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Part 2 Business and mechanical technology.


Gallon--(1) A liquid measure: in the United States, 8.3359 pounds of water at 40[degrees]F (4[degrees]C), 231 cubic inches (3.7853 liters). (2) A dry measure, in some areas, for the sale of berries, cherries, etc., of 268.8 cubic inches.

Gallonage--The number of gallons of a mixed or finished spray that is used to cover an acre, a tree, or other unit.

Gallons per Minute--An index or unit of flow that is used to indicate the rate of flow of water, especially in pump drainage and in irrigation, as 1,000 gallons per minute. One gallon per minute = 0.227 cubic meters per hour = 0.00227 hectarecentimeters per hour.

Galton's Law--The theory of inheritance expounded by Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911). According to this genetic theory, the individual's inheritance is determined as follows: one-fourth by its sire and one-fourth by its dam; one-sixteenth by each of the four grandparents; one-sixteenth by each of the eight great grandparents; and on and on, with each ancestor contributing just one-fourth as much to the total inheritance as did the one a generation nearer to the individual. Galton's law is correct in the sense that the relationship between ancestor and descendant is halved with each additional generation that intervenes between them. It is not correct in the sense that the individual's heredity is completely determined by the heredity of its ancestors. Rather, in a random-bred population, the individual is one-fourth determined by each parent and one-half determined by chance in Mendelian segregation. Determination by more remote ancestors is included in the determination by the parent. Galton's law is often used as a stamina index by thoroughbred breeders.

Galvanize--(Named after Luigi Galvani, 1737-1798, an Italian physiologist) (1) The coating of iron with zinc (by the electroplating process) to preserve it. (2) To stimulate muscular action by electricity. (3) To rouse to action; to startle.

Gang Bolt--The shaft on which the blades of a disk harrow are mounted.

Gang Disk Plow--A disk plow that has two or more sets of disks.

Gang Plow--A turning plow with two or more bottoms attached to the frame.

Gauge Wheel--A wheel mounted on a tillage implement or planter to control the working depth and to improve stability.

Gear--(1) A round cylinder, ring, or cone-shaped machine part having teeth on one or more surfaces that mate with and engage the teeth on another part. (2) Any or all of the tools, materials, etc., that go together to care for a horse or other animal.

Gear Ratio--In a machine, the ratio of the number of teeth on the larger gear to the number of teeth on the smaller gear.

Gear Sack--A type of duffle bag used by cowboys to carry their personal belongings when traveling on horseback. It is usually tied behind the saddle.

General Land Office--Formerly, a division of the United States Department of the Interior, constituted by Congress in 1812, which had charge of public lands. In 1946 it was combined with the United States Grazing Service to form the Bureau of Land Management.

Generator--A device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.

Genetic Index--An estimate of the future Predicted Difference of a young bull. See Predicted Difference.

Genetic Trait Summary (GTS)--The comparative ranking of beef sires derived from evaluating the conformation of the daughters.

Geological Survey--A United States government service established in 1879 for the purpose of: making topographical maps; mapping earth structures; studying groundwater; and appraising energy and mineral resources.

Gill--(1) A unit of liquid measure equal to: 4 fluid ounces, 0.25 liquid pints, 0.118 liters. (2) The breathing mechanism of an aquatic animal such as a fish.

Gin--(1) The entire machine processes, considered as a unit, which remove cotton lint from the cottonseed and bales lint cotton. (2) The grounds, buildings, management, etc., of a gin. Also called cotton gin. (3) The alcoholic beverage obtained by distilling pure spirits over various flavoring materials, principally juniper berries, but also coriander seed, angelica root, and other plant products.

Glean--To gather the useful bits left in the field after harvest.

Gleaners--(Ancient Order of) A rural, fraternal organization founded in Caro, Michigan, in 1894. One of its principal purposes was the promotion of cooperatives for the benefit of farmers.

Glebe--An archaic and poetic term for land assigned to a clergyman for his use.

Glut on the Market--Designating an oversupply of a product on the market usually causing a depression in its price.

GNP--Gross National Product.

Go-devil--(1) Any of several types of sled cultivators or of various other similar implements used on farms. (2) A rough sled used for hauling a log out of a woods; one end of the log is placed on the sled and the other allowed to drag on the ground. (3) A stoneboat. (4) Any old car made over into a tractorlike machine. (5) Any homemade device that is particularly handy for a given job.

Goatherd--A person who tends a flock of goats. See Shepherd.

Governing Body, Conservation District--The appointed or elected supervisors (directors or commissioners) of a (soil or soil and water) conservation district established according to state law. Name of district, number and method of naming members of governing body, and tenure vary with state laws; usual number is five.

Government Farm Credit--Farm credit provided by the federal government, United States, particularly through an agency such as the Farmer's Home Administration or the Commodity Credit Corporation. It differs from credit provided by a government-sponsored farm credit agency, such as the Farm Credit Administration, in that units of the agency are member-owned and obtain their loan funds from the sale of bonds and debentures on the open money market.

Governor--A device on the engine of a tractor or other machine that controls and regulates the speed of the engine.

GPA--Gallons per acre.

GPM--Gallons per minute.

Grade--(1) The slope of a road, channel, or natural ground. (2) The finished slope of a prepared surface of a canal bed, roadbed, top of embankment, or bottom of excavation. (3) Any surface that is prepared for the support of a conduit, paving, ties, rails, etc. (4) Any animal that has one purebred parent and one of unknown or mixed breeding. (5) Designating a herd, flock, brand, etc., of such animals. (6) The classification of a product, animal, etc., by standards of uniformity, size, trueness to type, freedom from blemish or disease, fineness, quality, etc. (7) To smooth the surface of a road. (8) To raise the level of a piece of ground by the addition of earth, gravel, etc.

Graded Terrace--A terrace with a constant lengthwise slope sufficient to cause runoff to flow at a nonerosive velocity.

Grader Blade--An implement mounted, usually on the rear of a tractor, that is used for leveling and grading soil, scraping manure, etc.

Grading--(1) The classification of products, animals, etc., into grades. (2) The mating of a purebred animal with one of mixed or unknown breeding. (3) The smoothing of the land surface.

Grading Cotton--A system of classifying cotton according to grade, composed of three factors: color, foreign matter, and ginning preparation.

Grain Alcohol--See Ethanol.

Grain Drier--A device used to lower the moisture content of grain. It can utilize circulating air, or heat generated by LP gas, electricity, or the sun.

Grain Drill--A tractor-drawn implement that plants grain seed in a series of closely spaced rows. A small furrow is opened, the seed deposited, and the furrow closed. See Air Drill, Press Drill, Stubble-Mulch Press Drill.

Grain Probe--A sampling device commonly used by elevator operators when purchasing grain to obtain a sample of a load, bin, or gab in order to determine grain quality and dockage content. It consists of a long, hollow tube that is inserted into grain to obtain a representative sample of the load. See Grain Trier.

Grain Trier--An instrument or device usually made of brass and consisting of two tubes from 6 inches to 8 feet in length. These tubes are slotted on the sides, and one is closely fitted by freely moving within the other. When closed this instrument may be inserted in a bag or bin of grain and then opened to admit a representative sample from each layer of the grain. After filling, the trier is closed and withdrawn and the sample discharged upon an examination cloth for inspection or grading. Also called grain sampler.

Grain Wagon--A truck-or tractor-drawn four-wheel wagon that transports grain from a harvester to a storage bin or to market.

Gram--(1) A unit of weight used in the metric system; one gram being equivalent to 0.035 ounces avoirdupois, or to 0.032 apothecary weight. (2) Mung bean. (3) An Indian gram. See Gram Chickpea.

Grange, The National--An organization dedicated primarily to the improvement of rural life, founded in the United States in 1867, as The Order of the Patrons of Husbandry; membership included both men and women. The Grange has exerted a strong influence on agricultural legislation and rural education and has promoted cooperative enterprises designed to protect the farmer from economic exploitation.

Grant--(as used in Public Law 480 Programs) The transfer, by the United States to foreign governments, of foreign currencies acquired by the United States through sales of United States farm products. Grant also is used in connection with the transfer, by the United States to foreign governments, of United States agricultural commodities as distinguished from donation of farm products to United States voluntary agencies carrying on foreign relief operations. Grant and donation, however, are often used interchangeably.

Grantor--A person who conveys real estate by deed; the seller.

Grazing Capacity--In range or pasture management, the ability of a grassed unit to give adequate support to a constant number of livestock for a stated period each year without deteriorating. It is expressed in number of livestock per acre of given kind or kinds, or in number of acres per specified animal. Modifications must be made during years of drought.

Grazing District--In the United States, an administration unit on federal range established by the Secretary of the Interior under the provisions of the Taylor Grazing Act of 1934, as amended; or an administrative unit of state, private, or other range lands, established under state laws.

Grazing Fee--A charge made for livestock grazing on a range on the basis of a certain rate per head for a certain period of time, as distinguished from lease or rental of the land on which animals may be grazed.

Grazing Land--Land used regularly for grazing; not necessarily restricted to land suitable only for grazing: excluding pasture and cropland used as part of farm crop rotation system.

Grazing Pressure--The actual animal-to-forage ratio at a specific time. For example, three animal units per ton of standing forage.

Grazing Unit--(1) The quantity of pasturage used by an average, mature cow or its equivalent in other livestock in a grazing season in a given region. (2) Any division of the range that is used to facilitate range administration or the handling of livestock.

Grazing Value--The worth of a plant or cover for livestock and/or game that is determined by its palatability, nutritional rating, amount of forage produced, longevity, and area of distribution.

Grease--(1) See Fat, Lanolin, Lard. (2) A thick petroleum derivative used for lubrication. (3) Hog fat as distinguished from tallow, which is the fat of cattle and sheep; commercially differentiated by temperature of solidification which is below 40[degrees]C for grease and above 40[degrees]C for tallow. (4) To lubricate a machine. (5) To apply salve to a wound or irritation.

Grid--A small, rigid, rectangular frame for delimiting a sampling area.

Grindstone--A large circular stone made from sandstone and formerly used quite extensively for the sharpening of many different tools and instruments. Now largely replaced by artificial vitrified abrasives.

Grist Mill--A grain-grinding mill equipped with large, heavy grinding stones or burrs usually run by waterwheel power. Grains such as wheat, rye, and corn are ground into meal and flour. Such mills were common in early colonial days in the United States.

Gross Energy (GE)--The total amount of heat or energy in an organic substance, such as feed, measured by complete combustion in a bomb calorimeter.

Gross Income--The receipts and net increases from the farm/ranch business for the year, which include the cash receipts from the sale of dairy products, eggs, forest products, machine work off farm, labor off farm, and other receipts of a minor nature and net increases from dairy cattle, beef cattle, swine, sheep, poultry, crops, agriculture payments, and orchards, etc. (Net decreases in any of the foregoing items are subtracted from the total gross income.)

Gross Weight--(1) The weight of an article together with the weight of its container and the material caused for packing. (2) As applied to a carload: the weight of a railcar or truck together with the weight of its entire contents.

Ground--(1) The surface of the earth. (2) The soil; land. (3) (a) An electrical connection to the earth. (b) To make such an electrical connection. (4) In the electrical circuit of a tractor or other machine, the break in the circuit that occurs when any part of the circuit unintentionally touches the metal body of the tractor.

Grout--(1) A watery mixture of mortar that will flow between stones to make a more stable mass. (2) A coarse grain meal of porridge.

Grub Wagon--A horse- or mule-drawn wagon that carried food supplies for cowboys on roundups (western United States, but now rare). Also called chuck wagon.

Grubbing--The process of removing roots, stumps, and low-growing vegetation.

Grubbing Hoe (Grub Hoe)--A tool used for digging in hard ground; a mattock.

Guaranteed Analysis--On feed labels or tags, a listing of certain nutrients, usually crude protein, crude fiber, fat, and ash, guaranteeing a minimum or maximum percentage of each in the feed.

Gunny Sack--A coarse fabric bag manufactured from jute fiber that is commonly used as a container for feeds, seeds, potatoes, and various other products. Gunny fibres come from one of two tropical jute plants: Corchorus olitorius or C. capsularis. Also called toe sack, burlap sack.

Gunter's Chain--A steel-linked chain 66 feet (20.13 meters) long used in the original land survey of the United States. Modern Gunter's chains are steel tapes. There are exactly 80 Gunter's chains in a mile.

Gutter--(1) A channel in the floor behind cows in stanchion barns used to catch the manure and to simplify cleaning. (2) A ditch, dug in the path of a forest fire into which burning materials fall, designed to arrest the fire. (3) In turpentine orcharding, the groove or channel along which the oleoresin travels form the tree to the cup. (4) A metal channel (eave trough) mounted to intercept water flowing from a roof.

Guy--(1) To anchor a post, plant, limb, tower, etc., by the installation of cables or wires from the member to a firmly established object. (2) Designating a cable or wire so used.

Gypsum Block--See Tensionmeter.


Ha-Ha Fence--(1) A sunken wall that encloses a lawn or pasture; one that does not obscure the view. (2) A boundary trench; a ditch or moat.

Hacienda--(1) The principal dwelling or headquarters of a ranch. (2) The ranch itself. (Southwestern Unitd States).

Half-section--Three hundred and twenty acres of land.

Hame--The wood or metal parts of the harness of a draft animal that fit about the collar to which the traces are attached for pulling.

Hammer Mill--A feed-grinding device or mill in which hammerlike projections are mounted on the surface of a cylinder that revolves at a high speed within a heavy perforated metal enclosure, and shatters the feed material by beating it to pieces.

Hammer Mill Magnet--A magnet that is placed on the apron of a hammer mill to attract bits of iron, wire, etc., to prevent them from entering the mill and damaging the hammer.

Hamper--A basket in which vegetables are shipped.

Hand--(1) A laborer who is either permanently employed or migratory, as harvest hand, hired hand. (2) A unit of measurement equal to 4 inches (10 centimeters) that is used to measure the height of horses from the ground to a point at the shoulder. (3) A bunch of tobacco leaves of the same grade that are tired together for easier handling. (4) The near horse in a team used for plowing. (5) A half-whorl-like cluster of bananas attached to the rachis of the spike or bunch. (6) Designating any tool, implement, etc., that is manually operated. (7) Designating any manual labor, as hand chopping.

Hand Gun--A spray gun held in the hands during operation.

Hand Labor--Any labor or production effort that is produced entirely by the hands or use of the human body. (The term often denotes any unskilled a farm laborer working with his hands or with simple tools, such as a hoe.)

Hand Level--A leveling instrument without tripod or stand that is held in the hand while making a horizontal line of sight to establish relative elevations. See Abney Level.

Handler--A person or company that buys, sells, sorts, packages, or stores a product.

Hank--(1) A measure of length for yarn (hank of worsted yarn contains 560 yards (512 meters). (2) A bundle of animal casings.

Hardening--The process of tempering steel-edge tools. The tool, heated to a cherry red, is plunged into brine or clear water, the sudden quenching rendering it hard enough to scratch glass. Subsequent reheating to a point determined by experience is necessary to draw the temper to the requisite hardness.

Hardness of Wood--A property of wood measured by the load applied at a standard rate required to imbed a 0.444-inch (1.13-centimeter) steel ball halfway.

Hardness Scale--The empirical scale by which the hardness of a mineral is determined as compared with a standard. The Mohs scale is as follows: 1. talc; 2. gypsum; 3. calcite; 4. fluorite; 5. apatite; 6. orthoclase; 7. quartz; 8. topaz; 9. corundum; 10. diamond.

Hardware Cloth--Galvanized, square-meshed, wire screening made in several widths with openings of various sizes up to about 1 inch (2.5 centimeter) square; used in the construction of poultry and small animal cages, incubator and dehydrator trays, various types of screens, etc.

Harness--The straps, bands, collars, hames, lines, and attachments that are necessary to equip a draft animal, such as a horse, properly to pull or move a load. The harness, of many types, is usually largely made of leather. Also called gear.

Harrow--A farm implement used to level the ground and crush clods, to stir the soil, and to prevent and destroy weeds. Six principal kinds are the disk, spike-tooth, spring-tooth, rotary, cross harrow, and soil surgeon.

Harvest Hand--A person, usually a temporary or unskilled worker, who assists in harvesting.

Harvest Interval--The period of time required by law between the application of a pesticide and harvest of the crop.

Harvestsed Acres--Acres actually harvested for a particular crop, usually somewhat smaller at the national level than planted acres because of abandonment brought on by weather damage or other disasters or market prices too low to cover harvesting costs.

Hatch--(1) (a) To bring forth young from the egg by natural or artificial incubation. (b) The young produced from one incubation. (2) The access entryway to cellars, attics, haymows, ships, etc.

Hatch Act--An act of the United States Congress in 1887 that allocated $15,000 annually to each state and territory of the development and operation of an agricultural experiment station. This act was amended in 1955 to include subsequent acts of Congress that appropriated funds for the operation of these experiment stations. The consolidation or amended Hatch Act includes the original Hatch Act, the Adams Act of 1906, the Purnell Act of 1925, the Bankhead-Jones Act of 1935, and Title I, section 9 of the Amendment of 1946 to the Bankhead-Jones Act. Currently valid.

Hatchet--A small ax used for splitting kindling or chopping small trees.

Hay Bale--A quantity of loose hay compressed usually into a rectangular bale about 3 feet by 18 inches by 14 inches, containing from 40 to 125 pounds depending on the kind of hay, degree of compaction, and moisture content. The compressed hay is held in the bale by baling wire, light metal strips, or heavy twine. More common are the large cylindrical bales weighing up to a ton or more.

Hay Baler--A tractor-powered implement that picks up hay from a windrow, presses it into bales, ties and ejects the bales. See Round Baler.

Hay Conditioner--(1) A mechanical device consisting of two closely spaced, parallel, smooth surface rollers that crush the freshly cut stems of hay to facilitate drying and curing. (2) A mechanical device consisting of two closely spaced, parallel rollers with corrugations resembling gear teeth paralleling the axle that kinks the stems of hay to break them open. Both methods results in a more even and rapid drying of the hay and less loss of leaves than conventional swath curing methods. (3) Any chemical that is supposed to be beneficial in preventing storage losses and/or increasing palatability.

Hay Rake--An implement that is used to rake mowed hay into windrows so it can be picked up by a baler.

Hayseed--(1) Bits of straw, chaff, and seeds that cling to the garments in haymaking. (2) A degrading term for a rustic farmer or countryman (obsolete).

Hazardous Occupation--An occupation in which the daily labor is, or may be, hazardous to life and limb, including some in agriculture, such as the pesticide applicator. Certain persons, primarily youth, are prohibited by federal and state labor laws form accepting employment in such an occupation.

Hazel Hoe--In forestry, a fire-trenching or digging tool that resembles a grub hoe but has a shorter, broader, and lighter blade, a round or oval eye, and usually a straight, picklike head.

Head--(1) Any tightly formed flower cluster, as in members of the family Compositae, or any tightly formed fruit cluster, as the head of wheat or sunflower. (2) A compact, orderly mass of leaves, as a head of lettuce. (3) On a tree, the point or region at which the trunk divides into limbs. (4) The height of water above any point of reference (elevation head). The energy of a given nature possessed by each unit weight of a liquid expressed as the vertical height through which a unit weight would have to fall to release the average energy possessed, used in various compounds, as pressure head, velocity head, lost head, etc. (5) Cows, asses, horses, collectively, as ten head of horses. (6) The part of the body that includes the face, ears, brain, etc. (7) The source of a stream; specifically the highest point upstream at which there is a continuous flow of water, although a channel with an intermittent flow may extend farther. (8) The upstream terminus of a gully. (9) To prune a tree severely. (10) To get in front of a band of sheep, herd of cattle, etc., so as to stop their forward movement (head them off). (11) To place a top on a barrel. (12) That part of an engine that forms the top of the combustion chamber. In many types of modern engines, the exhaust and intake valves are in the head.

Head Flume--A flume, chute, trough, or lined channel used at the head of a gully or at the lower end of a terrace outlet to reduce soil erosion.

Head Gasket--A sealing device between the cylinder head and block of an engine that prevents the leaking of oil, coolant, and compression.

Head Loss--Energy loss due to friction, eddies, changes in velocity, or direction of flow of water or other liquids through a pipe.

Head Pressure--Air pressure in a water pipe.

Head-catch Chute--A device at the end of a narrow alley that catches and holds the heads of cattle while they are treated. See Cutting Chute, Squeeze Chute.

Headgate--Water control structure; the gate at the entrance to a conduit.

Headland--(1) A type of farm road established at frequent intervals in sugarcane or sugar beet fields to permit the best possible movement of heavy loads with as little travel over the rows as possible. (2) That portion at the end of the field that is reserved for travel and for turning the tillage implement around after completing a furrow or row.

Headspace--The space between the top of food in a container and the container lid or closure.

Heat Gradient--Change in temperature of the earth with depth; approximately 30[degrees]C per kilometer in the upper part of the earth's crust.

Heat Increment--The amount of heat or energy produced by an animal in eating, digesting, absorbing, and metabolizing food; also called the work of digestion.

Heat of Condensation--The same as the heat of vaporization, except that the heat is given up as the vapor condenses to a liquid at its boiling point.

Heat of Vaporization--The heat input required to change a liquid at its boiling point (water at 212[degrees]F or 100[degrees]C) to a vapor at the same temperature.

Heating Value--The amount of heat obtainable from a fuel and expressed, for example, in Btu/lb. or joules/kg.

Heavy--(1) Designating any material or product that exhibits a comparatively high weight per unit volume. (2) Designating a clay or clayey soil that is difficult to plow. (3) In marketing, designating an abundant supply of a product for sale on one day at one market. (4) The late stages of pregnancy of a cow.

Hectare--A metric unit of land measurement equal to 100 ares, 100,000 square meters, or 2,471 acres.

Hedge--(1) A fence or barrier formed by bushes, shrubs, or small trees growing close together in a line, sometimes with interwoven branches used as a screen. (2) A managed belt of shrubs or small trees usually placed across fields or along field or property boundaries for wildlife rather than for wind control. (3) To buy or sell futures to protect from loss due to a rise or fall in prices.

Hedgers--People who buy and sell futures contracts in an attempt to reduce the hazard of loss.

Height of Instrument--The elevation of the line of sight of a surveying instrument, which is obtained by adding the backsight to the elevation of a known point.

Held--(1) The lower end of an ax or other tool handle encased by the metal portion of the tool. (2) Designating the controlling of an animal in a small space or by other controlling devices.

Hemi---(Greek) Prefix meaning half.

Herd Book--The recognized, official record of the ancestry of a purebred animal kept by the particular breed association. The first herd book for keeping thoroughbred pedigrees was started in England in 1791. This was followed by Coates Herd Book for Shorthorns started in England in 1822.

Herd Improvement Registry--A type of registry maintained by certain purebred cattle breeder associations to record the production and yearly records of all producing cows of that breed in a given breeder's herd.

Herder--One who tends livestock on a range. Usually applied to the man herding a band of sheep or goats.

Herdsman--One who cares for and manages a herd of livestock, usually cattle.

Heritability--The proportion of the differences among animals, measured or observed, that is transmitted to the offspring. Heritability varies from zero to one. The higher the heritability of a trait, the more accurately does the individual performance predict breeding value and the more rapid should be the response due to selection for that trait.

Heritability Percent Estimates--The percent of a trait that is inherited from an animal's parents and is not controlled by environment. Hermetic--Food containers that do not permit gas or microorganisms to enter the container or to escape from it. A properly sealed tin can is an hermetic container.

Hertz--An international term for sound frequency in cycles per second. One hertz equals one cycle per second.

Hex Bolt--A bolt that has a six-sided head designed to accept a wrench.

High Dump Wagon--A wagon used to haul forage and other products that are unloaded by hydraulically raising and tipping the box to one side to empty the entire load at one time.

High-density Bale--(1) A bale of cotton similar to a standard-density bale except the average density is 36 pounds per cubic feet. (2) A highly compacted bale of hay with a density of 12 to 15 pounds per cubic feet.

High-pressure Sprayer--A sprayer utilizing a high-pressure pump to force the spray through nozzles for both atomization and delivery to the plant.

Highest Profit Combination--In the production of a single product with varying and fixed resources, the combination of the factors of production in which (a) additional units of the variable factors exactly pay for themselves; i.e., when marginal factor cost equals the marginal value product and (b) the revenue derived from the added units is declining.

Hillbilly--(1) A person who lives in rural, hill, or mountainous area (jocular and derogatory). (2) A cottontail rabbit.

Hip--(1) The fruit of rose; rose hips. (2) The external angle (ridge) formed by the meeting of two sloping sides of a roof. (3) That region of one of the rear quarters of four-legged animals where the hind leg joins the pelvic region.

Hip Roof--A roof so constructed that a rain falling on it drains off all four sides. If the building is square, the four hip rafters meet at the center.

Hitch--(1) A catch; anything that holds, as a hook; a knot or noose in a rope, which can be readily undone, intended for a temporary fastening. (2) (a) The connecting of an implement, vehicle, etc., to a source of power, as a tractor, team, etc. (b) The device which is used to make such a connection. (3) A horse or horses used to pull an implement or vehicle. (4) The stride of a horse when one of the hind legs is shorter than the other. (5) To fasten an animal to a post, rail, etc. Hive Loader--A mechanically operated boom and cradle for manipulating beehives and placing them on a truck.

HNIS--Human Nutrition and Information Service, USDA.

Hoe Culture--A primitive type of agriculture in which the hoe was the principal implement or tool.

Hoedad--A heavy bladed hoe with a short, stout handle used to open the ground to plant tree seedlings.

Hoedown--An old-fashioned, riotous country dance. Also called breakdown, barn dance.

Hog Bristles--The coarse, stiff hairs on swine used in the manufacture of brushes; now synthetic bristles have largely replaced hog bristles.

Hog Holder--A device consisting of a metal tube through which a cable is run. A loop on the end of the cable is placed on the snout of a hog to hold the hog for receiving vaccination, etc .

Hog-Corn Ratio--See Corn-Hog Ratio.

Hogshead--(1) A liquid measure that contains 63 United States gallons or 521/2 imperial gallons. (2) A cask that contains from 100 to 140 gallons, as used for molasses, etc.

Hohenheim System of Grazing--An intensive system of grassland management involving the division of the grazing area into a number of paddocks, grazed in rotation to allow a short period for growth between grazings. Nitrogenous fertilizers are usually applied after each grazing.

Hold--(1) To restrain animals to a particular place. (2) To remain on the tree until mature, as a fruit. (3) To retain, as certain soils hold moisture. (4) To maintain condition, as a steer that holds flesh. (5) To store or retain in storage, as to hold eggs. (6) Not to market at harvest time or when an animal is fat, but to wait to sell for a better price.

Home Range--The area around an animal's established home that is traversed in its normal activities. See Territory.

Home-grown--(1) Designating crops, vegetables, or animals that are raised on one's property, as contrasted to purchased products. (2) Designating produce raised locally in contrast to that shipped in from a distance.

Homestead--(1) A home place; especially a farm/ranch dwelling and the surrounding ground. (2) In the United States, a unit of public land, usually not more than 160 acres, acquired by an individual under the Homestead Act of Congress, 1862, and subsequent acts. See Homesteading. Homestead Rights--The widow's or widower's rights to the family dwelling.

Homesteading--In the United States, the process of securing a unit of virgin, undeveloped federal land under the regulations of the Federal Homestead Act of 1862. See Homestead.

Homogeneity of Products--A characteristic of a set of products denoting that, in the eyes of traders, are prefect substitutes for each other.

Hone--(1) The whetstone, carborundum stone, metal, or other device used to sharpen knives, scissors, or other cutting tools. (2) To sharpen a knife.

Honey Extractor--See Extractor

Honey House--Building in which honey is extracted and handled.

Honeysuckle--Lonicera; bush honeysuckles are large shrubs growing to 10 to 15 feet (3 to 5 meters) in height. The branches are spreading. Amur honeysuckle is a large spreading shrub with fragrant conspicuous white flowers. It bears fruit late in summer and holds fruit well into the winter. Tartarian is a large shrub that bears pink flowers in the spring and a berry crop in summer, but does not hold fruit into the winter.

Hoof Pick--A tool used to clean the hoof of a horse or other animal. Hook-up--See Hitch.

Horizontal Bench Terrace--A type of bench terrace that has no measurable slope from the back to the front of the bench.

Horizontal Integration--Combining similar marketing functions and decisions at the same market level into a single firm; e.g., one food processor buying another food processing company.

Horizontal Silo--A silo built with its long dimension parallel to the ground surface rather than perpendicular as in the case of an upright silo. It may be built just below the ground level with openings at both ends to facilitate filling and feeding.

Horn--(1) A natural, bonelike growth or projection on each side of the head of most breeds of cattle, sheep, and goats that is a natural weapon of defense. (2) The pointed end of a blacksmith's anvil used for shaping hot metal. (3) The front, upraised projection of a riding saddle, the snubbing horn. (4) The outer hard covering of the hoofs of horses, cattle, sheep, and swine. (5) A broad term commonly used in describing various shadings of color in the beak of some breeds of fowl.

Horse Wrangler--(1) A hostler who keeps the string of extra saddle ponies that accompanies every cattle drive or used during roundup. He keeps them from straying and has them ready when they were needed (southwestern United States). (2) The rider on horseback who accompanies the rodeo rider and keeps the bucking broncho from injuring the contest rider before and after the riding has been done. (3) A person who works with horses during the breaking period.

Horsepower--The rate at which work is accomplished when a resistance (weight) of 33,000 pounds is moved 1 foot in 1 second. One horsepower working for one hour = 745.7 watt-hours, = 1,980,000 foot pounds. Engines and motors are rated in horsepower, based on tests made on a machine known as the dynamometer. See Brake Horsepower, Drawbar Horsepower, Effective Horsepower, Rated Horsepower.

Hoseboy--A mechanical device used for watering cut flower crops in a greenhouse or storage area.

Hostler--One who takes care of horses.

Hot Iron--The heated iron rod or stamp with a handle used in branding cattle, etc.

Hot Walker--A person who leads horses in order to cool them slowly after a workout or race.

Hover--(1) The sheet metal canopy surrounding a heat source under which incubator chicks are kept warm. (2) To cover chicks, as a hen hovers her chicks.

Humidistat--A sensing device used in a greenhouse to maintain humidity at a certain level.

Hundredweight--A unit of weight: a short hundredweight equals 100 pounds (45.4 kilograms) in the United States and a long hundredweight equals 112 pounds. (50.8 kilograms avoirdupois in England.)

Hurdle--A board made of plywood usually around 3 feet wide and 3 feet long that is used to herd pigs.

Hurdle Plots--(1) A small fenced-in plot of land, from 4 x 4 to 20 x 20 feet, on which the herbage is clipped at predetermined intervals during the growing season to determine forage composition and yield. (2) Small plots grazed by means of hurdles.

Husbandman--A person engaged in the production of animals or crops by tillage or other use of land; a farmer.

Husbandry--In its earlier usage, the skill, or art, of tillage, crop production, and rearing of farm animals. Today the word is occasionally used as a synonym for farming. More commonly used in combination, as animal husbandry and poultry husbandry, embracing the art, science, processing, and business of production.

Husking Bee--An early American gathering of neighbors and friends in which the men husked harvested corn for a particular farmer. The women, children, and sweethearts accompanied the men and prepared sumptuous meals. It was a delightful social gathering.

Hydrator--Vegetable crisper; a drawerlike section in refrigerators that protects fresh fruits and vegetables form drying out during refrigerator storage.

Hydraulic--Designating fluids (usually water) that are moving or at rest under forces of gravity or pressure.

Hydraulic Elements--Factors determining the rate of flow of water or other fluid in a pipe or a channel are: area, depth, slope, velocity, energy, roughness, viscosity, temperature, pressure, and fluid characteristics.

Hydraulic Gradient--(1) The slope of the hydraulic grade line. (2) The slope of the free surface of water flowing in an open channel.

Hydraulic Pressure--The pressure exerted through the medium of a liquid. In tractors and machinery, hydraulic pressure is used to raise and lower implements, assist in steering, etc.

Hydraulic Ram--A mechanical device that utilizes momentum of water flowing down an incline to raise a part of that water to a higher elevation.

Hydraulic Sprayer--A machine that applies pesticides by using water at a high pressure and high volume.

Hydraulics--(1) The mechanics of fluids; hydromechanics. Commonly used to designate that body of hydromechanical principles given practical application by the engineer in dealing with water. (2) That branch of service or of engineering that deals with water or other fluid in motion.

Hydrogen--H; an element; a colorless gas; one of the essential elements for plant and animal growth.

Hydrogen-ion Concentration--A measure of acidity or alkalinity, expressed in terms of the pH of the solution. A pH, of 7 is neutral, from 1 to less than 7 is acid, and from 7 to 14 is alkaline. See pH, Reaction. Hydrogenation--The addition of hydrogen to any unsaturated compound. Oils are changed to solid fats by hydrogenation.

Hydrogenesis--A process of natural condensation of moisture in the air spaces in the surface soil or rock.

Hydrogenic Soil (Hydromorphic)--Soil that was developed under the dominant influence of water.

Hydrograph--A graph that shows the fluctuation of the flow of water with respect to time.

Hydrography--The measuring, recording, and analyzing of the flow of water, e.g., measuring and mapping water courses, shorelines, and navigable waters.

Hydrology--The science that deals with the waters of the earth, their occurrence, distribution, and circulation through the unending hydrologic cycle of precipitation, runoff, infiltration and storage, eventual evaporation, transpiration, and reprecipitation. A simple distinction between hydrology and hydraulics is that in hydraulics the source of the water is immaterial, attention being confined to its motion.

Hydrolysis--Chemical reaction in which a compound reacts with water to produce a weak acid, a weak base, or both.

Hydrolyze--The splitting of a compound into smaller units by the addition of water.

Hydrometer--A long-stemmed glass tube with a weighted bottom; it floats at different levels depending on the relative weight (specific gravity) of the liquid; the specific gravity or other information is read where the calibrated stem emerges from the liquid.

Hydrostatic Pressure--The pressure exerted by water at any given point in the body of water at rest. The hydrostatic pressure of groundwater is generally due to the weight of water at higher levels in the zone of saturation.

Hygric (Hydric)--A soil environment with a high moisture supply. See Mesic, Xeric.

Hygrometer--An instrument used for determining the relative humidity of the air. See Humidity, Relative.

Hygroscopic--Capable of expanding in the presence or contracting in the absence of moisture.

Hygroscopic Coefficient--The moisture, in percentage of dry weight, that a dry soil will absorb in saturated air at a given temperature.

Hygroscopicity--The tendency of salts to adsorb water whenever the vapor pressure of moisture in the air exceeds that of a saturated solution of the salt.

Hygrothermograph--A device that continuously records both temperature and relative humidity.

Hypochlorite--A sodium hypochlorite solution used for sterilizing milking equipment by release of free chlorine.

Hypsometer--Any instrument used to measure heights of trees, based either on geometric or trigonometric principles.


ICA--International Coffee Agreement.

IDA--International Dairy Arrangement.

Idle Farmland--Includes former croplands, orchards, improved pastures and farm sites not tended within the past two years, and presently less than 10 percent stocked with trees.

Idle Land--(1) Land that has been managed or exploited for some particular use but is now in a state of disuse; abandoned land. (2) Farmland that is capable of producing but is not in use; by extension, any land that has potentiality, but is not being put to any productive use. (3) Land being fallowed.

Imbricate--Overlapping, as shingles on a roof.

Immersion Heater--A type of electric water heater used for warming small quantities of water in which the heating element is placed directly in the water to be heated. These are used in livestock watering troughs to prevent freezing.

Immigration--Movement of people, animals, or plants into an area. See Emigration.

Imperial Bushel--A dry measure used in Great Britain, slightly larger than the standard American bushel: 1 imperial bushel is equal to 1.0321 American bushels. See Bushel.

Implement--Any tool that aids a person to make work and effort more productive and effective.

Improvement Project--(Agriculture) A project planned and conducted by a student enrolled in agricultural education as a part of the student's supervised agricultural experience program that results in an increase in the value or income of a business, or in the improvement and increased convenience of the home or its surroundings.

In-and-In Breeding--The breeding together of closely related plants or animals for a number of successive generations to improve or eliminate certain characteristics. Also called breed in and in, line breeding, inbreeding.

Incentive Payment--A form of compensatory payment in which the support price is set at a level high enough to encourage the increase in production of a particular commodity to a desired level.

Income Elasticity--The responsiveness of food consumption (measured in quantity or expenditures) to changes in consumers' income.

Income Support Payment--Funds paid to farmers when farm prices are below support levels; arrived at by subtracting from the target price, or the total support level, the higher of (a) the loan rate or (b) the national average price of a commodity during the first five months of the marketing year calendar year price for cotton). Generally, the federal government pays this difference to a farmer who qualifies (by meeting all farm program conditions) for that portion of the farmer's production specified in the farm program. The payments are sometimes called deficiency payments.

Increment--The increase in volume, weight, etc., of an animal on pasture, of a tree growing in a stand, etc.

Index--A system for comparing animals within a herd, or area, based on the average of the group; usually the figure 100 is used for an average index; animals receiving an index of 100 or over are the top end while those indexing less than 100 are the bottom end.

Individual Claiming Pen--On goat ranches, a pen in which an individual doe that has disowned her kid is kept until she reclaims her offspring.

Individual Drinking Cup--A type of stock-watering equipment in wide use in modern stanchion dairy barns whereby water is supplied by a cup at the stanchion for each individual cow.

Individual Farrowing House--A separate building or quarters equipped so that sows that are to farrow may be kept isolated in warm, clean, and quiet individual pens at farrowing time.

Inert Gas--Also called noble or rare gas; one that does not react with other substances under ordinary conditions.

Inertia--(1) Sluggishness. (2) A property of matter by which it remains at rest or in uniform motion in a straight line.

Infiltration--The flow of a liquid into a substance through pores or other openings, connoting flow into a soil in contradistinction to percolation, which connotes flow through a porous substance.

Infiltrometer--A device used in measuring the rate of movement into the soil of water applied uniformly over an area at a given rate or in a given volume.

Initial Water Deficiency--The amount by which the actual water content of a given soil zone (usually the root zone) is less than field capacity at the beginning of a season or specified time period.

Injection Pump--A device on a diesel and sometimes a gasoline engine that meters and delivers the correct amount of fuel to the injectors at the proper time. See Injector.

Injection Well--A well into which surface water is pumped to increase subsurface water volume.

Injector--(1) A device on a diesel engine that receives a measured amount of fuel from the injection pump and injects a charge of fuel into the combustion chamber at the correct time. (2) A device that meters the correct amount of fertilizer, pesticide, etc., into an irrigation system. See Injection Pump.

Injunction--A legal writ or command issued by a court and directed to a particular person or corporation, requiring that the person or corporation stop certain actions.

Inlet--(Hydraulics) (1) A surface connection to a closed drain. (2) A structure at the diversion end of a conduit. (3) The upstream end of any structure through which water may flow.

Input Shaft--A shaft that is driven by an engine or other power source that provides power to the transmission.

Inputs--Items purchased to carry out a farm's operation. Such items include fertilizers, pesticides, seed, fuel, and animal feed.

Insectary--A place used for raising insects for scientific study. Inseminating Tube--A rubber, glass, or metal tube, usually with syringe attachment, used in artificial insemination to introduce the semen into the vagina of a female animal. Such instruments vary in character depending on the species being bred.

Inseminator--The technician, in the employ of an artificial breeder's unit, who brings the prepared semen to the farmer's herd and performs the technical service of inseminating the cows.

Installment--(1) A partial payment of a debt often at regular intervals such as monthly or yearly installments. (2) A partial delivery of a given lot of produce, etc.

Insulator--(1) A substance that offers very high resistance to the passage of electricity; a nonconductor. (2) A device made of some non-conducting material, such as glass, used for fastening or supporting a conductor such as electric fence wire. (3) A substance used to prevent heat or sound transfer.

Intake--(1) The headworks of a conduit, the place of diversion. (2) Entry of water into soil. See Infiltration, Percolation. (3) The part of an internal combustion engine that admits air.

Integrated Pest Management (IPM)--An ecological approach to pest management in which all available necessary techniques are systematically consolidated into a unified program, so that pest populations can be managed in such a manner that economic damage is reduced and adverse side effects are minimized.

Integration--The combination (under the management of one firm or farmer) of two or more of the processes in the production and marketing of a particular product--generally the processes are capable of being operated as separate businesses. Diversification, on the other hand, is the production of two or more farm products by one firm or farmer.

Intensity--The force, energy, and concentration with which a farm business is operated, usually based on the input of labor per acre. The higher the labor requirement per acre the greater the intensity.

Intensive Farming--Farming in which a comparatively large amount of labor and working capital is used per tillable acre of farm land. Dairy, poultry, vegetable and fruit crops are examples of intensive enterprises.

Interest--The cost paid for borrowing money. Internal-combustion Engine--An engine in which both the heat energy and the ensuing mechanical energy are produced inside the engine proper.

International Code of Botanical Nomenclature--A system, adopted by European botanists and some American botanists, for applying the Latin names to plants. Established by a congress in Vienna in 1905, it was revised in 1931 when it was universally accepted, replacing, in the United States, the American Code of Botanical Nomenclature. It provided that most plants shall retain the name applied by Linnaeus in his Species Plantarum (1753). it accepted the idea of nomen conservandum and provided that after January 1, 1931, publication of all new species shall be accompanied by a Latin name. Also called Vienna Code, Vienna Rules.

International Rule--One of the official log rules used by the United States Forest Service. It allows a 0.5 inch taper for each 4 foot of log length and 1/16 inch in shrinkage for each 1 inch board. The assumed saw kerf varies from 1/8 inch to 1/4 inch.

International Trade Barriers--Regulations used by governments to restrict imports from other countries; e.g., tariffs, embargoes, import quotas, and unnecessary sanitary restrictions.

Interregional Competition--The competition of one agricultural region with another for the market of the same or similar agricultural product or products; e.g., Maine, Michigan, and Idaho potatoes competing in the same market. Production costs, yields, quality, prices, and transportation are important factors in determining the comparative advantage of one region over another.

Intestate--Legal designation of a person who has died without leaving a valid will.

Inventory--A list of property that shows the amounts and values of all physical assets involved; e.g., in a farm business, a list of amounts and values of land, buildings, equipment, etc. In more strict accounting terms, farm inventory is restricted to livestock, growing feed crops, and supplies. Buildings, machinery, etc., are included in the depreciation schedule.

Investment Appraisal--An evaluation of the profitability of some investment. Commonly involves net present value or internal rate of return calculations.

Investment Capital--Value of inputs (purchased or owned) that are allocated to an enterprise with the expectation of a return at a later point in time.

Investments--An outlay of money for income and profit.

IOOA--International Olive Oil Agreement.

Irrigating Head--(1) The measure of stored-up water ready to be used in irrigation. (2) The depth of a body of water in covering land, as by flooding. The proper wetting of the whole ground. (3) The indication on a measuring device of the rate of flow of irrigation water.

Irrigation District--A cooperative, self-governing, public corporation set up as a subdivision of the state, with definite geographic boundaries, organized to obtain and distribute water for irrigation of lands within a district. A district may have taxing power under authority of the state legislature with the consent of a designated fraction of the landowners or citizens (United States).

Irrigation Efficiency--The ratio or percentage of the water consumed by crops in an irrigated farm or project to the water diverted from a river or other source into the farm or project canals.

Irrigation Requirement--The quantity of water, exclusive or precipitation, required for crop production, including unavoidable wastes.

ISA--International Sugar Agreement.

Isobar--A line on a chart or diagram that connects points having the same barometric pressure, most commonly drawn on weather maps to show relative pressure in terms of inches of mercury or millibars of mercury.

Isocline Equation--The equation specifying the least-cost combination of a set of input factors for production of any specified quantity of output.

Isodyne--A line drawn on a map of a cultivated field that connects points having equal dynamometer readings of the force required to pull a cultivating implement.,

Isogonic--Lines drawn on a map designating equal magnetic declination.

Isohyet--A line drawn on a map designating equal magnetic declination. Isolation Strip--An area surrounding a sample plot treated the same as the plot.

Isomers--Two or more substances having the same chemical composition but different properties.

Isoneph--Lines drawn on a map designating equal cloudiness.

Isotherm--A line on a chart or diagram drawn through places or points having equal temperature.

ITC--International Trade Commission

IU (International Unit)--A unit of measurement of a biological (e.g., a vitamin, hormone, antibiotic, antitoxin) as defined and adopted by the International Conference for Unification of Formulas. The potency is based on bioassay that produces a particular biological effect agreed on internationally.

IWA--International Wheat Agreement.


Jack--(1) The male, uncastrated ass. See Jenny. (2) A mechanical, hydraulic device used for lifting heavy objects. (3) See Bone Spavin.

Jacob's Staff--A single straight rod, pointed and iron-shod at the bottom, and having a brass ball-and-socket at the top; used instead of a tripod for supporting a compass.

Jet Nozzle--A flask-shaped nozzle, containing a removable inner core with spiral flanges, that imparts a swirling motion to the liquid and breaks it up into coarse droplets before it leaves the orifice. Used in sprayers.

Jet Pump--(1) Shallow well type: a combined centrifugal and jet pump with the jet located in the pump above ground. A single suction pipe connects the well to the pump. (2) Deep well type consists of a simple centrifugal pump above ground and a jet (or injector) in the well. When the impeller is operated at normal speed it draws water up the suction pipe. Some of this water is forced down the pressure pipe to a nozzle, or injector, where it passes through a restricted opening at high velocity, which creates a vacuum that in turn causes atmospheric pressure to force water into the chamber from the well through a foot valve. The incoming water is mixed with this water coming through the jet and is carried up the suction pipe under pressure.

Jig--(1) An uneven gait of a horse, closely associated with prancing and weaving. (2) A device built to aid in construction; used to make duplicate cuts, holes, etc.

Job Lot--A form of contract that has a smaller unit of trading than the regular contract.

Jobber--A middleman who sells to retailers in relatively small lots.

Jockey Stick--A stick fastened to the hame of a broken horse and to the bit of a green horse to prevent them from crowding and to keep the green horse in position while being broken. Joint--(1) the point or place at which two bones meet: the articulation between the two bones. (2) The pint or meeting of two pipes. (3) A general term for a cut of meat (England). (4) See Node.

Joint Tenancy--(With rights of survivorship) A legal arrangement for ownership of real property by two or more persons in which, upon the death of one of the persons, the title to the property goes to the surviving party or parties of the joint tenancy rather than to the estate of the deceased. A joint tenancy may be dissolved by either of the parties during his or her lifetime.

Joist--(1) A piece of dimension lumber 2 to 5 inches thick and 4 or more inches wide, commonly used to support the floor of a building. (2) A piece of lumber 8 feet or more long, 11/2 to 41/2 inches thick, and 6 to 12 inches wide.

Jolly Balance--A sensitive spring balance used primarily for measuring specific gravity (density) by weighing a specimen in air and again when immersed in water.

Joule--A unit of work equal to 0.7375 foot pounds or 0.2390 calories.

Judge--(1) An experienced person selected to make an official placement of entries in exhibits at a show. (2) To consider the qualities, breed, and conformation of animals, plants, and products at a show or exhibit.

Judging Team--A selected group of persons, usually youths, who represent an organization, such as a 4-H Club, FFA, or a college of agriculture. They compete with similar groups at shows or exhibits in judging and placing classes of crops, soils, or livestock.

Judgment--The official and authentic decision of a court of justice concerning the respective rights and claims of the parties to an action or suit.

Judicial Ditch--An intercounty drainage ditch maintained under the jurisdiction of the circuit court (United States).

Jug--(1) A small claiming pen where ewes with newborn lambs are kept until the ewe has nursed and claimed her young. (2) A glass bottle holding one-half gallon or a gallon, used to bottle cider, syrup, molasses, etc. (3) A deep vessel of earthenware narrowed to a neck, which is frequently fitted with a finger handle for carrying. (4) A small pen, part of a corral, used to funnel animals down a narrow alley (chute) to facilitate sorting, loading, or catching; used primarily with cattle.


K--The chemical symbol for potassium.

Keel--(1) The part of a fowl's body that extends backward form the breast. Also called breastbone. (2) The two front, united petals of a pealike flower. (3) In ducks, the pendant fold of skin along the entire underside of the body. (4) In geese, the pendant fold of flesh from the legs forward on the underpart of the body. (5) A central dorsal ridge, like the keel of a boat. (6) The two anterior united petals of a papilionaceous flower.

Keep--(1) Board and room furnished a hired hand. (2) Salary. (3) To maintain animals for use or profit, as to keep cows, bees, etc. (4) To sell or to have in a store for sale, as to keep tobacco. (5) To store, as apples keep well. (6) To withhold from sale. (7) To maintain business records, as to keep books.

Keg--A small cask or small barrel, usually of 10-gallon (38-liter) capacity or less. A keg of nails weights 100 pounds (45.4 kilograms).

Kelvin Scale--The absolute scale of temperature. Below 0[degrees] Kelvin, all thermal motion of atoms and molecules ceases. One degree on the Kelvin scale is equal to one degree on the Celsius scale. The conversions are: --273.15[degrees]C = .459.67[degrees]F. Named after William Thompson (Lord Kelvin) (1824-1907), an English physicist. See Celsius Scale, Fahrenheit Scale.

Kerf--(1) The width of cut of a saw; also the channel cut. (2) That which is cut. (3) The act or process of cutting. (4) The cut of a cloth-cutting machine.

Key Area--(1) An area upon which the success of the ranching operations is largely dependent. (2) Critical areas of rangeland, which represent range that is most likely to be overgrazed; used as criteria or indices of the proper use of the range. (3) A guide to the general management of the entire area of which it is a part.

Kibbutz--A collective farm in Israel.

Kid House--A small structure designed to give shelter to a newborn kid. The doe is staked so that it cannot abandon its kid.

Killer--(1) A person who slaughters animals. (2) A meat animal. (3) A pesticide. (4) A predator.

Kiln--An oven, furnace, or large heated room for the curing of lumber, tile, bricks, etc.

Kilo--A combining form used in naming units of measurement to indicate a quantity one thousand ([10.sup.3]) times the unit designated by the root with which it is combined; e.g. one kilogram = 1,000 grams.

Kilometer--A length of 1,000 meters, equal to 3,280.839 feet, or 0.621 of a mile. The chief unit for long distances in the metric system.

Kinetic Energy--Energy possessed by a mass because of its motion; for example, water falling over a dam has the energy to put turbines into motion.

Kinetic Theory--The theory that a material body is not one continuous, uninterrupted mass but is made up of minute, invisible particles (molecules) that are in constant motion, oscillating, bumping into each other, and bouncing back. Increasing the temperature causes a raise in the speed of the molecules, thus increasing the kinetic energy of the molecules.

King Cotton--A phrase testifying to the importance of cotton in the United States.

Kinkaid Act--An act of the United States Congress, passed in 1904, which increased the size of homesteads to 640 acres. It was restricted in application to the grazing lands of western Nebraska.

Knapsack Seeder--A device for broadcast seeding that consists of a canvas sack fastened to a seeding mechanism. A crank, turned by hand, revolves a wheel having radial ribs that throw seeds to the front and sides. It is sometimes used for spreading fertilizer and lime.

Knapsack Sprayer--A kidney-shaped tank carried on the back of the operator. A pump is used to build up pressure in the tank, and an extension tube connects a flexible hose from the tank to a nozzle for spraying.

Knee Cushion--A pad fastened to a person's knee to enable him/her to work in some comfort while kneeling. Also called knee pad.

Knife Guards--Fingerlike projections on the cutterbar of a mowing machine, combine, etc., that protect the blade from solid objects and guide the plants into the blade. See Cutterbar.

Knotter--A device in a hay baler that automatically holds and ties twine or wire around a bale when the bale reaches the proper size.

Kosher--Designating any food produced, killed, or prepared according to Jewish dietary laws.


Label--A tag of wood, metal, paper, plastic, or other material, fastened to a plant, animal, or product for identification, ownership, composition, etc.

Labor Budget--A budget comparing labor requirements with labor available, usually constructed on a seasonal basis.

Labor Chart--A form of labor budget constructed as a figure with a calendar of working days recorded on the horizontal axis and with number of workers recorded on the vertical axis; the chart shows the number of workers assigned to each task and the duration of that task.

Labor Expense--The hired labor costs, plus the estimated value of unpaid family labor, and a charge for the operator's labor.

Labor Income--Farm income after all expenses, depreciation, unpaid family labor other than the operator, and an interest charge on the total capital investment have been deducted.

Labor Profile--The seasonal pattern of labor requirements for a given farm activity.

Lactometer--An instrument that determines the density of milk. It acts as a specific gravity indicator, from which information on the percentage of milk solids may be calculated.

Lacuna--(1) A cavity, hole, gap. (2) A gap in essential information.

Lambing Loop--A length of smooth or plastic-coated wire used as an aid in difficult lambing.

Lambing Pen--A specially equipped, isolated pen in the sheep barn in which a ewe is placed just before she gives birth to her young.

Lambing Percentage--The number of lambs produced per 100 ewes.

Lambing Shed--A shed or barnlike building in which ewes are placed just before they give birth to lambs.

Land--(1) The total natural and cultural environment within which production must take place. Its attributes include climate, surface configuration, soil, water supply, subsurface conditions, etc., together with its location with respect to centers of commerce and population. Oyster beds and even tracts or bodies of water, as where valuable fishing rights are involved, may be regarded as land. It is often convenient, in fact, to regard land as synonymous with all that nature supplies, external to humans, which is valuable, durable and appropriable, thus including, e.g., waterfalls and other sources of waterpower. (2) In a broad legal sense, any real part of the surface of the earth, including all appurtenances, anything in, on, above, or below the surface. (3) In plowing, a plowed or unplowed space between two furrows. (4) The total width of a strip of land tilled by a farmer, or some designated width, as a perch, 16 1/2 feet. Also called a stitch. (5) Soil. (6) A natural part of the earth's surface characterized by any single factor, or combination, of topography, climate, soil, rocks, vegetation; the natural landscape. (7) Pertaining to agriculture, those areas actually in use or capable of use for the production of farm crops and livestock.

Land Area--The area of dry land and land temporarily or partially covered by water such as marshes, swamps, and river floodplains (omitting tidal flats below mean high tide); streams, sloughs, estuaries, and canals less than one-eighth of a statute mile in width; and lakes, reservoirs, and ponds less than 40 acres in area.

Land Bank--Federal Land Bank.

Land Capability--A measure of the suitability of land for use without damage. In the United States, it usually expresses the effect of physical land conditions, including climate, on the total suitability for agricultural use without damage. Arable soils are grouped according to their limitations for sustained production of the common cultivated crops without soil deterioration. Nonarable soils are grouped according to their limitations for the production of permanent vegetation and their risks of soil damage if mismanaged.

Land Capability Class--One of eight classes of land distinguished according to potentiality for agricultural use. Class I consists of lands that are nearly level and can be cultivated continuously with little erosion. Class II consists of lands that are nearly level soils that require only simple practices such as contour tillage to control erosion. Class III consists of lands that require such practices as terraces and contour tillage to keep them productive for row cropping. Class IV consists of lands that require contour plowing, terracing, and the planting of sod-like crops every two to three years to control erosion. Class V consists of lands that cannot be planted to cultivated crops without extensive practices. Such soils should be maintained in sod crops. Class VI consists of lands that are too steep to be used for any crop except sod crops. However, even sod crops are difficult to establish and maintain. Class VII consists of lands recommended for use as watershed or woodland. Class VIII consists of lands recommended for recreational uses only.

Land Capability Map--(1) A map that shows land capability units, classes, and subclasses. (2) A soil conservation survey map that is colored to show land-capability classes.

Land Contract--An agreement between buyer and seller that states the terms of the purchase and sale of an item of real estate. The initial down payment on the property involved is usually small, often from 5 to 20 percent of the purchase price. Subsequent payments are scheduled for regular stated dates. The seller often retains the deed and title of the property until the purchase price is entirely paid; or the deed and title may be transferred at some earlier period agreed to in the contract. It is an important method used by young farmers in attaining farm ownership. Sometimes called installment land contract.

Land Grants--(1) Tracts of land given by the United States government to states, colleges, railroads, canal companies, and others for the purposes of aid to education and promotion of economic development of the unoccupied public domain. (2) Grants of land, to individuals or groups, that were made by French, Spanish, and Mexican governments in North America before the territory became a part of the United States. Such grants may still have a legal status. (3) Tracts of land awarded to individuals in the British Empire and in the United States by the governments as recognition of their services.

Land Patent--A deed or record title issued by a government or state for the conveyance of some portion of the public domain.

Land Plane--A large, tractor-drawn machine designed for planing or smoothing land for more efficient use of irrigation water or for easier tillage of land not irrigated. It consists of a long steel frame mounted on wheels, near the center of which is attached a large, long, adjustable, combination steel blade and scraper to remove soil from high points and to convey it to depressions. See Land Forming.

Land Policy (United States)--The guiding attitude or political philosophy in relation to land use that is based upon analysis of facts and pressures arising from problems in land use. It is a consistently followed, fundamental course of action, though open to revision.

Land Shark--A tricky or unscrupulous person who deals in land.

Land Tenure--The holding of land and the rights that go with such holding which includes everything from fee simple title, embracing all possible rights within the general limits imposed by the government, down to the most restricted forms of tenancy (holding and/or operating land under the ownership of another).

Land Type--A geographic division of land based upon some one or a combination of natural factors as soil, relief, vegetation, and climate. The term is often loosely used to indicate use of the land such as agricultural, grazing, mining, forest, urban, etc.

Land-Grant Universities--State colleges and universities started from federal government grants of land to each state to encourage further practical education in agriculture, homemaking, and the mechanical arts. The mission of these universities is to conduct programs in teaching, service and research. implemented by the Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890. See Morrill Act.

Land-Poor--(1) Designating a person who owns a great deal of unproductive land. (2) Designating one who owns ample land but makes inefficient use of it or is obliged to borrow money to pay taxes, interest, etc.

Landed--Designating a person, or group, that owns a large estate of rural land.

Landing--A place at which logs are assembled for transportation in loads or rafts.

Landlord--One who owns land or property and leases it to a tenant.

Landscape Architect--A person trained in the art and science of arranging land and objects upon it for human use and enjoyment.

Landscape Design--The profession concerned with the planning and planting of outdoor space to secure the most desirable relationship between land forms, architecture, and plants to best meet human needs for function and beauty.

Lane--A passageway from barnyard to pasture or field areas; a narrow road confined between fences.

Lareat--See Lariat.

Lariat--Rawhide, horsehair, or hemp rope, generally 35 to 45 feet long and arranged in a coil on the saddle. Used to lasso livestock for branding or restraining purposes. See Lasso.

Lasher--A piece of rope used for binding or making one thing fast to another.

Lasso--(1) To throw a lariat in such a manner as to catch an animal by the horns, neck, or legs in the loop at the end, generally for restraining purposes. (2) A rope or line with a running loop used for catching animals. Lee Lariat.

Latex--(1) A usually white or yellowish fluid produced by the cells of some plants, as Asclepias and Euphorbia; often referred to as milky sap. (2) Designates a paint that is water-soluble in the fluid state.

Latitude--(1) Distance north or south on the earth's surface form the equator (latitude zero), measured in degrees of the meridian (North Pole is 90[degrees] north latitude and the South Pole is 90[degrees] south latitude). (2) In plane surveying, the perpendicular distance in a horizontal plane of a point from an east-west axis of reference.

Law of Adverse Possession--The acquiring of property by having it in possession for a time prescribed by law.

Law of Demand--An economic principle that states that, everything else being equal, consumers can be expected to buy more of a product as its price falls and less as its price rises.

Law of Diminishing Returns--An economic law that states that as an increasing amount of a variable factor of production, e.g., human-power, is applied to a fixed factor of production, e.g., land, the result is a decrease in average returns per variable unit applied.

Law of One Price--A marketing principle that holds that, under perfectly competitive market conditions, all prices within a market will be uniform after the costs of adding place, time, and form utility are taken into consideration.

Law of Original Horizontality--A general law of geology. Water-laid sediments are deposited in strata that are horizontal and parallel to the earth's surface.

Law of Supply--An economic principle suggesting that, everything else being equal, producers will offer to sell more of a product at a higher price than at a lower price.

Law of the Minimum--Liebig's Law of the Minimum: "When a process is conditioned as to its rapidity by a number of separate factors, the rate of the process is limited by the pace of the slowest factor." Mitscherlich's restatement: "The increase of crop produced by unit increment of the lacking factor is proportional to decrement from the maximum." Our restatement: "Plant growth is restricted by any one essential factor available in least relative supply."

Law of Universal Gravitation--Newton's law of gravitation. Every particle of mass attracts every other particle with a force inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

LCL--Less than a carload lot.

Lease--(1) A legal written agreement entered into between the owner and the tenant for the use of a given property or acreage of land for a given period of time. (2) To rent by written contract.

Leased Land--Land leased by its owner, sometimes from a state or federal government, for farming or grazing purposes.

Least Cost Ration--The ration for an animal that is the most economical yet still provides all the essential nutrients needed by the animal.

Ledger--(1) A book in which farm/ranch accounts are kept. All credits and debits, etc., are registered under appropriate headings. (2) A horizontal board that forms the top rail of a simple fence, etc.

Left Bank--The left bank of a flowing body of water is on your left as you face downstream. Because of the coriolis effect, in the Northern Hemisphere the left bank is usually less steep and has more sediment accumulation than the right bank; and vice versa in the Southern Hemisphere. See Coriolis Effect, Right Bank.

Legal Control--Control of pests through the enactment of legislation that enforces control measures or imposes regulations, such as quarantines, to prevent the introduction or spread of pests or disease.

Legal Description--The exact, geographical survey description of real estate used in abstracts of title and on the legal real estate tax rolls.

Legend--Explanation of the symbols and patterns shown on a map.

Length-of-Run--In irrigation, the distance water must travel in furrows or over the surface of a field from one head ditch to another or to the end of a field.

Less-developed Countries--Countries that have not yet achieved sustained economic growth. They also are referred to as underdeveloped, developing, emerging, or third world. Most less-developed countries are in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.

Lessee--One who leases property from the owner or another lessee. See Lessor.

Lessor--One who leases property to someone else. See Lessee.

Levee--(1) An earth dam or dike built along a river or the sea to serve as flood protection. (2) A continuous ridge built around a field to retain flood irrigation water. (3) An embankment built along the banks of a river to reduce the hazard of flooding.

Levee District--A geographical area, subject to flooding by a stream and its tributaries, in which the landowners have incorporated to build and maintain levees. It is a quasigovernmental unit that assesses fees by taxation. Common along the lower Mississippi River.

Level--(1) An instrument used to ascertain the horizontal lines at different altitudes as a guide in terracing, ditching, foundation laying, etc. (2) The amount of a component in a mixture, as the nitrate level. (3) The amount, usually expressed in parts per million of an element, of fertility in a soil solution. (4) To make a field approximately horizontal. (5) Designating a piece of land that is nearly on a horizontal plane.

Level Transit--An instrument used in running grade lines or elevations for laying tile and drainage ditches, designing terraces, etc. See Abney Level, Hand Level.

Leveler--A drag or any other device used for smoothing land for irrigation or drainage. See Land Plane.

Liability--Money, goods, or services that a person owes to another.

Lick Tank--A tank containing a liquid feed supplement for cattle. The cattle obtain the feed by licking a wheel or ball that rotates in the liquid. As the wheel or ball turns, the liquid adheres to it and is brought to the surface.

Liebig's Law of the Minimum--See Law of the Minimum.

Lien--A legal claim on a property or asset for the security of a debt, such as a lien on a crop to secure payment of money advanced to grow it.

Lift--(1) A joint of meat, especially beef, from the thigh. (2) Elevating or pulling power of a pump. (3) To loosen and remove seedlings or transplants from the seedbed or transplant bed prior to transplanting. (4) A hay fork. (5) A fork for lifting heavy loads.

Light--(1) The form of radiant energy consisting of wavelengths lying within the limits perceptible by the normal human eye, and, by extension, the shorter and longer wavelengths, the ultraviolet and the infrared light, invisible to the eye but which may be recorded photographically. Light can be absorbed by various substances and transformed into heat. Its excess may produce fading, the destruction of green color in plants, but an insufficiency can also cause lack of chlorophyll production. The coloration of fruits is dependent upon sufficiency of light. The growing parts of plants respond to the stimulus of the direction from which the light comes. See Photosynthesis, Phototropism. (2) To become ignited; to take fire. (3) Designating a deficiency or lack in degree, such as a light rain or a light crop. (4) When applied to food or drink it can have several definitions. It could mean reduced calories, fluffy (full of air), pale, low in sodium, mild in flavor, and/or less alcohol.

Light Oil--Any lubricating oil with a viscosity number of ten or less, as graded by the Society of Automotive Engineers.

Lightning Rod--A metallic rod set upright on the roof of a building, a tall chimney, etc., and grounded by a wire conductor. It serves to conduct the lightning to the earth, thus minimizing damage to the structure. Also called lightning conductor.

Limit--The top or bottom price that a commission house will allow its buyers to pay for a product at a certain place for a certain period of time.

Limited Feeding--(1) The feeding of livestock to maintain weight and growth but not to fatten or increase production. (2) Restricting an animal to less than maximum weight increase.

Limited Partnership--A partnership in which one or more of the partners, but not all of them, has a limited liability to the partnership creditors.

Limiting Factor--Any influence or material that tends to slow down growth and productivity in an ecosystem; either too much or too little of these critical factors will limit production. See Law of the Minimum. Line--(1) The reins of a harness. (2) A rope, cable, string, wire, tube, etc., for tying or hanging objects, or conducting electricity, water, gas, etc., as a power line, gas line, or milk line. (3) A boundary or limit, as a fence line, property line. (4) In marketing, the whole of a herd of sheep. (5) A group of plants or animals that retain their uniform appearance in succeeding generations.

Line Camp--A livestock camp away from headquarters; used by riders for temporary shelter (southwestern United States).

Line Fence--A boundary fence, usually of better quality and more permanent than the cross fences.

Line Intercept Method--A method of sampling vegetation by recording the plants intercepted by a measured line placed close to the ground, or by vertical projection of plants to the line. See Line Transect, Transect.

Line of Credit--The amount of credit granted an individual or business by a lending institution that may or may not all be used at any one time by the borrower.

Line Post--Any of several fenceposts used in a line fence.

Line Rider--A man who rides horseback along the outskirts or line fences of a cattle range to see that all is in order (western United States).

Line Transect--A method of recording plant species in a range study in which a tape or chain is stretched on the ground and the plants touched by the tape are recorded. See Line Intercept Method.

Line-plot Survey--A system of sampling vegetation in which plots of uniform size are located at regular intervals along a line.

Linear Evaluation--A method of evaluating the degree of a trait in an animal. It involves assigning a numerical value to a trait so deviations from the average are descriptive by degree rather than subjective. This system is used extensively in the dairy industry.

Linear Programming--A computer-based procedure used for solving allocation problems such as farm planning and formulation of livestock rations.

Lineolate--Marked with fine lines.

Link--A unit of linear measure one one-hundredth of a gunter's chain; equivalent to 7.92 inches (20.116 centimeters).

Lint Index--The weight of lint cotton produced by 100 seeds.

Liquefaction--The change in the phase of a substance to the liquid state; in the case of fermentation, the conversion of water-insoluble carbohydrate to water-soluble carbohydrate.

Liquefied Petroleum (LP) Gas--A fuel that has been made usable as a fuel for internal combustion engines by compressing volatile petroleum gas into liquid form. It must be kept under pressure when stored.

Liquid Asset--Cash or any asset that can be readily converted to cash.

Liquid Limit--The moisture content at which the soil passes from a plastic to a liquid state.

Liquid Smoke--A liquid mixture applied to meats in curing, especially to ham and bacon, to replace curing by wood smoke.

Liquidation--The sale of a previously bought contract, otherwise known as long liquidation. It may also be the repurchase of a previously sold contract, generally referred to as short covering.

Liquidation Value--(1) In appraising, the price at which a property can be sold within a short period for cash or its practical equivalent and in which the seller forces the sale and the buyer dictates the terms. (2) The value of a forest estimated on the assumption that all merchantable trees will be cut.

LISA--See Low Input Sustainable Agriculture.

Lister--A double moldboard plow that throws the soil on both sides; used in semiarid regions for planting crops in the bottom of the furrow. Also called lister plow, middlebreaker, middlebuster.

Listing Agreement--Complete information concerning a tract of land and authority to offer a property for sale.

Liter--A standard measure for liquids denoting a capacity of 61.025 cubic inches or 1.9567 United States liquid quarts.

Litre--See Liter.

Litter--(1) On a forest floor, the uppermost surface layer of debris, leaves, twigs, and other organic matter, undecomposed or slightly altered. In a technical description of a soil profile, it is generally designated by the letter O. (2) Accumulation of leaves, fruits, twigs, branches, and other plant parts on the surface of the soil. See Mulch. (3) A group of young animals born at a single birth, as a litter of pigs, etc. (4) See Bedding.

Litter Floor--The floor of a poultry house that is composed of straw and shavings or ground corncobs, droppings, and other waste materials, and builds up during one laying year.

Live Delivery--A common guarantee by hatcheries, of delivering live chicks by the addition of two or more chicks per order of one hundred.

Livestock Commission House--An organization of livestock buyers that acts as an agent for the sale of livestock of many different producers at a given market for a fee or commission. Most livestock marketing in the United States is handled by such houses.

Livestock Enterprise--A farm activity that consists of one phase of the livestock business, such as the dairy enterprise, laying flock enterprise, etc.

Livestock Gross Income--The value of livestock production in the form of animals and produce, adjusted for inventory changes and net of the value of any livestock purchased or obtained as gifts.

Livestock Market--A market that specializes in transactions of livestock for processing and distribution, as Chicago and Kansas City livestock markets or the numerous farmers' markets in the United States.

Livestock Mortality Policy--An insurance policy protecting the owner of an animal against loss by death of the animal.

Livestock Production--The weight, number of animals, etc., that a particular range, pasture, or management system produces. May also refer to the business of producing livestock.

Livestock Ranch--An area of land usually larger than a farm and largely in grass where livestock, such as beef cattle or sheep, are produced.

Livestock Registry Association--A purebred breeding association with which animals of known and recorded ancestry may be registered. See Breed Association.

Livestock Shipping Association--An association of several producers who pool their livestock for the purpose of shipping and marketing; usually a cooperative.

Livestock Show--A show at which livestock are exhibited according to breed and class and are judged according to standards of perfection. Also called cattle show, swine show, etc.

Load--(1) The work sustained by a machine. (2) The resistance offered to a motor by the machinery it drives, apart from the friction of its own parts. (3) In the export trade, a unit of lumber measurement, used particularly in India; it comprises 40 cubic feet of round timber or 50 cubic feet of squared timber, equaling approximately a long ton. (4) The weight carried by a beam, girder, truss span, or structure of any sort, or any part of such structure, including its own weight. (5) A burden; a weight; as a heavy load. (6) The work done by a prime mover. (7) To place a load on a wagon, truck, etc. (8) In erosion and corrosion the material transported may be called the load. The load is transported by two methods; a portion is moved along the bottom. (9) The sediment moved by a stream, whether in suspension or at the bottom, is its load. (10) The quantity of material actually transported by a current.

Loading Chute--An inclined chute that is used for animals to walk from the ground into a truck or trailer.

Loafing Barn--A light type of building usually attached to the main dairy barn or milking parlor where cows may be turned loose after milking for exercise and comfort. Hay and silage are usually supplied in side racks or bunkers.

Loan Rate--The price per unit (bushel, bale, pound) at which the government will provide loans to farmers to enable them to hold their crops for later sale.

Loan Value--In appraising, the value of real estate on which lenders base the amount of first mortgage credit they will advance.

Local--Limited to one region, area, or place, rather than widely spread; e.g., local pain, local anesthetic, local infection, local markets, local customs.

Lock Washer--A split ring of steel that is used under a nut or bolt to prevent the nut or bolt from vibrating loose.

Locker--A unit in a cold-storage plant that usually holds from 100 to 250 pounds of quick-frozen products, such as meats, fruits, and vegetables. It is usually rented by the user, but often is owned by a cooperative.

Log Chain--A long steel-link chain with hooks on each end that is used for securing logs. Around the farm, it is often used as a general purpose chain.

Log Mark--A letter or sign stamped or chopped on logs indicating ownership.

Log Rule--A table showing the estimated amount of lumber that can be sawed from logs of given length and diameter. See Doyle Rule, Scribner Rule.

Logging Residues--The unused portions of poletimber and sawtimber trees cut or killed by logging.

Long--(1) Designating a person who has brought more contracts than he has sold. Long hedges are purchases of futures made as a hedge against the sale of the cash commodity (short). (2) Designating a pulse beat that is longer than normal.

Long Hedge--A hedge that initially is established by buying in the futures market. See Hedge.

Long Ton--See Ton.

Long-term Cash Flow Budget--A cash flow budget constructed for a planning horizon of ten years or so with intermediate cash balances normally calculated at annual intervals. See Short-term Cash Flow Budget.

Long-term Credit--Credit usually advanced for five to thirty-three years for the purchase of real estate. See Short-term Loan. Long-term Liabilities--Liabilities that will be due within the next seven to thirty years.

Long-term Loans--Loans made for a period of seven to thirty years.

Lookout--(1) A person employed to detect and report forest fires. (2) A tower or elevated post used primarily in the detection of forest fires.

Loose Housing--A management system for cattle wherein the adult animals are given unrestricted access to a feeding area, water, a resting area, and an adjoining open lot. In dairies, the lactating animals pass through a milking room at milking time. Other dairy animals may be in separate pens, lots, or buildings.

Lopping Shears--A long-handled set of cutters used for removing branches from trees and other plants.

Lost Corner--In land surveying, a corner whose position cannot be definitely determined from traces of the monument or by reliable testimony relating to it; it can be restored only by surveying from an established survey point.

Louver--A slatted opening designed to permit the passage of air but to exclude rain, direct sunlight, and vision. Used in homes, barns, and animal housing.

Low Input Sustainable Agriculture (LISA)--A production concept where expenses, inputs, etc., are kept to a minimum in order to allow the operation to continue indefinitely with the least negative impact on the environment. For instance, planting nitrogen-fixing plant species, crop rotation as a means of pest control, and special diversity of plants could be used to limit inputs.

Low Intensity Animal Production--Systems of producing animals that strive to use less capital, energy, and fewer purchased inputs than conventional confinement systems; e.g., a pasture and hutch system for swine production.

LTL--Less than a truckload lot.

Luxury Consumption--A phenomenon brought about by the fertilization of plants with excessive quantities of such compounds as ammonia, ammonium nitrate, or potassium chloride, which causes the plant to absorb ammonium nitrate and potassium ions in excess of those amounts required for normal growth and reproduction. This may not be harmful to the plant, but may be a waste of fertilizer.

Lyophilization--The evaporation of water from a frozen product with the aid of high vacuum. The process is used for the preservation of stocks of bacteria and other microorganisms.

Lysimeter--A device used to measure the quantity or rate of water movement through or from a block of soil or other material, such as solid waste, or used to collect percolated water for quality analysis.


Machete--A long, heavy knife designed for cutting small brush and for hand-harvesting of sugarcane.

Machine--A device that uses mechanical energy to get work done.

Machinery Expense--The total operating cost, including depreciation and repairs, for farm machinery, which includes trucks and the farm share of the family car.

Macro--Prefix meaning large, long; visibly large.

Macroeconomics--Economic studies or statistics of groups of commodities or subjects such as total consumption, total employment, or total income. See Microeconomics.

Magnetic Compass--An instrument having a freely pivoted magnetic needle that aligns with the earth's magnetic field such that one end of the needle points to the magnetic north.

Main--The principal pipeline in a water supply or drainage system. Main Crop--The principal or most important crop grown on a farm or in an area.

Maintaining Forage Reserves--The reservation of native forage supplies for such emergencies as drought, fire, or other unforeseen circumstances; obtained by the exclusion of livestock or by light use of grazing areas.

Maintenance--(1) The servicing of facilities of equipment of farms that is required for upkeep, replacement of worn or broken parts on machinery, lubrication, etc. (2) The upkeep of gardens and grounds.

Male Threads--Threads on the outside of a projecting object such as a bolt. See Bolt, Female Threads.

Malthusian Theory--A theory or doctrine expounded by Thomas R. Malthus (1766-1834), an English clergyman, according to which human population tends to increase at a greater rate than food supply. The corollary is that unless the birth rate is controlled, poverty and famine are inevitable.

Man-Day--A unit of measurement of labor input or requirement, usually assumed to represent the work accomplished by an adult male worker in eight hours.

Management--The human factor within a production process (or firm) that delimits problems, accumulates information relevant to their solution, analyzes that information, reaches decisions, acts on those decisions, and bears responsibility for the consequences of those actions. See Farm Management.

Management of Pastures--The handling of animals and plants in such a manner that the stand of desirable forage is not depleted and at the same time provides a sufficient supply of palatable, nutritious for age for the producing or growing animal for as long a time as is possible during the grazing period.

Manger--A trough or other receptacle of metal, wood, concrete, or stone, in which fodder is placed for cattle to eat.

Manifest--To show, to appear.

Manning's Formula--(Hydraulics) A formula used to predict the velocity of water flow in an open channel or pipeline: V = 1.486/n (r2/3 S1/2). Where is the mean velocity of flow in feet per second; r is the hydraulic radius; S is the slope of the energy gradient or for assumed uniform flow the slope of the channel in feet per foot; and n is the roughness coefficient or retardance factor of the channel lining.

Manometer--A device for measuring a vacuum.

Manual Watering--Watering plants by hand with a hose, bucket, or some other manual means.

Manure Bucket--A hydraulic attachment for a tractor, used to lift and load manure. Also called manure scoop.

Map Scale--The ratio of the distance between two points shown on a map and the actual distance between the points on the earth's surface. Scale is commonly expressed as a representative ratio as 1:1,000. Marginal Land--Agricultural land definitely not first class, and near the margin between profitable and unprofitable use.

Market--(1) A place, usually public, where goods and commodities are offered for sale or exchange. (2) The demand for a product; or a country, region, etc., in which there is such a demand. (3) To buy and sell produce.

Market Basket of Farm Foods--Average quantities of United States farm foods purchased annually per household in a given period, usually a base period. Retail cost of these foods used as a basis for computing an index of retail prices for domestically produced farm foods. Excluded are fishery products, imported foods, and meals eaten away from home.

Market Bird--Any fowl produced and fattened for meat purposes. Market Classes and Grades--Various market classes and grades established by the United States Department of Agriculture to sort livestock according to conformation, finish, quality, use, age, sex, and weight.

Market Development--Marketing activities and efforts designed to enhance the value of food products to consumers and in the process expand sales and profits.

Market Fluctuation--Variation in prices that are received or paid for products placed on the market.

Market Garden--A farm that produces vegetables to be sold on a roadside market or in a nearby city.

Market Grade--A set of descriptive terms, such as prime, choice, etc., used in livestock marketing to designate the comparative value of animals based on differences in type, conformation, degree of finish, etc.

Market Grades of Cows and Bulls--Determined by the age and fatness of the animal. The grades are: commercial, utility, cutter, canner.

Market Grades of Lambs--Prime, choice, utility, canner, cutter, cull. Market Grades of Slaughter Steers and Heifers--Market grades of beef animals that are to be slaughtered are determined by the age of and the amount of fat on the animal that is indicative of the amount of marbling in the meat. The grades are: prime, choice, select, standard. Cattle are also graded by the percentage of lean retail cuts of meat the animal is expected to yield. See Marbling, Maturity, Yield Grade.

Market Grades of Swine--Various market classes of swine established by the United States Department of Agriculture: United States Number 1, United States Number 2, United States Number 3, and cull.

Market Information--Any form of information relevant to a market decision.

Market News--Descriptive information on current market conditions, including prices, stocks, demand, and so on.

Market Order--An order to buy or sell that is to be executed at the best possible price as soon as received in the trading ring or pit.

Market Pack--A fiber or plastic container used to grow bedding plants; the container holds from six to twelve plants.

Market Performance--The economic results that market participants (farmers, consumers, middlemen) and society expect from the food marketing system.

Market Power--The ability to influence markets, market behavior, or market results.

Market Price--The price for a product, animal, etc., established by buyers and sellers in competition in the marketplace.

Market Risk--The possibility of loss--through product deterioration in quantity or quality or value change--while a product is being produced, stored, or marketed.

Market Segmentation--The marketing technique of developing separate products and marketing programs to appeal to different consumer classes.

Market Standard--The official standard governing weights, grades, and qualities of products offered for sale on a market, such as No. 2 corn, grade A eggs, etc., set by the United States Department of Agriculture.

Marketable Surplus--The production of an individual or a society that exceeds that needed or desired for personal consumption; this surplus is then available for sale to other individuals or countries.

Marketing Agreement Act--An act of the United States Congress authorizing the Secretary of Agriculture to establish orderly marketing conditions for agricultural commodities to help achieve parity. It gives the Secretary power to enter into agreements with processors and handlers of any product affecting interstate commerce.

Marketing Agreements--A voluntary contract between an agency of the United States Department of Agriculture and a handler of an agricultural product.

Marketing Bill--The total dollar expenditures going to food marketing firms to pay for all marketing activities.

Marketing Channels--Alternative routes of product flows from producers to consumers.

Marketing Concept--A management philosophy that holds that all company planning begins with an analysis of consumer wants, and that all company decisions should be based upon the profitable satisfaction of consumer wants.

Marketing Margin--The portion of the consumers' food dollar paid to food marketing firms for their services and value-adding activities; the "price" of all food marketing activities.

Marketing Mix--The unique way in which a firm or industry combines its price, promotion, product, and distribution channel strategies to appeal to consumers.

Marketing Myopia--A term referring to the tendency of some firms to define their business too narrowly in terms of a specific product; for example, a dairy firm may define its business as dairy products or, more broadly, as fluid beverages.

Marketing Orders and Agreements--(Federal) A means (authorized by, and based on, enabling legislation) to permit agricultural producers collectively to influence the supply, demand and/or price for a particular crop or commodity in order to improve the orderly marketing of the crop or commodity. Once approved by a required number of producers--usually two-thirds--of the regulated commodity, the marketing order is binding on all handlers of the commodity in the area of regulation. A marketing agreement may contain more diversified provisions, but it is enforceable with respect to those producers or handlers who voluntarily enter into the agreement with the Secretary of Agriculture.

Marketing Process--The sequence of events and actions that coordinate the flow of food and the value-adding activities in the food marketing system.

Marketing Quota--That quantity of a crop that will provide adequate and normal market supplies. This quantity is translated into terms of acreage needed to grow that amount and allotted among individual farms, based on their previous production of that commodity. When marketing quotas are in effect (only after approval by two-thirds or more of the eligible producers voting in a referendum), growers who produce in excess of their farm acreage allotments are subject to marketing penalties on the "excess" production and are ineligible for government price support loans. For certain tobaccos, a poundage limitation is applicable as well as acreage allotments, when approved by grower referendum.

Marketing Spread--The difference between the retail price of a product and the farm value of the ingredients in the product. This farm-retail spread includes the charges made by marketing firms for assembling, sorting, processing, transporting, and distributing the products.

Marketing Strategy--A plan to achieve a market goal, for example, one grocery store may use the strategy of low prices to attract consumers; another might employ the strategy of high quality.

Marketing Year--The year beginning at harvestime during which a crop moves to market.

Marking Harness--A harness strapped to a ram that marks a ewe's rump when she is bred by the ram.

Mastica--A plastic material used in the place of putty for glazing greenhouse glass and hotbed sash.

Maternal Breeding Value--A prediction of how the daughters of a bull will milk based on weaning weight information. The accuracy figure is the amount of reliability that can be placed on the breeding value.

Maternal Calving Ease of First Calf--Calving ease ratings of daughters of bulls, when they give birth, as reported to breed associations by producers, values above 100 are superior.

Maternal Weaning Weight--Measure of a sire's ability to transmit maternal performance, expressed in weaning weight of his daughters' calves. It is a combination of milk production and growth rate that a sire transmits through his daughters.

Mattock--A hand tool that consists of a short handle with a two-bladed steel head. One blade, which is perpendicular to the handle, is flat and is used for grubbing. The second blade may be pointed like a pick or it may be flat and ground to a sharp edge like an ax for cutting.

Mature Class--In the show ring, dairy cows five years of age or older that are in milk.

Mature Equivalent Factor--An age conversion formula used to predict the expected mature milk record for a cow, based on a previous year's milk production. It is frequently used in cattle selection and breeding.

Maverick--(1) Any unbranded animal, particularly a calf. Named after Samuel A. Maverick, a lawyer and a nonconformist Texan (18031870) who refused to brand his cattle. (2) A motherless calf (western United States).

Maverickers--Men who steal and put their brands on unbranded cattle (western United States).

MBF--Thousand board feet.

McLean County Sanitation System--A system developed in McLean County, Illinois, by veterinarians of the United States Bureau of Animal Industry for the prevention and control of filth-borne diseases of swine. It has particular reference to internal parasites.

Mean--A value determined by the addition of several values and dividing by the number of values added; the average. See Median, Mode.

Mean Annual Increment--In forestry, the total growth (board feet or cubic feet) of a stand of trees divided by the total age in years.

Mean High Water--The average height of the high water over a specified number of years.

Mean Low Water--The average height of the low water over a specified number of years.

Meander Line--The waterline or shore of a body of water, as a large lake, established at the time of an official land survey, as that of the United States General Land Office. Legally, it is important in determining the ownership and use of shoreland.

Mechanic's Lien--Claim for purpose of securing priority payment for work and/or materials furnished in erecting or repairing a building.

Mechanical Aeration--Mechanical energy used to inject air into water, causing the waste stream to absorb more oxygen. See Lagoon, Aerated.

Mechanical Buffer--A machine used in the final operation of plucking feathers from poultry slaughtered for market. Also called buffer.

Mechanical Control--(1) Control of pests by mechanical means such as window screens, earth barriers, and so on. (2) Human-built structures used to control erosion, such as terraces, dams, retards, baffles, etc., in contrast to vegetative control.

Mechanical Energy--(1) The ratio between the indicated horsepower of an engine and the brake horsepower of an engine. See Brake Horsepower. (2) Energy in a form that can do work directly. Mechanical Poultry Picking--The removal of feathers in dressing poultry for the market by the use of machines in contrast to removal by hand labor. See Mechanical Buffer.

Mechanical Refrigeration--Cold condition created by a machine compressing certain low boiling point gases which replaces cold cellars, the use of ice, and other older methods of preserving foods and products at low temperature.

Medial--A directional term that means toward the middle.

Median--The central value of a series of numbers, when ranked numerically, such that an equal number of entries lie on either side of it. See Mean, Mode.

Medium-term Cash Flow Budget--A cash flow budget extending over three or four years with the intermediate cash balances calculated at quarterly or half-yearly intervals.

Mega--(1) A prefix meaning one million. (2) A prefix meaning large or in large numbers.

Memorandum of Understanding--A written document showing the intent of two or more parties to cooperate in carrying out an undertaking that will result in mutual benefit to the parties concerned. It specifies precisely what each party is to do.

Mensuration--The science dealing with the measurement of volume, growth, and development of individual trees and stands, and the determination of various products obtainable from them.

Mercator Map Projection--A map projection of the so-called cylindrical type. The equator is represented by a strain line true to scale; the geographic meridians are represented by parallel straight lines perpendicular to the line representing the equator; they are spaced according to their distance apart at the equator. The geographic parallels are represented by a second system of straight lines perpendicular to the family of lines representing the meridians, and therefore parallel to the equator. The greatest distortion is at the north and south poles.

Merchant Middleman--A food marketing firm that provides a variety of marketing functions, including taking title to products.

Merchant Wholesaler--A wholesaling middleman who physically handles and takes title to products.

Merchantable Height--The length of the tree stem from the top of the stump to the top of the last merchantable section. Usually expressed in feet or number of logs of a specified length.

Merchantable Timber--A tree or stand of trees that may be converted into salable products.

Merchantable Volume--The amount of wood in a single tree or forest stand that is considered salable.

Meridian Line--A true north and south line; a line from which range lines are established in the General Land Office survey (United States).

Meridian, Principal--(United States public-land surveys) A line extending north and south along the astronomical meridian passing through the initial point, along which township, section, and quarter-section corners are established. The principal meridian is the line from which is initiated the survey of the township boundaries along the parallels.

Mesh--One of the openings or spaces in a screen. The value of the mesh is usually given as the number of openings per linear inch. This gives no recognition to the diameter of the wire, so that the mesh number does not always have a definite relation to the size of the openings.

Metabolizable Energy--The total amount of energy in feed less the losses in feces, combustible gases, and urine. Also called available energy.

Metal--(1) Any of a class of substances that typically are fusible and opaque, are good conductors of electricity, and show a unique metallic luster, as gold, copper, bronze, and aluminium. Most metals are also malleable and comparatively heavy, and all except mercury are solid at ordinary temperatures. Metals constitute over three-fourths of the recognized elements. They form oxides and hydroxides that are basic, and they may exist in solution as positive ions (cations). (2) Ore from which a metal is derived. (3) Molten glass. (4) Railway rails.

Metayer--A tenant farmer who works a piece of land for a share in the crop. See Sharecropper.

Meter--A unit of length equivalent to 39.37 inches, 3.28 feet, and 1.09 years. Also spelled metre.

Metes and Bounds--In the United States, a means of defining the legal boundaries of a parcel of land by giving the bearings and distances from points of reference. Often a tree, a stone, or some natural feature is used in the description; the line from one point to another is not necessarily straight but may be curved. Land descriptions were commonly made by metes and bounds prior to the establishment of the rectangular system of land surveying by the General Land Office of the United States.

Metric--(1) Pertaining to measures based on the meter. (2) Having the meter as a basis.

Metric Ton--See Ton.

Metrology--The science of weights and measures.

Micro--A prefix meaning one millionth (1/1,000,000) or very small.

Microeconomics--Economic studies or statistics of individual commodities or subjects such as the demand for wheat or employment on farms. See Macroeconomics.

Microgram--One millionth of a gram.

Micrometer--A device for measuring width, length, or thickness with precision, usually in conjunction with a microscope or telescope.

Micron--A unit of measurement, approximately 1/25,000 inches (0.001 millimeters) used for measuring spores, bacteria, fat globules, soil particles, and other microscopic objects.

Micronaire--An instrument used to measure fineness of cotton, and other fibers.

Microwave--A very short electromagnetic wave of high-frequency energy produced by the oscillation of an electric charge. Microwave energy is converted into heat when it is absorbed by the food. Microwaves are about 5 inches long, in contrast to radio waves, which average about 0.3 mile in length. A short wave has a greater frequency, or vibrations per second, than a longer wave has. Electronic ovens have a frequency of 2,450 megacycles (million cycles) per second. Ordinary AC electricity, which vibrates 60 times per second, has a frequency of 60 cycles per second.

Mid-pivot Mower Conditioner--A mower conditioner that swivels in the middle for greater maneuverability. See Mower Conditioner.

Middle Atlantic Truck Crop Belt--One of the principal agricultural regions of the United States: the coastal belt, extending from South Carolina to Long Island, New York, in which the production of truck or garden crops is a major industry.

Middlebuster--In tillage of soil, a double-moldboard plow designed to make a bed, especially for cotton and corn. Also called middle breaker.

Middleman--A merchant, broker, jobber, or dealer who performs a marketing service between the producer and the retailer.

Midget Cattle--See Dwarf Cattle.

Migrant--Designating a plant, animal, or person that changes, or has changed, its natural location.

Migratory Worker--A farm laborer who moves from one locality to another according to variations in time of harvesting crops, or one who lives in a locality only for the time required to carry out operations in the production and harvesting of one or more crops. Usually, the family of the laborer is also employed on the farm.

Milacre--A sample plot, 1/1,000th of an acre (usually 1/10 chain square), used in plant reproduction or vegetation surveys.

Milk Dryer--Any mechanical device designed to remove most of the water from milk. The water may be evaporated from pans or from steam-heated rollers; or the milk may be sprayed into a stream of hot air. See Drier.

Milk Irradiator--A device that uses an electric arc or mercury vapor lamp to convert ergosterol in milk into vitamin D2.

Milk Ordinance--A law that sets forth regulations concerning the handling and quality standards of milk sold for public consumption.

Milk Record--A record of the amount of milk produced by a cow during a specified period. Used for evaluation in terms of money, profit, culling, or for registry.

Milk Sanitarian--A professional worker who specializes in the supervision of sanitary milk regulations.

Milk-fat Basis--A method of paying for milk at receiving stations on the basis of price per pound of butterfat. See Butterfat.

Milk-Feed Price Ratio--The pounds of dairy ration equal in value to one pound of milk, at prices existing at a particular time and place. The United States Department of Agriculture milk-feed price ratio is pounds of dairy concentrates, rather than the entire dairy ration.

Milker--(1) A milk-giving cow. (2) (a) One who milks cows. (b) A machine that milks cows.

Milking Machine--A mechanical device replacing hand labor in the milking of cows. The essential parts are teat cups, a vacuum pump, and a milker pail or milk line. Milk is drawn from the udder by application of alternate vacuum and atmospheric pressure.

Milking Parlor--In a dairy, an especially arranged and equipped room where cows are separately fed concentrates and milked by mechanical milking equipment.

Milkshed--A designated geographic area of milk production and consumption.

Mill--(1) A building with machinery used in grinding, pressing, processing, etc., e.g., grain mill, cane mill, cider mill, saw mill, etc. (2) To process a product. (3) To move around in a circle, as a herd of cattle.

Mill Work--Remanufactured lumber products, such as sash, doors, and molding.

Miller--(1) The operator of a mill, especially of a flour mill. (2) Any moth with wings that appear dusty or powdery.

Milli--A prefix meaning 1/1,000.

Milliequivalent--One thousandth of an equivalent weight.

Milliequivalent Per Liter--A milliequivalent of an ion or a compound in one liter of solution.

Millimeter--One thousandth of a meter.

Millimho--A measure of electrical conductivity in proportion to salinity, used in expressing the comparative salinity of soils and water.

Millrace--A sluiceway through which water runs to drive the wheel of a water mill. Common in old-fashioned grist mills. See Millstone.

Millstone--A large circular stone grooved from the outer rim to a hole in the center. It is used for grinding cereals into flour and meal and it was in fairly common use in water grist mills in the United States up to the end of the nineteenth century. The stones were quarried from a very hard, coarse sandstone formation or a cellular quartz conglomerate. Still common in most developing countries.

Miner's Inch--A unit of irrigation water flow for small users established by statute in several western states and in British Columbia.

Mineral Rights--Rights pertaining to ownership of subsurface land minerals and to access in their exploitation. An owner of land may sell only surface rights and retain ownership of mineral rights or sell only mineral rights.

Minimum Returns Analysis--A procedure for assessing risky production alternatives by examining their worst possible net returns and selecting that alternative whose worst return or whose average return for its worst possibilities is highest among the alternatives being considered.

Miscible--Designating two or more substances that, when mixed together, form a uniformly homogenous solution.

Mist--(1) Liquid particles in a fine state of division but of perceptible size that make up spray material. (2) Transparent or translucent suspended water particles near the surface of the earth. See Fog.

Mixing Nozzle--A nozzle in which the extruded liquid is mixed with a stream of air before it finally leaves the orifice.

Mode--The value of the random variable that occurs most frequently. See Mean, Median.

Model--A simplified representation of reality built to reflect those features of a farm, enterprise, process, etc., that are of most importance in the context of a particular study.

Module--(1) A unit used as a standard or ratio of measurement. (2) In the design of gears in the United States, it is the pitch diameter in inches divided by the number of gear teeth.

Mohs' Scale of Hardness--The hardness scale consisting of 10 minerals from talc (hardness 1), the softest, through gypsum, calcite, fluorite, apatite, orthoclase, quartz, topaz, corundum, to the hardest, diamond (hardness 10).

Moisture Meter--A device that is buried in the soil at plant root depth and used to determine how much moisture is in the soil. See Tensiometer.

Moisture Tension--The force at which water is held by soil, usually expressed as the equivalent of a unit column of water in centimeters: 1,000 centimeters being equal to one atmospheric tension. Moisture tension increases with dryness and indicates the degree of work required to remove soil moisture for use by plants.

Moisture-proofing--Any treatment that reduces the absorption or adsorption of moisture by wood. It is usually accomplished by the impregnation of wood so that some of its hygroscopic moisture is replaced by a moisture-repellent substance.

Moisture-vapor-resistant--Packing materials that protect foods from moisture loss during freezer storage; e.g., freezer wraps (paper, plastic, or foil), plastic bags, waxed freezer cartons.

Mold--(1) A form containing a cavity into which material is poured or pressed to achieve a special shape and design; e.g., molds for Edam and Gouda cheese, butter, ice cream, etc. (2) Any soft, humus soil. (3) Fungi distinguished by the formation of a mycelium (a network of filaments or threads), or by spore masses; usually saprophytes. However, various kinds may do serious damage to fruits, hay, grain, growing crops, and ornamental plants. Also spelled mould. See Compost, Downy Mildew, Mildew, Powdery Mildew.

Moldboard--The part of a turning plow just back of the share that receives the furrow slice from the share and turns it partially or completely over. Also called breastboard, earthboard.

Molecular Ratio--The relative proportion between two or more chemical substances in terms of the number of gram molecules of each. Also called mole ratio.

Money Crop--In a farm enterprise, the crop that is a major source of income, as cotton, wheat, potatoes. Other corps may be grown only as subsidiaries for producing feed for livestock or for maintaining or increasing the yield of the money crop. Also called cash crop.

Money Field Price--(1) (of an input) The purchase price of a unit of an input factor plus other direct expenses (such as transportation costs) per unit of input incurred in using the input factor. (2) (of an output) The market price of a unit of product minus harvest, storage, transportation and marketing costs, and quality discounts.

Mono--Single; only one.

Monoculture--Cultivation of a single crop, as wheat or cotton, to the exclusion of other possible uses of the land.

Monolithic Concrete Silo--A concrete silo made as a poured casting, in contrast to one made of concrete staves.

Monomer--A simple molecule that is capable of combining with a number of like or unlike molecules to form a polymer.

Moonarian--(1) A farmer or gardener who plants and cultivates crops according to phases of the moon. (2) A nonscientific person.

Morrill Act--An Act of the United States Congress approved July 2, 1862, which provided for the establishment of colleges of agriculture and mechanical arts in the various states. The bill was introduced by Representative (later Senator) Morrill of Vermont in 1857. The main feature of this and later acts was the donation of public lands for the support of the land-grant educational institutions in each state. A subsequent act (the second Morrill Act), passed in 1890. allocated an annual, federal grant of $25,000 to each land-grant college and university. See Land-grant University.

Morrison Standard--A feeding standard formulated by F.B. Morrison of the University of Wisconsin, author of Feeds and Feeding, which is adapted to practical feeding conditions and is used extensively.

Mortality--The number of overall deaths, or deaths from a specific disease, usually expressed as a rate; i.e., the number of deaths from a disease in a given population during a specified period, divided by the average number of people or animals exposed to the disease and at risk of dying from the disease during that time.

Mortgage--A lien on land, buildings, personal property, etc., which is given by a borrower to the lender as security for a loan.

Mortgage Insurance--An insurance plan sponsored by the United States federal government for insuring the payment of real estate mortgage loans. First used by the Federal Housing Administration, it was later adapted to farm-ownership loans available through the Farmers Home Administration. In this program the farm purchaser must make a 10 percent down payment; the mortgage insurance is on the 90 percent balance of the reasonable value of the farm including necessary repairs and improvements.

Mortgagee--One to whom a mortgage is given as security for money he has loaned to another.

Mortgagor--One who, having all or part of title to property, pledges that property as security for a debt.

Most Probable Producing Ability (MPPA)--An estimate of a cow's future productivity for a trait (such as progeny weaning weight ratio) based on her past productivity. For example, a cow's MPPA for weaning ratio is calculated from the cow's average progeny weaning ratio, the number of her progeny with weaning records, and the repeatability of weaning weight.

Motor--A device for changing electrical energy into mechanical energy. This term should not be used when referring to the engine of a machine.

Mottling--A soil mass containing many colors due to poor internal drainage. The colors may be gray, yellow, and/or red in random patterns.

Mould--See Mold.

Mounted Plow--A plow that is mounted on the tractor as opposed to a trailing plow. See Trailing Plow.

Movable Dam--A water barrier that may be opened in whole or in part. The movable part may consist of gates, stop logs, flash boards, wickets, or any other device whereby the area for water flow through or over the dam may be controlled.

Mow--(1) The place in a barn where hay is stored. (2) A pile of hay. (3) To cut hay or the grass of a lawn.

Mowdrying--The use of a blower and duct system in the hay mow to provide forced ventilation to reduce the moisture content of the hay. Hay having approximately 40 percent moisture may be put in the mow and the curing completed with the aid of the blower system. Normal outside air or artificially heated air may be used.

Mower--(1) A machine with a mowing sickle cutting bar that is designed to cut forage for hay, weeds, etc. (2) A machine with a cutting reel or rotating blade for cutting the grass of a lawn or weeds or tall grass in a pasture.

Mower Conditioner--A combination mower and conditioner that has conditioning rolls that runs the length of the cutter bar. The hay is cut and conditioned in one pass.

Mud Cap--A mass of mud placed on an explosive charge on top of an object to be shattered, as a large boulder. The mud tends to confine the explosive force.

Mud Fence--A fence made of clay, adobe soil, etc. To reduce raindrop erosion, the top of the mud fence is usually protected with brush, boards, or rocks. Because of the hazard of raindrop erosion, mud fences are more common in semiarid and arid regions.

Mule Skinner--(1) A mule-team driver, especially in the western United States. Also called muleteer. (2) A whip used on a mule team.

Multi--A prefix meaning many, as multiovulate, many-ovuled.

Multiple Cropping--In favorable climates, the growing of two or more crops consecutively on the same field in a single year, such as corn and wheat; soybeans and wheat.

Multiple Farrowing--Arranging the breeding program so that groups of sows farrow at regular intervals throughout the year.

Multiple Use--Use of the land for two or more purposes such as grazing, wildlife, recreation, and watershed protection.

Multiple-price System--A proposal for variable prices, presumably set by the federal government (United States), for agricultural products to overcome inequities in production and to deal with surpluses: e.g., one price for domestic consumption and another price when the same product is to be exported. Also called two-price system.

Multivariable Production Function--A production function involving several variable inputs.

Munsell Color Standards (Munsell Notation)--A color designation system that specifies the relative degrees of the three variables of color: Hue, value, and chroma. The standards may be used in precise comparison of colors of soils, or in standardizing agricultural products: e.g., prime cottonseed cake is 10YR5/5, which means yellow-red with value = 5, and chroma = 5.


NAL--National Agricultural Library.

Narrow Base Terrace--A terrace for controlling soil erosion. It is similar to a broad-base terrace in all respects except the width of ridge and channel: the base of a narrow terrace is usually 4 to 8 feet wide. it is subject to frequent failures and has not been widely accepted in the United States. See Broad Base Terrace, Nichol's Terrace.

NASS--National Agricultural Statistical Service.

National Cattlemen's Association--An association of cattle producers that serves as the communications arm of the nation's beef cattle industry. The membership includes cattle breeders, producers, and feeders. This nonprofit organization was officially formed on September 1, 1977, through the consolidation of the American National Cattlemen's Association (founded 1898) and the National Livestock Feeders Association (founded 1946).

National Cooperative Soil Survey--See Soil Survey.

National Cotton Council of America--A council organized in 1938 to promote cotton from field to fabric. Seven cotton segments have combined to form this council: producers, ginners, warehouse managers, crushers, cooperatives, merchants, and manufacturers.

National Council of Farmer Cooperatives--In the United States, a national federation dedicated to promote the interests of farmer cooperatives through its influence on various governmental and other agencies. The council provides an avenue through which cooperatives are advised of current economic, technological, legal, and other developments, and also provides a forum through which better understanding among cooperatives can be attained.

National Farm Loan Associations--In the United States, local borrower-owned cooperative agencies that initiate and service farm mortgage loans made through the Federal Land Banks.

National Farm Program Acreage--The number of harvested acres of feed grains, wheat, and cotton needed nationally to meet domestic and export use and to accomplish any desired increase or decrease in carryover levels. Program acreage for an individual farm is based on the producer's share (historic farm production) of the national farm program acreage.

National Forest System--Units of federally owned forest, range, and related lands throughout the United States and its territories dedicated to the long-term benefit for present and future generations. The National Forest System includes all national forestlands acquired through purchase, exchange, donation, or other means, the National grasslands, and land utilization projects administered under Title III of the Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenant Act and other lands, waters, or interests therein which are administered by the Forest Service or are designated for administration through the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service as a part of the system.

National Grange--See Grange, The National.

National Grassland--Land, mainly grass and shrub cover, administered by the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service as part of the National Forest System for promotion of grassland agriculture, watersheds, grazing, wildlife, and recreation.

National Program Acreage--The acreage that the Secretary of Agriculture estimates will produce the desired quantity of a crop if average farm program payment yields are realized.

National Sire Evaluation--Programs of sire evaluation conducted by breed associations to compare sires on a progeny test basis. Carefully conducted national reference sire evaluation programs give unbiased estimates of expected progeny differences. Sire evaluations based on field data rely on large numbers of progeny per sire to compensate for possible favoritism or bias for sires within herds.

National Wool Act--Legislation that provides price support for shorn wool at an incentive level to encourage production. The law also provides for a payment on sales of unshorn lambs.

Natural Area--In the United States, an area permanently preserved in unmodified condition as representative of the virgin growth of a major forest or range type, primarily for the purposes of science, research, and education. Timber cutting and grazing are prohibited.

Natural Boundary--Any feature not made by people, such as a river, or a mountain ridge, which separates states, countries, or tracts of land.

Naval Stores--Products, such as turpentine and rosin, obtained from the distillation of crude pine resin.

Nave--The hub of a wheel to which spokes are attached.

Neck Finisher--A mechanical buffer or picking machine for finishing the dressing of poultry for the market. It cleans blood and feed from the head and removes feathers and pin feathers from the neck.

Neck Rope--(1) A rope tied around the neck of a horse being trained for use in lassoing cattle. (2) A rope used in picketing horses.

Neckyoke--A bar, usually of wood, that connects two draft animals abreast by the neck and supports the forward end of the tongue of a wagon, plow, or harrow.

Nervous Market--A market in which traders expect a sharp break momentarily and are easily influenced by rumors.

Nester--A homesteader or squatter who legally or illegally occupies land (western United States).

Net Cash Income--The cash income after the cash expenses are deducted from the gross cash income.

Net Duty of Water--The amount of irrigation water delivered to the land to produce a crop. It is measured at the point of delivery to the field.

Net Farm Earnings--The net cash income plus an increase (or minus a decrease) in total farm investment other than bare lands, plus the value of farm products furnished to the farm family, and less the value of unpaid family labor (excluding operator's labor).

Net Farm Income--The farm income left after expenses are deducted from gross income.

Net Income--The total amount earned after all of the operating costs and overhead have been subtracted.

Net Increment--In forestry, the addition to tree growth that represents an increase in usable timber.

Net Livestock Increase (or Decrease)--The clear profit or loss; a figure obtained by subtracting the total of the value of livestock at the beginning of the year and the cost of livestock purchased during the year from the total of the value of livestock at the end of the year and the receipts from livestock sold. If the result is negative, it is a net livestock decrease.

Net Present Value (NPV)--The net total of the discounted values of the payments and receipts associated with a given project or farm plan.

Net Sales--Gross sales less deductions for freight, handling, discounts, etc.

Net Weight--(1) The weight of an article, or a mass of anything, after deducting from the gross weight the weight of the container or covering. (2) The weight of a slaughtered animal after removal of hide, viscera, etc.

Net Worth--The net ownership of a farmer or individual in his/her business; the difference between the assets and liabilities; the owner's equity in the business.

Net Yield--The measured yield per hectare or acre in the field, minus harvest losses and storage losses where appropriate.

Net-energy Value--The amount of energy that remains after deducting from a feed's total energy value the amount of energy lost in feces, urine, combustible gases, and heat increment. Sometimes called work of digestion.

Neutron--See Atom.

Neutron Probe--A field device used for measuring soil water percentage. As neutrons emitted from the probe collide with hydrogen in water they are deflected and slowed. The slowed neutrons are deflected to the counter. The more water in the soil, the more the neutrons measured by the meter.

New Parity Prices--Parity prices based upon the most recent ten-year period for an individual commodity and farm wages paid to labor.

New York Cotton Exchange--A world-famous central exchange organized in 1870 in New York City, for trading, buying, selling, and speculating in cotton.

Newton--A unit of force required to accelerate a mass of one kilogram one meter per second per second.

Nichol's Terrace--A once common small terrace for disposal of surplus water. It has a comparatively deep, narrow channel and a low, flat ridge with a slope that merges quite closely with the downhill side. Modern terraces are usually broad-based to allow machinery to operate over them. See Broad-base Terrace, Narrow-base Terrace.

Nickel--Ni; a chemical element, a metal which is found in traces in soils. It was once thought to be deleterious rather than beneficial to plant growth, but since 1983 has been suggested as essential for plants. It is required by animals and people.

Night Corral--An enclosure or pen on western United States ranges in which ewes may be placed at night or at lambing time.

Nippers--(1) The two central incisor teeth of a horse. (2) Small pincers used for holding, breaking, or cutting.

Nipple Pail--A pail with a tube and rubber nipple fastened at the bottom, used in calf feeding, weaning, etc.

Nipple Waterer--An automatic watering system in which the animal pushes a "nipple" in the end of a pipe to get water.

Nitre--(1) A precipitate of malic acid formed in making maple syrup. (2) Nitrate of potash (saltpeter), KN[O.sub.3], used as a fertilizer and in the manufacture of explosives. (3) Sodium nitrate, or chile saltpeter.

Nitric Acid--HN[O.sub.3]; a strong mineral acid which, combined with metals or alkalies, forms nitrates. It is now made synthetically on a large scale by passing ammonia (N[H.sub.3]) and air through a platinum gauze catalyst, whereby the ammonia oxidizes. Nitric acid is used in the production of nitrate fertilizer compounds, including nitric phosphates. Some nitric acid is used as an oxidant for carbonaceous material that causes the black color in liquid fertilizers made with commercial phosphoric acid.

Nomen--(Latin) Name.

Noncommercial Forest Land--Forestland withdrawn from its commercial use for timber because (a) it is utilized for such purposes as parks, game refuges, military reservations, or reservoir protection or (b) its poor growing conditions or inaccessibility render its commercial use unprofitable.

Nonconforming Uses--Uses of land permitted by zoning ordinances in areas in which such uses are not otherwise permissible.

Nonmoney Farm Income--A statistical allowance used in farm income compilations to credit farmers with income for the value of farm products used on the farm (instead of being sold for cash) and the rental value of farm dwellings. It assumes farmers otherwise live rent-free on their farm business premises.

Nonrecourse Loan--Participants in federal commodity programs may obtain loans from the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) by pledging planted or stored crops as collateral. These loans enable producers to pay for planting costs or to store crops for later sale. The producer can settle the loan by paying it back with interest or by turning the stored crop over to the CCC when the loan period ends. Loans are generally paid off when market prices rise above loan rates. Crops are frequently forfeited to the CCC at the end of the loan period when prices are below loan rates.

Nonrenewable--Natural resources that once used up are gone forever.

Nonslip Loop--A loop of rope so knotted that it will not slip or tighten when pulled; used on a foal being trained to lead.

Normal Yield Table--In forestry, an accepted standard yield table with which to compare actual yields. The statements of a normal yield table are derived as an average from the best-producing, fully stocked areas for particular species and sites.

Norms--Customs, ethics, moral codes, laws, and institutions. (Most sociologists regard norms as an ideal standard for behavior, but some would include statements about average or typical behavior patterns.)

Norris-Doxey Act--An act of United States Congress, approved in 1937, which authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture to cooperate with land-grant colleges and universities and state forestry agencies for the development of farm forestry in the states and territories of the United States. An important provision rules that these bodies produce or procure and distribute tree and shrub planting stock to farm owners on condition that the cooperator make available the land for planting without charge.

Northwestern Box--A standard type of container for packaging apples that has the capacity of one bushel.

Nose--(1) The point of a plow share. (2) The part of the face of people and animals that covers the nostrils; snout; muzzle. (3) To round off the end of a log in order to facilitate snaking or skidding.

Nose Clamp--A device that may be fitted tightly on the nose of an animal and used for its control during shoeing, surgical operations, or various types of training. See Twitch, Nose Twitch.

Nose Lead--A removable metal ring that is snapped into a bull's nose. A rope is attached to the ring for leading and controlling the animal. This device is required for showing bulls in most livestock shows.

Nose Ring--(1) A metal ring fastened through the cartilage of the nose of a bull for safe control of the animal. A staff, or metal rod, about 6 feet long may be snapped into the ring for handling the animal. See Nose Lead. (2) A metal ring fastened in the nose of a hog to prevent it from rooting.

Nose Twitch--A looped, light rope or heavy cord attached to a short stick. The loop is placed over the end of the nose of the horse and when twisted acts as a control in breaking, training, or leading. See Nose Clamp.

Nostrum--A quack remedy or worthless patent medicine.

Notch--(1) The opening in a dam or spillway for the passage of water. (2) A gap, pass, or defile between mountains (chiefly in northeastern United States). (3) An undercut; in logging, a cut in the trunk of a tree to govern direction of fall. (4) A gap cut into the ear of an animal for identification.

Notched Colter--A rotating, circular attachment for the forward part of the plow that has a cutter edge with a serrated perimeter for cutting the soil surface and trash in front of the plowshare. Also called cutaway disk, cut-away colter. See Colter.

Notifiable Disease--(reportable) Any disease that must be reported to the government health authorities.

Novale--Land newly plowed and brought under cultivation.

Novalis--In civil law, land that has been fallow for a year after the first plowing.

Nozzle--The pouring end of a spout; the orifice through which liquids are discharged in a stream or spray.

Nuclear Family--The fundamental unit of human organization, specifically a male, female, and their unmarried children, all of whom live together.

Number of Contemporaries--The number of animals of similar breed, sex, and age, against which an animal was compared in performance tests. The greater the number of contemporaries, the greater the accuracy of comparisons.

Numdah--A thick, belt blanket placed under a saddle to absorb sweat. Also called namda, nammad.

Nursery Deck--A small above-the-floor pen in which the newborn pits are kept to keep them warm and dry.

Nursery Knife--A sharp knife that is used to prune, graft, or take cuttings from plants.

Nut Sweeper--A machine that harvests nuts by sweeping them up off the ground.

Nutritional Labeling--Labels that provide consumers with information about the nutritional values of products.

Nutritive Ratio--In animal feeds, a ratio or proportion between the digestible protein and the digestible nonnitrogenous nutrients found by adding the digestible carbohydrates plus the digestible fat multiplied by 2.25, and dividing the sum by the digestible protein. The ratio is an expression of the energy value of a ration against its body-building power.


Obsolescence--In appraisal, the impairment of desirability and usefulness of a structure, machine, or equipment consequent upon new developments in art, design, process, or any other circumstances.

Obstetrical Chain--A metal chain, 30 to 60 inches long, used by veterinarians to assist animals having difficulty in the delivering of newborn (usually calves or foals). It is used to apply a small amount of traction to the unborn.

Obtuse--(1) An angle that is greater than 90 degrees, but less than 180 degrees. (2) A leaf apex that is similar in shape to an obtuse angle.

Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)--Public Law 91-596, December 29, 1970. The purpose of this law is "to assure so far as possible every working man and woman in the nation safe and healthful working conditions and to preserve our human resources." The act provides references and standards of compliance for the various segments of business and industry, including agriculture, in the entire nation. The principal provisions of the act stipulate standards, enforcement, penalties for noncompliance, appeals, and research.

Octane--A measurement of the antiknock (detonation) quality of a gasoline or LP gas fuel.

Ocular Estimate--Estimate by sight only. (1) In forestry, the determination of the approximate volume and quantity of standing timber without the use of measuring instruments. (2) On a range, the qualitative procedures for determining the degree of cropping of forage plants. Observations of a general reconnaissance nature are made visually: (a) by examining small random plots at the end of each grazing season.

Odd Area--In farm planning, a small area, such as bare knob, fence corner, sink hole, blowout, borrow pit, or an irregularly shaped area that is unsuitable for cultivated crops and is best used for wildlife crops.

Odd Lot--On livestock markets, animals that do not conform uniformly to some particular weight, age, or grade of quality class.

Off Grade--Designating an agricultural product that fails to meet requirements of commonly accepted standards or legal or official standards in grading products for sale.

Off Season--In farming, the season of the year when the production of a particular crop is difficult or impossible.

Off-set Tractor--A tractor that has the operator seat and controls mounted to one side of the tractor instead of in the center of the tractor.

Offset-disk Harrow--A harrow adapted for use in orchards and vineyards, which can be set to run to the side of the tractor and thus cultivate under branches too low for the tractor to pass under.

Ohm--A unit of electrical resistance equal to the resistance of a current in which an electromotive force of one volt maintains a current of one ampere. See Ampere, Voltage, Wattage.

Ohmmeter--A device used to measure the electrical resistance of a circuit.

Oil--One of several kinds of fatty or greasy liquids that are lighter than water, burn easily, are not soluble in water and are composed principally, if not exclusively, of carbon and hydrogen.

Oil Mill--A mill or factory in which oils are extracted from vegetable seeds, such as cottonseed and soybean, by hydraulic, expeller, or solvent method of extraction.

Oiling Machine--In the poultry industry, a machine used for dipping eggs in oil to form a protective coating and to retard loss of moisture and quality. It is used especially on eggs placed in storage. See Oil-protecting Eggs.

Oilstone--A fine granite stone used with oil for sharpening tools.

Oligopoly--A market situation with relatively few sellers who are mutually interdependent in their marketing activities; some food-processing industries are oligopolistic.

Oligopsony--A market situation where there are a few large buyers of a product.

Ombrometer--A rain gauge. See Pluviometer.

On and Off Permit--A grazing permit issued only where movement of livestock is necessitated between national forestland (United States) and adjoining outside range, or where private and forestlands intermingle. On Contract--Designating a crop, as vegetables for processing, grown under an agreement whereby the producer sells to a processor usually at prices previously agreed upon.

On the Block--(1) Up for auction. (2) Designating carcasses ready for cutting for sale. See On the Hoof.

On the Clean Basis--In American wool market reports, referring to quotations given on the cost of the clean fiber that any lot of unscoured wool is estimated to contain.

On the Hoof--Designating a live meat animal.

One-crop Farming--A system of farming in which the producer grows a single crop as a source of income; e.g., wheat, corn, or cotton.

Open Flume--An uncovered passageway for irrigation water.

Open Listing--A listing under which the principal (owner) reserves the right to list the property he/she is attempting to sell with other brokers.

Open Range--An extensive range area where grazing is unrestricted. Also, ranges that have not been fenced into management units.

Open-code Dating--Food labels providing consumers with information on when food was processed and packaged, when it should be sold or withdrawn from the market, or when the product is no longer acceptable for sale.

Open-ditch Drainage--Drainage of excess water from land by open ditches as opposed to tile drainage.

Open-kettle Canning--A procedure whereby food is cooked in an ordinary kettle, then packed into hot jars and sealed. Jars of food receive no additional heat processing. This is a dangerous practice, as spoilage organisms may enter the jar during the transfer of food from kettle to jar.

Opening--(1) A treeless or very sparsely timbered area in a forested region. See Oak Opening. (2) In cranberry culture, the first swelling of a terminal bud. (3) The unfolding of a flower or boll of cotton. (4) Designating the first price offered for a commodity when a market day begins.

Operating Capital--The amount of money used to run a business.

Operator--One who does the appropriate work and management necessary to conduct a business, as farming.

Optimum Condition--The ideal environment, with regard to nourishment, light, temperature, etc., for an organism's growth and reproduction.

Optimum Level of Performance--The most profitable or favorable ranges in levels of performance for the economically important traits in a given environment and management system. For example, although many cows produce too little milk, in every management system there is a point beyond which higher levels of milk production may reduce fertility and decrease profit.

Optimum Temperature--That certain temperature at which a particular plant or animal grows satisfactorily, other conditions being favorable for growth.

Optimum Water Content--The amount of water in a soil needed by a plant for its optimum growth, varying from 40 to 60 percent the moisture-holding capacity (field capacity).

Option--Right to purchase property within a definite time at a specified price. No obligation to purchase, but seller is obligated to sell if the option holder exercises his/her right to purchase.

Optional Prepayment Plan--A policy that permits the lender to pay all or part of a loan at any time.

Orchard Heater--Any of several types of heaters used in the orchards to reduce frost injury.

Order of Terms--The order in which constituents of a mixed fertilizer appear on the printed formula: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium.

Organic Gardening (Farming)--A system of farming or home gardening that utilizes organic wastes and composts to the exclusion of chemical fertilizers. Advocates of the system teach that chemical fertilizers are injurious to health and that organic composts give higher yields, better quality and better taste of produce, less plant damage by insects and disease, reduction of weed menace, and stronger seeds that germinate better and produce successively stronger plants. None of these claims have so far been confirmed by reproducible (scientific) proof. Much publicity of the concept has resulted in a number of followers but it is significant that the leading followers of the concept do not depend entirely on agriculture for their livelihood. The organic gardening concept persists because of the basic truth that organic matter in soils is beneficial to agriculture. However, the sole scientific foundation for economic production of abundant and healthful foods consist of the liberal use of organic matter plus chemical fertilizers applied according to a soil test.

Organized Market--A market where trading is supervised and a large volume of a product is traded.

Orifice--(1) An opening by which spores, etc., escape; any opening. (2) An opening in a nozzle tip, duster, or granular applicator through which the spray, dust, or granules flow.

Orometer--A sensitive aneroid barometer that is calibrated in feet and/or meters of elevation above sea level. Used for obtaining approximate elevations at various points of observation during reconnaissance mapping.

Oscillator--In nursery practice, a mechanical device, worked by hydraulic pressure, for automatically turning overhead sprinkler lines through an arc of varying degrees up to 180 degrees. It produces an even spread of water.

OSHA--See Occupational Safety and Health Act. Other Forestland--Forestland incapable of producing 20 cubic feet per acre of industrial wood under natural conditions because of adverse site conditions such as infertile soils, dry climate, poor drainage, high elevation, steepness, or rockiness. Out of Season--Designating products, as fresh fruits and vegetables, available at a time at which they are not normally produced locally.

Outer Cover--In beekeeping, usually a cover that telescopes over the top of the hive to a depth of an inch or more and is covered with galvanized iron or aluminum sheeting, to protect the hive from the weather.

Outfit--(1) A group of cowhands and their equipment (western United States). (2) To supply the necessary equipment for an expedition, a practice, a business, etc.

Outhouse--(1) Any small building on a farm, usually other than the barn, in which tools or small animals, etc., are kept. Also called outbuilding. (2) A small building over a pit dug in the ground, used as an outdoor waterless toilet. Also known as backhouse or privy.

Outlook--A forecast of future market events, such as supplies, prices, and so on.

Output--A marketable product of a farming operation, such as cash crops, livestock, etc.

Output Shaft--The shaft or gear that delivers power from the transmission of a tractor or other machine. See Input Shaft.

Outrider--A cowboy whose duty it is to ride the range and protect his employer's interests (western United States).

Outside Man--(1) A man who attends roundups on ranges away from those of the home ranch (western United States). (2) A farm laborer who works in the fields as contrasted to one who works in the barn, etc.

Outside Quotation--The highest price for a commodity on a particular market for a particular day.

Oven-dried--Designating wood or other material dried by exposure to 212[degrees]F (100[degrees]C), or slightly higher temperatures, until ceasing to lose weight, usually 24 to 48 hours.

Overall--A suit of clothes, usually one piece, made of heavy cotton; often worn by farmers over their regular clothes for added warmth or to protect their clothes when engaging in particularly messy work.

Overflow(ed) Land--(1) Land that is subject to overflow or flooding; generally floodplains of rivers. (2) Loosely, swampland. (3) Legally, land that is covered by nonnavigable waters, but not including land covered by the normal flow of tides.

Overhaul--(1) The rehandling or repacking of ham during the pickling period to permit a more uniform distribution of pickle. (2) To repair and recondition tools, implements, machines, etc.

Overhead--The general expenses of operating a farm, such as taxes, insurances, etc., which cannot be charged directly to any particular crop or livestock. In cost accounts, overhead expenses are prorated to the productive enterprises, such as crops and livestock, etc., in proportion to one of the major inputs or to the total debits of each enterprise.

Overlay--Any transparency, containing supplemental information, superimposed over a map or a data sheet to show this information more clearly.

Overpopulation--A population density exceeding the capacity of the environmental resources of an ecosystem to supply the requirements of the individual organisms occupying it; usually accompanied by a high mortality rate because of inadequate nutrition, insufficient shelter, and increased predation, disease, or parasitism.

Overseer--(1) A manager or supervisor of a ranch, farm, etc., who has supervisory duties over the laborers. (2) In New Zealand, an undermanager.

Owner-samples DHIA Plan--A system of records for dairy cows in which the owner weighs the milk and takes the samples that are later picked up by the tester who runs the tests and compiles the records. This system gives the owner the same information, is more economical, and the tester can handle many more herds each month, but is less official than the standard DHIA plan. See Dairy Herd Improvement Association.

Ownership--The property owned by one owner, including all parcels of land in the United States.

Oxygen--The chemical element O; a colorless, odorless gas. The most abundant element in the earth's crust. It accounts for about 47 percent of all elemental material. It is essential in the growth of all crops and for the respiration of most forms of life.


P/E Ratio--Precipitation/evaporation ratio. This is an aridity index.

Pace--(1) A measure of length: the ordinary length of a human step from heel to heel is 21/2 feet. The geometric is 5 feet. Distances for land measure are usually stepped according to some definite distance per step, as 3 feet. Land measurements were often paced off, from some known mark as a base, in early land surveying in the United States. (2) Applied to horses, a rapid, two-beat gait in which the lateral fore and hind legs work in pairs. Also called amble, rack, trot.

Packer--(1) One who operates a slaughter and meat-processing business. (2) Pertaining to the business of packing fresh or processed fruits and vegetables or meats. (3) A field tool of the roller type consisting of a set or series of rollers that pack the loose soil after plowing. Also called cultipacker. (4) One who makes a pack, as of vegetables, meat, etc.

Packsaddle--A carrying unit for camping equipment or other material that is placed on the back of a horse or pack mule, either as separate units or attached to the rider's saddle.

Palatability Rating--A method of rating the condition of a range, from high to low, depending on the proportion of palatable plants carried by the range. The more such plants the higher the rating.

Palea (Palet)--A small, chaffy bract, especially: (a) one of the chaffy scales on the surface of the receptacle of the flowerhead in many Compositae, or (b) the inner of the two bracts or glumes enclosing a flower in the Gramineae, the outer being the lemma.

Paling Fence--A light fence made of narrow slats or poles. The palings may be sharpened and driven into the ground a few inches apart or supported at top and bottom by horizontal strips nailed to each pale. It is used for gardens, backyards, and small enclosures.

Pallet--A platform of any size supported by two or three runners or stringers used as a base for stacking and transporting a box or several packages as a unit.

Palm--Any tropical or subtropical tree or shrub of the family Palmaceae. Species are grown for their wood, edible fruits, resins, fiber, and as a source of oils and drugs.

Panel Plot--A small area protected from grazing during a part of the growing or grazing season by a movable fence. Also called hurdle plot, panel.

Pannage--(1) Pasturing swine in a forest to feed on acorns, etc. (2) The right or privilege to pasture swine in this manner. (3) The payment made to the landowner for the privilege of pasturing swine in his forest.

Paper Grain--Grain purchased on contract on an Exchange or Board of Trade for speculation or hedging. No grain is actually handled; only the paper contracts actually change hands.

Paper Profit--The profit that would be realized if open contracts were liquidated at a certain time at a certain price.

Paraffin--A tasteless, odorless, waxlike substance obtained mostly as a residue in the distillation of petroleum; used in sealing the tops of jars of jellies, preserved fruits, as a coating for paper milk bottles, cheeses, and for various other similar purposes.

Paraplow--A chisel plow that leaves most crop residues on the soil surface while tilling about 15 inches (35 centimeters) deep.

Parasitic Advertising--Advertising by one group that takes sales away from another group; e.g., beef advertisements may reduce pork sales; orange advertisements may reduce apple sales.

Parchment--(1) The sheetlike fiber found in the pods of unimproved beans and pea varieties. (2) A paper used in food wrapping; e.g., in the packaging of butter.

Pare--To peel or trim off outside covering, as with fruits and vegetables.

Parity--A legislative formula designed to maintain a just balance between the prices a farmer receives for his products and the payment he makes for the essentials of production such as seed, fertilizer, and machinery.

Parity Price--Price per bushel (or pound or bale) that would be necessary for a bushel today to buy the same quantity of goods that a bushel would have bought in the base period at the prices then prevailing.

Parshall Flume--A Venturi-type device commonly used in irrigation for measuring the discharge of small streams and ditches. See Venturi Tube.

Part-time Farming--Farming in which the operator is employed much of his/her time in occupations other than farming and who derives a substantial part of his/her income from other occupations. As defined by the United States census, farming in which the operator spends 100 or more days off the farm, or in which the nonfarm income received by him/her and members of his/her family is greater than the value of the farm products sold.

Particle Density--The average density of the soil particles. Particle density is usually expressed in grams per cubic centimeter and is sometimes referred to as real density, grain density, or specific gravity.

Particle-size Analysis--Determination of the amounts of different particle sizes in a soil sample, usually by sedimentation, sieving, micrometry, or a combination of these methods.

Particle-size Distribution--The amount of the various soil separates, sands, silt, and clay in a soil sample, expressed as dry weight percentages.

Particle-size Histogram--A graphic method of presenting the particle-size distribution of sediments as a series of vertical bars whose heights are proportional to the frequency in each class. The term itself is standard statistical usage for such diagrams.

Partido System--In the southwestern United States, a form of operation in which sheep owned by the patron are let out on shares to a partidero, who cares for them and returns part of the increase or income to the owner.

Partnership--An association of two or more persons as co-owners of a profit-making business. Chief criteria of a partnership are participation in management, sharing profits, sharing losses, ownership of assets together, and having a firm name, a single joint bank account, and a single set of farm records. No one factor is controlling. All are applied to the particular arrangement to determine whether in the sum it is a partnership. In most states of the United States, the law states that the partnership name must be filed with the county clerk in the court house. Most father and son farming arrangements are legal partnerships regardless of whether they are operating under a written or an oral agreement.

Parts Per Millon--The number of weight or volume units in a million units of a solution or a mixture; a measure of concentration, especially of chemicals in solution: one milligram per liter. Abbreviated ppm.

Party Wall--Wall erected on a line between adjoining properties for the use of both properties.

Pascal--A unit of pressure equal to one newton per square meter. See Newton.

Pasture Improvement--The practice of grazing, clipping, fertilizing, liming, seeding, contour furrowing, or other methods of management that improve the vegetation for grazing purposes.

Patent--(1) A grant made by public authority to an inventor or discoverer entitling him/her to certain exclusive rights. in the United States patents may be granted by the United States Patent Office to originators of strains or some variation from existing varieties of plants. Many flowers, especially roses and some fruits, have been patented. (2) Open or unoccluded, as a patent duct or orifice.

Payee--The person to whom a payment is made.

Payment Limitation--A limitation set by law on the amount of money any one person may receive in farm program payments each year under the feed grain, wheat, cotton, rice, and other approved commodities payment plans.

Payment-in-Kind Certificates (PIK)--Used by Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) in both export and domestic commodity programs, the PIK certificates are issued, or made available, to producers, buyers, and exporter. The certificates, expressed as a dollar value, may be redeemed either for specified commodities and products from CCC stocks, or in face value cash equivalent.

Peak--(1) In turpentining, the upper point of the V-shaped streak at the top of the incision. (2) In hydrology, the maximum rate of flow recorded at a gauging station during a flood. Peak Year--The year of greatest production in the life of a fruit tree, a bed of berries, asparagus, etc.

Peanut Harvester--A machine that picks up peanuts vines, separates the peanuts, and conveys them to a bin.

Peck--A unit of measure: eight quarts or one-fourth of a bushel by volume of such materials as grains, fruits, or vegetables.

Peel--(1) The outer covering or skin of fruits or vegetables such as the apple, orange, etc. Also called peeling, rind. (2) To remove the skin from a fruit or vegetable, as to peel a banana.

Pelham Bit--A bit with two rings on each side for two controlling reins; used on polo ponies.

Pelham Bridle--A single-bitted, double-reined horse bridle used on pleasure horses.

Pen--(1) A loose, rectangular stack of fuel wood or pulpwood in layers of two pieces each of varying height and width. (2) In poultry shows, a male and four female birds of the same variety. (3) A small space enclosed by any kind of fence, used for confining pigs, cows, and other animals.

Pen Fattening--Fattening livestock or poultry by keeping them in small pens and giving them full feed.

Pen Lot--A number of animals in an enclosure. In livestock exhibitions, the animals are judged as a lot, or group, in contrast to an exhibition of single individuals.

Pencil Shrink--An assumed percentage deduction taken from the weight of slaughtered animals to allow for uncalculated losses in weight.

Penetrometer--A device that measures the force required to push a probe rod into the soil. It can be used to measure the density or degree of compaction in a soil.

Penny--(nail designation) Of obscure British origin, whether based on weight or price. (a) Based on weight; e.g., 1,000 fourpenny (4d) nails weigh 4 pounds (1.8 kilograms). (b) Based on price; e.g., 100 ten-penny (10d) nails cost 10 cents (British).

Penta--Greek for five, used in naming chemical compounds. Per Capita--Per person.

Per Capita Food Consumption--The average quantity of food eaten per person within a time period, usually a year; calculated by dividing the total food available for consumption by the population.

Per Person Indemnities--The maximum amount agreed to be paid by an insurance company per person in an accident.

Percentage Lease--Lease in which all or part of rental is a specified percentage of gross income from total sales made upon the premises.

Percentage Share--The percent of cost shared between the federal government and farmer or rancher in carrying out an approved soil and water conservation practice.

Percentile Taper--The relative taper of a tree in terms of diameter at regular intervals along the stem which is expressed in percent of diameter at breast height.

Perch--(1) A unit of land measure equal in length to a rod (16.5 feet; 5.029 meters). (2) Also used to designate a square rod. (3) A pole or limb on which chickens and wild birds roost.

Perforated Polyethelene Tubing--Plastic tubing 18 to 24 inches wide, with regularly spaced holes on each side that is used to distribute air in a greenhouse.

Performance Data--The record of the individual animal for reproduction, production, and possibly carcass merit. Traits included are birth, weaning and yearling weights, calving ease, calving interval, milk production, etc.

Performance Pedigree--A pedigree that includes performance records of ancestors, half and full sibs, and progeny in addition to the usual pedigree information. Also, the performance information is systematically combined to list estimated breeding values on the pedigrees by some breed associations.

Performance Record--The evaluation of an animal's production based on several factors; factors may be number of calves weaned, birth weight, weaning weight, etc.

Performance Testing--The systematic collection of comparative production information for use in decision making to improve efficiency and profitability of beef production. Differences in performance among cattle must be utilized in decision making for performance testing to be beneficial. The most useful performance records for management, selection, and promotion decisions will vary among purebred breeders and for purebred breeders compared with commercial cattle producers.

Permanent Pasture--Grazing land in farms occupied by perennial grasses and legumes. It is not a part of a regular rotation of fields and usually remains unplowed for long periods.

Permanent Wilting Percentage--The soil moisture content at which plants remain permanently wilted unless water is added to the soil. Soil water potential at wilting can vary from -5 to -20 bars. Because of the shape of the water potential-water content drying curve, large changes in water potential at higher tensions accompany minor decreases in water content, so permanent water for plant growth is approximately 15 bars.

Permeability--The capacity of soil or rock for transmitting a fluid. Degree of permeability depends upon the size and shape of the pores, the size and shape of their interconnections, and the extent of the latter. It is measured by the rate at which a fluid of standard viscosity can move a given distance through a given interval of time. The unit of permeability is the darcy. See Darcy's Law.

Permissible Hydraulic Velocity--The highest velocity at which water may be carried safely in a channel or other conduit. The highest velocity that can exist through a substantial length of a conduit and not cause scouring of the channel. Safe or noneroding velocity.

Permissible Velocity--The highest velocity at which water may be carried safely in a canal or other conduit without scouring the channel sides.

Permittee--A person who is legally allowed to graze a certain number of livestock on a particular area of public range.

Person-day--The equivalent of one person working for eight hours.

Person-Hour--The equivalent of one person working for one hour.

Personal Property--The rights and interests a person has in all things subject to ownership except a freehold interest in land.

pF Value--The logarithm of the height, in centimeters, of a water column necessary to produce a force equal to the energy with which moisture is held by a soil. The "p" indicates a common logarithm, and the "F" suggests force or energy.

pH--A numerical measure of acidity or hydrogen ion activity of a substance such as food or soil. The neutral point is pH 7.0. All pH values below 7.0 are acid and all above 7.0 are alkaline. The negative logarithm of the hydrogen-ion activity. The degree of acidity (or alkalinity) of a soil as determined by means of a glass, quinhydrone, or other suitable electrode or indicator at a specified moisture content or soil-water ratio, and expressed in terms of the pH scale. See Reaction.

Photometer--An instrument for measuring luminous (light) intensity or brightness by comparison of two unequal lights from different sources.

Phytometer--(1) A plant used to measure the physiological activities of the habitat. (2) A device used for measuring water transpiration of a plant.

Pick--(1) The total amount of a crop harvested, or the yield of an individual tree, as the pick of oranges. (2) Small, irregular openings within the body of a cheese. (3) See Pickax. (4) To pull or pluck ripe fruit, as berries, apples, cotton. (5) To pluck the feathers from a fowl in dressing it for the market. (6) To nibble at food.

Pick-Up--(1) A light automobile truck usually with a load capacity of 0.5 to 1.0 ton that is adaptable to many different uses on farms. (2) A rotating drum mechanism with flexible teeth for lifting and conveying a windrow from the ground to a baler, forage harvester, combine, etc.

Pick-Up Baler--A power-driven, automatic, self-tying hay baler with a windrow pick-up and with or without cross conveyor attachment similar to that used on combines. It consists of a pick-up rotating cylinder, an elevator mechanism, and a cross conveyor to carry the hay to the self-feeder in the baler.

Pickax--A hand tool with a short handle and a double blade. One part of the blade is narrow, curved, and sharpened on the face like an ax, the other is pointed. It is used in grubbing roots or working in stony or hard soil.

Picker--(1) One who harvests a crop by removing it from the plant; e.g., an apple picker. (2) A mechanical device that removes the fruit from the plant. (3) A type of machine potato planter that is provided with metal forks (pickers) attached to a vertical revolving disk. The picker moves through the hopper and spears the seed potato which is then punched off by a special ejector into the seed spout.

Picket--To tether or control the grazing range of an animal by a rope.

Picket Fence--A light, wooden fence made of narrow pickets or slats that are usually woven into a fence by the use of wires at the top and bottom. It is often used for small enclosures, such as gardens, chicken yards, etc.

Picket Pin--A stake to which a horse or mule is tied in picketing (western United States).

Picket Rope--Any rope, with a swivel snap on one end of which an animal may be fastened, and with a picket pin on the other which may be driven into the ground to tether the animal while grazing.

Picking Machine--In poultry dressing, a machine consisting of a revolving drum equipped with flexible rubber fingers which picks the feathers from carcasses.

Picking Season--The season of the year when a crop is harvested, especially such crops as cucumbers, string beans, cotton, etc., where the picking period extends over a number of days or weeks. The picking season for cotton may extend from August to January in some sections of the southern United States.

Pie Chart--A figure in the form of a circle that is divided into segments such that the size of each segment (angle) is proportional to the magnitude or frequency of that class.

Pig Teeth Nipper--A clipperlike instrument used for clipping the canine teeth (temporary or milk teeth) of suckling pigs.

Pig-guard Rail--A rail about 8 to 10 inches above the floor and 8 to 10 inches from the wall of a farrowing pen, beneath which recently far-rowed pigs can move and thus be protected from crushing by the sow.

Piling--Round timbers or steel cylinders driven into the ground to support structures such as buildings or piers. The steel cylinders, after being driven into place, are filled with concrete. These supports may extend below the water table in soils or through unstable soils into stable soils below, as through muck into mineral soil.

Pinch Point--The place where two parts of a mechanism move toward one another, creating a potentially hazardous situation.

Pinhooker--A speculator in tobacco prices.

Pinion--(1) The outermost part of a bird's wing including the carpus, metacarpus, and phalanges; the part of a wing, corresponding to the forearm, on which the primary flight feathers are borne. (2) To cut off the pinion on one (or both) wings to permanently prevent a bird from flying. (3) A gear that has the teeth formed on the inside of the hub.

Pinning Knife--A dull, short-bladed knife that is used in removing pin feathers in the dressing of poultry.

Piston--A cylindrical engine part that fits into a cylindrical opening. The piston is closed on one end and connected to a rod that is connected to the crankshaft on the other end. The ignition of fuel in the combustion chamber forces the piston down, thereby causing the connecting rod to move the crankshaft.

Piston Ring--An expanding ring placed in the groove of a piston to seal off the passage of fluid or gas past the piston. See Piston.

Pit--(1) The endocarp of a drupe; the seed-stone of a fruit, as the pit of a peach or prune. (2) An excavation in soil in which vegetables, such as potatoes, carrots, and parsnips are placed and covered over for storage (seldom practiced now in the United States. (3) A place on the floor of an exchange in which traders stand when dealing in wheat, cotton, and other commodities. (4) In botany, a small hollow or depression in a cell wall. Various types are recognized in wood anatomy as blind, bordered, primordial, simple.

Pit Silo--A shallow pit of variable size for storing silage, which is dug in well-drained soil and is frequently walled with lumber or concrete if of a permanent nature. It is very common in the western states of the United States. See Horizontal Silo, Trench Silo.

Pitch Hay--To handle loose hay with a pitchfork.

Pitcher Pump--A hand-driven water pump with a cylinder that is part of the pump assembly. It has a short handle and a short suction stroke and is suitable for lifting water only a short vertical distance (about 30 feet), as from a cistern or shallow well.

Pitchfork--A farm implement consisting of a long handle usually with three or four long, curved, sharp-pointed tines used in handling loose hay or straw.

Pitman--A device that converts rotary motion to reciprocating motion to drive a reciprocating cutterbar. See Cutterbar.

Pitman-Robertson Act--An act of the United States Congress, passed in 1937, for aiding the states in the selection and improvement of land and water areas for wildlife restoration. Farmlands are included for improvement of wildlife habitats under the provisions of the Act.

Pitter--A machine for removing the seeds or stones from drupes, such as peaches or cherries.

Pitting--(1) The development of little cavities in metal, especially in aluminum cans, caused by the development of lactic acid by bacteria in milk residues. Pitting can also be caused from corrosion by brine. (2) In fruit processing, removal of seeds or stones, as from preaches and cherries.

Plane Survey--A survey in which the curvature of the earth is disregarded, as in ordinary field and topographic surveying.

Planetary Gears--A system of gearing in which a pinion is surrounded by an internal ring gear and plant gears are in mesh between the ring gear and pinion around which all revolves in much the same way the planets revolve around the sun; hence the name. See Pinion, Ring Gear.

Planimeter--An instrument for measuring the area of any plane figure by passing a tracer around the boundary.

Plant Analysis--Analytical procedures to determine the concentration of nutrients in plants.

Plant Material Centers--In the United States there are twenty-five plant material centers managed by the United States Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation Service. They receive superior grasses, legumes, forbs, shrubs, and trees. These plant materials are reproduced for distribution.

Plant Patent--A patent granted by the United States Patent Office to originators of varieties, strains, or some variation from existing varieties of asexually reproduced plants.

Plant Variety Protection Act--This act, passed in 1970, offers legal protection to developers of new varieties of plants that reproduce sexually; that is, through seed. Developers of plants that reproduce asexually have received protection by the United States Patent Office since 1930. The law states that protection will be extended to a "novel variety" if it has these three qualifications: (a) distinctiveness: the variety must differ from all known prior varieties by one or more identifiable morphological, physiological, or other characteristics; (b) uniformity: if any variations exist in the safety, they must be describable, predictable, and commercially acceptable; (c) stability: when sexually produced, the variety must remain unchanged in its essential and distinctive characteristics to a degree expected of similarly developed varieties.

Plant-exploration Service--A very important activity of the Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Plant explorers are sent all over the world to collect plants, seeds, or plant materials of desired species for breeding and development of new crops for agricultural and other uses.

Plantation--(1) A large-scale agricultural unit, especially one devoted to the production of cotton or sugarcane. In pre-Civil War times in the United States, a large manorial estate on which cotton, tobacco, and other crops were produced with slave labor. (2) An artificially reforested area established by planting or by direct seeding.

Planter--(1) A mechanical device used for the rapid, efficient, and uniform planting of seeds. Planters are of many different kinds, from the simplest hand planter to the large highly mechanized, multirow, power-driven machines. (2) A farmer, especially a cotton farmer. (In its earliest use, it generally implied wealth, and denoted the owner of a large cotton or tobacco plantation.) (3) A person who plants. (4) A container, usually rectangular, containing soil or vermiculite, which is used for growing foliage plants indoors. It may be made of plastic, pottery, wood, metal, or other material and may be movable or a permanent part of the building.

Plastic Mulch--Thin polyethylene film, which may be clear or black, that is used as a mulch, especially for vegetables. Benefits include moisture retention, increased soil temperature, and, with black plastic, complete weed control.

Plasticity Index--The numerical difference between the liquid limit and the plastic limit; the range of moisture content within which the soil remains plastic.

Plat--A diagram drawn to scale showing all essential data pertaining to the boundaries and subdivisions of a tract of land, as determined by a plane survey.

Plat Book--A record of recorded subdivisions of land.

Plot--In agricultural research, a small parcel of land, usually rectangular and of a definite size, used in comparing yields of crop varieties, testing different applications of fertilizers, comparing methods of tillage, etc.

Plow--(1) The whole implement, of various types, used to cut, break, or turn a soil layer in preparation for planting, seeding, or other agricultural practices. More specifically, the removable metal point, share and moldboard or disk, attached to a plow stock or frame. (2) Any such implement not used primarily for agricultural purposes, such as a snow plow. (3) To make a furrow or to turn over a layer of soil. (4) To cultivate; e.g., plow corn. Also spelled plough by the British.

Plow Bolt--A flat-headed bolt designed to fasten a sweep or plowshare to the frame of the plow. The head of the bolt fits flush with the surface of the sweep or plowshare to prevent soil from catching on the bolt head.

Plow Draft--The amount of force required to pull a plow bottom through a soil under specified conditions. The draft may be measured by a dynamometer.

Plow Sole--See Plow Pan.

Plow Tip--The tip end of a plowshare. It is subject to the most severe wear and is replaceable by welding on a new tip in place of the worn tip on the old share. Also called plow point.

Plowshare--The cutting edge of a moldboard plow.

Plug--(1) The mass removed by a trier or other special penetrating implement in sampling or testing an agricultural product, as a plug from a cheese, a bale of cotton, or from a watermelon. (2) An old, worn-out horse. (3) A horse with a poor conformation. (4) To repair a leak, as a dam or earth fill. (5) A block of rooted grass that is planted for the purpose of establishing a covering of grass, such as in a law.

Plumb--Vertical. See Plumb Bob.

Plumb Bob--A pointed weight hanging by a string from the center of a transit level. Its purpose is to center the transit exactly over the benchmark.

Pluviometer--A rain gauge. See Ombrometer.

Point--In the marketplace, 1/10 of 1 cent; 1/1,000 of a dollar.

Point of Lay--Age at which pullets begin to lay, usually between twenty and twenty-two weeks.

Poke--(1) A yoke with an attached sharp spur pointing forward that is placed on the neck of an animal to prevent it from crawling through or jumping a fence. (2) Pokeberry. (3) A paper bag.

Polarity--A term applied to the positive (+) and the negative (-) ends of a magnet or electrical mechanism such as a battery or coil.

Pole--(1) A young tree 4 inches or more in diameter at breast height. The maximum size of poles is usually, though not invariably, between 8 and 12 inches. See Sapling. (2) A round timber used to support telephone and power lines. (3) A linear measurement of land, by statute, 16 1/2 feet. Also called perch, rod.

Pole Ax--An axhead with a cutting edge on one end and squared off on the other with a point or claw bending downward, or projecting from the back of the head, which is fixed to a pole or handle. This type differs form the doublebit ax, which has two cutting edges.

Pole Barn--A form of barn construction in which natural poles are used in the framing instead of the regular sawed lumber or dimensions material generally used in such framing.

Pole Fence--A fence similar to a zigzag rail fence but made of poles instead of split rails.

Pole Pruner--A tree-pruning implement; a pole saw or clipper used for removing small limbs beyond the reach of a hand saw or hand shears.

Pole Saw--See Pole Pruner.

Police Powers--The powers of government to regulate property for promoting the public's safety, health, morals, and general welfare.

Polymer--A substance made of molecules comprised of long chains or cross-linked simple molecules.

Polystrene Foam--A very lightweight synthetic, plastic material made into flakes or beads and used in artificial plant growth media.

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)--A common plastic material that releases hydrochloric acid when burned.

Pommel--(1) The knob, ball, or protuberant part serving as a means of grip on anything, as the high, forward part of a saddle. (2) A block of hard wood grooved like a crimping board and employed by curriers to render leather supple and impart a grain to it.

Pool Auction--A cooperative method of marketing in which individually owned products are pooled and sold to the highest bidder.

Portland Cement--Obtained by burning an intimate mixture of pulverized materials containing lime, silica, and alumina in varying proportions but within certain narrow limits, and by pulverizing the clinker that results.

Positive Ion--A cation; an ion that carries a positive charge of electricity.

Post--(1) A short timber used in an upright position for supporting structures. (2) Any timber that supports fencing. It may be round, split, or sawn. (Posts may be of other materials, such as iron and concrete.) (3) The proper position and balance a rider assumes in the saddle in riding a horse while in the trot gait, rising with each second beat of the one-two rhythm of the trot.

Post Driver--(1) A hydraulically operated instrument used to drive fenceposts into the ground. (2) A metal cylinder with a weighted end and handles on the side. The cylinder is slipped over the top of a post and used to drive the post into the ground.

Post Hole Digger--(1) A hand-operated implement for digging circular post holes that consists of two semicylindrical cutting blades, hinged together but each mounted on separate handles. The soil is cut or loosened by plunging the blades downward and removed by moving the handles outward and lifting. (2) A tractor-powered or small gas engine-powered auger that bores a hole in the ground for putting in fenceposts.

Pot-bellied--(1) Designating any animal that has developed an abnormally large abdomen, usually because of improper feeding or nutrition. (2) Designating a type of coal stove used for heating purposes in pioneer stores and homes, so named because of its large, round, lower half.

Potential Energy--Energy inherent in a mass because of its position with reference to other masses; e.g., a rock at the edge of a precipice has potential energy. Water behind a dam also has potential energy.

Potometer--An instrument to measure the rate at which a growing plant absorbs moisture.

Poultry House--Any building equipped and used for housing and handling poultry.

Poultry Husbandry--The science and art of the production and distribution of poultry and poultry products, including breeding, incubation, brooding, rearing, housing, feeding, marketing, and poultry farm management.

Pound--(1) A unit of weight; 16 ounces avoirdupois, 12 ounces troy. The standard British unit of weight equals 7,000 grains, 1/2, 240 long ton, and 453.59 grams, the weight of 27.692 cubic inches of water at 4[degrees]C. (2) An enclosure in which stray animals are legally confined. (3) An enclosure in which groups of animals, as flocks of sheep, may be gathered for shelter, etc. (4) An enclosure used to trap wild animals.

Pound of Gain--In animal feeding, the net gain of weight in pounds derived from a particular number of pounds of feed fed.

Pounds of Grain Per Acre of Pasture--The feed value of an acre of pasture expressed in terms of pounds of dry grain feed.

Pounds of Milk Per Acre of Pasture--The feed value of an acre of pasture expressed in terms of pounds of dry grain feed.

Pounds of Retail Cuts Per Day of Age--A measure of cutability and growth combined, it is calculated as follows: cutability times carcass weight divided by age in days.

Pounds per Square Inch Gauge--Expressed as a quantity measured from above atmospheric pressure.

Pour Point--The lowest temperature at which a fluid, such as oil, will flow under specific conditions.

Power Loader--A fork, or fork and scoop combination, mounted at the front or rear of a tractor and operated by hydraulic power to load manure, bales of cotton, baled hay, pallet boxes, soil, gravel, etc.

Power of Attorney--An authorization by a person to another person to act for him/her on his/her legal behalf.

Power Shift Transmission--A tractor transmission in which the gears are selected manually but are power actuated; no master clutch is involved.

Power Subsoiler--A tractor-drawn plow that has a long, narrow shank with a wedge-shaped point for deep penetration to break up stiff clay subsoils and hardpans. See Hardpan, Plowpan.

Power Take-off--An attachment, usually consisting of a shaft and two or more universal joints, which is used to transmit power from a tractor to an attached unit, such as a combine, hay baler, mower, etc.

Power Trencher--A machine used on agricultural land in digging narrow trenches in which drain tiles are laid. Usually the power is supplied by an internal combustion engine.

PPM--See Parts Per Million.

Prairie Breaker--A long, low, moldboard plow with a gradual twist that completely inverted the furrow slice with a minimum of breakup and complete coverage of vegetation. It was used especially to cut and turn the tough virgin sod of the prairies of the Midwest.

Precipitate--(1) To cause a substance in solution to settle out in solid particles. (2) Occurring with undue rapidity.

Precipitation--(1) The amount of water, hail, sleet, snow, or other moisture received from clouds. Snow is also reported in its equivalent of liquid water. Precipitation is classified by the conditions that produce the rising column of unsaturated air which is antecedent to precipitation. Convection precipitation is the result of uneven heating of the ground, which causes the air to rise and expand, vapor to condense, and precipitation to occur. This is the major type of precipitation during the summer, producing high-intensity, short-duration storms. Orographic precipitation is caused by topographic barriers that force in the moisture-laden air to rise and cool. Cyclonic precipitation is related to large low-pressure systems that require five or six days to cross the United States from the northwest or Gulf of Mexico. These systems are the major source of winter precipitation. (2) The phenomenon of a solution or suspension that is flocculated. (3) The electrosta tic or other means of removal of polluting particulates from the air. See Acid Rain.

Precipitation-Effectiveness (P-E) Index--The sum of twelve months of precipitation divided by the same period of evaporation.

Precipitators--Any of a number of devices using mechanical, electrical, or chemical means to collect particulates for measurement, analysis, or control. See Particulates.

Precursor--A compound from which another is made or synthesized.

Predicted Difference (PD)--The estimated difference of an animal from that of its parents or offspring.

Preemption Act--A law passed by the United States Congress in 1841 providing for the sale of public lands at $1.25 per acre under certain conditions. It was employed in conjunction with the later Homestead Act in many western states to increase the acreage available to an individual and to secure land with water facilities by ranch owners. It recognized the vested interest of squatters on the public domain and their right to preempt or buy the land they occupied.

Preference Permit--A license valid up to ten years issued by the United States Forest Service to permit domestic livestock grazing in a National Forest. The permit is renewable annually.

Preignition--Engine ignition that occurs earlier than intended; e.g., a piece of hot carbon in the combustion chamber can cause the fuel mixture to ignite before the spark plug ignites. The result is an engine knock and in severe cases, engine damage.

Premium Price--A price for a product, above the average for the market, paid for prize livestock, the first bale of cotton, superior produce, etc.

Prepayment Clause in a Mortgage--Statement of the terms upon which the mortgagor may pay the entire or stated amount on the mortgage principal at some time prior to the due date.

Prescription--(1) Legal title to land obtained by long possession. See Squatter's Right. (2) A written direction for the preparation and administration of a remedy.

Present Market Value--In farm appraisal, the price for which a property can be sold under present conditions with a substantial down payment, and a reasonable amount of effort, by a willing but not forced seller to a typical, desirous, but not anxious purchaser.

Present Value--In farm appraisals when applied to farm buildings, the replacement cost plus major improvements less depreciation and obsolescence.

Press--(1) A device for extracting juice from fruits or oil from seeds, etc. (2) Any device that compresses a loose or bulky product for packing or storage, such as a press box in a cotton gin.

Press Grain Drill--A grain drill that has press wheel gangs mounted on the rear of the drill to firm the soil over the planted seeds. See Air Drill, Grain Drill, Stubble Mulch Drill.

Press Wheels--Wheel attachments to field seed drills that follow the drills or tubes and press the loose soil over the seeds for better covering and compaction, usually resulting in increased germination.

Pressing--(1) (a) The extraction of the juice from fruit, as in cider making or in the production of orange juice. (b) The solid material left after such a process. (2) The process of bringing the small loose pieces of curds together in a shaped solid body in cheese making by means of a press.

Pressure Regulator--A device on a spray machine that adjusts and maintains the pressure desired and prevents excessive pressure from being built up, especially when the nozzles are closed.

Price Cycle--Any regularly recurring movement of prices that extends over a period of more than a year.

Price Elasticity of Demand--The relationship between the change in the price of a commodity and the accompanying change in the quantity that can be sold at that price.

Price Indexes--An indicator of the average price change for a group of commodities that compares prices for the same commodities in some other period, commonly called the base period. Monthly price indexes computed by the United States Department of Agriculture are the Index of Prices Received by Farmers and the Index of Prices Paid by Farmers for Commodities and Services, Interest, Taxes, and Farm Rates, referred to as the Parity Index when expressed in the base selected.

Price Level--Weighted average of prices that arise from all business transactions during a specified period of time. The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics index of wholesale prices and consumer price index are commonly used as indicators of the general price level in the United States.

Price Support Level--The price for a unit of a farm commodity (bushel, bale, pound) which the government will support through price support payments. Price support levels are determined by law and are set by the Secretary of Agriculture.

Price-spread--The difference between the price paid to the producer and that paid by the consumer for a product.

Prices-received Index--A measure computed on the basis of prices farmers received usually at the farm or in small local markets.

Prills--Spherical pellets or granules formed when molten material or a solution melt is sprayed through cool air. See Granulation.

Prime Agricultural Lands--The most productive lands for raising the common food and fiber crops; whereas unique agricultural lands are those most productive for the less common but high-value-per-acre crops such as rice, cranberries, citrus, etc. See Unique Agricultural Lands.

Primitive Area--(1) In the United States Forest Service, wilderness area. (2) In the United States National Park Servcie, an area of indeterminate size in which no commercial development nor the construction of any roads for motorized transportation is permitted.

Primocane--A biennial shoot or cane, particularly of a bramble (Rubus spp.), during its first year of growth and before flowering.

Principal Meridian--A north and south line accurately located and used as a basis from which to construct township and section lines as used in the United States Public Land Survey.

Principle of Comparative Advantage--The economic principle implying that various crops and livestock should be produced in those areas where the soils, climate, and human and market resources are best suited for their production.

Principle of Diminishing Physical and Economic Returns--The economic principle that variable resources should be added to fixed resources as long as the added return expected from the last unit of variable resource used is just sufficient to cover the added cost of that unit.

Principle of Independent Assortment--Mendel's genetic theory that differentiation characters (e.g., dominant and recessive characters), recombine at random. He proved by experiment that a certain mathematical relation exists among all the resulting combinations. See Mendel's Law.

Principle of Marginality--The economic principle that choices about the use of resources should be made such that the marginal gain from the slightest possible change in resource use is equal to the marginal loss implied by the change.

Priority--(Water rights) The rights to special consideration and prior claim, over other individuals, to the use of a quantity of water.

Prism Wedge--A small hand-held prism used in forestry to estimate the basal area of a stand of trees. See Basal Area.

Private Herd Number--A number assigned to registered animals by their individual owners. It is required by some breed registry associations in the identification of registered animals.

Probability of Response--A soil test level given to reflect a "probability of response" for the applied nutrient. Expressing soil test results as a probability of response would assign a level according to the ability of each crop to produce a predicted yield following a recommended fertilizer application.

Productivity Rating--The productivity of the various soils on a farm based on the expected yield of the major crop or crops with known management. The rating is a percentage based on standards developed by research and statistical records of crop yields in the region. The best soils have a productivity rating of 100. In some instances, tables have been established showing the relation of crop yield to land values, with fixed management. See Soil Survey.

Profile Leveling--A method of leveling that is used to secure the elevation of a series of points located along a line. Profile leveling is employed in laying out a terrace.

Profit Margin--The amount of money made when expenses are subtracted from income.

Profits--The financial returns from a business, enterprise, or transaction above all costs, including both actual receipts and actual or estimated appreciation on the capital involved.

Progeny Records--The average, comparative performance of the progeny of sires and dams.

Progeny Testing--Determining the breeding value of an animal by studying its progeny.

Programmed Harvest--Timber scheduled for harvest for a specified year.

Promissory Note--The primary document in most credit transactions, the signed promise of the borrower to repay a loan. It states the date and amount of the loan, the interest rate, and terms of repayment.

Proof--A measure of ethanol alcohol content; 1 percent equals 2 proof.

Proper Use Factor--As applied to individual range species, the estimated maximum percentage of the total vegetative production of the year within easy reach of the livestock to which a given range species may be grazed without damaging it or associated important palatable plants or the soil; the degree to which each species may be grazed when the range as a whole is properly grazed. The proper use factor for a range type is the weighted average of the proper use factors of the individual plants in the type. See Palatability.

Properties--Characteristics by which a substance may be identified. Physical properties describe its state of matter, color, odor, and density; chemical properties describe its behavior in reaction with other materials; biological properties refer to any life-related characteristics such as biodegradation.

Proprietary--A medicine or food made by a person or company having the sole right to manufacture and sell it.

Protection Forestry--The practice of forestry with the primary objectives of: (a) conserving water supplies; (b) maintaining desirable streamflow; (c) increasing groundwater storage; (d) reducing erosion and reducing sedimentation; (e) providing high-quality water and reducing pollution; (f) ameliorating adverse climatic conditions, especially wind.

Protective Gear--Clothes and other equipment used to guard workers against poisoning when working with toxic materials.

Proton--See Atom.

Proven Sire--(Dairy Herd Improvement Association, DHIA). A bull with at least ten daughters that have completed lactation records and are out of dams with completed lactation records.

Proximal--Opposite of distal; near the point of attachment of reference.

Pruning Saw--A curved bladed saw usually mounted on a long pole that is used for removing limbs from a tree.

Pruning Snips--A hand-held pair of scissorlike cutters that is used for cutting small branches from plants.

PSA--Packers and Stockyards Administration.

PSI--Pounds per square inch.

Psychroenergetics--Science dealing with the effect of ambient temperature and humidity upon conversion of feed into bodily heat or energy. It is important in the study of housing for livestock and its effect on production.

Psychrometer--An instrument used to measure relative humidity of the atmosphere.

Public Domain--All lands over which a national government exercises proprietary rights, including national parks, grazing lands, forests, and military and other reservations.

Public Food Program--Publicly supported programs that attempt to increase the demand for food, improve the level of the diet, or otherwise influence food consumption; e.g., the food stamp program, the school lunch program.

Public Lands--The general public domain; lands belonging to a national government that are subject to sale or disposal and that are not reserved for any special governmental or public purpose.

Public Law 480--A law passed by the Congress in 1954, often referred to as "P.L. 480" or the "Food for Peace" program. Primary purposes are to expand foreign markets for United States agricultural products and use United States agricultural abundance to combat hunger and encourage economic development in the developing countries. The program makes United States agricultural commodities available at low interest, long-term credit under Title I of the act, and as donations for famine or other emergency relief under Title II. Under Title I, the recipient country agrees to undertake agricultural development projects to improve its own food production or distribution.

Public Liability--The responsibility of the owner for the safety of a person on his/her property, with or without the owner's consent.

Pulaski Tool--A combination chopping and cutting tool widely used in fire line construction for the protection of forests. It is a light, single-edged ax with a straight handle, having a narrow, adz-like trenching blade attached to its head.

Pulling--A hand procedure for stapling cotton or determining length of fiber in which a tuft for a sample is pulled into two parts, of which one part is manipulated by fingers and thumbs properly to ready it for measurement of the staple length.

Pulling Contest--An exhibit or public contest between two or more matched teams of horses or tractors to determine their pulling ability.

Pump--(1) A device that converts mechanical power into hydraulic power. (2) A device that lifts or pushes a liquid. The types of pump designs are: gear, vane, and piston units.

Purlin--A structural unit that is used to support the sash bars of a greenhouse or other building. It is built lengthwise along the greenhouse.

Pyrolysis--The decomposition of a substance by heat.

Pyrometer--An instrument for measuring temperatures, especially those beyond the range of mercurial thermometers, as by means of the change of electric resistance, the production of thermoelectric current, the expansion of gases, the specific heat of solids, or the intensity of the heat or light radiated.
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Title Annotation:Part 2: G-P
Publication:Delmar's Agriscience Dictionary
Article Type:Definition
Date:Jan 1, 2000
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