Printer Friendly

Part I: national security policy and strategy.

1. BACKGROUND AND CURRENT INITIATIVES

Aspects of current South African national security policy are primarily included in the Constitution; the White Paper on Defence; the White Paper on Intelligence; and the White Paper on South African Participation in International Peace Missions. (1)*) However, the lack of an integrated and more inclusive national security policy has been criticised on a number of occasions, especially by the South African National Defence Force (SANDF). The pending revision of the White Paper on Defence, to the extent that certain sections of it reflect national security policy, will most likely also include some adaptations in this regard, but probably contain few, if any, references to national security strategy.

Following the combined military intervention by South Africa and Botswana in Lesotho during 1998 to prevent an alleged military coup, the SANDF stated that the national security policy was not fully defined and that the necessity to perform a military intervention "came as somewhat of a surprise" to the SANDF. (2)) In the 1998/99 SANDF annual report it was stated that the Directorate Operations Policy of the SANDF "sought to initiate with other government departments the beginnings of a national security policy". (3))

As far as a national security strategy is concerned, it has also been stated that "(a)n urgent need to develop a cogent integrated security strategy from its several elements that currently reside with the cluster departments was recognised. Related to this is the need to improve the functioning of the national security management system". (4))

There is currently no known integrated South African national security strategy, and any substance in this regard is in fact more lacking than what is the case with a national security policy, as referred to above. In this regard, the Department of Defence (DOD) has stated that:
 The Military Strategy of South Africa is derived from the
 Constitution, the Defence Act, the White Paper on Defence, the Defence
 Review and the National Security Strategy of South Africa. The need to
 actively promote peace and security in the region is a key tenet of
 the National Security Strategy, which directs the Defence
 Strategy. (5))


The above implies that there is an integrated national security strategy, although the DOD had stated a year previously that the national security strategy is in fact "derived" from implied national interests and the objectives of clusters. (6))

During 1995 a Draft National External Security Strategy was published by the Department of Foreign Affairs, but never followed up in a final version. Four 'focal areas' of the strategy were identified, namely protecting and promoting South Africa's national interests in a competitive world; contributing towards international peace, stability and security; promoting regional security in Southern Africa; and projecting a defensive and non-threatening military posture. A number of instruments were identified in this regard, for instance, diplomatic, defence, economic and intelligence. The draft document was generally formulated and contained no reference to the internal dimension of a national security strategy. (7)) The National Crime Prevention Strategy published in 1996 does address both domestic and cross-border crime, but it is primarily a specific (interdepartmental) national strategy aimed at combating crime, and not a broader national security strategy. (8))

In addition to the revision of, for instance, the White Paper on Defence, it was announced in 2005 that a national security strategy would be developed. In the same announcement it was, however, also stated that "the review of the national security policy comes after ten years of democracy", adding to the confusion between national security policy and national security strategy. (9))

In the Government's Programme of Action, 4-12 July 2006, for the Justice, Crime Prevention and Security Cluster, two 'actions' that are relevant here, are referred to. Firstly, it is stated that the national security strategy has to be finalised and proposals developed regarding an appropriate national security management system. (10)) The National Intelligence Co-ordinating Committee (NICOC) is indicated as the lead department in this case, which of course immediately raises the question whether an intelligence body should play a lead role in the formulation of a policy or strategy, or only provide inputs regarding threats to national security. Other departments involved in the process include inter alia the Department of Defence and the South African Police Service (SAPS).

Secondly, although no specific reference is made to national security policy, it is nevertheless indicated that the National Security Council (NSC) should be urgently reactivated. It is further stated that it is functional and has met a few times, both at the level of officials and at the level of the executive. (11))

Cluster priorities involving national security primarily relate to specific security issues and specific strategies that resort under a specific cluster, and are therefore interdepartmental and specific rather than national in the broader sense of the word, but obviously form components of broader national security policy and strategy.

REFERENCES

1. Republic of South Africa, Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 (Act No 108 of 1996); Republic of South Africa, White Paper on National Defence for the Republic of South Africa: Defence in a Democracy, May 1996; Republic of South Africa, White Paper on Intelligence, 1995; and Republic of South Africa, White Paper on South African Participation in International Peace Missions, 1999.

2. Republic of South Africa, South African National Defence Force, SADC Combined Task Force, BOLEAS, 2 November 1998.

3. Republic of South Africa, Department of Defence, Annual Report 1998/99, Part II, p 6.

4. Republic of South Africa, Ministry of Safety and Security, Justice, Crime Prevention and Security (JCPS) Cluster Post Cabinet Lekgotla Media Briefing Presented by the Minister of Safety and Security, Mr Charles Nqakula, 5 August 2003. (http://www.info.gov.za/speeches/2003/03080515461001.htm, accessed 8 September 2006.)

5. Republic of South Africa, Department of Defence, Strategic Business Plan: FY2005/06 to FY 2007/08, p 9.

6. Republic of South Africa, Department of Defence, Strategic Business Plan: FY2003/04 to FY 2005/06, p 9.

7. Republic of South Africa, Department of Foreign Affairs, National External Security Strategy (NESS): Draft Input to Chapter Six of the National Growth and Development Strategy, 1995.

8. Republic of South Africa, Department for Safety and Security, National Crime Prevention Strategy: Summary, May 1996.

9. Republic of South Africa, Department of Home Affairs, JCPS Cluster Media Briefing, 5 May 2005. (http://home-affairs.pwv.gov.za/media_releases.asp?id=232, accessed 22 August 2006.)

10. Republic of South Africa, Government's Programme of Action--2006: Justice Crime Prevention and Security Cluster, 12 July 2006. (http://www.info.gov.za/aboutgov/poa/report/jcps06.htm, accessed 29 August 2006.)

11. Ibid.

2. CLUSTER PRIORITIES RELATING TO NATIONAL SECURITY

2.1 International Relations, Peace and Security Cluster

Republic of South Africa, Government's Programme of Action 2007: International Relations, Peace and Security Cluster, 29 August 2007 (http://www.info.gov.za/aboutgovt/poa/report/irps07.htm)

Actions:

1. CONSOLIDATION OF THE AFRICAN AGENDA

...

1.3 Southern African Development Community

1.3.1 Contribute towards the SADC Common Agenda (integrated multi/bilateral implementation of RISDP and SIPO action programmes, aimed at Socio-economic development and integration and Political, peace and security cooperation).

Departments: DFA, DTI, NT

Timeframe: 2007-2016

Progress update -- 29 August 2007: Report on options and modalities of income collection and sharing, fiscal impact on common external tariff & pace of integration for SADC Customs Union tabled at CU Task Force meeting in Jul-07 in Lesotho. Launch of SADCBRIG on 17 Aug-07 in Lusaka.

Actions:

1.3.2 Strengthen governance, capacity and technical decision-making processes in SADC, in particular the Integrated Committee of Ministers (ICM) and the SADC Secretariat.

Departments: DFA, DTI, NT

Timeframe: 2007-2016

Progress update -- 29 August 2007: A Task Force dealing with the review of Integrated Committee of Ministers (ICMs) met in Jul-07 in Botswana & recommend to Council of Ministers that the ICMs be abolished. 1 officer seconded to SADCBRIG PLANELME as Chief of Staff for 2 years from 1 Jun-07.

Actions:

1.4 Contribute towards Post Conflict Reconstruction and Development (PCRD) in Africa

...

1.5 Contribute towards Peace, Security and Stability in Africa

1.5.1 Establish the African Standby Force

Departments: DFA, DOD, SAPS

Timeframe: Ongoing

Progress update -- 29 August 2007: Phase 1 of the establishment of the African Standby Force (ASF) is done. It focused on continental consultations for the formulation of ASF policies. The SADC Standby Brigade was launched in Zambia on 17 Aug-07.

Actions:

1.5.2 Review of the White Paper on Peace Missions

Departments: DFA, DOD, SAPS

Timeframe: 2007

Progress update -- 29 August 2007: The draft White Paper is being updated to include the AU Post Conflict Reconstruction and Development (PCRD) Policy and lessons learnt from SA's participation in Peace Missions in places such as Burundi & DRC.

...

2.2 Justice, Crime Prevention and Security Cluster

Republic of South Africa, Government's Programme of Action 2007: Justice, Crime Prevention and Security Cluster, 29 August 2007 (http://www.info.gov.za/aboutgovt/poa/report/jcps07.htm)

...

Actions:

4. UPHOLDING NATIONAL SECURITY

...

4.1 Border Control and Security

4.1.1 Develop an inter-departmental National Border Control and Security Strategy (NBCSS) aligned with other cluster strategies to promote trade, tourism and development, and improve inter-departmental coordination.

Departments: BCOCC

Timeframe: 2005-2009

Progress update -- 29 August 2007: NBCSS framework to be presented for approval after final inputs are received.

Actions:

4.1.2 Sustain and upgrade the infrastructure in the border environment, including upgrading of outdated border control technology, as well as improve the reconnaissance, surveillance and command (SRC) capacity of the RSA.

Departments: BCOCC

Timeframe: 2005-2009

Progress update -- 29 August 2007: A service provider will be appointed to address the housing backlog at all land ports of entry and to provide temporary operational accommodation. User Asset Management Plan (UAMP) for the border environment has been finalised.

Actions:

4.1.3 Sustain and improve initiatives directed at addressing the illegal movement of persons and goods.

Departments: BCOCC

Timeframe: Ongoing

Progress update -- 29 August 2007: Recruitment of Customs Border officers is in progress. Fingerprints of illegal foreigners deported are forwarded to Directorate Identification for capturing to HANIS system to ensure that deported persons do not have access to RSA documents.

Actions:

4.1.4 Standardise inter-departmental Standard Operating Procedures and Skills Development.

Departments: BCOCC

Timeframe: Ongoing

Progress update -- 29 August 2007: Explanatory Note on key operations at One Stop Border Post forming the framework for the Standard Operating Procedures has been completed. This will also assist in preparation for the Legal and Policy Workshop with Mozambique.

Actions:

4.1.5 Harmonise Domestic and International Legal Instruments and Policies relating to the border environment.

Departments: BCOCC

Timeframe: Ongoing

Progress update -- 29 August 2007: Draft Bilateral Agreement between South Africa and Mozambique was developed. The legal team in SA is in process of being formed and will include both public and private legal experts.

Actions:

4.1.6 Implement exit and entry strategy regarding responsibility for the country's borderline, in order to enhance border security.

Departments: BCOCC

Timeframe: Mar-09

Progress update -- 29 August 2007: Assessments for joint deployment between SAPS and SANDF along MP/Mozambique/Swaziland, KZN/Mozambique and KZN/Swaziland borderlines were completed. Assessment and planning phase of SAPS and SANDF joint deployment along Zimbabwe borderline were completed.

Actions:

4.1.7 Modernise the systems of the SARS and improve coordination on border control.

Departments: All Clusters

Timeframe: Ongoing

Progress update -- 29 August 2007: Posts to capacitate the BCOCC structures were advertised. The filling of these posts will greatly improve interdepartmental co-ordination and lead to focused efforts to improve border control. 9 Interim Provincial Coordinators were appointed.

Actions:

4.2 Bring operations of DHA to full capacity.

Departments: DHA

Timeframe: Ongoing

Progress update -- 29 August 2007: DHA Turnaround Strategy has been developed to address capacity within the department and the issues of migration. The National Immigration Branch (NIB) is in a process of finalising recruitment.

Actions:

4.3 Improve systems and implement recommendations of the Task Team.

Departments: DHA

Timeframe: Ongoing

Progress update -- 29 August 2007: Recommendations from the Task Team are to be implemented.

Actions:

4.4 Continue with the rejuvenation SANDF.

Departments: SANDF

Timeframe: Ongoing

Progress update -- 29 August 2007: A total of 4159 young South Africans have commenced with the Military Skills Development System (MSDS) training. Intakes to increase to 10000 pr annum from the current 4159. 6568 have completed training and are serving within the department.

...

* Official perceptions regarding Strategic Intelligence in the RSA over the period 1992-2002, formed the focus of ISSUP Ad Hoc Publication No 39 of November 2002.
COPYRIGHT 2007 University of Pretoria, Institute for Strategic Studies
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2007 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Publication:Institute for Strategic Studies
Geographic Code:6SOUT
Date:Dec 1, 2007
Words:2087
Previous Article:Preface.
Next Article:Part II: defence policy and strategy.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2018 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters