusing but related terms 'peace support operations', 'peace mission', 'peacekeeping missions', 'peacekeeping operations', etc. Although this publication does not include a theoretical and conceptual analysis, and although it might also contain usage that differs from what follows, the following conventions concerning these concepts are adhered to for purposes of consistency and clarity: The concept peace support operations is used widely to cover both peacekeeping and peace enforcement operations and refers to all military activities in support of a peace mission, with the inclusion of military activities in support of predominantly political activities such as preventive diplomacy, peacemaking and peace-building; the concept peace mission is more generic and--also in order to differentiate the military connotation of the term operation from the term mission--it suggests a broader series of political and diplomatic activities to manage and settle international disputes including preventive diplomacy, peacemaking, peacekeeping, peace enforcement and peace-building; and the concept peacekeeping operations (or alternatively peacekeeping or peacekeeping missions) describes the mandated activities of (predominantly) the United Nations in the field, involving both military and civilian personnel, as a technique that expands the possibilities for both the prevention of conflict and the making of peace. This conceptual distinction is not always rigorously maintained in practice and in the selected official documents, and the use of the terms may both overlap and differ. The (hyphenated) spelling of some of the terms is not standardised and may also vary, depending on the source document.
2. For an analysis of these missions, see Wiharta, S, "Appendix 3A. Multilateral Peace Missions in 2005", in SIPRI Yearbook 2006: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Oxford University Press, Oxford, Oxford, 2006, pp 158-193.
3. For a list of all past and current UN peacekeeping operations since 1948, see United Nations, United Nations Peacekeeping Operations, background note, at http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/dpko/bnote.htm accessed on 21 November 2006; and United Nations, United Nations Peacekeeping 1948-2006, at http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/dpko/timeline/accessed on 21 November 2006. Examples of special political-peacebuilding missions are the completed UN Advance Mission in Sudan (UNAMIS) and the current UN Assistance Mission in Iraq (UNAMI).
4. United Nations, Department of Public Information, "United Nations Military, Police Deployment Reaches All-time High in October", Press Release PKO/152, News and Media Division, New York, 10 November 2006, at http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2006/pko152.doc.htm accessed on 21 November. 2006; and United Nations, Department of Peacekeeping Operations, "Top UN Peacekeeping Official Warns of 'Overstretch' as Staff Numbers Surge", Press Conference by Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Jean-Marie Guehenno, UN News Centre, New York, 4 October 2006, at http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/dpko/articles/article041006.htm accessed on 21 November 2006.
5. Bennett, A le R, International Organizations: Principles and Issues, 6th edition, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1995, pp 143-147 and 149-154.
6. Ibid, pp 155-159.
7. United Nations, Department of Public Information, United Nations Peacekeeping, DPI/1399-93527, New York, August 1993, pp 3-10.
8. Wiharta, S, op cit, pp 158-159.
9. United Nations, Department of Public Information, United Nations Peacekeeping, op cit, p 3.
10. Bennett, A le R, op cit, pp 157-158.
11. United Nations, Department of Peacekeeping Operations, Fact Sheet, DPI/2429/Rev.1, September 2006, at http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/factsheet.pdf accessed on 21 November 2006.
2. PEACEKEEPING AND PEACE SUPPORT OPERATIONS
Charter of the United Nations--signed on 26 June 1945, in San Francisco, at the conclusion of the United Nations Conference on International Organization, and came into force on 24 October 1945.
WE THE PEOPLES OF THE UNITED NATIONS DETERMINED
-- to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind,...
AND FOR THESE ENDS
-- to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, and
-- to ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest,...
HAVE RESOLVED TO COMBINE OUR EFFORTS TO ACCOMPLISH THESE AIMS
CHAPTER I: PURPOSES AND PRINCIPLES
The Purposes of the United Nations are:
1. To maintain international peace and security, and to that end: to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement of international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace;...
The Organization and its Members, in pursuit of the Purposes stated in Article 1, shall act in accordance with the following Principles.
1. The Organization is based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all its Members.
2. All Members, in order to ensure to all of them the rights and benefits resulting from membership, shall fulfill in good faith the obligations assumed by them in accordance with the present Charter.
3. All Members shall settle their international disputes by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security, and justice, are not endangered.
4. All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations.
5. All Members shall give the United Nations every assistance in any action it takes in accordance with the present Charter, and shall refrain from giving assistance to any state against which the United Nations is taking preventive or enforcement action.
6. The Organization shall ensure that states which are not Members of the United Nations act in accordance with these Principles so far as may be necessary for the maintenance of international peace and security.
7. Nothing contained in the present Charter shall authorize the United Nations to intervene in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state or shall require the Members to submit such matters to settlement under the present Charter; but this principle shall not prejudice the application of enforcement measures under Chapter VII.
CHAPTER IV: THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY
FUNCTIONS and POWERS
The General Assembly may discuss any questions or any matters within the scope of the present Charter or relating to the powers and functions of any organs provided for in the present Charter, and, except as provided in Article 12, may make recommendations to the Members of the United Nations or to the Security Council or to both on any such questions or matters.
1. The General Assembly may consider the general principles of cooperation in the maintenance of international peace and security, including the principles governing disarmament and the regulation of armaments, and may make recommendations with regard to such principles to the Members or to the Security Council or to both.
2. The General Assembly may discuss any questions relating to the maintenance of international peace and security brought before it by any Member of the United Nations, or by the Security Council, or by a state which is not a Member of the United Nations ... and ... may make recommendations with regard to any such questions to the state or states concerned or to the Security Council or to both. Any such question on which action is necessary shall be referred to the Security Council by the General Assembly either before or after discussion.
3. The General Assembly may call the attention of the Security Council to situations which are likely to endanger international peace and security.
While the Security Council is exercising in respect of any dispute or situation the functions assigned to it in the present Charter, the General Assembly shall not make any recommendation with regard to that dispute or situation unless the Security Council so requests.
CHAPTER V: THE SECURITY COUNCIL
FUNCTIONS and POWERS
1. In order to ensure prompt and effective action by the United Nations, its Members confer on the Security Council primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security, and agree that in carrying out its duties under this responsibility the Security Council acts on their behalf.
2. In discharging these duties the Security Council shall act in accordance with the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations. The specific powers granted to the Security Council for the discharge of these duties are laid down in Chapters VI, VII, VIII, and XII.
CHAPTER VI: PACIFIC SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES
1. The parties to any dispute, the continuance of which is likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security, shall, first of all, seek a solution by negotiation, enquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement, resort to regional agencies or arrangements, or other peaceful means of their own choice.
2. The Security Council shall, when it deems necessary, call upon the parties to settle their dispute by such means.
1. Should the parties to a dispute of the nature referred to in Article 33 fail to settle it by the means indicated in that Article, they shall refer it to the Security Council.
2. If the Security Council deems that the continuance of the dispute is in fact likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security, it shall decide whether to take action ... or to recommend such terms of settlement as it may consider appropriate.
CHAPTER VII: ACTION WITH RESPECT TO THREATS TO THE PEACE, BREACHES OF THE PEACE, AND ACTS OF AGGRESSION
The Security Council shall determine the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression and shall make recommendations, or decide what measures shall be taken in accordance with Articles 41 and 42, to maintain or restore international peace and security.
The Security Council may decide what measures not involving the use of armed force are to be employed to give effect to its decisions, and it may call upon the Members of the United Nations to apply such measures. These may include complete or partial interruption of economic relations and of rail, sea, air, postal, telegraphic, radio, and other means of communication, and the severance of diplomatic relations.
Should the Security Council consider that measures provided for in Article 41 would be inadequate or have proved to be inadequate, it may take such action by air, sea, or land forces as may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security. Such action may include demonstrations, blockade, and other operations by air, sea, or land forces of Members of the United Nations.
1. All Members of the United Nations, in order to contribute to the maintenance of international peace and security, undertake to make available to the Security Council, on its call and in accordance with a special agreement or agreements, armed forces, assistance, and facilities, including rights of passage, necessary for the purpose of maintaining international peace and security.
Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent right of individual or collective self-defence if an armed attack occurs against a Member of the United Nations, until the Security Council has taken measures necessary to maintain international peace and security. Measures taken by Members in the exercise of this right of self-defence shall be immediately reported to the Security Council and shall not in any way affect the authority and responsibility of the Security Council under the present Charter to take at any time such action as it deems necessary in order to maintain or restore international peace and security.
CHAPTER VIII: REGIONAL ARRANGEMENTS
Nothing in the present Charter precludes the existence of regional arrangements or agencies for dealing with such matters relating to the maintenance of international peace and security as are appropriate for regional action provided that such arrangements or agencies and their activities are consistent with the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations.
1. The Security Council shall, where appropriate, utilize such regional arrangements or agencies for enforcement action under its authority. But no enforcement action shall be taken under regional arrangements or by regional agencies without the authorization of the Security Council, with the exception of measures against any enemy state,... provided for ... in regional arrangements directed against renewal of aggressive policy on the part of any such state, until such time as the Organization may, on request of the Governments concerned, be charged with the responsibility for preventing further aggression by such a state.
The Security Council shall at all times be kept fully informed of activities undertaken or in contemplation under regional arrangements or by regional agencies for the maintenance of international peace and security.
CHAPTER XV: THE SECRETARIAT
The Secretary-General shall act in that capacity (as the chief administrative officer of the UN--Art 97) in all meetings of the General Assembly, of the Security Council, of the Economic and Social Council, and of the Trusteeship Council, and shall perform such other functions as are entrusted to him by these organs. The Secretary-General shall make an annual report to the General Assembly on the work of the Organization.
The Secretary-General may bring to the attention of the Security Council any matter which in his opinion may threaten the maintenance of international peace and security.
United Nations General Assembly Resolution 377, "Uniting For Peace"--A/RES/377 (V), November 3, 1950
The General Assembly
Recognizing that the first two stated Purposes of the United Nations are:
"To maintain international peace and security, and to that end: to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement of international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace", and
"To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace",
Reaffirming the importance of the exercise by the Security Council of its primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security, and the duty of the permanent members to seek unanimity and to exercise restraint in the use of the veto,
Reaffirming that the initiative in negotiating the agreements for armed forces provided for in Article 43 of the Charter belongs to the Security Council, and desiring to ensure that, pending the conclusion of such agreements, the United Nations has at its disposal means for maintaining international peace and security,
Conscious that failure of the Security Council to discharge its responsibilities on behalf of all the Member States, particularly those responsibilities referred to in the two preceding paragraphs, does not relieve Member States of their obligations or the United Nations of its responsibility under the Charter to maintain international peace and security,
Recognizing in particular that such failure does not deprive the General Assembly of its rights or relieve it of its responsibilities under the Charter in regard to the maintenance of international peace and security,
Recognizing that discharge by the General Assembly of its responsibilities in these respects calls for possibilities of observation which would ascertain the facts and expose aggressors; for the existence of armed forces which could be used collectively; and for the possibility of timely recommendation by the General Assembly to Members of the United Nations for collective action which, to be effective, should be prompt,
1. Resolves that if the Security Council, because of lack of unanimity of the permanent members, fails to exercise its primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security in any case where there appears to be a threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression, the General Assembly shall consider the matter immediately with a view to making appropriate recommendations to Members for collective measures, including in the case of a breach of the peace or act of aggression the use of armed force when necessary, to maintain or restore international peace and security. If not in session at the time, the General Assembly may meet in emergency special session within twenty-four hours of the request therefor....
3. Establishes a Peace Observation Commission which,... could observe and report on the situation in any area where there exists international tension the continuance of which is likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security....
7. Invites each Member of the United Nations to survey its resources in order to determine the nature and scope of the assistance it may be in a position to render in support of any recommendations of the Security Council or of the General Assembly for the restoration of international peace and security;
8. Recommends to the States Members of the United Nations that each Member maintain within its national armed forces elements so trained, organized and equipped that they could promptly be made available, in accordance with its constitutional processes, for service as a United Nations unit or units, upon recommendation by the Security Council or the General Assembly, without prejudice to the use of such elements in exercise of the right of individual or collective self-defence recognized in Article 51 of the Charter;
11. Establishes a Collective Measures Committee ... and directs the Committee, in consultation with the Secretary-General and with such Member States as the Committee finds appropriate, to study and make a report to the Security Council and the General Assembly,... on methods, including those in section C of the present resolution, which might be used to maintain and strengthen international peace and security in accordance with the Purposes and Principles of the Charter, taking account of collective self-defence and regional arrangements (Articles 51 and 52 of the Charter);
14. Is fully conscious that, in adopting the proposals set forth above, enduring peace will not be secured solely by collective security arrangements against breaches of international peace and acts of aggression but that a genuine and lasting peace depends also upon the observance of all the Principles and Purposes established in the Charter of the United Nations, upon the implementation of the resolutions of the Security Council, the General Assembly and other principal organs of the United Nations intended to achieve the maintenance of international peace and security, and especially upon respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all and on the establishment and maintenance of conditions of economic and social well-being in all countries; and accordingly
15. Urges Member States to respect fully, and to intensify, joint action, in co-operation with the United Nations, to develop and stimulate universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms, and to intensify individual and collective efforts to achieve conditions of economic stability and social progress, particularly through the development of under-developed countries and areas.
Security Council resolutions--select examples.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 50; May 29, 1948 50 (1948). Resolution of 29 May 1948 [S/801]
The Security Council,
Desiring to bring about a cessation of hostilities in Palestine without prejudice to the rights, claims and position of either Arabs or Jews,
1. Calls upon all Governments and authorities concerned to order a cessation of all acts of armed force for a period of four weeks;
6. Instructs the United Nations Mediator in Palestine, in concert with the Truce Commission, to supervise the observance of the above provisions, and decides that they shall be provided with a sufficient number of military observers;
11. Decides that if the present resolution is rejected by either party or by both, or if, having been accepted, it is subsequently repudiated or violated, the situation in Palestine will be reconsidered with a view to action under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations;
12. Calls upon all Governments to take all possible steps to assist in the implementation of this resolution.
Adopted at the 310th meeting.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 143; July 14, 1960 143 (1960). Resolution of 14 July 1960 [S/4387]
The Security Council,
Considering the request for military assistance addressed to the Secretary-General by the President and the Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo,
2. Decides to authorize the Secretary-General to take the necessary steps, in consultation with the Government of the Republic of the Congo, to provide the Government with such military assistance as may be necessary until, through the efforts of the Congolese Government with the technical assistance of the United Nations, the national security forces may be able, in the opinion of the Government, to meet fully their tasks;
Adopted at the 873rd meeting.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1547, adopted by the Security Council at its 4988th meeting, 11 June 2004 [S/RES/1547 (2004)]
The Security Council,
1. Welcomes the Secretary-General's proposal to establish, for an initial period of three months and under the authority of an SRSG, a United Nations advance team in Sudan as a special political mission, dedicated to preparation of the international monitoring foreseen in the 25 September 2003 Naivasha Agreement on Security Arrangements, to facilitate contacts with the parties concerned and to prepare for the introduction of a peace support operation following the signing of a Comprehensive Peace Agreement;
2. Endorses the Secretary-General's proposals for the staffing of the advance team and requests in this regard the Secretary-General to conclude all necessary agreements with the Government of Sudan as expeditiously as possible;
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1590, adopted by the Security Council at its 5151st meeting, 24 March 2005 [S/RES/1590 (2005)]
The Security Council,
1. Decides to establish the United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) for an initial period of 6 months and further decides that UNMIS will consist of up to 10,000 military personnel and an appropriate civilian component including up to 715 civilian police personnel;
An Agenda for Peace: Preventive diplomacy, peacemaking and peace-keeping--A/47/277--S/24111, 17 June 1992
Report of the Secretary-General pursuant to the statement adopted by the Summit Meeting of the Security Council on 31 January 1992
1. In its statement of 31 January 1992, adopted at the conclusion of the first meeting held by the Security Council at the level of Heads of State and Government, I was invited to prepare,... an "analysis and recommendations on ways of strengthening and making more efficient within the framework and provisions of the Charter the capacity of the United Nations for preventive diplomacy, for peacemaking and for peace-keeping.
I. THE CHANGING CONTEXT
8. In the course of the past few years the immense ideological barrier that for decades gave rise to distrust and hostility ... has collapsed....
9. Authoritarian regimes have given way to more democratic forces and responsive Governments....
10. To the hundreds of millions who gained their independence in the surge of decolonization following the creation of the United Nations, have been added millions more who have recently gained freedom....
11. We have entered a time of global transition marked by uniquely contradictory trends. Regional and continental associations of States are evolving ways to deepen cooperation and ease some of the contentious characteristics of sovereign and nationalistic rivalries....
12. The concept of peace is easy to grasp; that of international security is more complex, for a pattern of contradictions has arisen here as well....
13. This new dimension of insecurity must not be allowed to obscure the continuing and devastating problems of unchecked population growth, crushing debt burdens, barriers to trade, drugs and the growing disparity between rich and poor....
15. With the end of the cold war ... (the) demands on the United Nations have surged.... Our aims must be:
-- To seek to identify at the earliest possible stage situations that could produce conflict, and to try through diplomacy to remove the sources of danger before violence results;
-- Where conflict erupts, to engage in peacemaking aimed at resolving the issues that have led to conflict;
-- Through peace-keeping, to work to preserve peace, however fragile, where fighting has been halted and to assist in implementing agreements achieved by the peacemakers;
-- To stand ready to assist in peace-building in its differing contexts: rebuilding the institutions and infrastructures of nations torn by civil war and strife; and building bonds of peaceful mutual benefit among nations formerly at war;
-- And in the largest sense, to address the deepest causes of conflict: economic despair, social injustice and political oppression. It is possible to discern an increasingly common moral perception that spans the world's nations and peoples, and which is finding expression in international laws, many owing their genesis to the work of this Organization.
16. This wider mission for the world Organization will demand the concerted attention and effort of individual States, of regional and non-governmental organizations and of all of the United Nations system, with each of the principal organs functioning in the balance and harmony that the Charter requires. The Security Council has been assigned by all Member States the primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security under the Charter. In its broadest sense this responsibility must be shared by the General Assembly and by all the functional elements of the world Organization.... The Secretary-General's contribution rests on the pattern of trust and cooperation established between him and the deliberative organs of the United Nations.
20. The terms preventive diplomacy, peacemaking and peace-keeping are integrally related and as used in this report are defined as follows:
-- Preventive diplomacy is action to prevent disputes from arising between parties, to prevent existing disputes from escalating into conflicts and to limit the spread of the latter when they occur.
-- Peacemaking is action to bring hostile parties to agreement, essentially through such peaceful means as those foreseen in Chapter VI of the Charter of the United Nations.
-- Peace-keeping is the deployment of a United Nations presence in the field, hitherto with the consent of all the parties concerned, normally involving United Nations military and/or police personnel and frequently civilians as well. Peace-keeping is a technique that expands the possibilities for both the prevention of conflict and the making of peace.
21. The present report in addition will address the critically related concept of post-conflict peace-building--action to identify and support structures which will tend to strengthen and solidify peace in order to avoid a relapse into conflict. Preventive diplomacy seeks to resolve disputes before violence breaks out; peacemaking and peace-keeping are required to halt conflicts and preserve peace once it is attained. If successful, they strengthen the opportunity for post-conflict peace-building, which can prevent the recurrence of violence among nations and peoples.
22. These four areas for action, taken together, and carried out with the backing of all Members, offer a coherent contribution towards securing peace in the spirit of the Charter....
III. PREVENTIVE DIPLOMACY
23. The most desirable and efficient employment of diplomacy is to ease tensions before they result in conflict--or, if conflict breaks out, to act swiftly to contain it and resolve its underlying causes. Preventive diplomacy may be performed by the Secretary-General personally or through senior staff or specialized agencies and programmes, by the Security Council or the General Assembly, and by regional organizations in cooperation with the United Nations. Preventive diplomacy requires measures to create confidence; it needs early warning based on information gathering and informal or formal fact-finding; it may also involve preventive deployment and, in some situations, demilitarized zones.
Measures to build confidence
24. Mutual confidence and good faith are essential to reducing the likelihood of conflict between States.... I ask all regional organizations to consider what further confidence-building measures might be applied in their areas and to inform the United Nations of the results....
25. Preventive steps must be based upon timely and accurate knowledge of the facts. Beyond this, an understanding of developments and global trends, based on sound analysis, is required....
(a) An increased resort to fact-finding is needed, in accordance with the Charter, initiated either by the Secretary-General, to enable him to meet his responsibilities under the Charter, including Article 99, or by the Security Council or the General Assembly....
(b) Contacts with the Governments of Member States can provide the Secretary-General with detailed information on issues of concern....
(c) Formal fact-finding can be mandated by the Security Council or by the General Assembly, either of which may elect to send a mission under its immediate authority or may invite the Secretary-General to take the necessary steps, including the designation of a special envoy....
26. In recent years the United Nations system has been developing a valuable network of early warning systems concerning environmental threats, the risk of nuclear accident, natural disasters, mass movements of populations, the threat of famine and the spread of disease. There is a need, however, to strengthen arrangements in such a manner that information from these sources can be synthesized with political indicators to assess whether a threat to peace exists and to analyse what action might be taken by the United Nations to alleviate it....
27. Regional arrangements and organizations have an important role in early warning....
28. United Nations operations in areas of crisis have generally been established after conflict has occurred. The time has come to plan for circumstances warranting preventive deployment, which could take place in a variety of instances and ways. For example, in conditions of national crisis there could be preventive deployment at the request of the Government or all parties concerned, or with their consent; in inter-State disputes such deployment could take place when two countries feel that a United Nations presence on both sides of their border can discourage hostilities; furthermore, preventive deployment could take place when a country feels threatened and requests the deployment of an appropriate United Nations presence along its side of the border alone. In each situation, the mandate and composition of the United Nations presence would need to be carefully devised and be clear to all.
33. In the past, demilitarized zones have been established by agreement of the parties at the conclusion of a conflict. In addition to the deployment of United Nations personnel in such zones as part of peace-keeping operations, consideration should now be given to the usefulness of such zones as a form of preventive deployment, on both sides of a border, with the agreement of the two parties, as a means of separating potential belligerents, or on one side of the line, at the request of one party, for the purpose of removing any pretext for attack. Demilitarized zones would serve as symbols of the international community's concern that conflict be prevented.
34. Between the tasks of seeking to prevent conflict and keeping the peace lies the responsibility to try to bring hostile parties to agreement by peaceful means. Chapter VI of the Charter sets forth a comprehensive list of such means for the resolution of conflict. These have been amplified in various declarations adopted by the General Assembly,...
35. The present determination in the Security Council to resolve international disputes in the manner foreseen in the Charter has opened the way for a more active Council role. With greater unity has come leverage and persuasive power to lead hostile parties towards negotiations....
36. The General Assembly, like the Security Council and the Secretary-General, also has an important role assigned to it under the Charter for the maintenance of international peace and security. As a universal forum, its capacity to consider and recommend appropriate action must be recognized....
37. Mediation and negotiation can be undertaken by an individual designated by the Security Council, by the General Assembly or by the Secretary-General....
The World Court
38. The docket of the International Court of Justice has grown fuller but it remains an under-used resource for the peaceful adjudication of disputes. Greater reliance on the Court would be an important contribution to United Nations peacemaking....
Amelioration through assistance
40. Peacemaking is at times facilitated by international action to ameliorate circumstances that have contributed to the dispute or conflict. If, for instance, assistance to displaced persons within a society is essential to a solution, then the United Nations should be able to draw upon the resources of all agencies and programmes concerned....
Sanctions and special economic problems
41. In circumstances when peacemaking requires the imposition of sanctions under Article 41 of the Charter, it is important that States confronted with special economic problems not only have the right to consult the Security Council regarding such problems, as Article 50 provides, but also have a realistic possibility of having their difficulties addressed....
Use of military force
42. It is the essence of the concept of collective security as contained in the Charter that if peaceful means fail, the measures provided in Chapter VII should be used, on the decision of the Security Council, to maintain or restore international peace and security in the face of a "threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression". The Security Council has not so far made use of the most coercive of these measures--the action by military force foreseen in Article 42....
44. The mission of forces under Article 43 would be to respond to outright aggression, imminent or actual. Such forces are not likely to be available for some time to come. Cease-fires have often been agreed to but not complied with, and the United Nations has sometimes been called upon to send forces to restore and maintain the cease-fire. This task can on occasion exceed the mission of peace-keeping forces and the expectations of peace-keeping force contributors. I recommend that the Council consider the utilization of peace-enforcement units in clearly defined circumstances and with their terms of reference specified in advance....
45. Just as diplomacy will continue across the span of all the activities dealt with in the present report, so there may not be a dividing line between peacemaking and peace-keeping. Peacemaking is often a prelude to peace-keeping--just as the deployment of a United Nations presence in the field may expand possibilities for the prevention of conflict, facilitate the work of peacemaking and in many cases serve as a prerequisite for peace-building.
46. Peace-keeping can rightly be called the invention of the United Nations. It has brought a degree of stability to numerous areas of tension around the world.
48. The contrast between the costs of United Nations peace-keeping and the costs of the alternative, war ... would be farcical were the consequences not so damaging to global stability and to the credibility of the Organization. At a time when nations and peoples increasingly are looking to the United Nations for assistance in keeping the peace--and holding it responsible when this cannot be so--fundamental decisions must be taken to enhance the capacity of the Organization in this innovative and productive exercise of its function....
49. The demands on the United Nations for peace-keeping, and peace-building, operations will in the coming years continue to challenge the capacity, the political and financial will and the creativity of the Secretariat and Member States....
New departures in peace-keeping
50. The nature of peace-keeping operations has evolved rapidly in recent years. The established principles and practices of peace-keeping have responded flexibly to new demands of recent years, and the basic conditions for success remain unchanged: a clear and practicable mandate; the cooperation of the parties in implementing that mandate; the continuing support of the Security Council; the readiness of Member States to contribute the military, police and civilian personnel, including specialists, required; effective United Nations command at Headquarters and in the field; and adequate financial and logistic support. As the international climate has changed and peace-keeping operations are increasingly fielded to help implement settlements that have been negotiated by peacemakers, a new array of demands and problems has emerged regarding logistics, equipment, personnel and finance, all of which could be corrected if Member States so wished and were ready to make the necessary resources available.
VI. POST-CONFLICT PEACE-BUILDING
55. Peacemaking and peace-keeping operations, to be truly successful, must come to include comprehensive efforts to identify and support structures which will tend to consolidate peace and advance a sense of confidence and well-being among people. Through agreements ending civil strife, these may include disarming the previously warring parties and the restoration of order, the custody and possible destruction of weapons, repatriating refugees, advisory and training support for security personnel, monitoring elections, advancing efforts to protect human rights, reforming or strengthening governmental institutions and promoting formal and informal processes of political participation.
56. In the aftermath of international war, post-conflict peace-building may take the form of concrete cooperative projects which link two or more countries in a mutually beneficial undertaking that can not only contribute to economic and social development but also enhance the confidence that is so fundamental to peace....
57. In surveying the range of efforts for peace, the concept of peace-building as the construction of a new environment should be viewed as the counterpart of preventive diplomacy, which seeks to avoid the breakdown of peaceful conditions. When conflict breaks out, mutually reinforcing efforts at peacemaking and peace-keeping come into play. Once these have achieved their objectives, only sustained, cooperative work to deal with underlying economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems can place an achieved peace on a durable foundation. Preventive diplomacy is to avoid a crisis; post-conflict peace-building is to prevent a recurrence.
59. There is a new requirement for technical assistance which the United Nations has an obligation to develop and provide when requested: support for the transformation of deficient national structures and capabilities, and for the strengthening of new democratic institutions....
VII. COOPERATION WITH REGIONAL ARRANGEMENTS AND ORGANIZATIONS
60. The Covenant of the League of Nations, in its Article 21, noted the validity of regional understandings for securing the maintenance of peace....
61. The Charter deliberately provides no precise definition of regional arrangements and agencies, thus allowing useful flexibility for undertakings by a group of States to deal with a matter appropriate for regional action which also could contribute to the maintenance of international peace and security....
62. In this regard, the United Nations has recently encouraged a rich variety of complementary efforts....
64. It is not the purpose of the present report to set forth any formal pattern of relationship between regional organizations and the United Nations, or to call for any specific division of labour. What is clear, however, is that regional arrangements or agencies in many cases possess a potential that should be utilized in serving the functions covered in this report: preventive diplomacy, peace-keeping, peacemaking and post-conflict peace-building....
65. Regional arrangements and agencies have not in recent decades been considered in this light, even when originally designed in part for a role in maintaining or restoring peace within their regions of the world. Today a new sense exists that they have contributions to make....
X. AN AGENDA FOR PEACE
80. Power brings special responsibilities, and temptations. The powerful must resist the dual but opposite calls of unilateralism and isolationism if the United Nations is to succeed. For just as unilateralism at the global or regional level can shake the confidence of others, so can isolationism, whether it results from political choice or constitutional circumstance, enfeeble the global undertaking. Peace at home and the urgency of rebuilding and strengthening our individual societies necessitates peace abroad and cooperation among nations. The endeavours of the United Nations will require the fullest engagement of all of its Members, large and small, if the present renewed opportunity is to be seized.
84. Just as it is vital that each of the organs of the United Nations employ its capabilities in the balanced and harmonious fashion envisioned in the Charter, peace in the largest sense cannot be accomplished by the United Nations system or by Governments alone. Non-governmental organizations, academic institutions, parliamentarians, business and professional communities, the media and the public at large must all be involved....
Supplement to an Agenda for Peace, Position Paper of the Secretary-General on the Occasion of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the United Nations--A/50/60--S/1995/1, 3 January 1995
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL ON THE WORK OF THE ORGANIZATION
3. Subsequent discussion of "An Agenda for Peace" ... established that there was general support for the recommendations I had put forward....
III. INSTRUMENTS FOR PEACE AND SECURITY
23. The United Nations has developed a range of instruments for controlling and resolving conflicts between and within States. The most important of them are preventive diplomacy and peacemaking; peace-keeping; peace-building; disarmament; sanctions; and peace enforcement. The first three can be employed only with the consent of the parties to the conflict. Sanctions and enforcement, on the other hand, are coercive measures and thus, by definition, do not require the consent of the party concerned. Disarmament can take place on an agreed basis or in the context of coercive action under Chapter VII.
81. Just as the United Nations does not claim a monopoly of the instruments discussed above, neither can it alone apply them. All the efforts of the Security Council, the General Assembly and the Secretary-General to control and resolve conflicts need the cooperation and support of other players on the international stage: the Governments that constitute the United Nations membership, regional and non-governmental organizations, and the various funds, programmes, offices and agencies of the United Nations system itself. If United Nations efforts are to succeed, the roles of the various players need to be carefully coordinated in an integrated approach to human security.
85. As for regional organizations, Chapter VIII of the Charter defines the role they can play in the maintenance of peace and security. They have much to contribute. Since the Security Council Summit, the United Nations has extended considerably its experience of working with regional organizations in this field....
86. Cooperation between the United Nations and regional organizations takes a number of forms. At least five can be identified: (a) Consultation: this has been well-established for some time. In some cases it is governed by formal agreements and reports are made to the General Assembly; in other cases it is less formal. The purpose is to exchange views on conflicts that both the United Nations and the regional organization may be trying to solve; (b) Diplomatic support: the regional organization participates in the peacemaking activities of the United Nations and supports them by diplomatic initiatives (in a manner analogous to groups of "Friends" as described above) and/or by providing technical input,... (c) Operational support: the most developed example is the provision by NATO of air power to support the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) in the former Yugoslavia. For its part, the United Nations can provide technical advice to regional organizations that undertake peace-keeping operations of their own; (d) Co-deployment: United Nations field missions have been deployed in conjunction with the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) in Liberia and with the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in Georgia .... (e) Joint operations: the example is the United Nations Mission in Haiti, the staffing, direction and financing of which are shared between the United Nations and the Organization of American States (OAS). This arrangement has worked, and it too is a possible model for the future that will need careful assessment.
87. The capacity of regional organizations for peacemaking and peacekeeping varies considerably.... it is possible to identify certain principles on which it should be based.
88. Such principles include: (a) Agreed mechanisms for consultation should be established, but need not be formal; (b) The primacy of the United Nations, as set out in the Charter, must be respected. In particular, regional organizations should not enter into arrangements that assume a level of United Nations support not yet submitted to or approved by its Member States. This is an area where close and early consultation is of great importance; (c) The division of labour must be clearly defined and agreed in order to avoid overlap and institutional rivalry where the United Nations and a regional organization are both working on the same conflict. In such cases it is also particularly important to avoid a multiplicity of mediators; (d) Consistency by members of regional organizations who are also Member States of the United Nations is needed in dealing with a common problem of interest to both organizations, for example, standards for peace-keeping operations.
89. Non-governmental organizations also play an important role in all United Nations activities ...
3. REVIEW OF PEACE SUPPORT OPERATIONS
United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2006 (XIX), February 18, 1965
2006 (XIX). Comprehensive review of the whole question of peace-keeping operations in all their aspects
The General Assembly,
2. Authorizes the President of the General Assembly to establish a Special Committee on Peace-keeping Operations, under the chairmanship of the President of the Assembly, and with the collaboration of the Secretary-General, the composition of which will be announced by the President after appropriate consultations;
3. Instructs the Special Committee,... to undertake as soon as possible a comprehensive review of the whole question of peace-keeping operations in all their aspects, including ways of overcoming the present financial difficulties of the Organization;
4. Requests the Special Committee to ... report to the General Assembly ...
1330th plenary meeting, 18 February 1965.
Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations: A far-reaching Report by an Independent Panel, 2000
I. THE NEED FOR CHANGE
2. The Secretary-General has asked the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations, composed of individuals experienced in various aspects of conflict prevention, peacekeeping and peace-building, to assess the shortcomings of the existing system and to make frank, specific and realistic recommendations for change....
6. The recommendations that the Panel presents balance principle and pragmatism, while honouring the spirit and letter of the Charter of the United Nations and the respective roles of the Organization's legislative bodies....
II. DOCTRINE, STRATEGY AND DECISION-MAKING FOR PEACE OPERATIONS
9. The United Nations system--namely the Member States, Security Council, General Assembly and Secretariat--must commit to peace operations carefully, reflecting honestly on the record of its performance over the past decade. It must adjust accordingly the doctrine upon which peace operations are established; fine-tune its analytical and decision-making capacities to respond to existing realities and anticipate future requirements; and summon the creativity, imagination and will required to implement new and alternative solutions to those situations into which peacekeepers cannot or should not go.
A. Defining the elements of peace operations
10. United Nations peace operations entail three principal activities: conflict prevention and peacemaking; peacekeeping; and peace-building. Longterm conflict prevention addresses the structural sources of conflict in order to build a solid foundation for peace. Where those foundations are crumbling, conflict prevention attempts to reinforce them, usually in the form of a diplomatic initiative. Such preventive action is, by definition, a low-profile activity; when successful, it may even go unnoticed altogether.
11. Peacemaking addresses conflicts in progress, attempting to bring them to a halt, using the tools of diplomacy and mediation. Peacemakers may be envoys of Governments, groups of states, regional organizations or the United Nations, or they may be unofficial and non-governmental groups, as was the case, for example, in the negotiations leading up to a peace accord for Mozambique. Peacemaking may even be the work of a prominent personality, working independently.
12. Peacekeeping is a 50-year-old enterprise that has evolved rapidly in the past decade from a traditional, primarily military model of observing ceasefires and force separations after inter-State wars, to incorporate a complex model of many elements, military and civilian, working together to build peace in the dangerous aftermath of civil wars.
13. Peace-building is a term of more recent origin that, as used in the present report, defines activities undertaken on the far side of conflict to reassemble the foundations of peace and provide the tools for building on those foundations something that is more than just the absence of war. Thus, peace-building includes but is not limited to reintegrating former combatants into civilian society, strengthening the rule of law (for example, through training and restructuring of local police, and judicial and penal reform); improving respect for human rights through the monitoring, education and investigation of past and existing abuses; providing technical assistance for democratic development (including electoral assistance and support for free media); and promoting conflict resolution and reconciliation techniques.
14. Essential complements to effective peace-building include support for the fight against corruption, the implementation of humanitarian demining programmes, emphasis on human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) education and control, and action against other infectious diseases.
B. Experience of the past
17. Until the end of the cold war, United Nations peacekeeping operations mostly had traditional ceasefire-monitoring mandates and no direct peace-building responsibilities. The "entry strategy" or sequence of events and decisions leading to United Nations deployment was straightforward: war, ceasefire, invitation to monitor ceasefire compliance and deployment of military observers or units to do so, while efforts continued for a political settlement. Intelligence requirements were also fairly straightforward and risks to troops were relatively low. But traditional peacekeeping, which treats the symptoms rather than sources of conflict, has no built-in exit strategy and associated peacemaking was often slow to make progress. As a result, traditional peacekeepers have remained in place for 10, 20, 30 or even 50 years (as in Cyprus, the Middle East and India/Pakistan). By the standards of more complex operations, they are relatively low cost and politically easier to maintain than to remove. However, they are also difficult to justify unless accompanied by serious and sustained peacemaking efforts that seek to transform a ceasefire accord into a durable and lasting peace settlement.
18. Since the end of the cold war, United Nations peacekeeping has often combined with peace-building in complex peace operations deployed into settings of intra-State conflict. Those conflict settings, however, both affect and are affected by outside actors: political patrons; arms vendors; buyers of illicit commodity exports; regional powers that send their own forces into the fray; and neighbouring States that host refugees who are sometimes systematically forced to flee their homes. With such significant cross-border effects by state and non-state actors alike, these conflicts are often decidedly "transnational" in character.
SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS
1. Preventive action:
(a) The Panel endorses the recommendations of the Secretary-General with respect to conflict prevention contained in the Millennium Report and in his remarks before the Security Council's second open meeting on conflict prevention in July 2000, in particular his appeal to "all who are engaged in conflict prevention and development--the United Nations, the Bretton Woods institutions, Governments and civil society organizations--[to] address these challenges in a more integrated fashion";
(b) The Panel supports the Secretary-General's more frequent use of factfinding missions to areas of tension, and stresses Member States' obligations, under Article 2(5) of the Charter, to give "every assistance" to such activities of the United Nations.
2. Peace-building strategy:
(a) A small percentage of a mission's first-year budget should be made available to the representative or special representative of the Secretary-General leading the mission to fund quick impact projects in its area of operations, with the advice of the United Nations country team's.
(b) The Panel recommends a doctrinal shift in the use of civilian police, other rule of law elements and human rights experts in complex peace operations to reflect an increased focus on strengthening rule of law institutions and improving respect for human rights in post-conflict environments;
(c) The Panel recommends that the legislative bodies consider bringing demobilization and reintegration programmes into the assessed budgets of complex peace operations for the first phase of an operation in order to facilitate the rapid disassembly of fighting factions and reduce the likelihood of resumed conflict;
(d) The Panel recommends that the Executive Committee on Peace and Security (ECPS) discuss and recommend to the Secretary-General a plan to strengthen the permanent capacity of the United Nations to develop peace-building strategies and to implement programmes in support of those strategies.
3. Peacekeeping doctrine and strategy:
Once deployed, United Nations peacekeepers must be able to carry out their mandates professionally and successfully and be capable of defending themselves, other mission components and the mission's mandate, with robust rules of engagement, against those who renege on their commitments to a peace accord or otherwise seek to undermine it by violence.
4. Clear, credible and achievable mandates:
(a) The Panel recommends that, before the Security Council agrees to implement a ceasefire or peace agreement with a United Nations-led peacekeeping operation, the Council assure itself that the agreement meets threshold conditions, such as consistency with international human rights standards and practicability of specified tasks and timelines;
(b) The Security Council should leave in draft form resolutions authorizing missions with sizeable troop levels until such time as the Secretary-General has firm commitments of troops and other critical mission support elements, including peace-building elements, from Member States;
(c) Security Council resolutions should meet the requirements of peacekeeping operations when they deploy into potentially dangerous situations, especially the need for a clear chain of command and unity of effort;
(d) The Secretariat must tell the Security Council what it needs to know, not what it wants to hear, when formulating or changing mission mandates, and countries that have committed military units to an operation should have access to Secretariat briefings to the Council on matters affecting the safety and security of their personnel, especially those meetings with implications for a mission's use of force.
5. Information and strategic analysis:
The Secretary-General should establish an entity, referred to here as the ECPS Information and Strategic Analysis Secretariat (EISAS), which would support the information and analysis needs of all members of ECPS; for management purposes, it should be administered by and report jointly to the heads of the Department of Political Affairs (DPA) and the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO).
6. Transitional civil administration:
The Panel recommends that the Secretary-General invite a panel of international legal experts, including individuals with experience in United Nations operations that have transitional administration mandates, to evaluate the feasibility and utility of developing an interim criminal code, including any regional adaptations potentially required, for use by such operations pending the re-establishment of local rule of law and local law enforcement capacity.
7. Determining deployment timelines:
The United Nations should define "rapid and effective deployment capacities" as the ability, from an operational perspective, to fully deploy traditional peacekeeping operations within 30 days after the adoption of a Security Council resolution, and within 90 days in the case of complex peacekeeping operations.
8. Mission leadership:
(a) The Secretary-General should systematize the method of selecting mission leaders, beginning with the compilation of a comprehensive list of potential representatives or special representatives of the Secretary-General, force commanders, civilian police commissioners, and their deputies and other heads of substantive and administrative components, within a fair geographic and gender distribution and with input from Member States;
(b) The entire leadership of a mission should be selected and assembled at Headquarters as early as possible in order to enable their participation in key aspects of the mission planning process, for briefings on the situation in the mission area and to meet and work with their colleagues in mission leadership;
(c) The Secretariat should routinely provide the mission leadership with strategic guidance and plans for anticipating and overcoming challenges to mandate implementation, and whenever possible should formulate such guidance and plans together with the mission leadership.
9. Military personnel:
(a) Member States should be encouraged, where appropriate, to enter into partnerships with one another, within the context of the United Nations Standby Arrangements System (UNSAS), to form several coherent brigade-size forces, with necessary enabling forces, ready for effective deployment within 30 days of the adoption of a Security Council resolution establishing a traditional peacekeeping operation and within 90 days for complex peacekeeping operations;
(b) The Secretary-General should be given the authority to formally canvass Member States participating in UNSAS regarding their willingness to contribute troops to a potential operation, once it appeared likely that a ceasefire accord or agreement envisaging an implementing role for the United Nations, might be reached;
(c) The Secretariat should, as a standard practice, send a team to confirm the preparedness of each potential troop contributor to meet the provisions of the memoranda of understanding on the requisite training and equipment requirements, prior to deployment; those that do not meet the requirements must not deploy;
(d) The Panel recommends that a revolving "on-call list" of about 100 military officers be created in UNSAS to be available on seven days' notice to augment nuclei of DPKO planners with teams trained to create a mission headquarters for a new peacekeeping operation.
10. Civilian police personnel:
(a) Member States are encouraged to each establish a national pool of civilian police officers that would be ready for deployment to United Nations peace operations on short notice, within the context of the United Nations Standby Arrangements System;
(b) Member States are encouraged to enter into regional training partnerships for civilian police in the respective national pools, to promote a common level of preparedness in accordance with guidelines, standard operating procedures and performance standards to be promulgated by the United Nations;
(c) Members States are encouraged to designate a single point of contact within their governmental structures for the provision of civilian police to United Nations peace operations;
(d) The Panel recommends that a revolving on-call list of about 100 police officers and related experts be created in UNSAS to be available on seven days' notice with teams trained to create the civilian police component of a new peacekeeping operation, train incoming personnel and give the component greater coherence at an early date;
(e) The Panel recommends that parallel arrangements to recommendations (a), (b) and (c) above be established for judicial, penal, human rights and other relevant specialists, who with specialist civilian police will make up collegial "rule of law" teams.
11. Civilian specialists:
(a) The Secretariat should establish a central Internet/Intranet-based roster of pre-selected civilian candidates available to deploy to peace operations on short notice. The field missions should be granted access to and delegated authority to recruit candidates from it, in accordance with guidelines on fair geographic and gender distribution to be promulgated by the Secretariat;
(b) The Field Service category of personnel should be reformed to mirror the recurrent demands faced by all peace operations, especially at the mid- to senior-levels in the administrative and logistics areas;
(c) Conditions of service for externally recruited civilian staff should be revised to enable the United Nations to attract the most highly qualified candidates, and to then offer those who have served with distinction greater career prospects;
(d) DPKO should formulate a comprehensive staffing strategy for peace operations, outlining, among other issues, the use of United Nations Volunteers, standby arrangements for the provision of civilian personnel on 72 hours' notice to facilitate mission start-up, and the divisions of responsibility among the members of the Executive Committee on Peace and Security for implementing that strategy.
12. Rapidly deployable capacity for public information:
Additional resources should be devoted in mission budgets to public information and the associated personnel and information technology required to get an operation's message out and build effective internal communications links.
13. Logistics support and expenditure management:
(a) The Secretariat should prepare a global logistics support strategy to enable rapid and effective mission deployment within the timelines proposed and corresponding to planning assumptions established by the substantive offices of DPKO;
(b) The General Assembly should authorize and approve a one-time expenditure to maintain at least five mission start-up kits in Brindisi, which should include rapidly deployable communications equipment. These startup kits should then be routinely replenished with funding from the assessed contributions to the operations that drew on them;
(c) The Secretary-General should be given authority to draw up to US$50 million from the Peacekeeping Reserve Fund, once it became clear that an operation was likely to be established, with the approval of the Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions (ACABQ) but prior to the adoption of a Security Council resolution;
(d) The Secretariat should undertake a review of the entire procurement policies and procedures (with proposals to the General Assembly for amendments to the Financial Rules and Regulations, as required), to facilitate in particular the rapid and full deployment of an operation within the proposed timelines;
(e) The Secretariat should conduct a review of the policies and procedures governing the management of financial resources in the field missions with a view to providing field missions with much greater flexibility in the management of their budgets;
(f) The Secretariat should increase the level of procurement authority delegated to the field missions (from $200,000 to as high as $1 million, depending on mission size and needs) for all goods and services that are available locally and are not covered under systems contracts or standing commercial services contracts.
14. Funding Headquarters support for peacekeeping operations:
(a) The Panel recommends a substantial increase in resources for Headquarters support of peacekeeping operations, and urges the Secretary-General to submit a proposal to the General Assembly outlining his requirements in full;
(b) Headquarters support for peacekeeping should be treated as a core activity of the United Nations, and as such the majority of its resource requirements for this purpose should be funded through the mechanism of the regular biennial programme budget of the Organization;
(c) Pending the preparation of the next regular budget submission, the Panel recommends that the Secretary-General approach the General Assembly with a request for an emergency supplemental increase to the Support Account to allow immediate recruitment of additional personnel, particularly in DPKO.
15. Integrated mission planning and support:
Integrated Mission Task Forces (IMTFs), with members seconded from throughout the United Nations system, as necessary, should be the standard vehicle for mission-specific planning and support. IMTFs should serve as the first point of contact for all such support, and IMTF leaders should have temporary line authority over seconded personnel, in accordance with agreements between DPKO, DPA and other contributing departments, programmes, funds and agencies.
16. Other structural adjustments in DPKO:
(a) The current Military and Civilian Police Division should be restructured, moving the Civilian Police Unit out of the military reporting chain. Consideration should be given to upgrading the rank and level of the Civilian Police Adviser;
(b) The Military Adviser's Office in DPKO should be restructured to correspond more closely to the way in which the military field headquarters in United Nations peacekeeping operations are structured;
(c) A new unit should be established in DPKO and staffed with the relevant expertise for the provision of advice on criminal law issues that are critical to the effective use of civilian police in the United Nations peace operations;
(d) The Under-Secretary-General for Management should delegate authority and responsibility for peacekeeping-related budgeting and procurement functions to the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations for a two-year trial period;
(e) The Lessons Learned Unit should be substantially enhanced and moved into a revamped DPKO Office of Operations;
(f) Consideration should be given to increasing the number of Assistant Secretaries-General in DPKO from two to three, with one of the three designated as the "Principal Assistant Secretary-General" and functioning as the deputy to the Under-Secretary-General.
17. Operational support for public information:
A unit for operational planning and support of public information in peace operations should be established, either within DPKO or within a new Peace and Security Information Service in the Department of Public Information (DPI) reporting directly to the Under-Secretary-General for Communication and Public Information.
18. Peace-building support in the Department of Political Affairs:
(a) The Panel supports the Secretariat's effort to create a pilot Peace-building Unit within DPA, in cooperation with other integral United Nations elements, and suggests that regular budgetary support for this unit be revisited by the membership if the pilot programme works well. This programme should be evaluated in the context of guidance the Panel has provided in paragraph 46 above, and if considered the best available option for strengthening United Nations peace-building capacity it should be presented to the Secretary-General within the context of the Panel's recommendation contained in paragraph 47 (d) above;
(b) The Panel recommends that regular budget resources for Electoral Assistance Division programmatic expenses be substantially increased to meet the rapidly growing demand for its services, in lieu of voluntary contributions;
(c) To relieve demand on the Field Administration and Logistics Division (FALD) and the executive office of DPA, and to improve support services rendered to smaller political and peace-building field offices, the Panel recommends that procurement, logistics, staff recruitment and other support services for all such smaller, non-military field missions be provided by the United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS).
19. Peace operations support in the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights:
The Panel recommends substantially enhancing the field mission planning and preparation capacity of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, with funding partly from the regular budget and partly from peace operations mission budgets.
20. Peace operations and the information age:
(a) Headquarters peace and security departments need a responsibility centre to devise and oversee the implementation of common information technology strategy and training for peace operations, residing in EISAS. Mission counterparts to the responsibility centre should also be appointed to serve in the offices of the special representatives of the Secretary-General in complex peace operations to oversee the implementation of that strategy;
(b) EISAS, in cooperation with the Information Technology Services Division (ITSD), should implement an enhanced peace operations element on the current United Nations Intranet and link it to the missions through a Peace Operations Extranet (POE);
(c) Peace operations could benefit greatly from more extensive use of geographic information systems (GIS) technology, which quickly integrates operational information with electronic maps of the mission area, for applications as diverse as demobilization, civilian policing, voter registration, human rights monitoring and reconstruction;
(d) The IT needs of mission components with unique information technology needs, such as civilian police and human rights, should be anticipated and met more consistently in mission planning and implementation;
(e) The Panel encourages the development of web site co-management by Headquarters and the field missions, in which Headquarters would maintain oversight but individual missions would have staff authorized to produce and post web content that conforms to basic presentational standards and policy.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1327, adopted by the Security Council at its 4220th meeting, 13 November 2000--[S/RES/1327 (2000)]
The Security Council,
Reaffirming its determination to strengthen United Nations peacekeeping operations,
The Security Council,
Resolves to give peacekeeping operations clear, credible and achievable mandates;
Recognizes the critical importance of peacekeeping operations having, where appropriate and within their mandates, a credible deterrent capability;
Urges the parties to prospective peace agreements, including regional and subregional organizations and arrangements, to coordinate and cooperate fully with the United Nations from an early stage in negotiations, bearing in mind the need for any provisions for a peacekeeping operation to meet minimum conditions, including the need for a clear political objective, the practicability of the designated tasks and timelines, and compliance with the rules and principles of international law, in particular international humanitarian, human rights and refugee law;
Requests the Secretary-General, in this regard, to make necessary arrangements for the appropriate involvement of the United Nations in peace negotiations that are likely to provide for the deployment of United Nations peacekeepers;
Further requests the Secretary-General to keep it regularly and fully informed of the progress in such negotiations with his analysis, assessment and recommendations, and to report to the Council on the conclusion of any such peace agreement, on whether it meets the minimum conditions for United Nations peacekeeping operations;
Encourages the Secretary-General, during the planning and preparation of a peacekeeping operation, to take all possible measures at his disposal to facilitate rapid deployment, and agrees to assist the Secretary-General, wherever appropriate, with specific planning mandates requesting him to take the necessary administrative steps to prepare the rapid deployment of a mission;
Undertakes, when establishing or enlarging a peacekeeping operation, to request formally that the Secretary-General proceed to the implementation phase of the mandate upon receipt of firm commitments to provide sufficient numbers of adequately trained and equipped troops and other critical mission support elements;
Encourages the Secretary-General to begin his consultations with potential troop contributors well in advance of the establishment of peacekeeping operations, and requests him to report on his consultations during the consideration of new mandates;
Recognizes that the problem of the commitment gap with regard to personnel and equipment for peacekeeping operations requires the assumption by all Member States of the shared responsibility to support United Nations peacekeeping;
Undertakes to ensure that the mandated tasks of peacekeeping operations are appropriate to the situation on the ground, including such factors as the prospects for success, the potential need to protect civilians and the possibility that some parties may seek to undermine peace through violence;
Emphasizes that the rules of engagement for United Nations peacekeeping forces should be fully consistent with the legal basis of the operation and any relevant Security Council resolutions and clearly set out the circumstances in which force may be used to protect all mission components and personnel, military or civilian, and that the rules of engagement should support the accomplishment of the mission's mandate;
Requests the Secretary-General, following full consultations with the United Nations membership, in particular troop-contributing countries, to prepare a comprehensive operational doctrine for the military component of United Nations peacekeeping operations and submit it to the Security Council and the General Assembly;
Stresses the need to improve the information gathering and analysis capacity of the Secretariat, with a view to improving the quality of advice to both the Secretary-General and the Security Council, and welcomes,... his plans for the establishment of the Executive Committee on Peace and Security Information and Strategic Analysis Secretariat (S/2000/1081);
Stresses the importance of the United Nations being able to respond and deploy a peacekeeping operation rapidly upon the adoption by the Security Council of a resolution establishing its mandate, and notes that rapid deployment is a comprehensive concept that will require improvements in a number of areas;
Welcomes the decision by the Secretary-General to instruct the Executive Committee on Peace and Security to formulate a plan on the strengthening of the United Nations capacity to develop peace-building strategies and to implement programmes in support of them, and requests the Secretary-General to submit recommendations to the Security Council and the General Assembly on the basis of this plan;
Recognizes that stronger measures to reduce poverty and promote economic growth are important for the success of peace-building;
Emphasizes, in this regard, the need for more effective coordination of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programmes, and reaffirms that adequate and timely funding for these programmes is critical to the success of peace processes;
Welcomes the Secretary-General's intention to spell out more clearly, when presenting future concepts of operations, what the United Nations system can do to help strengthen local rule of law and human rights institutions, drawing on existing civilian police, human rights, gender and judicial expertise;
Welcomes the Secretary-General's intention to conduct a needs assessment of the areas in which it would be feasible and useful to draft a simple, common set of interim rules of criminal procedure.
Peace Operations 2010, United Nations Interoffice Memorandum to all Departments of Peacekeeping Operations, from Jean-Marie Guehenno the Under-Secretary-General, DPKO, 30 November 2005
1. I am writing to you today, almost five years to the day since the UN peacekeeping reform process initiated by the 'Brahimi Report' was launched....
2. The Department of Peacekeeping Operations today directs 18 peace operations across the globe, operations that directly affect the lives of over 200 million men, women and children....
3. Our efforts are yielding positive results....
4. Yet the reforms we have accomplished fall short in the face of the enormous demands on UN peacekeeping. Simply put, we are overstretched....
5. In addition to the stretch in our existing capabilities, we are being asked to undertake challenging new tasks....
6. Alongside this expanded security role, we are confronting the reality that security is only one part of the quest for a self-sustaining peace....
7. In all of these efforts we are engaging with a greater range of international actors than before. Some of these, particularly the regional organizations, are providing military and police peacekeepers, alongside or in sequence with our operations. We also have a host of new post-conflict partners of great influence, including the World Bank. We need to be able to work effectively with these actors,...
8. Five years after the Brahimi Report, therefore, I believe it is time for us to once again reflect on the scope and tasks of UN peacekeeping; how we define and perform those tasks; how far we have come over the past five years; and where we need to strengthen our capacity for the next five years....
9. We have proposed to the Secretary-General a broad series of reforms to peacekeeping operations entitled Peace Operations 2010. The reforms are based around five components essential to successful peace operations.
10. Goal 1 -- Recruit, prepare and retain high quality personnel: Our Organization rests on the people who constitute it. You are part of a remarkable global team of individuals who bring commitment, vision and skill to the benefit of UN peacekeeping. But UN peacekeeping has not served you consistently well. Your security has not been sufficiently addressed in the past. Training has been weak. All staff, including mission leaders, need to be better prepared for their responsibilities. Many of you have received little guidance as to what is expected of you in your job and in your conduct, either from headquarters or in the field. Civilian personnel, in particular, have been left without a stable career service and esprit de corps. After six decades of UN peacekeeping, we need a professional approach to personnel and a core of professional peacekeepers. A fresh approach is needed to the recruitment, preparation and retention of personnel and leadership for UN peace operations. It will include a comprehensive new integrated training policy, clear standards of conduct and guidance and new procedures for the selection of mission leadership. For civilian peacekeepers, it will include revised conditions of service and mobility of service to build up our core of quality staff.
11. Goal 2 -- Set out the doctrine: As UN peacekeeping mandates have expanded, it is more important than ever to define and clearly articulate to ourselves and to our partners what it is that UN peacekeeping can do and how and, equally important, what we cannot do. This is the first step to establishing standards for UN peacekeeping missions. This needs to be followed by the development of effective guidance on how to achieve these standards. While every peacekeeping experience is unique to the country, the people and the context in which it takes place, a lot
of knowledge has been amassed in almost sixty years of UN peacekeeping. Over the years many civilian and uniformed peacekeepers in headquarters and in the field have written down what they do and have passed on best practices to succeeding colleagues. We need to capture that collective experience and put it to good use each time we launch a new mission or engage in a new task. We need uniform practices and procedures that make it easier for missions and personnel to interact. This set of policies and practices will be the basis for guiding you in carrying out your job. It will be a living doctrine that adapts to ongoing experiences and conditions.
12. Goal 3 -- Establish effective partnerships: Whether you are working in DPKO or mission headquarters, or based in a field site, the environment in which you work involves a wide range of UN and non-UN partners. The UN has committed to improve coherence across the UN system and to make integration the organizing principle of UN peace operations. Member States have agreed to establish a Peacebuilding Commission and a Peacebuilding Support Office to help ensure that this effort takes place in the context of a wide peacebuilding effort. The more we in DPKO contribute to a comprehensive, integrated UN approach, the more effective our peace operations will be. We have already initiated a number of steps at headquarters to improve the way we plan and conduct peace operations with peace operations with our UN partners. Our priorities are to substantially improve the integrated mission planning process at the start-up and across the life cycle of a peace operation; to establish clear chains of authority in the mission; and detailed guidelines on the 'quick wins' that we can achieve in cooperation with our humanitarian and development partners.
13. With our external partners, we have two priorities. The first is to establish predictable frameworks for cooperation with regional organizations in peace operations, including common peacekeeping standards; joint training and exercises; and modalities for cooperation and transition in peace operations. The African Union is a key external partner for us. We are committed to helping build African peacekeeping capacities over the next 10 years and, together with other external partners, supporting the AU in its peacekeeping activities. The second priority is the development of relationships in the field with international financial institutions and, in particular, the World Bank. We will explore mechanisms for increased cooperation including staff exchanges; improved coordination on planning and sequencing of activities; and operational cooperation, particularly in supporting state authority and enabling economic regeneration.
14. Goal 4 -- Secure the essential resources to improve operations: UN peacekeeping stands or falls on the provision of sufficient capacity to implement a mandate. We need resources to strengthen our capacity to implement our mandates, to run ourselves, and to account responsibly for our actions--and to do these things in the most cot-effective manner. We must use existing resources better, and we should encourage the development of new rules and regulations more suited to our field realities. We must work to secure needed resources in three areas. First, we must strengthen our operational capability through the establishment of a Standing Police Capability and capacities to rapidly deploy military capabilities to assist peace operations in crisis. A second area that needs to be strengthened is the coordination and use of our information technology resources in the field. The third area where resources are essential is in our ability to communicate effectively with the public in mission areas as well as in our home countries.
15. Goal 5 -- Establish integrated organizational structures at headquarters and in the field: We are still not well configured to make best use of our capacities and carry out our tasks in a coherent, responsive and accountable fashion. The reinvigoration of UN peacekeeping requires us to organize our headquarters and field missions to meet the needs of a global, decentralized Department. We need flexible structures that will evolve over the different phases of the mission but provide consistent and effective support to you as you carry out your tasks. We are revising mission templates and organizational structures to provide more flexible and integrated frameworks. At the headquarters, we are going to put in place integrated teams that serve as a single backstop for field missions. These integrated teams will incorporate political, military, police, specialist civilian, logistics, financial, personnel and public information support expertise. They will be backed by functional units that cover substantive as well as support tasks including conduct and discipline, integrated training, guidance, DDR, rule of law and so on.
16. Implementation: The reforms listed in each of these five areas are ambitious but achievable. They must proceed in parallel with our ongoing commitments and we should therefore be realistic about the time it will take to implement them, and the time it will take before we can see the full benefit of their implementation. For this reason, this process should be seen as a five-year programme. The Secretary-General has endorsed our intentions. Member States reacted with interest and support when I presented the broad outline of this plan to them at the General Assembly. However, reform ultimately depends on your will and commitment to bringing out lasting change to UN peacekeeping. On behalf of the Department's management team, I invite you to embark on this collective effort. In the attached annex you will find the broad targets and goals of this reform process. We will be shortly circulating a plan of implementation of Peace Operations 2010. This plan will establish a cross-disciplinary Task Force and working groups for each of the five priority areas. The groups will have a mandate to solicit your views. We count on you to provide feedback, ideas and guidance on these proposals and, to that end, we will be establishing an interactive webpage for your use.
4. THE CONTEXT OF POST-2000 PEACE MISSIONS
'We the Peoples': The Role of the United Nations in the 21st Century, Millennium Report of the Secretary-General of the United Nations, 2000
I. New Century, New Challenges
The new millennium, and the Millennium Summit, offer the world's peoples a unique occasion to reflect on their common destiny, at a moment when they find themselves interconnected as never before....
IV. Freedom from Fear
Wars between States have become less frequent. But ... (t)he threat of deadly conflict must be tackled at every stage:
* Protecting the vulnerable....
* Addressing the dilemma of intervention. National sovereignty must not be used as a shield for those who wantonly violate the rights and lives of their fellow human beings. In the face of mass murder, armed intervention authorized by the Security Council is an option that cannot be relinquished.
* Strengthening peace operations. The Millennium Assembly is invited to consider recommendations from a high-level panel the Secretary-General has established to review all aspects of peace operations.
* Targeting sanctions....
* Pursuing arms reductions....
Strengthening peace operations
With the end of the cold war ... (m)ore peace operations were mounted in that decade than in the previous four combined, and we developed new approaches to post-conflict peace-building and placed new emphasis on conflict prevention.
While traditional peacekeeping had focused mainly on monitoring ceasefires, today's complex peace operations are very different. Their objective, in essence, is to assist the parties engaged in conflict to pursue their interests through political channels instead....
The structural weaknesses of United Nations peace operations, however, only Member States can fix.... The present system relies almost entirely on last minute, ad hoc arrangements that guarantee delay, with respect to the provision of civilian personnel even more so than military.
Although we have understandings for military standby arrangements with Member States, the availability of the designated forces is unpredictable and very few are in a state of high readiness. Resource constraints preclude us even from being able to deploy a mission headquarters rapidly.
On the civilian side, we have been starkly reminded ... how difficult it is to recruit qualified personnel for missions.... A more systematic approach is necessary here as well.
To bring greater clarity to where we stand and how we can hope to progress with regard to United Nations peace operations, I have established a high-level panel, which will review all aspects of peace operations, from the doctrinal to the logistical. It will suggest ways forward that are acceptable politically and make sense operationally.
In applying these values to the new century, our priorities must be clear.
(W)e must spare no effort to free our fellow men and women from the scourge of war--as the Charter requires us to do--and especially from the violence of civil conflict and the fear of weapons of mass destruction, which are the two great sources of terror in the present age. Let us resolve therefore:
* To make the UNITED Nations more effective in its work of maintaining peace and security, notably by:
- Strengthening the capacity of the United Nations to conduct peace operations.
United Nations Millennium Declaration, General Assembly Resolution A/RES/55/2, adopted by the General Assembly at their Fifty-Fifth Session, 18 September 2000
The General Assembly
Adopts, the following Declaration
United Nations Millennium Declaration
II. Peace, security and disarmament
8. We will spare no effort to free our peoples from the scourge of war, whether within or between States,...
9. We resolve therefore:
* To make the United Nations more effective in maintaining peace and security by giving it the resources and tools it needs for conflict prevention, peaceful resolution of disputes, peacekeeping, post-conflict peace-building and reconstruction. In this context, we take note of the report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations and request the General Assembly to consider its recommendations expeditiously.
* To strengthen cooperation between the United Nations and regional organizations, in accordance with the provisions of Chapter VIII of the Charter.
VII. Meeting the special needs of Africa
27. We will ... assist Africans in their struggle for lasting peace,...
28. We resolve therefore:
* To encourage and sustain regional and subregional mechanisms for preventing conflict and promoting political stability, and to ensure a reliable flow of resources for peacekeeping operations on the continent.
A more secure world: Our shared responsibility--Report of the High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change--Executive Summary--United Nations, 2004
In his address to the General Assembly in September 2003, United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan warned Member States that the United Nations had reached a fork in the road. It could rise to the challenge of meeting new threats or it could risk erosion in the face of mounting discord between States and unilateral action by them. He created the High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change to generate new ideas about the kinds of policies and institutions required for the UN to be effective in the 21st century.
In its report, the High-level Panel sets out a bold, new vision of collective security for the 21st century. We live in a world of new and evolving threats,...
There are six clusters of threats with which the world must be concerned now and in the decades ahead:
* war between States;
* violence within States, including civil wars, large-scale human rights abuses and genocide;
* poverty, infectious disease and environmental degradation;
* nuclear, radiological, chemical and biological weapons;
* terrorism; and
* transnational organized crime.
Policies for prevention
Meeting the challenge of today's threats means getting serious about prevention; the consequences of allowing latent threats to become manifest, or of allowing existing threats to spread, are simply too severe.
Development has to be the first line of defence for a collective security system that takes prevention seriously....
Preventing wars within States and between them is also in the collective interest of all. If we are to do better in future, the UN will need real improvements to its capacity for preventive diplomacy and mediation....
Preventing the spread and use of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons is essential if we are to have a more secure world....
Terrorism is a threat to all States, and to the UN as a whole. New aspects of the threat--including the rise of a global terrorist network, and the potential for terrorist use of nuclear, biological or chemical weapons--require new responses....
The spread of transnational organized crime increases the risk of all the other threats....
Response to threats
Of course, prevention sometimes fails. At times, threats will have to be met by military means.
The UN Charter provides a clear framework for the use of force. States have an inherent right to self-defence, enshrined in Article 51....
The report endorses the emerging norm of a responsibility to protect civilians from large-scale violence--a responsibility that is held, first and foremost, by national authorities....
Deploying military capacities--for peacekeeping as well as peace enforcement--has proved to be a valuable tool in ending wars and helping to secure States in their aftermath....
When wars have ended, post-conflict peacebuilding is vital. The UN has often devoted too little attention and too few resources to this critical challenge....
A UN for the 21st century
To meet these challenges, the UN needs its existing institutions to work better. This means revitalizing the General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council, to make sure they play the role intended for them, and restoring credibility to the Commission on Human Rights.
It also means increasing the credibility and effectiveness of the Security Council by making its composition better reflect today's realities. The report provides principles for reform,... It argues that any reforms must be reviewed in 2020.
We also need new institutions to meet evolving challenges. The report recommends the creation of a Peacebuilding Commission--a new mechanism within the UN, drawing on the Security Council and the Economic and Social Council, donors, and national authorities....
Better collaboration with regional organizations is also crucial, and the report sets out a series of principles that govern a more structured partnership between them and the UN.
The report recommends strengthening the Secretary-General's critical role in peace and security. To be more effective, the Secretary-General should be given substantially more latitude to manage the Secretariat, and be held accountable. He also needs better support for his mediation role, and new capacities to develop effective peacebuilding strategy....
The way forward
The report is the start, not the end, of a process....
In Larger Freedom: Towards Development, Security and Human Rights for All--United Nations--21 March 2005
Introduction: A Historic Opportunity in 2005
In September 2005, world leaders will come together at a summit in New York to review progress since the Millennium Declaration, adopted by all Member States in 2000. The Secretary-General's report proposes an agenda to be taken up, and acted upon, at the summit....
In a world of inter-connected threats and opportunities, it is in each country's self-interest that all of these challenges are addressed effectively. Hence, the cause of larger freedom can only be advanced by broad, deep and sustained global cooperation ...
I. Freedom from want
The last 25 years have seen the most dramatic reduction in extreme poverty the world has ever experienced....
II. Freedom from fear
While progress on development is hampered by weak implementation, on the security side, despite a heightened sense of threat among many, the world lacks even a basic consensus--and implementation, where it occurs, is all too often contested.
The Secretary-General fully embraces a broad vision of collective security. The threats to peace and security in the 21st century include not just international war and conflict, but terrorism, weapons of mass destruction, organized crime and civil violence. They also include poverty, deadly infectious disease and environmental degradation, since these can have equally catastrophic consequences. All of these threats can cause death or lessen life chances on a large scale. All of them can undermine States as the basic unit of the international system.
Collective security today depends on accepting that the threats each region of the world perceives as most urgent are in fact equally so for all. These are not theoretical issues, but ones of deadly urgency.
The United Nations must be transformed into the effective instrument for preventing conflict that it was always meant to be, by acting on several key policy and institutional priorities:
* Preventing catastrophic terrorism: States should commit to a comprehensive anti-terrorism strategy ...
* Nuclear, chemical and biological weapons: Progress on both disarmament and non-proliferation are essential....
* Reducing the prevalence and risk of war: Currently, half the countries emerging from violent conflict revert to conflict within five years. Member States should create an inter-governmental Peacebuilding Commission, as well as a Peacebuilding Support Office within the UN Secretariat, so that the UN system can better meet the challenge of helping countries successfully complete the transition from war to peace. They should also take steps to strengthen collective capacity to employ the tools of mediation, sanctions and peacekeeping (including a "zero tolerance" policy on sexual exploitation of minors and other vulnerable people by members of peacekeeping contingents, to match the policy enacted by the Secretary-General).
* Use of force: The Security Council should adopt a resolution setting out the principles to be applied in decisions relating to the use of force and express its intention to be guided by them when deciding whether to authorize or mandate the use of force.
Other priorities for global action include more effective cooperation to combat organized crime, to prevent illicit trade in small arms and light weapons, and to remove the scourge of landmines which still kill and maim innocent people and hold back development in nearly half the world's countries.
III. Freedom to live in dignity
In the Millennium Declaration, Member States said they would spare no effort to promote democracy and strengthen the rule of law, as well as respect for all internationally recognized human rights and fundamental freedoms....
IV. Strengthening the United Nations
... Regional organizations, particularly the African Union, should be given greater support....
CHAPTER V-MAIN REPORT
E. Regional organizations
213. A considerable number of regional and subregional organizations are now active around the world, making important contributions to the stability and prosperity of their members, as well as of the broader international system. The United Nations and regional organizations should play complementary roles in facing the challenges to international peace and security. In this connection, donor countries should pay particular attention to the need for a 10-year plan for capacity-building with the African Union. To improve coordination between the United Nations and regional organizations, within the framework of the Charter of the United Nations, I intend to introduce memoranda of understanding between the United Nations and individual organizations, governing the sharing of information, expertise and resources, as appropriate in each case. For regional organizations that have a conflict prevention or peacekeeping capacity, these memoranda of understanding could place those capacities within the framework of the United Nations Standby Arrangements System.
214. I also intend to invite regional organizations to participate in meetings of United Nations system coordinating bodies, when issues in which they have a particular interest are discussed.
215. The rules of the United Nations peacekeeping budget should be amended to give the United Nations the option, in very exceptional circumstances, to use assessed contributions to finance regional operations authorized by the Security Council, or the participation of regional organizations in multi-pillar peace operations under the overall United Nations umbrella.
5. AFRICAN PEACEKEEPING CAPACITY
The causes of conflict and the promotion of durable peace and sustainable development in Africa, General Assembly, Security Council, A/52/871--S/1998/318, Fifty-second session, 13 April 1998
Report of the Secretary-General on the work of the Organization
29. Historically, the United Nations has deployed more of its peacekeeping operations in Africa than in any other single region.... Yet following the serious setback suffered by the United Nations in Somalia,... the international community has shown great reluctance in recent years to assume the political and financial exposure associated with deploying peacekeeping operations. This reluctance ... has had a particularly harsh impact upon Africa.
30. ... The credibility of the United Nations in Africa to a great extent depends upon the international community's willingness to act and to explore new means of advancing the objectives of peace and security on the continent. It is important therefore, that the United Nations experience in Africa be re-examined and lessons extracted that can guide us for the future.
31. The international community's perception of peacekeeping has been greatly shaped by the United Nations experience in Somalia....
32. The consequences of the retreat from Somalia and the reluctance to again commit international resources and political capital soon became evident as the international community agonized over how to respond to the tragedy that began to unfold in Rwanda....
33. A positive lesson was drawn from the United Nations Operation in Mozambique....
34. The successive United Nations deployments in Angola have shown the vital role that can be played by a United Nations operation in sustaining a peace process in even the most adverse circumstances, but they have also indicated the crucial need for realistic peace agreements, and the importance of having a credible deterrent capacity within a peacekeeping operation in situations that remain dangerous and volatile....
Roles for United Nations peacekeeping in Africa
35. United Nations peacekeeping will not always be the best answer to every problem, either in Africa or elsewhere. Without the agreement of the protagonists, for example, the cooperation and support needed on the ground for peacekeeping will be lacking. A peacekeeping deployment in such circumstances might even be counterproductive, side-tracking other efforts to take more forceful action or creating the erroneous impression that action is being taken to stop the conflict rather than merely mitigate its symptoms. In the right conditions, however, United Nations peacekeeping operations can make the difference between peace and war in Africa....
36. Separating the protagonists and monitoring their conduct. Operations of this type function on the basis of a limited agreement or understanding between the parties. They monitor ceasefires and by their presence enable combatants to pull back to a safe distance from each other, where passions may cool and an atmosphere conducive to negotiations may be created. Such operations can be critical confidence-building measures in difficult situations.
37. Implementation of comprehensive settlements. In Africa, the United Nations has deployed a number of complex, multidimensional peacekeeping operations incorporating a wide range of civilian elements.... Where a comprehensive settlement to a conflict has been reached the deployment of a multidisciplinary peacekeeping operation may well represent the best chance to establish peace and build a foundation for lasting development, based on respect for human rights and the rehabilitation of civic institutions....
38. Preventive deployment. It is important not merely to address conflict, but also to try to prevent it. Taking action in a timely manner is critical.... By providing a reassuring presence and a certain amount of transparency, such a deployment can prevent the type of miscalculations that can lead to violent conflict, allow time for grievances to be settled through political channels, make it possible to strengthen peacebuilding institutions and be a critical confidence-building measure for peace.
39. Preventive deployment is a pro-active response to the threat of conflict. In Africa, as elsewhere, it can make a major difference....
40. Protecting humanitarian interests. Humanitarian agencies endeavour to provide support to civilian victims of war wherever they may be.... Humanitarian actors have worked with peacekeepers, and independently of them to negotiate access and defend humanitarian principles....
Supporting regional and subregional initiatives
41. Within the context of the United Nations primary responsibility for matters of international peace and security, providing support for regional and subregional initiatives in Africa is both necessary and desirable. Such support is necessary because the United Nations lacks the capacity, resources and expertise to address all problems that may arise in Africa. It is desirable because wherever possible the international community should strive to complement rather than supplant African efforts to resolve Africa's problems....
42. Authorizing the use of forceful action.... Where significant force is likely to be required the Security Council has in recent years frequently chosen to authorize action by willing Member States or coalitions of States.... The obligation to obtain Security Council authorization prior to the use of force is clear; but while authorizing forceful action by Member States or coalitions of States can sometimes be an effective response to such situations, it also raises many questions for the future, particularly the need to enhance the Council's ability to monitor activities that have been authorized.
43. Co-deploying with regional, subregional or multinational forces. One means of monitoring the activities of a multinational force while also contributing to the broader aspects of a peace process was demonstrated in Liberia. A small unarmed force of United Nations military observers was co-deployed alongside the ECOWAS Monitoring Group (ECOMOG), its mandate being to work with the subregional force in the implementation of the Peace Agreement. In accordance with the Peace Agreement, ECOMOG had primary responsibility for ensuring implementation while the role of the United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL) was to monitor the implementation procedures in order to verify their impartial application. Political, humanitarian and electoral components were also established in UNOMIL, later followed by a human rights component.
44. The collaboration with ECOMOG succeeded in helping to restore peace in Liberia. It is a case of cooperation between the United Nations and a subregional organization that might be applicable to other situations as well....
45. Strengthening Africa's capacity for peacekeeping. Reinforcing the capacity of African countries to operate in peacekeeping missions remains a key priority, whether those operations take place in the framework of a United Nations peacekeeping mission or one authorized by the Security Council but conducted by a regional organization or group of States. In looking to future strategies for enhancing Africa's capacity for peacekeeping, the proposals developed in consultation with OAU officials and tabled in my predecessor's report (A/50/71 I-S/1995/911) remain valid. Those proposals relate to practical steps that can be taken in the areas of training assistance, joint peacekeeping exercises, greater African participation in the United Nations standby arrangements, partnerships between countries whose contingents require equipment and donors that are able to assist, and closer cooperation between the United Nations and OAU....
Ensuring a consistent approach
46. Creating clearer criteria and a more predictable basis for determining when the Security Council is likely to support the deployment of peacekeeping operations is urgently needed. Failure to act in the face of serious threats to peace and human lives in Africa threatens the credibility and legitimacy of the United Nations not only in the area of peace and security but also in other areas of its work. Moreover, wide disparities in the international community's commitment to preventing or containing conflicts in different regions impede the ability of the United Nations to promote a stable and just international order anywhere. Member States must be engaged in terms of political will and practical resources if the viability of the United Nations and the principles for which it stands are to be safeguarded, let alone advanced.
Comprehensive Review of the Whole Question of Peacekeeping Operations in all their Aspects--Enhancement of African Peacekeeping Capacity, General Assembly, Security Council, A/54/63-S/1999/171, Fifty-fourth session, 12 February 1999
Report of the Secretary-General
II. DEVELOPMENT OF GENERAL PRINCIPLES GUIDING THE ENHANCEMENT OF AFRICAN PEACEKEEPING CAPACITY
3. Notwithstanding its inherent difficulties, peacekeeping remains a vital United Nations instrument in assisting African States to resolve conflicts with the help of the international community and to create the conditions for peaceful development. The Organization of African Unity and subregional African organizations are playing an increasingly important role in the management of conflicts on the continent and in contributing to the maintenance of international peace and security....
5. In my report, I noted, in particular, the importance of cooperation with regional and subregional organizations and of support for their initiatives. In recent years, there has been a rapid development within Africa of mechanisms to address conflict. These include ongoing efforts by OAU to strengthen its Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management and Reolution, whose establishment in 1993 marked an important step towards enhancing African capacity in preventive diplomacy, peacemaking and peacekeeping. Other significant developments include the increasing institutionalization of the peacekeeping capacity of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS),... efforts by the Southern African Development Community (SADC) to build a regional peacekeeping capacity.
6. Increased cooperation with regional organizations has played a crucial role in the international community's efforts to promote peace in a number of situations in Africa. The reinforcement of the capacity of African countries to participate in peacekeeping missions remains a key priority, whether those operations take place in the framework of a United Nations peacekeeping mission or in one authorized by the Security Council, but conducted by a regional organization or group of States....
7. However, efforts to enhance African capacity should not relieve the international community of its collective obligations under the Charter of the United Nations, which confers on the Security Council primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security. Measures aimed at helping Africa should not become a justification for reduced engagement in the continent by the international community....
III. CURRENT EFFORTS TO ENHANCE AFRICAN PEACEKEEPING CAPACITY
12. In recent years, we have seen a considerable rise in the number of initiatives undertaken to support the enhancement of African peacekeeping capacity....
A. Cooperation with OAU and subregional organizations
14. The United Nations continues to work closely with regional and sub-regional organizations in the context of specific peacekeeping and peacemaking efforts in Africa....
15. In April 1998, the United Nations established a political liaison office with OAU in Addis Ababa....
16. The Secretariat has continued to collaborate with OAU to strengthen the latter's capacity to address conflict....
19. In the context of its follow-up to my report, the Security Council urged me to consider the possibility of appointing liaison officers to peacekeeping operations of OAU and of subregional organizations in Africa which the Security Council authorizes ... (and) to consider the deployment of liaison officers at the headquarters of those organizations ...
B. Ongoing capacity-building efforts
1. United Nations standby arrangements
20. The United Nations standby arrangements system has proved to be a useful tool to coordinate needs and resources and can facilitate the establishment of partnerships between Member States that make troops available and countries that are in a position to provide equipment and other support. Through the system, the United Nations addresses issues relating to requirements (troops, equipment, services and so forth) and response time/level of readiness, while helping to build training capacity based on national and regional needs.
21. Over the past 12 months, the Secretariat has focused on enhancing awareness among African States of the functions of the standby arrangements system, and of the potential benefits of participation....
22. ... Ten African Member States joined the standby arrangements system in 1998....
23. Broader African participation within the standby arrangements system is needed in order to strengthen the United Nations capacity to deploy peacekeeping operations within the continent and beyond .... the Secretariat is currently reviewing the possibility of dispatching a standby arrangements team to Africa for further briefings and discussions ...
24. Recognizing the crucial importance of stronger partnership between African and non-African countries, the Secretariat, in close cooperation with OAU, has convened three major meetings over the past 12 months, devoted to the enhancement of African peacekeeping capacity.
26. ... (The) meetings brought several major benefits:
* They highlighted the importance of certain principles--transparency, legitimacy and partnership--for enhancing African peacekeeping capacity;
* They provided a better understanding of the training resources available through the United Nations and bilateral arrangements;
* They also served as a forum for information-sharing and the development of a practical approach for future activities to enhance the training capacity of African States.
28. The Department of Peacekeeping Operations, in close coordination with OAU, has undertaken to serve as the focal point for the collection and dissemination of information on African capacity for peacekeeping....
29. The conducting of United Nations training assistance team (UNTAT) and train-the-trainers programmes, as well as support for major peacekeeping exercises, is vital to fulfilling the broad strategy objectives of developing regional peacekeeping capacities and harmonizing training standards among States.
31. In view of the increased role of police in peacekeeping operations, recent training and capacity-building activity has included initiatives to strengthen African capacity within in this specific area.
3. Logistical and financial support
33. Clearly, a major problem facing efficient deployment of African peacekeeping operations has been the availability of logistical capacity....
34. Although logistics experts from the United Nations Secretariat have participated in training efforts in Africa, the current capability of the Secretariat is not sufficient to tackle a problem of this scale....
35. Despite the obvious needs, resources to support the Secretariat's efforts to enhance African peacekeeping capacity continue to be provided on a relatively small scale and on a case-by-case basis. In recognition of the fact that full implementation of the proposals in my predecessor's report would require additional financial resources, the United Nations Trust Fund for Improving Preparedness for Conflict Prevention and Peacekeeping in Africa was established to enable interested Member States to assist these efforts.
38. At the same time I would like to draw the attention of donors to the Peace Fund established by OAU as an essential component of its Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management and Resolution....
40. Further progress in the enhancement of African peacekeeping capacity would only be possible with the determination of the African States themselves....
41. However, support from non-African Member States will continue to play a crucial role in the process....
42. It is now essential that the political will that has been manifested during this period, including the relevant resolutions and statements of the Security Council, be translated into practical action....
43. ... While the problems facing Africa are immense, I would like to suggest a number of additional steps through which incremental progress may be made:
* The formation of a working group composed of African and non-African States directly involved in the provision of training assistance;
* The provision of funding, including scholarships, that could allow African military officers, particularly those serving with OAU and subregional arrangements, to participate in short-term exchanges with United Nations peacekeeping staff;
* Consideration of deployment of United Nations liaison officers to regional organizations under appropriate circumstances, as suggested by the Security Council;
* Continued efforts by standby arrangements experts to promote further cooperation by African States within the United Nations standby arrangements system;
* Further use of the United Nations standby arrangements system to help match needs with available resources;
* Communication to the Secretariat by Member States of information on their peacekeeping training programmes;
* Establishment of a special peacekeeping programme for African police officers.
46. A combination of determination, perseverance and vision on the part of African leaders and commitment by the international community to support their efforts is vital for peaceful progress within Africa as well as for enhancing Africa's contribution to the maintenance of international peace and security....
Cooperation between the United Nations and the African Union [57/48], Resolution adopted by the General Assembly, [without reference to a Main Committee (A/57/L.39 and Add.1)], 20 January 2003
The General Assembly,
Acknowledging the need for continuing and closer cooperation between the United Nations system and the African Union in peace and security, political, economic, technical, cultural and administrative matters,
Recognizing the need to improve the coordination and harmonization of initiatives taken by the United Nations system relating to the development of Africa,
2. Welcomes the cooperation between the African Union and the United Nations and, in this respect, the continuing participation in and constructive contribution of the African Union and its specialized agencies to the work of the United Nations, and calls upon the two organizations to enhance the involvement of the African Union in all United Nations activities concerning Africa;
4. Also calls upon the Secretary-General to involve the African Union and its organs closely in the implementation of the commitments contained in the United Nations Millennium Declaration, especially those that relate to addressing the special needs of Africa;
6. Stresses the need for closer cooperation and coordination between the African Union and the United Nations, and calls upon the United Nations system to continue to support the African Union on an ongoing basis in accordance with the Cooperation Agreement between the two organizations;
7. Requests the United Nations system, while acknowledging its primary role in the promotion of international peace and security, to intensify its assistance to the African Union, as appropriate, in strengthening the institutional and operational capacity of the Peace and Security Council of the African Union, in particular in the following areas:
(a) Development of its early warning system, including the Situation Room of the Conflict Management Directorate;
(b) Training of civilian and military personnel, including a staff exchange programme;
(c) Regular and continued exchange and coordination of information, including between the early warning systems of the two organizations;
(d) Field missions of the African Union in its various member States, in particular in the area of communication and other related logistical support;
(e) Capacity-building for peace-building before and after the termination of hostilities on the continent;
(f) Support for the Peace and Security Council in taking humanitarian action on the continent in accordance with the Protocol relating to the Establishment of the Peace and Security Council;
8. Urges the United Nations system to examine the possibilities of assisting the African Union in the following areas:
(a) Mobilization of financial resources to support the African Union Peace Fund;
(b) Establishment of the Panel of the Wise;
(c) Establishment of a military staff committee;
(d) Creation of an African standby force;
9. Urges the United Nations to encourage donor countries, in consultation with the African Union, to contribute to adequate funding, training and logistical support for African countries in their efforts to enhance their peacekeeping capabilities, with a view to enabling those countries to participate actively in peacekeeping operations within the framework of the United Nations;
10. Also urges the United Nations to contribute, where appropriate, to the enhancement of the capacity of the African Union to deploy peace support missions;
11. Requests the United Nations system to extend full cooperation and support, as appropriate, to the African Union in the implementation of the Memorandum of Understanding on Security, Stability, Development and Cooperation in Africa;
Comprehensive review of the whole question of peacekeeping operations in all their aspects, United Nations, General Assembly, A/59/591, Fifty-ninth session, Agenda item 77, 30 November 2004
Enhancement of African peacekeeping capacity Report of the Secretary-General
II. Role of African regional and subregional organizations in peacekeeping
2. Since my last report of 12 February 1999 on the enhancement of African peacekeeping capacity (A/54/63), the United Nations has been faced with a massive surge in demand for peacekeeping.... Another multicomponent mission is being planned for the Sudan.
3. During this period, the African Union and subregional organizations, such as the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) have played an increasingly prominent role in the maintenance of peace and security in their region. Four out of the seven current United Nations peacekeeping operations in Africa are composed of "re-hatted" African troops originally deployed under the auspices of either ECOWAS or the African Union.
4. The case of the Sudan is indicative of the new partnership that has emerged in recent years between the United Nations and African regional and subregional organizations in the area of peacekeeping....
5. Cooperation between the United Nations and subregional organizations such as ECOWAS has also intensified....
6. My Special Representative for West Africa has been actively cooperating with the States and organizations in the subregion to deal with sensitive cross-border security problems,...
7. In East Africa, the United Nations has supported the Intergovernmental Authority on Development since October 2003 and has initiated preparatory work on how best to support the efforts of the parties to implement a peace agreement between the Government of the Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army.
III. Role of the African Standby Force in an emerging flexible response system
8. The transformation of the Organization of African Unity into the African Union, accompanied by the emergence of a new continental security architecture founded on the principles of the New Partnership for Africa's Development, has profound implications for the future of peacekeeping in Africa. Of particular note was the third African Union Summit, held in Addis Ababa from 6 to 8 July 2004, during which the African Union, by its decision Assembly/AU/Dec.35 (III), formally approved the Policy Framework Document on the establishment of the African Standby Force and the Military Staff Committee.
9. According to the Policy Framework Document, which was prepared by the African Chiefs of Defense Staff with assistance from the United Nations, each of the five subregions is to establish a standby brigade by 2010, composed of nationally based units available for rapid deployment under the auspices of the African Union, a subregional organization such as ECOWAS or the Southern African Development Community or a subregional coalition of the willing. The African Standby Force, which is primarily military in capability, would participate in the full range of peacekeeping scenarios, from ceasefire monitoring to complex, multidimensional peacekeeping and peace enforcement.
10. In an era of competing security demands, the determination of the African Union to press ahead with its ambitious peace and security agenda is a welcome indicator of the willingness of African Member States to share the burden of maintaining peace and security on the continent....
11. The impressive achievements of ECOWAS and the African Union have helped bring to light the more positive aspects of partnership with African organizations. However, in seeking to promote "African solutions to African problems", the international community must be careful to avoid creating a segregated environment in which Member States only contribute to peacekeeping within their own region....
12. The experiences of the past few years suggest that this new multilayered security architecture is already beginning to emerge. The challenge today is to move beyond purely ad hoc arrangements and put in place a system capable of generating a rapid and flexible response to crises in Africa and elsewhere....
IV. The way forward
13. The African Union will not be able to implement its multifaceted agenda without the sustained support of the international community....
18. In order to have a real impact, such a plan would have to address the major "systemic" factors identified by the Africans as preventing African Member States and regional organizations from conducting and participating in peacekeeping operations more effectively. These include:
* The absence of a common doctrine and training standards
* Lack of equipment and adequate logistical support, including strategic sea and airlift capabilities
* Inadequate funding
* Lack of institutional capacity for the planning and management of peacekeeping operations within the African Union and subregional organizations.
35. Africa is now the major theatre of peacekeeping operations. In general, this surge in peacekeeping is welcome, as it reflects the number of conflicts that are ending. But this increase also poses enormous challenges to the international system as it struggles to meet high levels of demand for peacekeeping. The African Union and its Member States have expressed willingness and have shown a growing capacity to meet many of those challenges. The United Nations has already provided some assistance to the African Union in its efforts, particularly in terms of planning....
36. In crafting the package of support that the United Nations should provide to African Union peacekeeping capacity, we should be guided, above all, by the principles of flexibility and openness. We should support any initiative that promises to add real peacekeeping capacity where such capacity is needed, while eschewing any mechanism that would limit the room for non-African Member States to shoulder some of the burden for peacekeeping on that continent. Peacekeeping in Africa is strengthened when it can benefit from troops and equipment from other regions, just as peacekeeping elsewhere is strengthened when all nations, including African nations, can contribute. In addition, the United Nations has significant comparative advantage with its unique capacity to deliver an integrated multidimensional response. As it is recognized that many conflicts are dealt with first at the regional level, the Organization's package of support should focus on planning and financial and logistical support for African Union start-up operations. This should be done while resisting the impulse towards a complete devolution of peacekeeping to the regions, which I believe would inevitably lead to a further erosion of the openness and universality that is the greatest strength of peacekeeping.
37. Finally, while viewing with great optimism the rapid development of African peacekeeping capacity, I should also note a parallel need in the field of post-conflict peacebuilding. In many countries, such as Sierra Leone and Liberia, the United Nations has found that it is able, through its peacekeeping forces, to provide a degree of security on the ground. This needs to be followed up with programmes that can engender a smooth transition to a sustainable peace: disarmament, demobilization and reintegration; rule of law; democratization and good governance. Without a firm and sustained commitment in these fields, even an enhanced African capacity in the area of peacekeeping will not be sufficient to ensure that the legacy of two generations of conflict in Africa is put firmly behind us. I will continue to highlight the urgent need for the international community to provide adequate support to strengthen African peacebuilding
United Nations, Security Council, S/RES/1631 (2005), adopted by the Security Council at its 5282nd meeting, 17 October 2005
The Security Council,
Emphasizing that the growing contribution made by regional organizations in cooperation with the United Nations can usefully complement the work of the organization in maintaining international peace and security, and stressing in this regard that such contribution must be made in accordance with Chapter VIII of the United Nations Charter.
Recognizing the necessity to support capacity-building and cooperation at regional and subregional level in maintaining international peace and security, and noting in particular the importance of strengthening the capacity of African regional and subregional organizations,
1. Expresses its determination to take appropriate steps to the further development of cooperation between the United Nations and regional and subregional organizations in maintaining international peace and security, consistent with Chapter VIII of the United Nations Charter, and invites regional and subregional organizations that have a capacity for conflict prevention or peacekeeping to place such capacities in the framework of the United Nations Standby Arrangements System;
2. Urges all States and relevant international organizations to contribute to strengthening the capacity of regional and subregional organizations, in particular of African regional and subregional organizations, in conflict prevention and crisis management, and in post-conflict stabilization, including through the provision of human, technical and financial assistance, and welcomes in this regard the establishment by the European Union of the Peace Facility for Africa;
3. Stresses the importance for the United Nations of developing regional and subregional organizations' ability to deploy peacekeeping forces rapidly in support of United Nations peacekeeping operations or other Security Council-mandated operations, and welcomes relevant initiatives taken in this regard;
5. Reiterates the need to encourage regional cooperation, including through the involvement of regional and subregional organizations in the peaceful settlement of disputes, and to include, where appropriate, specific provisions to this aim in future mandates of peacekeeping and peace-building operations authorized by the Security Council;
Statement by the President of the Security Council, United Nations Security Council, S/PRST/2006/39, 20 September 2006
Statement by the President of the Security Council
... the President of the Security Council issued the following statement on behalf of the Council:
"Member States emphasized that the Security Council has primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security and that the establishment of a more effective partnership between the United Nations and regional and other intergovernmental organizations, consistent with Chapter VIII of the United Nations Charter, would contribute to the maintenance of peace and security.
"The Security Council stresses the benefits of closer cooperation with regional and subregional organizations in the maintenance of international peace and security, including the brokering of peace agreements in conflict situations. In this regard, the Security Council agreed,... to expand consultation and cooperation with regional and subregional organizations by:
-- Inviting relevant regional and subregional organizations to participate in the Security Council's public and private meetings, when appropriate;
-- Continuing to consult informally with regional and subregional organizations when drafting, inter alia, resolutions, presidential statements and press statements, as appropriate;
-- Drawing the attention of representatives of regional and subregional organizations where appropriate to relevant resolutions, presidential statements and press statements.
"Invites all regional and subregional organizations that have a capacity for peacekeeping or rapid response in crisis situations to enhance their working relations with the United Nations Secretariat and cooperate with the Secretariat to determine the conditions in which this capacity could contribute to the fulfilment of UN mandates and goals.
"Welcomes the intent of many regional and subregional organizations to be closely associated with the work of the Peacebuilding Commission and commits to facilitating their participation, as relevant, in the country-specific activities of the Commission.
"Equally welcomes efforts underway to enhance cooperation between the United Nations Secretariat and regional and subregional organizations in mediation and peacemaking, and invites the Secretariat to expand without delay its Peacemaking databank to regional and subregional organizations so as to facilitate mutual information and exchanges of experience.
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|Publication:||Institute for Strategic Studies|
|Date:||Dec 1, 2006|
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