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Part 2 Business and mechanical technology.


A.U.M.--(Abbr.) Animal unit month.

A-frame--A structure resembling the capital letter A.

A-Scale Sound Level (A-Weighted Sound Level)--The measurement of sounds approximately the auditory sensitivity of the human ear, used to measure noise levels in decibels; usually written as dBA.

Abney Level--A small hand level suitable for leveling or measuring slope in percent or in degrees.

Abrasion--(1) Wear in farm implements caused by friction, such as abrasion of a plowshare by the soil. (2) A section of skin or mucous membrane from which the surface layers have been rubbed or worn off.

Absentee Owner--A person or corporation who rents land, including housing, to a tenant farmer or who hires a manager.

Absolute Humidity--(1) The mass of water vapor per unit volume of space. (2) The gaseous pressure exerted by water vapor. (3) The number of grams of water in each cubic meter of air.

Absorption Terrace--A ridge which slows the flow of run-off water so it can be absorbed by the soil.

Abstract of Title--A summary document which states the evidences of ownership of real estate and its encumbrances from the time it was taken from the federal or other government down to the present date. In most states, the county office of the Register of Deeds provides the abstract of title.

Abutting--The joining, reaching, or touching of adjoining land. Abutting pieces of land have a common boundary.

Acceleration Clause--A provision in a written mortgage, note, bond, or conditional sales contract requiring that, in the event of default, the whole amount of principal and interest may be declared due and payable at once.

Accidental Sampling--A method of sampling in which the sampled individuals are selected by chance.

Accrual Method--One of the two main methods of accounting used in computing farm earnings in reporting federal income tax. Increases and decreases in inventory items for the year are reflected in income. Farm income is included as income for the year in which it is earned, regardless of when payment is received. Farm expenses are deductible in the taxable year in which incurred, whether paid or not. Complete inventories of livestock, crops, produce, feed, etc., are required. See Cash Method.

Accumulator--A container that stores fluids under pressure as a source of hydraulic power. It may also be used as a shock absorber. Acoustics--The science of sound.

Acre--A unit of land measure in England and the United States which is equal to 43,560 square feet, or 1/640 of a square mile, or 160 square rods, or 4,840 square yards, or 4,047 square meters. The Scottish acre is 1.26 and the Irish acre is 1.62 times as large. One acre, as used in England and the United States, equals 0.4 hectare, 0.96 feddan (Egypt), 0.31 carreau (Haiti), 1.03 cuerdas (Puerto Rico), 0.03 caballerias (Cuba), 5.00 shih mou (China), 4.08 tan (Japan), 0.84 arpent de Paris (some sections of Canada), 0.37 dessiatine (U.S.S.R).

Acre Foot--The quantity of water necessary to cover one United States or English acre to the depth of one foot: 43,560 cubic feet or 325,850 United States gallons of water.

Acre Inch--The quantity of water necessary to cover one United States or English acre to the depth of one inch: 3,630 cubic feet or 27,154.2 United States gallons of water.

Acreage--An indefinite quantity of land; a collective number of acres.

Acreage Allotment--As established from time to time by Congress, the individual farm's share, based on its previous production, of the national acreage needed to produce sufficient supplies of a particular crop.

Acreage Controls--A provision of many farm programs which attempts to reduce farm output by limiting the acreage that farmers can plant.

Acreage Limitation Program--Established in the 1981 farm bill, this program required participants to limit the acreage of a crop to a specified portion of their base acreage and to divert the remainder to other use.

Acrylite Acrylic--A plastic covering consisting of two layers of material separated by air space to provide insulation.

Activity Budget--A summary of the technical and economic characteristics of a farm's activity.

Activity Gross Income--The value of the output of a farm activity over some accounting period (usually a year), whether that output is sold or not.

Activity Gross Margin--Activity gross income minus the variable expenses attributable to that activity.

Actual Use--The use made of an area by livestock and/or game animals without reference to a recommended utilization; usually expressed in terms of animal units or animal unit months. See Use.

Ad Valorem--Designates an assessment of taxes against property. Literally, according to value.

Adiabatic--Refers to a decrease in temperature, of a rising (expanding, cooling) air mass to an increase in temperature of a descending (contracting, warming) air mass, of 5.4[degrees]F/1,000 ft. (9.767[degrees]C/km); assuming no external source of heating or cooling.

Adiabatic Lapse Rate--The theoretical rate at which the temperature of the air decreases with altitude or increases as it loses altitude. It is 5.4[degrees]F/1,000 ft. in dry air. If a theoretical parcel of air moves from a low altitude to a high one and there is no exchange of heat with its environment, it becomes colder at the adiabatic lapse rate as the pressure on it decreases and allows it to expand.

Adjusted Base Period Price--The average price received by farmers in the most recent ten years, divided by the index of average prices received by farmers for all farm products in the same ten years. Used in parity calculations.

Adjusted Weaning Weight (Adj.205-day Wt.)--Weight of a calf at weaning, adjusted to a standard 205 days of age and adjusted for the age of the dam.

Adjusted Yearling Weight (Adj. 365-day Wt.)--Weight of a calf as a yearling, adjusted to a standard 365 days of age and adjusted for the age of the dam.

Adjustments--(1) Range management:changes in animal numbers, seasons of use, kinds or classes of animals, or management practices as warranted by specific conditions. (2) Ecological: the processes by which an organism becomes better fitted to its environment; functional, never structural. See Adaptation.

Administrative Location of a Farm--An imaginative location of a farm for the purpose of administering farm programs. If all land in a farm is located in one county, the farm shall be administratively located in such county. If the land in a farm is located in more than one county, the farm shall be administratively located in either of such counties as the county committee and the farmer agree. If there is no agreement, the farm shall be located in the county in which the principal dwelling is located or where the major portion of the farm is located, if there is no dwelling.

Adobe--Unburned, sun-dried bricks. Clay and silty deposits found in the desert basins of the southwestern United States and in Mexico, where the material is extensively used for making sun-dried bricks. The composition is a mixture of clay and silt together with minor amounts of other materials such as grass or straw.

Adult Agricultural Education--Organized instruction for persons beyond the age of compulsory school attendance to prepare them for employment or to increase knowledge and skills required in agriculture. An adult class is characterized by flexible scheduling, varied administrative patterns, and content and objectives related specifically to needs of the adults. A common form of such a program is that of young farmer instruction or young farmer education.

Adverse Possession--The right of an occupant of land to acquire title against the real owner, where possession has been actual, continuous, hostile, visible, and distinct for the statutory period.

Advisory Committee (Agriculture)--A group of persons usually from outside the field of education, selected because of their interest, knowledge, and expertise to advise educators regarding vocational programs in agriculture. Committees usually include members from all interested groups: public officials, employers, employees, former students, minority groups, and the public. Such committees may operate at the federal, state, and local levels and often function under names other than that of advisory committee, e.g., advisory council or advisory board.

Adz(e)--A hatchetlike tool for dressing timber. Its bow-shaped blade is set at right angles to the handle.

Aesthetic Value--The value or pleasure that any thing of beauty gives to humans.

Affidavit--A written statement signed and sworn before some person authorized to take an oath.

Age Distribution--The classification of individuals of a certain population according to periods such as pre-reproductive, reproductive, and post-reproductive, or the chronological age classes.

Agent--One who represents another from whom he has derived authority.

Agent Middleman--A food-marketing firm that represents buyers and sellers in the marketplace; agents do not take title to goods for their own account and may not physically handle the food products.

Aggradation--Building up to a uniformity of grade or slope by the addition of material; especially the depositing of sediment in the beds of streams and on the floors of ponds, lakes, etc.

Aggregate--(1) To bring together; to collect or unite into a mass. (2) Composed of a mixture of substances, separable by mechanical means. (3) The mineral material, such as sand, gravel, shells, slag, or broken stone, or combinations thereof, with which cement or bituminous material is mixed to form a mortar or concrete. Fine aggregate may be considered as the material that will pass a 0.25-inch (4.76-millimeter) screen, and coarse aggregate as the material that will not pass such a screen.

Agister--A person who takes charge of animals, properly cares for them, and charges for his or her service.

Agrarian--(1) Pertaining to agriculture. (2) Pertaining to political action or movements for the benefit of farmers. See Rural Population, Urban.

Agrarian Zone--Of or pertaining to the cultivated portion of an area.

Agribusiness--A term referring to the full scale of operations related to the business of agriculture. It connotes the interrelationships of farming, farm services, soil science, agronomy, land grant universities, county extension services, state and federal experiment stations, soil and water conservation services, plant and animal nutrition, plant and animal protection, transportation, finance, and marketing.

Agricola--(Latin) Farmer.

Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)--Passed by Congress in 1933 to provide economic relief for farmers by the federal government's making benefit payments to farmers for limiting production (it being assumed that farm prices would then rise), and making rescue loans for several mortgages, as well as marketing loans and providing credit to cooperatives. the basic provisions of the AAA are still in effect.

Agricultural College--An educational institution devoted to study, research, and the dissemination of knowledge in agronomy, horticulture, animal husbandry, agricultural economics, etc. The U.S.D.A. works in conjunction with most agricultural colleges (sometimes called a school or college of agriculture within a university).

Agricultural Commodity--A general term; any product of agriculture.

Agricultural Conservation Program--A program that shares costs with farmers and ranchers to encourage and assist them in carrying out their farms' conserving practices. The program is designed to: (1) restore and improve soil fertility, (2) minimize erosion caused by wind and water, and (3) conserve resources and wildlife.

Agricultural Economics--(1) The branch of economics concerned with farm management and production. (2) A department in a college or university.

Agricultural Education--(1) The general, formal knowledge of agriculture. (2) The course of study (in a college or university or a department of government) to prepare and assist teachers of agriculture in the secondary schools. (3) The term applied to the modern high school course dealing with agriculture. See Vocational Agriculture.

Agricultural Engineering--A course of study in the design, construction, and use of agricultural implements and buildings; soil and water management; rural use of electricity; and processing of agricultural products.

Agricultural Exemption--A clause of the Interstate Commerce Act that exempts from interstate commerce motor carriers that transport raw agricultural commodities.

Agricultural Experiment Station--See Hatch Act.

Agricultural Land--All the land devoted to raising crops and livestock, including farmstead, roadways, drainage and irrigation ditches, ponds, water supply, cropland, and grazing land of every kind. (The term is not strictly synonymous with land in farms, cropland, pasture land, land suitable for crops or land suitable for farming).

Agricultural Management--The decision making involved in planning, directing, and controlling an agricultural business.

Agricultural Marketing Service--The branch of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) that provides grading and inspection services for agricultural products.

Agricultural Mechanics Instruction--A combination of subject matter and learning experiences designed to develop knowledge and skills necessary for performing or assisting with the selection, construction, operation, maintenance and repair, or use of agricultural power, agricultural machinery and equipment, structures and utilities, and soil and water management practices.

Agricultural Occupation--An occupation that requires agricultural knowledge and skills. The primary instructional areas which also serve to classify agricultural occupations are: agricultural production, agricultural supplies and services, agricultural mechanics, agricultural products processing and marketing, ornamental horticulture, agricultural resources, and forestry.

Agricultural Production Instruction--The subject matter and planned learning experiences designed to develop knowledge and skills necessary for the production of plants and animals, and to provide practice in making managerial decisions in the science and technology of producing and marketing agricultural products. Sometimes used synonymously with the term production agriculture instruction.

Agricultural Productivity--Refers to operational efficiency in farming; usually measured by the ratio of farm output to farm inputs.

Agricultural Region--A classification of land according to its predominant feature, such as the crop most commonly grown or the type of farming employed.

Agricultural Resource Base--The soil, water, climate, and other natural resources necessary to produce a crop.

Agricultural Resources Instruction--(conservation, utilization and services) The subject matter and planned learning experiences designed to develop knowledge and skills necessary for the conservation and utilization of natural resources (such as air, forests, soil, water, fish, plants, and wildlife) for economic and recreational purposes. Instruction also emphasizes the establishment, management, and operation of lands used for recreational purposes.

Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service (ASCS)--A service established by the Secretary of Agriculture on June 5, 1961, under the authority of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1593, in accordance with the Reorganization Act of 1949, as amended (5 U.S.C. 901913). The service carries on the following principal programs from appropriated funds: production adjustment programs, Sugar Act program, agricultural conservation.

Agricultural Structure--Refers to the number, size, ownership, specialization, and other characteristics of farming.

Agricultural Substitute--A product that is manufactured from farm commodities but which is a substitute for a traditional farm food product (e.g., corn-oil margarine or soy-protein steaks).

Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954--Also known as the Food for Peace program, or Public Law 480; the federal program designed to increase United States farm product exports by selling commodities on low-interest loans, exchanging commodities for local currencies, or donating commodities to needy countries.

Agricultural Treadmill--Refers to the situation in which farmers find themselves producing food at a lower price with no increase in profits after having been encouraged to adopt new output-increasing and cost-reducing production technologies.

Agriculturally Related Occupation--An occupation that deals with the processing, marketing, and distribution of agricultural products, or an occupation providing supplies and services to agricultural production.

Agriculture--The broad industry engaged in the production of plants and animals for food and fiber, the provision of agricultural supplies and services, and the processing, marketing, and distribution of agricultural products.

Agriculturist--A person engaged in the production of food and/or fiber; also ancillaries such as teachers of agriculture, farm editors, researchers, etc.

Agroeconomic Zones--Zones which are defined in terms of common features. For different purposes these features will differ but may involve such dimensions as climate, soil resources, land use, ethnic groupings, market access, etc.

AID--Agency for International Development, United States Department of State. An agency that administers agriculturally related as well as other types of development projects in foreign countries. Also known as USAID.

Air Curtain--A method for mechanical containment of oil spills or water by bubbling air through a perforated pipe in front of the advancing oil or water spread. Air curtains are also used to prevent fish from entering a polluted area of water.

Air-cooled Engine--An engine that is cooled without the use of a liquid coolant. Heat is dissipated through the use of fins that are cooled by the air.

Alidade--(1) The part of a surveying instrument consisting of a sighting device, index, and reading or recording devices. (2) A straightedge ruler carrying a sighting device, such as slot sights or a telescope mounted parallel to the ruler.

Alienated Land--Term used in the United States for lands of one ownership enclosed within boundaries of another ownership. Often refers to land in private ownership within the boundaries of public land.

All-risk Insurance--An insurance policy written by the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation that guarantees the farmer an amount per acre that is equal to his cash expenses.

Allodial Land--Land held in absolute ownership; fee simple, as opposed to feudal land. Land in Louisiana and New York State are by statute allodial.

Allotment--(1) The number of acres, etc., a producer is allowed to grow of a particular crop under a government program. (2) An area designated for the use of a prescribed number of cattle or sheep, or for common use of both.

Allowable Cut--The amount of wood that can be removed from a landowner's property during a given period, without exceeding the net growth during that period on the property.

Allowable Use--The degree of use of a rangeland estimated to be proper until proper use is known. Forty or fifty percent of the annual growth by weight is often used as a rule-of-thumb on ranges in good or excellent condition. Also, the amount of forage planned to be used to accelerate range rehabilitation.

Alodium--Unrestricted ownership of land and now synonymous with fee simple in the United Kingdom and United States.

Alternate Agriculture--Any type of agriculture that is not considered to be conventional; e.g., organic farming or the use of insect predators instead of chemicals to control insect pests. See Organic Farming, Sustainable Agriculture.

Alternate Grazing--Changing pastures or ranges so that the forage grows back before it is grazed again. Also called rotational grazing.

Alternating Current (AC)--An electrical current that reverses its direction of flow at regular intervals, usually 60 times in a second (60 cycle). Most farm electrical power that is supplied by the power company is alternating current. See Direct Current.

Altimeter--An aneroid barometer used for determining elevations.

Aluminum Dross--A by-product of refining aluminum metal. It consists of aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, salt, and various other impurities. The N is slowly available in the soil. Dross is also relatively high in magnesium, copper, manganese, and zinc contents.

American Farm Bureau--A voluntary organization founded in 1919 to protect the economic interests of farmers through legislation and which, in conjunction with the U.S. Extension Service, fosters agricultural education. The bureau is organized on three levels: the national bureau is composed of independent state bureaus, each of which is composed of independent county bureaus.

Ammeter--An instrument on a tractor or other machine or vehicle that measures the electrical flow through a circuit.

Amortization--A specified plan to repay a loan in a specified period of time.

Ampere--A unit of measure for the flow of current in an electrical circuit.

Ampere-Hour--A unit of measure obtained by multiplying the amperes of an electrical current by the time (in hours) during which the current flows; used as a unit of measurement for battery capacity; for example, a battery which provides 5 amperes for 20 hours is said to deliver 100 ampere-hours.

AMS--See Agricultural Marketing Service.

Ancestor Merit--An unbiased estimate of the production of future daughters of a bull based on an accurate evaluation of the bull's sire and maternal grandsire.

Anemometer--An instrument used to measure speed of wind; also called wind gauge. The Dines anemometer measures pressure, which is translated to velocity.

Aneroid Barometer--A device that measures air pressure by its effect on the thin sides of a partially evacuated hollow cylinder.

Angle of Repose--The maximum slope or angle at which a material such as soil or loose rock remains stable. When exceeded, mass movement by slipping as well as by water erosion may be expected.

Angstrom--One hundred millionth of a centimeter; a unit used in measuring the length of light waves.

Animal Month--A month's tenure upon range by one animal.

Animal Unit Conversion Factor--As used in the United States, a numerical figure which allows conversion from one kind or class of animal to another. A conversion factor is satisfactory in respect to the amount of forage required to maintain an animal, but may have no application in determining stocking rates for range use for particular kinds or classes. In the United States, the generally accepted per-month conversion factors are: mature cow with calf, 1.0; mature bull, 1.12; weaned calf, 0.6; yearling over 12 months and under 17 months, 0.7; yearling from 17 to 22 months, 0.75; two-year-old from 22 to 32 months, 0.9; elk, 0.7; white-tail deer, 0.14; mule deer, 0.2; mature ewe with lamb, 0.2; weaned wether, 0.17; doe goat with kid, 0.17; buck, 0.17; weaned wether, 0.14; and grown horse, 1.25.

Animal Unit Months (AUMs)--Amount of grazing required by a 1,000-pound (454 kg) cow or equivalent weight of other domestic animal for one month.

Annual Revaluation Method of Depreciation--A method of determining depreciation where an item is evaluated annually; the present evaluation is subtracted form the preceding evaluation to determine the amount of depreciation.

Anode--A positive electrode.

Antisiphoning Device--A check valve on the filling hose of a sprayer to prevent water form draining back to the source.

Anvil--A block of iron sometimes faced with steel on which metal is shaped by hammering.

AOAC--See Association of Official Analytical Chemists.

Apothecaries Measure--A standard system for measuring fluids. In the United States the gallon contains 8 pints; the pint, 16 fluid ounces; the ounce, 8 drams; the dram, 16 minims. In the United Kingdom the gallon contains 8 pints; the pint, 20 ounces; the ounce, 8 drams; the dram, 60 minims.

Appraised Value--An estimate of the present worth.

Appropriative Right--A doctrine of rights to irrigation water. Rights are based on date of appropriation of water; the right to water is limited by beneficial use on the land as defined by states. The term is used in the western United States. See Riparian Doctrine.

Appurtenance--That which belongs to something else; something which passes as an incident to land, such as right-of-way.

Apron--(1) Canvas or rubberlike material or metal links made into a continuous belt for conveying fruits or vegetables, silage, straw, manure, etc., into bins (especially on grading machines). (2) Folds of flesh on the neck of an animal or fowl or the fatty layer covering its belly. (3) A strip of metal placed to guide the sap into a cup that is suspended from it. (4) A slab of concrete or stone which connects adjoining areas, or over which water is directed to dissipate its energy.

Aquatic Rights--Ownership or permission necessary to navigate or fish rivers, lakes, etc. See Riparian Doctrine.

Arbitrage--Purchase in one market at a low price while selling at a high price in another market.

Arcadian--Simple, rustic; a term applied to a place of contentment, as a family farm or country home.

Arch--(1) A curve. (2) The anterior-posterior curvature of the backs of hogs. (3) A log-supporting device used with a tractor in skidding logs. (4) The curved portion of a dam, bridge, or other structure.

Archimedean Screw--A water lift consisting of a hollow screw or a spiral pipe around an inclined axis. The lower end is submerged in a source of water, and the upper end empties into an irrigation ditch. The water lift is activated by a handle that turns the hollow screw or spiral pipe.

Arcifinious--Having natural boundaries, such as a county bounded by a river.

Are--100 square meters; used as a measure of land in Asia where ownerships are smaller than 1,000 square meters (1 hectare).

Area Reclaim--An area difficult to reclaim after the removal of soil for construction and other uses. Revegetation and erosion control are extremely difficult.

Arithmetic Mean--Obtained when a series of numbers are added and divided by the total numbers; the average.

Arpent--A French measure of land. In Louisiana it is equal to 0.845 acre or a square of 192 feet, as compared with the square of approximately 209 feet for an acre; also called arpen; arpenus.

Arrent--To give license to use, as farmland, at a fee.

ARS--Agricultural Research Service.

ASCS--Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service.

Assessed Value--The worth of a property established by a governmental unit as the basis for estimating taxes.

Asset--Any type of property that could be used to pay a debt. See Liability; Liquid Asset.

Assignment--(1) Transfer of one's rights to another. (2) A transfer of notes, mortgages, etc. (3) The gradual payment of a debt, as in the case of a farmer who authorizes a milk dealer to assign a certain portion of his milk check to a bank in payment of a bank loan to buy dairy cows.

Assignment Clause--A clause in an insurance policy that transfers the rights under the policy to a third person.

Association of American Plant Food Control Officials (AAPFCO)--The membership of the association consists of the officers charged by law with the active execution of the laws regulating the sale of commercial fertilizer and fertilizer materials; research workers employed by state, dominion, or federal agencies, who are engaged in the investigation of fertilizers. AAPFCO publishes an annual bulletin giving the official regulations and interpretations.

Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) (of North America)--A professional scientific society whose primary objective is to obtain, develop, test, and adopt uniform, reliable, state-of-the-art chemical and biological methods for the analysis of food, drugs, cosmetics, pesticides, feeds, fertilizers, hazardous substances, air, water, and any other product or substance affecting the public health and safety, the economic protection of the consumer, or the quality of the environment.

Atmospheric Pressure--The force per unit area exerted by the atmosphere in any part of the atmospheric envelope. Some of the expressions for the normal value of the atmospheric pressure at sea level are: 76.0 cm mercury, 29.92 in. mercury; 1,033.3 cm water; 33.9 ft. water; 1,033.3 g/c[m.sup.2]; 1,013,250.0 dynes/[m.sup.3]; 14.66 lb./[in.sup.2]; 1.01325 bars (1 bar = 1,000,000 dynes/c[m.sup.2]); 1,013.25 millibars.

ATO--Agricultural Trade Office

Attorney's Opinion of Title--An instrument written and signed by the attorney who examines the title, stating his/her opinion as to whether a seller may convey good title.

Attrition--(1) Wearing away by friction. (2) The wear and tear that mineral and rock particles in transit in flowing water undergo through mutual rubbing, grinding, knocking, scraping, and bumping with resulting decrease in size.

Auction--A public sale of goods to the highest bidders.

Auctioneer--The agent for the sellers at an auction who sells the goods at the highest price. After the sale is completed he/she becomes the agent for the buyer.

Auger--(1) A conveyor or elevator made on the principle of an Archimedean screw; a spiral or broad-threaded screw in an open tube. (2) A tool for boring holes; especially in agriculture, a broad-threaded screw for boring fencepost holes, etc. See Archimedean Screw.

Avogadro's Law--A statement that equal volumes of different gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules.

Avoirdupois--In English-speaking countries, the established system of weighing materials other than medicines, precious stones, and precious metals. The ounce contains 16 drams; the pound, 16 ounces. But the hundredweight contains 100 pounds in the United States, 112 pounds in the United Kingdom.

Avulsion--The sudden transference of land from the estate of one party to that of another without change of ownership; caused by inundation, or by sudden change in location of the channel of a river or stream.

Away-From-Home Food Market--The market where consumers buy food away from home; includes restaurants, cafeterias, hotels, motels, and other food service operations.

Awl--A small, hand-held tool with a sharp point used to punch holes in leather, heavy cloth, etc.

Axial Flow Combine--A combine that uses a rotating mechanism inside a stationary threshing cage to thresh the grain. The threshing operation is faster and the grain emerges cleaner than in conventional combines. See Combine.

Axle--A rod, usually of steel, upon which a wheel turns.


Back Flow Valve--A valve in an irrigation system that prevents water form flowing backward in the system. This prevents chemicals that are added to the water from contaminating the water supply. See Chemigation.

Backlash--The clearance or "play" between the interworking parts of a machine; e.g., the meshing gears of a transmission or the valves and push rods of an engine.

Backsight--In transit traverse surveying, a sight and reading on a previously occupied instrument station. In level traverse surveying, a sight and reading on a surveying rod held at a point of known elevation to determine the present height of the line of sight on the level.

Balance--(1) The skeletal and muscular makeup of an animal, which gives the animal visual appeal. A well-balanced animal's body parts appear to fit together and blend harmoniously and symmetrically. (2) A device for determining weights. (3) To put in proper proportions, such as balancing a feed ration. (4) A term used to express the ratio between the resources of land, labor, capital, and management that attains the optimum use of each resource in the production of crops and livestock to maximize financial returns and to maintain or improve soil productivity.

Balance of Trade (BOT)--The difference in value between a country's merchandise imports and exports in a specified period. The balance of trade, in the sense of the difference in value between imports and exports, is called favorable when exports exceed imports and unfavorable when the reverse occurs.

Balance Sheet--A list of the assets (current and fixed) and the liabilities (current and other) of an individual or business. The difference between assets and liabilities is the owner's equity, net worth, or financial gain or loss.

Balanced Operation--A range livestock enterprise which provides sufficient feed and forage resources at each season to sustain continuous satisfactory maintenance of its livestock and game throughout the year. Also, an enterprise in which the gross income either equals or exceeds, by a suitable margin for profit, the cost of production.

Bale Accumulator--A trailing attachment for conventional hay balers that collects and automatically unloads about 8 to 12 bales.

Bale Chopper--A tractor-powered implement that chops up bales of hay for use as a feed or as bedding for livestock.

Bale Ejector--An attachment for conventional hay balers that throws bales into a trailing wagon to eliminate hand loading.

Bale Mover--A device for mechanically moving large round bales of hay; may be attached to a tractor 3-point hitch or front-end loader, mounted in a truck bed, or trailed behind a tractor or truck.

Baler--A machine used to compress hay into bales. See Conventional Hay Balers, round Hay Balers.

Balling Hydrometer--A triple scale hydrometer designed to record the specific gravity of a solution containing sugar.

Balloon Frame--A type of barn construction made from a wooden frame without using heavy timbers.

Band Day--Range forage required by a band of sheep of a given size and class during one day.

Bar--(1) The mouth piece of a bridle bit. (2) The landside of a plow. (3) The straight line of a cattle brand. (4) The part of a horse's hoof that is bent inward, extending toward the center of the hoof. (5) Ridges in the roof of a horse's mouth. (6) The space in front of a horse's molars where the bit is placed. (7) A pole used to close a fence gap. (8) 14.50 pounds per square inch of air pressure.

Barb--(1) A breed of horses related to the Arab and native to Barbary; probably introduced into Spain by the Moors and probably smaller and coarser than the Arab; its strain is evident in all known present breeds. (2) A hairlike side branch of a feather. (3) Mucous membrane projections for the openings of submaxillary glands under the tongue of horses and cattle. (4) A pointed projection on a fence wire. (5) In botany, a hooked hair or bristle. (6) The teeth or spines on the awns of grasses, especially barley.

Barbed Wire--Fencing made of twisted wires to form one strand and to which wire barbs are attached at short intervals.

BARC--Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, U.S.D.A.

Bargaining Association--A farm cooperative having as its principal function the influencing of farm prices and other terms of trade.

Bargaining Power--A form of market power denoting the relative strength of buyers and sellers in influencing the terms of exchange in a transaction.

Barn--A farm building used for storage of hay, grain, farm implements, etc., or for housing of domestic animals.

Barn Book--The record book in which breeding and management data on livestock is kept. Commonly included are breeding dates, birth dates, health data, and weight data.

Barn Raising--The construction of a barn. In parts of the United States, this often implies a gathering of friends and neighbors to assist in the construction, at which time much food and drink is served for a pleasurable occasion.

Base Acreage--The average of a crop on the farm used in acreage limitation programs and to calculate farm program acreage; usually the actual planted acreage of the crop on the farm in the previous year, although the previous two-year average could be used; adjusted for disasters, crop rotations, and other factors as necessary to make it fair and equitable.

Base SI Units--The meter, kilogram, and second.

Basic Crops (Commodities)--Crops which, because of acreage, value, climate, etc., are considered most important in an agricultural economy, such as corn, wheat, rice, peanuts, cotton, tobacco, etc.

Basin Irrigation--An efficient system of irrigation in which a field or orchard is divided into basins which are filled with water.

Basis Pricing--A price quotation technique whereby the current cash price of a commodity is described by indicating the basis; for example, "30 cents under" would indicate a $2.70/bushel cash price if the futures price were $3.00.

BATF--Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms; under the United States Department of Treasury, responsible for the issuance of permits, both experimental and commercial for the production of alcohol. See Methanol.

BCA--Board of Contract Appeals, U.S.D.A.

Beam--(1) The central shaft of a plow, supporting all principal parts, and by which it may be drawn. (2) A heavy piece of timber used to support a building. (3) The balance bar of a scale. (4) In tanning, a sloping board on which hides are dressed.

Beamage--A deduction made when weighing a freshly dressed carcass for the loss of weight by evaporation during cooling.

Bearer--The person holding a check or draft for payment.

Bearing--The direction of a line with reference to the cardinal points of a compass; true bearing is the horizontal angle between a ground line and a geographic meridian. A bearing may be referred to either the south or north point; magnetic bearing is the horizontal angle between a ground line and the magnetic meridian. A magnetic bearing differs from a true bearing by the exact angle of magnetic declination of the locality.

Bearings--That part of a machine on which another part revolves. Bearings are generally designed to take the wear of a machine and can be replaced. Common types are: ball, roller, sleeve, and babbitt.

Bed--(1) A small plot of soil used for growing seedlings, vegetables, flowers or shrubs, and often raised above the level of the surrounding soil. (2) A place for animals to sleep. (3) The hauling platform of a wagon or truck.

Beef Carcass Data Service--A program whereby producers, for a fee, can receive carcass evaluation data on their cattle by using a special "carcass data" eartag for their slaughter animals.

Beef Improvement Federation (BIF)--A federation of organizations, businesses, and individuals interested or involved in performance evaluation of beef cattle. The purposes of BIF are to bring about uniformity of procedures, development of programs, cooperation among interested entities, education of its members and the ultimate consumers of performance evaluation methods, and to build confidence of the beef industry in the principles and potentials of performance testing.

Beef Master--A breed of beef cattle developed in Texas from a systematic crossing of Brahman, Hereford, and Shorthorn cattle. Although there is no set color standard, the predominant colors are red and dun. There are both polled and horned lines.

Beef Middles--The midsection of a cow's or steer's intestine used as sausage casing.

Beef Pritch--A rod used to support a carcass during skinning. See Gambrel.

Beefiness--A cattle-judging term denoting desirable beef characteristics.

Beefy--(1) A term used in judging cattle to designate characteristics of a beef animal as contrasted to a dairy animal; usually refers to thickness of muscling. (2) A term used in poultry judging to designate: (a) that the combs are coarse and overgrown or (b) that the birds are fat and coarse.

Benefit-Cost Ratio--A measure of economic efficiency; computed by dividing total discounted benefits by total discounted costs.

Bilateral Trade Agreement--An agreement between two countries on trading patterns; e.g., the United States and the former Soviet Union grain trading agreements.

Bill of Lading--A contract or receipt signed by a common carrier who agreed to deliver freight to a given person.

Bill of Sale--A formal legal paper for the transfer of goods, real estate, animals, etc. It is a written promise that title will be transferred when the conditions of the sale have been completed.

Bionomics--The study of relations among organisms and the relationships between them and their environment. See Ecology.

Birth Weight--The weight of a calf taken within 24 hours after birth. Heavy birth weights tend to be correlated with calving problems, but the conformation of the calf and the cow are contributing factors.

Bit--(1) The part of a horse bridle that is placed in the mouth; usually made of steel. (2) An earmark for cattle. (3) The blade of an axe or similar tool. (4) A tool used to drill a hole.

Blank--(1) The rough, sawed, or split wood pieces from which a finished product is made, such as handles, chair rounds, patterns, etc. (2) An unstocked area in a tree plantation where few or no trees are growing. (3) An unassembled box or package.

Blanket Mortgage--One mortgage on a number of parcels of real property.

Blast Freezing--Freezing meat with a continuous blast of cold air moving around the meat.

Bleed--(1) The process of removing air from a hydraulic or fuel system of a tractor or other machine. (2) To remove the flood from an animal during the slaughter process.

Blend Price--Price paid a milk producer based on the proportion of milk utilized in each price class, such as fluid milk and manufacturing milk.

Blending--A grain marketing strategy whereby two different qualities of grain are blended in such a way as to raise the total value of both lots.

Block--(1) A piece of wood used as a divider between two bales of hay. (2) A pulley used to increase pulling or hoisting power. (3) In logging, an administrative division of a forest. (4) About 5 pounds of cotton hanks. (5) A portion of hay thrown into a baler. (6) To thin out plants, especially sugar beets, into smaller bunches, which will be again thinned into single plants. (7) To trim fleece to enhance the appearance of a sheep. (8) See Cutting Block.

Blow-by--A leakage or loss of compression past the piston rings between the pistons and cylinders of an engine.

Bob Wire--See Barbed Wire.

Bobbed Wire--See Barbed Wire

Boiling Point--The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the atmospheric pressure. At the boiling point, bubbles of vapor rise continually and break on the surface. The boiling temperature of pure water at sea level (barometric pressure of 30 inches of mercury) is 212[degrees]F (100[degrees]C). At high altitudes, the boiling point of water is lower because the atmospheric pressure is lower. At 5,000 feet above sea level, for example, the boiling point of water is 203[degrees]F (95[degrees]C); at 10,000 feet it is 194[degrees]F (90[degrees]C).

Bolter--(1) A sieve. (2) A circular ripsaw and a mechanically driven carriage used for sawing round bolts into boards. (3) A plant, such as the sugar beet, which produces a seed stalk from the crown of the plant.

Bolting Cloth--A sieve cloth, usually silk.

Bomb Calorimeter--An apparatus used to measure the amount of heat given off by any combustible substance. Used for determining the calorie content of feeds.

Boom--(1) A long beam projecting from a tractor or mast; used for hoisting heavy loads. (2) A pipe or tubing with several nozzles to apply chemicals over a wide area at one time. (3) A barrier made by fastening logs end to end across a river to contain cut timber. (4) A group of floating logs. (5) The spar which projects from a log-loading machine to support logs. (6) An obstruction composed of floating logs. (7) A construction designed to float logs in a certain direction. (8) To rise in volume, as a river booms sufficiently to float logs.

Boot--(1) The hollow metal casting on a planter or a drill through which the seed passes to be planted. (2) Profuse feathering on the shank and toes of fowls. (3) The sheathlike leaf structure on the upper end of grain or grass plants that encloses the inflorescence prior to its emergence. During inflorescence the plant is said to be in the boot stage or in boot. (4) In a grain elevator, the box which contains the lower pulley or sprocket.

BOT--Balance of Trade.

Boundary Tree--An old, tall distinguishable tree standing on a property line, usually blazed or otherwise marked.

Bountyland--Land given as a bounty for military service. According to a United States statute of 1850, lands were granted to persons in military service or their dependents.

Bouyoucos Block--(Named after George John Bouyoucos, Michigan State University) A gypsum or nylon block into which two bare wires are embedded a fixed distance apart. These wires lead to terminals which can be attached to a modified Wheatstone bridge. The gypsum blocks are buried in the soil, usually at a depth of maximum concentration of plant roots. The drier the soil, the greater the resistance to passage of electrical current between the two embedded wires. This resistance reading is calibrated for each soil into: "It is time to irrigate," and "It is time to quit irrigating."

Box--(1) Buxus sempervirens; a shrub or small tree; family Buxaceae; one of the most valuable broad-leaved evergreens. Since the days of the Romans it has been planted for hedges and topiary work. It is lethally poisonous to cattle, horses, sheep, and pigs, having emetic and purgative properties. Native to southern Europe. (2) The lowest grade of softwood lumber. (3) A cavity cut into the base of a pine tree to collect sap to make turpentine and rosin. (4) A system for bracing branches of trees. (5) To chip back on the underside of a cut in a tree to prevent the main stem of the tree from splitting when it falls. (6) An accidental mixing of two herds of sheep or cattle (Australia). (7) To corral animals. (8) A device for dividing water in an irrigation system into two or more ditches. (9) A canyon with one entrance and no exits.

Brace--(1) Any device designed to strengthen or support, such as a corner-post brace, wall brace, etc. (2) Specifically, a rod connected to the beam, which reinforces the landside of a plow. (3) A curved tool for holding and rotating bits. (4) A pair, as a brace of pheasants.

Brake Horsepower--Horsepower actually delivered as determined by a dynamometer. See Drawbar Horsepower, Effective Horsepower, Horsepower, Rated Horsepower.

Brand and Brand Name--The American Association of Plant Food Control Officials (AAPFCC) has adopted the following definitions and interpretations: "A brand is a term, design or trademark used in connection with one or several grades of fertilizers.... A brand name is a specific designation applied to an individual fertilizer.... The grade of a fertilizer should be included with its brand name."

Breach of Contract--Failure, without legal excuse, of one of the parties to a contract to perform according to the contract.

Breadbasket of the Nation--Colloquial name for the Corn and Wheat Belt regions of the north-central United States.

Break In--(1) To discipline; to train, as in a horse. (2) The process of wearing in a desirable fit between the surfaces of two new or reconditioned parts of a machine, as in the pistons and cylinders of an engine.

Breaker--(1) A wave meeting a shore, reef, sandbar, or rock and collapsing. (2) For watering: a widened fan-shaped device screwed on the end of a hose to decrease (break) the velocity of water; used in watering plants. (3) For plowing: an extended moldboard on a turning plow to more completely turn heavy sod upside down. (4) For electrical overloading: an automatic flip switch on an electrical circuit that breaks (shuts off) the current when overloaded. (5) Utility-grade slaughtered cattle in which some degree of marbling is in the meat. The loins and rounds are "broken out" and sold as steaks.

Breast--(1) The front of the body between the neck and the abdomen. (2) The breastbone and flesh surrounding it, especially in fowl, lamb, or veal. (3) The forepart of a moldboard on a plow. (4) The part of a cotton gin consisting of a frame, which contains the huller ribs, the picker rollers, and the roll box. (5) That part of a bulk milk tank which connects the inside lining to the outer wall.

Breather--A vertical section of pipe which is an air vent, preventing pressure buildup. When installed after a steep grade, it is called a relief well.

Breed Trademark--The symbol of a distinguishing characteristic.

Breeding Program Goals--The objective or "direction" of breeder's selection programs. Goals are basic decisions breeders must make to give direction to their breeding program. Goals should vary among breeders because of relative genetic merit of their animals, their resources, and their markets.

Breeding Unit Index--A measure of a breeding herd, including the total number of female animals capable of giving birth, weighted by the production per head in a base period.

Breeding Value--The ability of an animal to transmit the genetic capability to produce meat, milk, eggs, or other economically important products; the value of an animal as a parent. The working definition is twice the difference between a very large number of progeny and the population average when individuals are mated at random within the population and all progeny are managed alike. The difference is doubled because only a sample half (one gene of each pair) is transmitted from a parent to each progeny. Breeding value exists for each trait and is dependent on the population in which the animal is evaluated. For a given trait, an individual can be an above-average producer in one herd and a below-average producer in another herd.

Brick--(1) A rectangular block made of burned clay or concrete usually measuring 4 1/4 x 8 1/2 x 2 inches (10.8 x 21.6 x 5.08 centimeters); used extensively in most kinds of durable construction. (2) Any food packaged in the shape of a brick.

Bridge--(1) A part, usually 24 inches or less in width, which extends across a bulk milk tank. Usually in the center, it strengthens the tank and supports the agitator, gauge rods, etc. (2) To form an arch under pressure, as with fertilizer over a distributor in a spreader.

British Thermal Unit (BTU)--The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit under stated conditions of pressure and temperature (equal to 252 calories, 778 foot-pounds, 1,005 joules, and 0.293 watt-hours); the standard unit for measuring quantity of heat energy.

Brix--(1) The percentage of total solids in fruit or sugarcane juice. (2) The percentage of sugar in simple syrup at 20[degrees]C (68[degrees]F); also known as balling.

Broadax(e)--A wide-bladed ax used to cut logs into beams or to make incisions in trees to obtain turpentine.

Brod--A blacksmith's nail.

Broker--An agent entrusted to buy or sell products or commodities.

Brokerage--The business of bringing buyers and sellers together and arranging contracts for a fee.

BTU--See British Thermal Unit; a measure of heat.

BTU/hr--Quantity of heat needed per hour to maintain a given temperature.

Buckwheater--An incompetent farmer; a novice (United States). So called because buckwheat will grow on the poorest of soils.

Bug--(1) Any insect, specifically of the order Hemiptera. (2) A flaw in the construction and operation of machinery.

Bulk--(1) The major part; signifying volume, amount, or size. (2) Mass or aggregate, e.g., "sold in bulk," meaning not packaged; "bulk density," meaning the density of the entire mass including solid, liquid, and gas, such as the bulk density of a clod or ped of soil.

Bulk Bin--A large storage bin used for storing feed. The feed is put in through the top using an auger from a feed truck or a feed mill. The feed is usually discharged by an auger from the bottom and is moved to the animal's trough or feeder by an auger or conveyer.

Bull Pen--(1) A small wood or metal enclosure for confining bulls. (2) The sale ring at a livestock auction. (3) Living quarters for a group of men. (4) Storage room for machinery.

Bulldozer--A crawler tractor with a blade mounted in front to move earth, snow, gravel, and similar materials, or for clearing land of small trees and shrubs.

Bung--A large plug or cork used as a stopper for a hole in the side of a barrel or cask through which the barrel is filled.

Bunk--(1) A crossbeam of heavy timber that supports logs during transportation. Also called bolster. (2) A car or truck used to transport logs. (3) A sleeping space in a lumber camp or a ranch.

Bunker Silo--A silo for storing silage, consisting of a wide trench constructed in the side of a hill from which surface water has been diverted, such as by a diversion terrace. The vertical walls of the horizontal silo may be form 6 to 8 feet and the length from about 50 to 100 feet. When feeding the silage, movable self-feeders can be constructed in either or both ends.

Bunkhouse--A building where rangehands or workers sleep.

Buoyancy--The resultant of upward forces exerted by the water on a submerged or floating body, equal to the weight of the water displaced by this body.

Bureau of Customs--An agency of the United States Treasury Department. The Bureau collects duties and taxes due on imported merchandise and baggage, including countervailing duties to offset foreign subsidies and antidumping duties to offset unfair price competition. Customs agents also attempt to keep harmful insects and diseases out of the United States.

Bureau of Land Management Land--Federal lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Department of the Interior.

Bureau of Reclamation--A federal agency responsible for building dams and canals and providing water to local water districts. The districts then sell water to agricultural producers.

Burlap--A coarse cloth made of jute, flax, etc., used for bags, bales, bundles, and for covering the roots of plants. See Balled and Burlapped.

Burning Index Meter--A device for measuring inflammability and rate of spread of fire. It works by integrating the combined effects of the moisture content of fuel, herbaceous stage, wind velocity, relative humidity, and other factors.

Burr Grinder--A feed grinder with flat, roughened iron plates.

Bushel (U.S. Measure)--(1) A dry measure of 32 quarts; four pecks. (2) A weight of a product assumed to be the equivalent of a bushel: beans 60 pounds; barley, 48 pounds seed corn, 56 pounds; flax-seed, 56 pounds; oats, 32 pounds; peas, 60 pounds; rye, 56 pounds; wheat, 60 pounds. (3) Any basket, tub, or other vessel having the capacity of a bushel. See Imperial Bushel.

Bushwhacker--A hook for cutting brush.

Butane--A gaseous hydrocarbon of the paraffin series, formula [C.sub.4][H.sub.10], used as a heating fuel.

Button--(1) An irregularly shaped berry. (2) A bud. (3) A round seed vessel. (4) Any stunted or immature fruit. (5) A round, firm, cheesy curd of condensed milk; a defect of the body of the milk. (6) A nipple, especially of a hog. (7) A partially dismantled queen bee cell in a beehive, which resembles a small acorn cup. (8) Onion set. (9) A stunted or immature horn growth, as on a calf. (10) A metal clasp used to connect sections of a check row wire. (11) Cartilage on the chine bone of cattle (12) Any shell-like bone construction of the body; also called concha. (13) A leather ring for adjusting a horse's bridle.


Caballeria--(1) A unit of land measurement in Spanish-speaking countries, equal to 33.2 U.S. acres in Cuba; 111.82 in Costa Rica; 111.51 in Guatemala; 111.13 in Honduras; 105.75 in Mexico; 112.41 in Nicaragua; 194.1 in Puerto Rico; and 95.48 in Spain. (2) A place to keep horses.

Cablegation--A method of irrigating a field from an irrigation pipe in which a traveling plug fastened by a cable to a braking mechanism is used to help control the amount of water released by gates or holes in the pipe. It was developed in 1981 at the USDA Snake River Conservation Research Center at Kimberly, Idaho, as a means to automate gravity-flow irrigation systems.

Cadastral Surveys--Surveys which relate to land boundaries and subdivisions, and are made to create or define limitations of titles or ownership.

Cadmium--(Greek; kadmia, earth) A bivalent metal similar to tin. Its atomic number is 48 and atomic weight 112.40. A metallic "heavy metal" used in the production of copper, lead, silver, and aluminum alloys, in photography, ceramics, and in insecticides. Cadmium in sewage sludge is of grave concern when sludge is applied to soils used for the production of food and feed crops. Cadmium is a hazardous pollutant to people, domestic animals, and shellfish. It also is an experimental carcinogen.

Calendar Year--A period from January 1 through December 31 of the same year.

Caliper--(1) An instrument used for measuring the diameters of trees. (2) An instrument used for measuring thickness.

Calorie--The heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water from 14.5[degrees] to 15.5[degrees]C is one small calorie; the heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water 1[degrees]C is one great Calorie (kilocalorie) (Cal), equal to 3.968 BTU. See BTU.

Calorimeter--An instrument for measuring the heat change and the energy in any organic system such as foods or feeds.

Calving Difficulty (Dystocia)--In cattle, abnormal or difficult labor, causing difficulty in delivering the fetus and/or placenta.

Calving Ease Index--A rating for calving ease that combines cleaving ease scores for heifers, second calf and older cows and birth weight as reported to breed associations and published in their annual sire summaries. Some of them label it Ease of Calving Index. The index is used to select replacement heifers.

Calving Season--The time of the year when the calves of a herd are born; occurs at different times in different parts of the country.

Camion--(Spanish) Wagon, truck.

Camp Unit--A subdivision of a sheep allotment on federally owned land.

Campus--(Latin) Field.

Camshaft--A shaft containing lobes on a rotating shaft that operates the valves of an engine.

Cane Grind--A social gathering at a cane mill at crushing time in the southern United States. Similar to sugaring-off parties at maple syrup time in the North.

Cap--(1) A piece of metal placed over the end of a log to make it skid over obstacles. (2) The top member of a trestle or similar support. (3) Milk tooth of an animal. (4) The crown of a kernel of corn. (5) The calyx of the strawberry.(6) To remove the calyx of the berry after it is picked. (7) To place a cover over a stack of hay, bound grain, etc. (8) To seal a cell in the honeycomb with wax, as by a bee.

CAP--Common Agricultural Policy.

Capital Requirements--The amount of fixed and working capital needed to operate a farm or ranch. It includes capital for land, buildings, fences, water supply, drains, machinery, equipment, livestock, current operations, etc.

Capital Resources--The amount of capital available to an individual from different sources.

Capitalization--Determining present value of future net money income.

Capitalization Rate--The ratio of net annual money income to the capitalized money value of property. The rate should probably be near the current rate of interest charged on first mortgages on similar farms in the area. It is influenced by the prevailing money market, the risk both physical and economic, the marketability of the farm in question, and the competition with other forms of investment.

Car Lot--The quantity of produce or number of animals which can be transported in a railroad car.

Carburetor--A device for supplying certain internal combustion engines with a mixture of vaporized fuel and air.

Card--A machine which is used to separate the wool fibers by opening the locks or tufts of wool. The machine contains multiple rolls with teeth. Hand cards are used chiefly in the fitting of show sheep.

Carriage Bolt--A bolt with a rounded head used on a machine, wagon bed, etc. The purpose is to provide a smooth bolt-head surface that will not catch or snag on objects that might come in contract with it.

Carry--(1) To keep an animal on a maintenance ration without obtaining any weight gain or any products from it. (2) To bear, as a pregnant cow carries a calf. (3) To sustain, as a farm carries a debt, or as a range carries stock. (4) To convey during transportation and marketing, as a container carries satisfactorily or a product carries well.

Carrying Capacity--In its true sense, the maximum number of individual animals that can survive the greatest period of stress each year on a given land area. It does not refer to sustained production. In range management, the term has become erroneously synonymous with grazing capacity.

Carryover--The supplies or volume of a farm commodity not yet used at the end of a marketing year. It is the remaining stock carried over into the next year. Marketing years generally start at the beginning of the new harvest for a commodity and extend to the same time in the following year.

Case--(1) A box and sometimes its contents, e.g., a case of eggs. (2) In tobacco leaves, to absorb moisture after curing so that the leaves become pliable enough for handling. (3) In mushroom culture, to cover the prepared bed with its final layer of soil.

Case Hardening--(1) A condition of drying wood in which the surface becomes hard and set. If the interior tensile stresses exceed the strength of the wood, honeycombing results. (2) A condition in the artificial drying of some evergreens when the scales become overdried and hard, usually due to low humidity in the dehydrator. This retards the rate of dehydration of the major portion of the fruit or vegetable. (3) Treatment of iron or steel machine parts with carbon so that the outer surface becomes hard to withstand wear and the center remains soft to withstand shocks.

Cash Basis Operation--Conducting any type of enterprise without using credit; paying in cash only.

Cash Crop--A crop sold directly on the market contrasted to one which his fed to animals or is otherwise used but not sold. Formerly applied mainly to crops which were readily salable, e.g., cotton, wheat, sugarcane, etc.

Cash Farm Expense--Farm expenses which include only cash items or items equivalent to cash: e.g., purchases of animals, expenditures for breeding fees, taxes, farm improvements, machinery, feed, crops, hired labor, interest on farm debts, farm insurance, etc. Principal payments on mortgages and old accounts and expenses on the farm dwelling are not included in the year's farm expenses.

Cash Farm Receipts--Receipts which include sales and trade-in allowances from transactions on the farm; e.g., concerning animals, poultry and dairy products, crops, farm improvements, machinery, work of the farm, etc.

Cash Flow--A payment or receipt in the form of cash (including transactions conducted through a bank).

Cash Flow Budget--A statement of projected farm payments and farm receipts associated with a particular farm plan.

Cash Grain Farm--A farm on which corn, grain sorghum, small grains, soybeans, or field beans and peas account for at least 50 percent of the value of products sold.

Cash Income--Money received by a farmer from his operations. Also called cash farm receipts.

Cash Market--A market where there is an immediate sale and delivery.

Cash Method--A method of accounting where income is credited to an account in the year in which it is received, and the expenses are deducted in the year in which they are paid. See Accrual Method.

Cash Prices--The prices received for commodities as published daily by market news reports.

Cash Value--The amount of cash a policyholder would receive if he surrendered his insurance policy.

Casing--(1) A large pipe sunk into a well to prevent the walls form caving in and within which the pipe for pumping liquids is placed. (2) Cleaned sections of hog, cattle, or sheep intestine used as sausage skins.

Casing Head--In well boring, a driverhead screwed into a casing pipe to take the force of the blows while the pipe is being driven down.

Cask--A barrel, made of tightly fitted wooden staves and hoops, for holding liquids. It is a general term for such items as barrel, pipe, keg, etc. Formerly commonly used as a container for marketed tobacco; and in this connection also, the weight allowed for the container.

Catamaran--(1) A raft for supporting a windlass and a grappling hook for recovering logs sunk in a river. (2) Any raft with at least two logs or floats fastened together.

Cathode--A negative electrode.

Cation--The ion in solution carrying one or more positive charges of electricity depending on its valence. The common soil cations are calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, hydrogen, and ammonium.

Cattle Trail--The route on which cattle were driven for long distances in the United States in the nineteenth and early years of the twentieth century.

Cattle Wire--See Barbed Wire.

Cattle Yearlong--The forage or feed required to maintain an animal unit for one year. See Animal Unit, Animal Unit Month.

Caveat Emptor--(Latin) Let the buyer beware.

Caveat Venditor--(Latin) Let the seller beware.

cc--A cubic centimeter; a cube with edges of one centimeter.

Ceiling Price--The highest price allowed for a commodity by the United States federal government.

Cell--(1) A hexagonal unit compartment of a honeycomb. (2) The ultimate functional unit of an organic structure, plant, or animal. It consists of a microscopic mass of protoplasm which includes a nucleus surrounded by a membrane. In most plants it is surrounded by a cell wall. (3) A single element of an electric battery, either primary or secondary, generally consisting of a jar filled with a liquid or a pasty electrolyte, into which the electrodes are inserted or connected. (4) A very small, enclosed compartment.

Cell Grazing Management--A system of pasture rotation whereby pastures are divided into equal-sized segments with respect to carrying capacity and are arranged in a pie-shaped design around a central core area for supplemental feeding, watering, and handling pens. Under this system, livestock are rotated among the pastures using high stocking densities and little time on pasture for any one grazing period.

Celsius Scale--(formerly called centigrade) A temperature scale in which the freezing point of water is 0[degrees]C and the boiling point is 100[degrees]C. Minus 273.15[degrees]C = 0[degrees]K: absolute zero. Named after a Swedish astronomer, Anders Celsius (1701-1744). See Fahrenheit Scale, Kelvin Scale.

Census of Agriculture--A count taken by the Census Bureau every five years of the number of farms, land in farms, crop acreage and production, livestock numbers and production, farm spending, farm facilities and equipment, farm tenure, value of farm products sold, farm size, type of farm, and so forth. Data are obtained for states and counties.

Center of Draft (Center of Load)--A point within the plow about which all the forces which act on the plow are balanced.

Center of Pull--The true point of hitch or center of power in machines. On a tractor, this is the point halfway between the wheels, at which the drawbar is attached.

Center Pivot Irrigation System--A large irrigation system that rotates around the terminal end of a large water line. Modern systems are powered by electric motors. The system circles slowly and sprinklers mounted on the system emit irrigation water.

Centigrade Thermometer--A thermometer on whose scale the interval between the freezing and boiling points of water is divided into 100 parts or degrees.

Centrifugal Force--The force which acts upon a body revolving in a circular path, tending to force the body farther from the center of the circle. If the centrifugal force is just sufficient to balance the attraction of the mass around which it revolves, the moving body will continue in a uniform curved path. Should the centrifugal force increase, the body will either take up a larger path farther from the center or else tend to fly off in a straight line.

Centrifugal Pump--A water-lifting device that utilizes the centrifugal force imparted to the water by a rapidly rotating impeller. The water is admitted to the center of the impeller and discharged at its outer periphery.

Centrifuge--A machine, such as a Babcock milk tester, used to separate the fat from the acid-milk mixture.

Ceramic--Pertaining to pottery, including porcelain and terra cotta. Often taken to include all products made by heating natural claylike materials: pottery, chinaware, glass, and bricks.

Certification of Seed--Seed production and marketing under the control of a certifying agency to maintain varietal purity and freedom from seed-borne pests.

Certification Standard--Rules and regulations of a certifying agency concerning the breeding, production, and cleaning of seeds along with the maximum amount of impurities allowed, etc.

Certified Boar--A boar that has sired several animals meeting the requirements for certification as established by a breed association.

Certified Check--A check that has the word certified stamped across its face by the bank on which it was drawn. The bank must assume the responsibility for its payment.

Cesium-137--An isotope of the radioactive element cesium having a mass number of 137. One of the important fission products and a constituent of fallout. It has a half-life of thirty-three years.

Cess--A levy or tax, as land cess, usually exacted locally.

Cetane--The measure of the ignition quality of diesel fuel. It is determined by the temperature and pressure at which the fuel will ignite.

cfs--Cubic feet per second. One cubic foot per second equals 4.719 ? [10.sup.4] cubic meters per second.

CFS--Container freight station.

Chain--(1) The legal unit of length for the survey of public lands of the United States; the equivalent of 66 feet or 20.13 meters. The name is derived from Edmund Gunter's chain, which was a series of links connected by rings. There are ten links in a Gunter's chain. Advantage in measuring in chains is that 10 square chains equals 1 acre. (2) Any series of related, interconnected, or similar natural features, e.g., chain of mountains, islands, lakes. (3) A series of metal links forged or welded together and used for fastening, hauling, etc. (4) In chemistry, a series of atoms connected by bonds, forming the skeleton of a number of compounds.

Chain Pump--A machine consisting of an endless chain dipping into water in a shallow well at one end and passing over a revolving wheel at the other. Attached to the chain, at regular intervals, are cups or buckets, which lift the water and drop it into a spout as they pass over the wheel at ground surface. A larger version of this mechanism, using animal power to activate the wheel, is a widely practiced method of land irrigation in Asia (known as a Persian wheel).

Chain Reaction--When a fissionable nucleus is split by a neutron it releases energy and one or more neutrons. These neutrons split other fissionable nuclei, releasing more energy and more neutrons, making the reaction self-sustaining (as long as there are enough fissionable nuclei present).

Chain Saw--A portable, motor-driven saw which consists of an arm on which travels an endless chain with attached sawteeth. Used in felling trees, sawing logs, or in cutting underbrush.

Chain Tie--(1) A section of light chain attached to a manger in a barn that branches into a "Y" to go around both sides of a cow's neck and fasten at the top. It serves to restrain the cow in a manner similar to a stanchion. (2) A light wrapping chain thrown across the top of a load of logs to secure it for transportation.

Chamfer--(1) The flat surface exposed after cutting off the right-angled corner of a block of wood, stone, etc. (2) To bevel.

Chamois--(1) Rupicapra rupicapra, a small antelope that resembles a goat. Found in the mountains of Europe and New Zealand. (2) Soft, pliable leather made by rubbing oil into the skins of the chamois, goat, sheep, etc. Also called shammy.

Change Agent--One who advocates or attempts to introduce another method; a teacher, an agricultural extension agent.

Charge--(1) In electrostatics, the amount of electricity, measured in coulombs, present upon any substance which has accumulated electric energy. (2) To restore the electrical ability of a battery by the passage of current through it. (3) The amount of current absorbed by a battery during the operation of charging. It is measured in ampere hours. (4) In a gas engine, the amount of mixture taken into the cylinder during the suction stroke.

Chassis--The essential running gear in automobiles and trucks, consisting of the rectangular framework supported on springs attached to the front and rear axles.

Chattel--Movable personal property, as contrasted with immovable real estate. Certain types of chattel are technically immovable, e.g., a tenant's interest in a growing crop.

Chattel Mortgage--A mortgage on movable property.

Check--(1) In irrigation (a) A basin into which the flow of water is regulated by levees and dykes. (b) An adjustable gate on a canal to regulate the flow of water. (c) Concrete blocks or wooden ties placed on a channel bottom to reduce erosion. (d) A crack which appears in drying soil. (2) In lumbering, a lengthwise separation in the grain, caused by strains during seasoning, which extends across the annual rings. (3) A short crack within the body of a cheese. (4) A narrow crack in a rice grain that may cause it to break during milling. (5) An egg which has a cracked shell, with the inner membrane intact. When the crack is naturally mended, it is called a blind crack. Also called crack, dent. (6) To retard growth.

Chemical Toilets--A type of dry vault toilet in which the sewage is decomposed by adding caustic chemicals, such as quick lime. Such toilets are used by people harvesting agricultural crops.

Chemurgy--Chemical research designed to promote the use of agricultural products for industrial purposes, or to obtain new, valuable products from plants.

Chimney--A vertical opening, a foot or more wide, in a pile of lumber to facilitate circulation of air and drying of the lumber.

Chimney Effect--The movement of air in a greenhouse created when both the top ridge and the side ventilators are open.

Chisel--(1) A machine with penetrating points that are drawn at a depth of 12 in. to loosen subsoil. (2) A hard steel cutting tool with a sharpened blade used for cutting wood or metal.

Chock (Block)--A blocking device used as a wedge to keep a log, truck, etc., from moving.

Choke--(1) An acute condition in livestock brought about by a food mass lodged in the esophagus. (2) Hairy or filamentous undeveloped scales at the base of glove artichoke heads, which are removed before eating. (3) In engine carburetion, to increase the ratio of gasoline to air in the fuel mixture when starting a cold engine. (4) In plants, to kill, dwarf, or stunt through excessive competition for space and nutrients, e.g., the choking of plants by dodder or bindweed. (5) In plowing, the gathering of wet straw, weeds, etc., about the plowshare, which reduces its efficiency.

Chop--(1) Animal feed of coarsely crushed or finely ground cereal grains. (2) A small cut of meat which usually includes a rib, e.g., mutton chop. (3) To cut hay into small portions for easy storage without baling. (4) To hoe a row crop, especially cotton; often the first hoeing is called chopping. (5) To crush grain. (6) Jaw; generally in the plural to denote the jaws forming the mouth. Also called chap. See Green Chop.

Chopper--(1) A cordwood cutter. (2) A machine for cutting forage into small pieces.

Chore--A regular or odd job around a house or farm.

Christmas Tree Farming--The commercial production of evergreen trees to be used as Christmas trees. The most popular species are Scotch pine, Douglas fir, balsam fir, black spruce, and eastern red cedar.

Chuck Wagon--A wagon that carried food and cooking and eating utensils for cattlemen tending livestock in the United States.

Churn--A vessel in which cream is agitated vigorously to obtain butter.

Churning--The beating, shaking, or stirring of whole milk or cream to make butter.

Chute--(1) A narrow passage through which animals are moved for branding, spraying, or loading, or through which grain slides to a lower level. (2) A trough constructed of round timbers in which logs are slid up or down a grade. (3) A stampede of animals (western United States). (4) A high-velocity conduit for carrying water. (5) An inclined drop or fall.

Cigar-leaf States--States of the United States where leaf tobacco for cigars is grown: Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and New York.

Circa--(Latin) About, approximate.

Citizen Suits--The 1970 amendments to the U.S. Clean Air Act permits any citizen to sue a polluter.

City Forestry--The preservation and protection of shade trees in streets and parks.

Claim--A right or supposed right to unsettled land, or the minerals or oil discovered in land within the public domain.

Claw--(1) The sharp nail on the toe of an animal or bird. (2) The slender, extended lower part of the petal, as in the iris, lily, etc. (3) A device on a milking machine to which the stanchion tubes are connected.

Clean Content--The amount of clean, scoured wool remaining after removal of all vegetable and other foreign material, and containing 12 percent by weight of moisture and 1.5 percent by weight of ingredients removable by extractions with alcohol.

Clear Money--Profit.

Clearance--The space allowed for proper operation between two parts of a machine; e.g., the space between a shaft and its bearing.

Cleat--(1) A strip of wood or iron fastened crosswise to something for strength, or to prevent warping. (2) A wooden or metal device having two arms around which turns may be taken with a rope to hold securely and yet be readily released.

Cleavage--(1) In animal or plant reproduction, the splitting of one cell into two identical parts. Each resulting daughter cell matures and may divide again. (2) Tendency of certain minerals or woods to split along particular planes or angles. (3) The weight required to cause splitting in a standard piece of wood three inches long, expressed in pounds per inch of width.

Cleaver--A heavy, wide butcher's knife for cutting bones.

Clevis--A coupling device made of a U-shaped piece of iron whose ends are perforated and through which a pin or pole is placed.

Clinch--Part of a nail bent over to keep it from being pulled out, as in horseshoeing, box manufacture, etc.

Clip--(1) A semicircular metal piece extending from the outer surface of the horseshoe at the toe or side to prevent the shoe from shifting on the hoof. (2) Shears. (3) (a) An inclusive term for shorn wool. (b) The process of shearing wool. (c) The year's production of wool. (4) (a) To shear the hair of an animal close to the skin, as to clip a dog, or a cow's flank and udder. (b) To remove fleece from a sheep or goat. Also called shear. (c) To cut the feathers from a fowl's wing to prevent it from flying. (5) (a) To trim a plant. (b) To cut off the tops of a crop, as clover or alfalfa, at an early stage of growth when the crop is to be harvested for seed. Also called preclipping.

Clod Buster--A tooth type harrow attachment for the rear of a tillage implement; used to break up clods of soil.

Clog--(1) A heavy, wooden block attached to a horse's hind pasterns by a strap to prevent it from kicking when put out to pasture. (2) An impediment, encumbrance, or restraint. (3) A wooden shoe. (4) To stop a machine, as a harvester, by feeding material in too rapidly; to plug up; to choke up.

Clogging--The thickening of lubricating oils due to the absorption of oxygen and the presence of dust. Machinery is said to clog when its lubrication oil becomes thick and dry.

Closing Price--The price of the last contract on an item in a commodity market on a particular day.

Cloud on a Title--A legal defect in the title to property.

Clutch--(1) (a) A nest of eggs in a hatchery. (b) A brood of chickens. Also called cletch. (2) A device to engage or disengage the power from various working parts of machinery.

Co-op--See Cooperative.

Coefficient of Digestibility--The amount of a particular nutrient digested and absorbed by an animal; expressed as a percentage of the amount that was in the animal's feed.

Coefficient of Roughness--A variable factor used to estimate the flow of water in rivers and canals, determined by the roughness or smoothness of channel lining, the mean hydraulic radius, mean velocity of the flow, and slope.

Cohort--(1) A group of people with a defined history of exposure who are studied for a specific length of time to determine cancer incidence or mortality. (2) A group of individuals born within the same time period (usually within five or sometimes ten years of each other). Such groups are called birth cohorts. The diseases among individuals in one birth cohort followed throughout their lifetimes may be different from those in another, implying differences in exposures to environmental factors causing disease.

Cold Chisel--A steel tool strong enough to cut cold metal. Also called cold cutter.

Cold Rating--The cranking load capacity of a battery at low temperatures.

Cold Sterilization--(1) The use of cathode ray or electron beam gun in food processing to kill bacterial or insect life. (2) Chemical sterilization of instruments.

Cold Storage--(1) An insulated storage using mechanical refrigeration to maintain a stable, cold temperature for long-term storage. (2) The treatment given to plants and bulbs to cause certain chemical changes that enable them to respond to forcing treatments.

Collateral--Something of value deposited with a lender as a pledge to secure repayment of a loan.

Collins Dynamometer--A device to measure the tractive pull of tractors or draft horses. It permits the movement of the vehicle to which the tractors or horses are hitched only when the tractive pull equals the weight set on the machine. A pull of a distance of 27 1/2 feet (8.39 meters) is most frequently used to determine horsepower.

Collop--A unit of grazing area which can support a full-grown horse or cow for one year.

Colorimeter--An instrument for chemical analysis of liquids by comparison of the color of the given liquid with standard colors.

Colter--(Middle English, culter, knife) A sharp blade or sharp rolling wheel attached to the beam of a turning plow to cut crop residues and clods to reduce trash buildup in front of the plow; also spelled coulter.

Combine--A self-propelled or tractor-drawn machine that cuts, threshes, and cleans the standing crop while moving across the field. It is adapted to harvesting all the small grains, soybeans, grain sorghums, peanuts, rice, beans, etc.

Combustion--The production of heat and light energy through a chemical process-usually oxidation. One of the three basic contributing processes of air pollution, the others being attrition and vaporization.

Combustion Chamber--(1) Primary: The chamber in an incinerator where waste is ignited and burned. Secondary: The chamber of an incinerator where combustible solids, vapors, and gases from the primary chamber are burned and fly ash is settled. (2) That part of an internal combustion engine where the fuel is ignited.

Commensurate Property--Land or controlled livestock water which qualifies a person for grazing preference in other land, either private or public.

Commercial Cow-calf Producer--A stockman producing animals from a nonregistered herd.

Commercial Farming--Farming in which the majority of the farm output is sold, usually also involving appreciable use of purchased inputs.

Commercial Fertilizer--Plant nutrients containing a single essential mineral nutrient or a mixture of essential mineral nutrients or organic materials.

Commercial Herd--A herd of animals that will eventually be slaughtered for meat.

Commercial Species--Tree species suitable for industrial wood products.

Commercial Thinning--Removing trees from a developing young stand so that remaining trees will have more growing space; dead and dying trees will be salvaged; and the operation will, hopefully, make a net profit.

Commercial Timberland--Forest land that is producing or is capable of producing crops of industrial wood and that is not withdrawn from timber utilization by statue or administrative regulation. Note: Areas qualifying as commercial timberland have the capability of producing in excess of 20 cubic feet per acre per year of industrial wood in natural stands. Currently, inaccessible and inoperable areas are included.

Comminution--(1) The reduction of a substance to a fine powder; pulverization; trituration. (2) Mechanical shredding or pulverizing of waste, a process that converts it into a homogeneous and more manageable material. Used in solid-waste management and in the primary stage of waste-water treatment.

Comminutor--(1) An agricultural implement for breaking down the clods in the soil after plowing. (2) A device for the catching and shredding of heavy solid matter in the primary stage of waste treatment.

Commission Merchant--A person entrusted with goods for sale on commission. He may possess and sell the goods in his own name, as distinguished from a broker.

Commodity--A transportable resource product with commercial value; all resource products that are articles of commerce.

Commodity Credit Corporation--An agency of the United States federal government which is authorized to purchase and make loans on farm products, dispose of surplus commodities, and engage in other operations with a view to stabilizing the agricultural market. Organized in 1933 as an affiliate to the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, it was transferred to the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1939.

Commodity Exchange Authority--An agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, established on February 1, 1947, to supervise trading on the seventeen markets. Formally composed of the Commodity Exchange Administration and the Grain Futures Administration.

Commodity Stabilization Service--An agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, established on November 2, 1953. It is responsible for: (a) acreage allotments and marketing quotas; (b) soil bank; (c) price support; (d) disposal of government-owned surplus farm products; (3) International Wheat Agreement Acts; (f) storage, shipping, and related service activities; (g) administration of the Sugar Act; and (h) assigned mobilization planning.

Common--(1) A joint pasture in a village or community to which all members have access for their herds. (2) Legal right of a person in sharing the profit or use of another's land. (3) A low, market grade of meat animals. (4) The American wool grade equivalent to the English 44's; a low grade, only better than braid. (5) A defective grade of lumber useful only in framing, etc.

Common-use Range--Range containing grass, forbs, and browse which allows two or more kinds of stock to graze together during the entire season or separately during part of a season.

Community Allotment--An allotment upon which several permittees graze their livestock in common.

Commutator--A contrivance for reversing the direction of the flow of an electric current in a circuit, dynamo, etc.

Compaction--(1) Decrease in volume of sediments, as a result of compressive stress, usually resulting from continued deposition above them, but also from drying and other causes. (2) Reducing the bulk of solid waste by rolling and tamping. (3) Increasing soil bulk density and decreasing porosity caused by the application of mechanical forces to the soil.

Compactor--(1) A vehicle with an enclosed body containing mechanical devices that convey solid waste into the main compartment of the body and compress it. (2) A vehicle equipped with a blade and with rubber tires sheathed in steel or hollow steel cores; both types of wheels are equipped with load concentrations to provide compaction and a crushing effect. A vehicle for working in a sanitary landfill. (3) A machine that reduces the volume of solid wastes by campaction.

Companion Crop--A crop which is grown with another crop, usually applied to a small grain crop sown with a forage crop. Preferred to the term nurse crop. See Nurse Crop.

Comparative Advantage--The placing of emphasis and efforts in the area where the greatest returns will be realized.

Comparative Analysis--Comparison of the performance of a particular farm with some standard such as the average of performance of a group of similar farms.

Comparison Approach--A method of appraising the value of a farm by comparing it in all respects with a previously evaluated farm in the community. The values of the reference farms are established by recent sales or by a group of appraisers.

Compass--(1) An instrument for determining directions, usually by the pointing of a magnetic needle free to turn in a horizontal plane toward magnetic north; sometimes having a clinometer attached for measuring vertical angles. Also, a dip compass, for tracing magnetic iron ore, having a needle hung to move in a vertical plane. (2) An instrument for describing circles, transferring measurements, etc.

Compensatory Payment--A method of supporting agricultural farm prices in which the government pays the farmer directly the difference between the market price and the support price of a particular commodity. Competing Crops or Livestock--Any two crops or livestock whose production demands the use of the same resources at the same time.

Competitive Crop--(1) A crop planted on a piece of land to force out other forms of plant life. Also called smother crop. (2) Crops that compete with each other for the same time in a farmer's work schedule.

Competitive Exclusion Principle--A generalization that states that two similar species having high competitive capacity rarely, if ever, occupy the same ecological niche.

Complementary Crop or Livestock--Any crop or livestock yielding a product that contributes to the success of another.

Complementary Enterprise--Any enterprises which are mutually contributive to farm income.

Complementary Imports--Agricultural import items not produced in appreciable commercial volume in the United States; e.g., bananas, coffee, rubber, cocoa, tea, spices, and cordage fiber.

Complementary Products--Products that are usually consumed together (e.g., ham and eggs).

Complete Budget--A budget for the entire farming operation or business.

Compound Interest Rate--The rate in interest used in compounding or discounting.

Compounding--Calculation of the future value of a present sum accounting for the rate of compound interest.

Compress--(1) (a) A hydraulic press used to reduce a bale of cotton to about one-third its original size for ease in handling and shipping. (b) The business or building for such a press. (c) To reduce the size of a cotton bale by a hydraulic press. (2) A pad of gauze or other material applied to put pressure on any part of the body to reduce swelling or control hemorrhage.

Compression Ratio--The volume of the combustion chamber of an engine when the piston is at its lowest point compared with the volume of the chamber at the end of the compression stroke.

Condemnation--A legal proceeding to secure land for a public purpose such as a road upon payment of the land's reasonable value. Condemnation proceedings are used when the owner will not voluntarily convey title. Eminent domain proceedings are condemnation proceedings.

Condemned--(1) Describing an animal, carcass, or food which has been declared unfit for human consumption. (2) Referring to real estate property acquired for public purposes under the right of eminent domain.

Conduit--(1) Any channel, open or closed, intended for the conveyance of water; any container for flowing water. (2) A pipe in which wiring is installed.

Cone Guide--A device used on cultivators for precision tillage of crops on bed-shaped land.

Congeal--To change a liquid to a solid by lowering the temperature of the food sufficiently to bring about gelation.

Congelifraction--The mechanical disintegration of minerals and rocks resulting from the pressure exerted by freezing of water contained in their cracks. Freezing water exerts a pressure of 150 tons/ square inch (146.48 kg/[cm.sup.2]).

Connate Water--Water trapped in sediments at the time of deposition. Such water trapped by wells may be highly mineralized and may be a brine or saltwater. See Confined Water, Fossil Water.

Conservation--The control and preservation of natural resources for present and future use. In agriculture, the maintenance and improvement of soil fertility and productivity and the control of erosion.

Conservation District--A public organization created under state enabling law as a special-purpose district to develop and carry out a program of soil, water, and related resource conservation, use, and development within its boundaries, usually a subdivision of state government with a local governing body and always with limited authorities. Often called a soil conservation district or a soil and water conservation district.

Conservation Plan--Includes but is not limited to farm/ranch "conservation plan maps"; water, plant, animal, and other inventory and management information with needed interpretations and evaluations; a record of the decisions made contributing to sound land use and conservation treatment; the alternatives for sound land use(s) and conservation treatment for which conservation decisions have not yet been made (including positive statements about critical problems such as soil erosion, sedimentation, land use, and agricultural pollutants); records of understandings as to cooperative agreements among individuals, groups or government representatives, and resource conservation districts; and other information useful to the decision maker.

Conservation Reserve Program--A program established by the Food Security Act of 1985. It pays farmers to take out of cultivation the most highly erodible cropland.

Consideration--The price or subject matter which induces a contract; may be money, commodity exchange, or a transfer of personal effort.

Consign--To entrust produce or animals to another person for sale on a commission basis.

Consignee--A person entrusted with the sale of produce or animals on commission. See Consignor.

Consignment--(1) The entrusting of a product or animal to a person for sale on commission. (2) Animals or produce consigned for sale.

Consignment Sale--A sale of produce or animals through a commissioned agent.

Consignor--A person who puts produce or animals for sale in charge of a commissioned agent. See Consignee.

Consortium--(1) A group of individual plants of different species, generally belonging to different phyla, which live together in close association. (2) A group of people working on a common problem or project.

Constant Mesh Transmission--A transmission in which the gears are engaged at all times, but shifts are made by sliding collars which lock together two or more gears.

Consumer--Any living thing that is unable to manufacture food from nonliving substances but depends on the energy stored in other living things for its food supply.

Consumer Price Index--General measure of retail prices for goods and services usually bought by urban wage earners and clerical workers. Includes prices of about 400 items, including food, clothing, housing, medical care, and transportation.

Consumer Sovereignty--The proposition that ultimately the consumer should, or does, direct all production and market activities in the country.

Consumption Pattern--The set of products that consumers purchases, as well as the processes by which these products are purchased and prepared for use.

Contemporary Group--A group of cattle that are of the same breed and sex and have been raised in the same management group (same location on the same feed and pasture). Individual animals can then be accurately compared with the others in the group. Contemporary groups should include as many cattle as can be accurately compared.

Contiguous--Touching or in contact; without fusion.

Continuous Grazing--Grazing for the entire grazing season; synonymous with set stocking.

Contour Interval--On a contour map, the difference in elevation, or the vertical distance, between contours.

Contour Line--(1) An imaginary line on the surface of the earth connecting points of the same elevation. (2) A line drawn on a map connecting points of the same elevation.

Contourliner--A leveling device that can be mounted on a tractor to assist the driver in plowing along contour lines (lines of equal elevation).

Contract Farming--An agreement about price and designated products between a farmer and a processor, usually made prior to the growing season. See Vertical Integration.

Contract Feeding--An arrangement for finishing cattle, poultry, or swine for the market. The contribution of each participant depends on a written contract. In the case of cattle, the stock raiser usually furnishes the cattle; the feeder furnishes the feed, equipment, and labor, and usually receives his income on the basis of the increase in weight of the cattle, etc.

Contract Labor--Labor hired for farm operations, whereby the farmer contracts with a family or group leader to care for a certain acreage. Often the laborer's income is increased as the yield per acre goes above a given standard.

Contract Production--Producing crops or livestock under an agreement to deliver specified goods and services in certain quantities and of certain quality at a later time.

Control--(1) Prevention of losses from plant or animal diseases, insect pests, weeds, etc., by any method. (2) A section of an open water channel where conditions exist that make the water level above it an index of the discharge. (3) A standard entity used for comparative purposes in experimentation. Also called check or check plot.

Controlled Atmosphere Storage--A cold storage in which the concentrations of atmospheric gases are adjusted to extend the storage life of fresh produce. Usually oxygen is lowered and carbon dioxide is raised.

Conventional Hay Baler--A hay baler that presses forage into a rectangular bale and ties the bale with twine or wire. See Round Hay Baler.

Conversion Factors--Convenient multipliers that have been calculated for elements and compounds important in fertilizers, soil amendments, and plant nutrition. The calculations are based on atomic weights of each chemical. For example, to determine the conversion factor for changing from a known percentage or mass of ammonia (N[H.sub.3]) to an unknown percentage or mass of nitrogen (N), divide the atomic weight of N[H.sub.3] (17.04) by the atomic weight of N (14.01) = 1.216. Then to convert N to N[H.sub.3], multiply N by 1.216.

Converter--A device that converts or changes liquid petroleum (LP) gas from a liquid to a vapor for use by an engine.

Conveyance--Written instrument that evidences transfer of interest in real property from one person to another.

Conveyance Loss--The loss of water from a conduit due to leakage, seepage, and evaporation.

Conveyor--Any mechanical device, as an endless belt, for moving milk bottles, cans, grain, etc., from one place to another.

Cooley Amendment--A term applied to Section 104(e), Public Law 480, because it was introduced by Congressman Harold D. Cooley when he was chairman of the House Committee on Agriculture. It authorizes loans of foreign currencies to the United States and foreign firms operating in foreign countries.

Cooper--A person who makes wooden barrels, kegs, etc.

Cooperative--An enterprise or organization owned by and operated for the benefit of those using its services. In agriculture, such an organization is owned and used by farmers mainly to handle the off-farm part of their business-buying farm supplies, marketing their products, furnishing electric and telephone service, and providing business services-at cost. Essential features are democratic control, limited return on capital, and operation at cost, with distribution of financial benefits to individuals in proportion to their purchases.

Cooperative Extension Service--The Cooperative Extension Service of the Land-Grant colleges and universities was created under federal legislation with the Smith-Lever Act of 1914. Cooperative Extension Service philosophy is to help people identify their own problems and opportunities, and then to provide practical research-oriented information that will help them solve the problems and take advantage of the opportunities. The Cooperative Extension Service is responsible for programs in four major areas: agricultural and natural resources, home economics, community development, and 4-H youth development.

Corn Crib--(1) A building for the storage of ear corn. The roof is watertight, but the sides are usually slatted for ventilation. (2) A circular or rectangular temporary storage, with or without a roof, of woven wire or slats.

Corn Head--An implement mounted on the front of a combine that allows the combine to harvest corn.

Corn Picker--A machine that harvests ears of corn. The stalks are fed into the machine, where the ears are snapped off and loaded into a bin.

Corn-Hog Ratio--Number of bushels of corn that are equal (in value) to 100 lbs. of live hogs; i.e., the price of hogs per hundredweight divided by the price of corn per bushel.

Corner--(1) The outer pair of incisor teeth in the upper and lower jaws of a horse. (2) The junction point of boundary liens. (3) To tie up or control all available items of produce for speculation. (4) In lumbering, to cut through the sapwood on all sides of the tree to prevent it from splitting when the tree is felled.

Corner Tree--A tree, at or nearly adjacent to a land-survey corner, blazed by the original survey party to indicate the corner. Also known as a witness tree.

Corporation Farming--Large-scale farming carried on by hired managers and labor who apply the efficiency procedure developed in business and manufacturing.

Corrected Weight--A means of comparing the growth of animals that are of a different weight. For example to compare lambs in a flock that are weaned at around ninety days, divide the weaning weight of each lamb by its age in days and multiply by 90. This puts all of the lambs on a ninety-day basis.

Corrosion--(1) The process whereby surface or ground waters, by their own solvent action and by the help of solutes they carry, dissolve or chemically alter rock materials with which they come in contact. (2) The action of an agricultural chemical on the metal parts of distributors and containers.

Corrugate (Corrugated)--Wrinkled or in folds.

Corrugated Iron--A furrowed sheet of iron used for roofs or walls of farm buildings, or for the manufacture of large tubes, irrigation pipes, or flumes.

Cost-of-Production--The average amount in dollars per unit used in growing or raising a farm product, including all purchased inputs and sometimes including allowances for management and the use of owned land. May be expressed on a unit, a per-acre, or a per-bushel basis for all farms in an area or in the whole country.

Cost-Price Squeeze--A situation wherein price levels are persistently equal to, or occasionally below, costs of production.

Cost-sharing--A conservation practice in which joint contributions, equal or in some proportion, between the federal government and an agricultural producer are applied to the cost of carrying out a soil, water, woodland or wildlife conservation (in some cases, recreational or pollution control) program.

Cote--A shed for sheltering small animals; e.g., a sheep-cote.

Cotton Belt--The main cotton-growing region in the United States. It comprises the states of Florida, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, Missouri, Tennessee, North Carolina, Mississippi, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Arizona, and California.

Cotton Gin--(1) A machine used to separate the cotton seed from the lint. (2) A plant where the lint cotton is compressed into bales. Also called gin, gin house.

Cotton Linters--Short-staple cotton removed from the seed and husk by a second ginning, or by a linter machine. It is seldom used for textiles; it has other uses, such as in plastics or for mattress padding.

Cotton Picker--A machine that harvests only the mature lint-with-seed (known as seed cotton). A revolving spindle penetrates the cotton plant and winds the seed cotton from the opened boll and carries it into a dropping zone inside the machine. See Cotton Stripper.

Cotton Stripper--A machine designed for pulling (stripping) the entire ripe cotton bolls from the cotton plant. At the cotton gin, the hulls, seed, and lint are separated. See Cotton Picker.

Cotton Wagon--A four-wheel trailer used to haul cotton from the picker to the gin. It is usually pulled with a tractor or truck.

Coulter--See Colter.

County--A political unit in the United States established by a state legislature. A county usually contains sixteen townships. Many counties are irregular in shape and may be smaller or larger than the usual size. The corresponding unit in Louisiana is called a parish.

County Agent--A professional worker-jointly employed by the county, State Cooperative Extension Service, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture-to bring agricultural and homemaking information to local people and to help them solve farm, home, and community problems. Also called extension agent, farm and home advisor, agricultural agent, home demonstration agent, and 4-H or youth agent. See Cooperative Extension Service.

County Drain--A constructed drainage system consisting of an open ditch, a closed conduit, or a combination of both that provides a drainage outlet for agricultural and urban areas. It is administered according to the laws of the individual state.

County Seat--The city, town, or village in which all or most of the governmental offices of the county are located.

Couple--To attach; to hitch: as to couple a trailer to a tractor.

Coupling--(1) The loin of an animal. (2) Mating; breeding; copulation. (3) A connecting means for transferring movement from one part of a machine or device to another; it may be hydraulic, mechanical, or electrical.

Coupling Pole--In a wagon, the shaft that connects the rear axle to the front bolster. Also called reach.

Cover--(1) A lid placed over something for protection. (2) Woods, underbrush, etc., which may conceal game. (3) Plant life, such as grass, small shrubs, herbs, etc., used to protect soil from erosion. (4) The flesh, hide, and fat on a fattened animal. (5) To buy back future contracts. (6) To copulate with a female, as a bull covers a cow. (7) To incubate, to hatch eggs, as a hen. (8) The proportion of the ground surface under live and dead aerial parts of plants. Also refers to shelter and protection for animals and birds.

Cow Calf Operation--A system of raising cattle thats main purpose is the production on calves that are sold at weaning.

Cow Index (CI)--A method of evaluating genetic value of dairy cows. In beef cattle selection, a score indication of a cow's calf producing ability. The formula is: (Adjusted Weaning Weight of the Calf divided by the Weight of the Cow at Weaning) multiplied by 100.

Cow Month--The tenure on range or artificial pasture of a cow for one month. The quantity of feed or forage required for the maintenance of a mature cow in good condition for one month. See Sheep Month.

Cowl--(1) A curved, flaring top fitted to a ventilator, turned by a wind vane in a downwind direction to improve drafts. (2) The hoodcovering of a tractor.

Cradle--(1) A handheld implement that was once used to harvest grain. (2) A device made of wood or aluminum worn around the neck of a horse, which prevents him from chewing at sores, blankets, bandages, etc.

Cranberry Barrel--A standardized container of 5,826-cubic inch capacity, used for marketing cranberries.

Crankcase--The lower housing in which the crankshaft and many other parts of an engine operate.

Crankcase Dilution--A thinning or dilution of the oil in an engine, usually caused by unburned fuel that has gotten by the piston rings and into the crankcase oil.

Crankshaft--The main drive shaft of an engine, which takes reciprocating motion and converts it to rotary motion.

Crawler--(1) A newly hatched insect. (2) A large earthworm. (3) A tractor equipped with tracks, as compared with one equipped with wheels.

Credit--A means of obtaining goods or services now by promising to repay at a later date.

Credit Insurance--Insurance taken out and paid for by the borrower to provide for the payment of the loan in case of the death of the insured borrower. Of the two major types of this insurance, one pays the total amount of the loan and the other pays the unpaid balance.

Credit, Supervised--A technique of providing loans in adequate amounts at low interest combined with intensive supervision provided by a management supervisor to help small farmers and their families upgrade their farming and homemaking.

Creditor--A person or firm extending credit.

Crenate--With shallow, obtuse or rounded teeth; scalloped.

Croker Sack--Gunny sack; toe sack.

Crop Ecology--A science that deals with the study of agricultural crops in relation to their environment, such as soil, climate, plant reaction, etc.

Crop Expense--Denoting the amount spent for seed, seed treatment, fertilizer, lime, marl, spray material, crop insurance, twine, and sometimes custom expenses.

Crop Outlook--An official prediction by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, which attempts to forecast the total amount of the national or state harvest for a particular crop. See Crop Reporter.

Crop Reporter--A person, usually a farmer, who, during the growing season, submits a monthly report to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, estimating the crop outlook in an assigned area, making estimates in percentages of the normal, and often providing other related farm information, such as number of sows farrowing, price of farmland, etc. See Crop Outlook.

Crop Shield--A device attached to a cultivator or sprayer to protect plants from being covered with soil during cultivation or from herbicide during spraying.

Crop Surplus--The portion of a particular crop for national consumption that remains unsold after the normal period for selling, usually at the time of the next harvest.

Crop Year--(1) The span of time from the planting to the harvesting of a crop. (2) The span of time from one harvest to the next.

Crop Yield--The amount of harvest per acre, or other land measure, for a particular crop.

Cropland--Land under cultivation within the past twenty-four months, including cropland harvested, crop failures, cultivated summer fallow, idle cropland used only for pasture, orchards and land in soil-improving crops, but excluding land cultivated in developing improved pasture.

Cropper--(1) A laborer to whom a farmer assigns a definite tract of land together with all or most of the necessary farming equipment, seed, and fertilizer and a share of the crops grown as remuneration for his labor. He is closely supervised by the farmer, receives free use of a tenant house, and ordinarily is given some opportunity to work for wages when his farming operations do not require his attention. Also called sharecropper. (2) A thrown rider.

Cropping Plan--The scheme of growing different crops in succession on the same land, in contrast to a one-crop system or a haphazard change of crops.

Cross-Compliance--A government farm program term meaning that if a farmer wishes to participate in a program for one crop by meeting the qualifications for price supports and loans for that program, the farmer must also meet the program provisions of other major program crops that the farmer grows.

Cross-fenced--Describing a farm or ranch enclosed by a fence, with fields or pastures fenced off within the enclosure.

Cryology--(1) In the United States, the study of refrigeration. (2) In Europe, a synonym for glaciology. (3) The study of ice and snow. (4) The study of sea ice.

CSD--Committee on Surplus Disposal.

CSRS--Cooperative State Research Service.

Cubage--The total number of cubic feet in a building; a term often used in calculating cost of construction. A more common basis for estimating construction costs of a farm or ranch house or barn is square footage of floor space.

Cubic Foot per Second--The standard unit of measurement of water flow in irrigation, which is 1 cubic foot of water flowing past a given point in 1 second.

Cubing Machine--Any device that macerates meat to make it tender.

Cull--(1) Anything worthless or nonconforming which is separated from other similar and better items; the act of removing the inferior items; to cull out. (2) The lowest marketing grade of meat carcasses or dressed poultry. (3) Any animal or fowl eliminated from the herd or flock because of unthriftiness, disease, poor conformation, etc.; a reject. (4) A lumbering term for defective or low-grade timber. (5) Any fruit that fails to meet grading specifications because of defects, maturity, conditions, etc.; e.g., ripe berries that have green tips.

Culling Chute--A chute through which sheep pass in single file so that their fleeces and other qualities can be judged so the poorest animals can be culled out.

Cultipacker--A clod crusher and soil packer with a corrugated roller.

Cultivator--(1) A farm implement used to break the surface of soil in which plants are growing, and remove weeds, consisting of a frame to which several shovels, teeth, disks, or blades are attached. (2) A person who plants, tends, harvests, and improves plants.

Cultural Control--The deliberate manipulation of the environment to make it less favorable for pests by disrupting their reproductive cycles, eliminating their food, or making it more favorable for their natural enemies. See Integrated Pest Management.

Culture--(1) The working of the ground in order to raise crops; cultivation; tillage. (2) Attention and labor given to the growth or propagation of plants or animals, especially with a view to improvement. (3) (a) The growing of microorganisms in a special medium. (b) The microorganisms which are so grown. (4) Bacteria used in making dairy and other products. See Mother Culture. (5) Human-made features of an area. (6) The specific way of life of a given society (community, tribe, nation).

Cup--(1) The receptacle attached to a tree to collect resin in turpentine orcharding. (2) A notch in a tree trunk made by two downward cuts of an ax for inserting a fatal herbicide. (3) A curve across the face of a piece of board. (4) A mechanical object resembling a drinking cup. (5) In lubrication, a vessel or small funnel for receiving oil and conveying it to a machine part, an oil cup. (6) In grain elevators, a bucket or receptacle with a curved outline.

Current--(1) The movement of electricity along a conductor; measured in amperes. See Alternating Current, Direct Current. (2) The flow of a stream of water.

Current Assets--Assets such as cash on hand, bills receivable, and other items that may be converted to cash immediately.

Current Liabilities--A debt that is due or will be due soon.

Current Meter--A device used for measuring the velocity of flow of water in irrigation streams, ditches, and rivers.

Cusec--A cubic foot of flowing water per second.

Custom Mixture--A commercial dry or fluid fertilizer formulated according to specifications, which is sold to a consumer prior to mixing. It is required by state law to be labeled to show the net weight, guaranteed analysis (grade), and the name and address of the distributor. If distributed in bulk a written or printed statement of the information required shall accompany delivery. Custom mixing is often done to apply nutrients required by a soil test.

Custom Work--Specific farm operations performed under contract between the farmer and contractor. The contractor furnishes labor, equipment, and materials to perform the operation. Custom harvesting of grain, spraying and picking of fruit, and sheep shearing are examples.

Cut--(1) A piece of meat prepared for retail or wholesale trade. (2) A slash wound. (3) The opening made by an ax, saw, etc., on a tree. (4) An excavation in the earth, either human-made or natural. (5) The action of a horse's hooves striking its legs or other hooves in walking or running, interfering with its gait. (6) The yield of certain crops, as wool or lumber. (7) (a) An animal separated from the main herd. (b) To separate an animal from the main herd. (8) A severing of the stem or a part of a plant. (9) The output of a sawmill for a given length of time. (10) (a) A reduction in numbers, amount, size, etc. (b) To reduce in numbers, amount, size, etc. (11) To mow. (12) To castrate; emasculate. (13) To sever the jugular vein of an animal or fowl for slaughter.

Cutter--(1) A low grade of beef just above canner. (2) A part of a bean harvester consisting of two broad blades set in a wheeled frame at a 60-degree angle, so as to cut two adjacent rows about 2 inches below the surface. (3) In turpentining, a three-cornered steel tool used to sharpen hacks and pullers. (4) The device that chops forage or other plant material preparatory to placing the item in a silo. (5) A sleigh drawn by one horse.

Cutter Bar--A device attached to the front of a combine, mower, forage harvester, etc. A reciprocating blade works inside finger-shaped guards. The scissorlike action cuts the plants that are to be harvested. Also known as a sickle bar.

Cutting Chute--A narrow passageway into which animals are driven to remove certain ones from the main herd.

Cuttoo--A flap over a wheel that protects the axle from flying mud; a mudguard.

CWE--Carcass Weight Equivalent.

CWT--Abbreviation for hundredweight; 100 pounds (U.S.). A British CWT = 112 pounds.

Cyclone--(1) A device for reducing tomatoes to pulp. Also called pulper. (2) Popularly, but incorrectly, a tornado. (3) A low atmospheric pressure area, frequently several hundred miles in diameter which advances at approximately 25 miles per hours with winds blowing in a counterclockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern; associated with warm and cold fronts in the middle latitudes. Also called low pressure area.

Cyclone Seeder--A hand-operated seeder that is strapped over the shoulder. A crank is turned and seeds are broadcast over the ground.

Cylinder--the round chamber in which the piston of an engine or hydraulic system operates.

Cylinder Head--A detachable part of an engine fastened securely to an engine block which contains all or a portion of the combustion chamber. In most modern engines the intake and exhaust valves also operate in the cylinder head.


D Ring--In harness making, a piece of metal shaped like the letter D or O to form a link between two separate bands, straps, or other harness devices.

Dairy Herd Improvement Assocation (DHIA)--A cooperative organization of approximately any twenty-five dairy farmers whose purpose is the testing of dairy cows for milk and fat production and the recording of feed consumed. Each farmer receives a monthly record for each of the cows and a complete, yearly summary of production and feed costs.

Darcy's Law--A volume of water passing through a porous medium such as soil in unit time is proportional to the cross-sectional area and to the difference in hydraulic head and inversely proportional to the thickness of the medium. The proportionality constant is called the hydraulic conductivity.

Dariloid--A sodium alginate, a gel, obtained from the giant Pacific Coast kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, which has remarkable water-absorbing properties. It is used as a constituent in ice cream mixes to stabilize the frozen product against large ice crystal formations.

Datum--(1) Any level surface taken as a surface of reference from which to measure elevations. In surveying, sea level is the basic reference. (2) A figure indicating a fact, as the number, quantity, or weight of an item, used principally in the plural, data.

Dead Center--The extreme top or bottom position of the crankshaft throw of an engine at which the piston is not moving up or down.

Dead Head--(1) A log which is sunken or partially sunken in a stream or body of water. (2) Blighted or dwarfed seed stalks which produce reduced yields of poor seed. (3) A survey crew returning to a known location without surveying.

Dead Man--A log or stone which is partially or completely buried in the ground to serve as an anchor.

Debenture--Bonds issued without security.

Debits--Charges against an account.

Debt Servicing Capacity--Measured as farm net cash flow less cash needed for family living expenses.

Decaliter--Ten liters, equivalent to 610.25 cubic inches or 0.284 bushel (U.S.).

Decare--A unit of metric land measure equal in area to 1,000 sqare meters and 0.247 acre. Also spelled dekare.

Decastere--A unit of measurement which is the equivalent of 10 cubic meters or 13.08 cubic yards.

Decentralization--A market trend that has replaced central market trading by direct sales by farmers to buyers in production areas; also refers to the movement of food-processing plants from cities to farm production areas.

Decibel (dB)--A unit of sound measurement.

Decistere--A unit of measurement containing 0.1 cubic meter or 3.5315 cubic feet.

Declination--The angle, variable with geographic position, between the direction in which the magnetic needle points (magnetic north) and the true meridian (true north).

Decreasing Payment Plan--A plan whereby a fixed amount of principal is paid each year plus interest on the unpaid balance. The payments are larger at the beginning of the payment period than at the end because of the interest that is due.

Deductible Clause--A clause in an insurance policy that specifies that the policyholder will pay a portion of the total claims.

Deed Restriction--A restriction placed on property in the deed.

Default--Nonperformance of a duty arising under a contract.

Defeasance--A provision or condition in a deed or in a separate instrument which, being performed, renders the instrument void.

Deferred Grazing--The keeping of livestock from a pasture until there is enough vegetation to support the animals, or in the western range of United States, until the seeds of the herbage have matured.

Deferred Pricing--A price that is determined sometimes after the product has been transferred from the seller to the buyer.

Deferred-rotation Grazing--The system of range management in which grazing is postponed on various parts of a range during succeeding years, allowing each part successively to rest during the growing season to permit seed production and better vegetative spread.

Deficiency Payment--Direct government payment to producers when the average price received by farmers falls below the target price. For eligible producers the payment is determined by formula: deficiency payment = farm program acreage x farm program payment yield x payment rate.

Deflation--(1) A fall or drop in the general price level. (2) The removal of loose material, such as soil, by the wind, thus leaving a bare surface.

Dehydration--The removal of 95 percent or more of the water from any substance by exposure to high temperature.

Delaney Clause--Legislation passed by the United States Congress in 1958 that forbids the addition to food any additives shown to be carcinogenic in any species of animal or in humans.

Delcivity--A descending slope, as opposed to an acclivity, an ascending slope.

Demand--A schedule of the quantities of products that consumers will buy at alternative prices.

Demand Expansion--A marketing effort that seeks to shift the demand curve for a product of industry to the right so that more can be sold at the same price, or so that a higher price can be obtained for a given quantity of sales.

Demeter--(Greek) Goddess of agriculture. See Ceres.

Demonstration Agent--County Extension Agent; County Agricultural Agent; County Home Demonstration Agent. See Extension Service.

Demonstration Plot--A plot of ground used to demonstrate realistically approved practices, procedures, and techniques in agricultural production. It is not intended for conducting experiments. See Experiment Stations.

Demurrage--A charge made on cars or vessels held beyond a specified time limit by or for consignor or consignee for loading or unloading, for forwarding directions or for any other purpose.

Dendrometer--An instrument for measuring the diameter of a tree, outside bark. If used to measure diameter, continuously, the instrument is known as a dendrograph.

Densimeter--A device which measures the density of a material.

Density--(1) Mass per unit volume. (2) The number of wild animals per unit of area. (3) The degree of closeness with which wool fibers are packed together. (4) In forestry, density of stocking expressed in number of trees, basal area, volume, or other criteria on an acre or hectare basis. See Stocking.

Depreciation--The decrease in value of buildings, other improvements, and machinery which is caused by wear, tear, and obsolescence.

Depression--(1) A slight following in the flesh of an animal. (2) A hollow in the surface of the land. (3) A severe drop in income and prices for an area or for a nation. (4) The Great Depression denotes the economic reversal that took place in the United States in the 1930s, which was associated with the Stock Market Crash in October 1929.

Derived Demand--The relationship of a demand schedule at one market level to a schedule at another market level; for example, the farm demand for hogs is derived (or results from) the consumer demand for pork chops.

Descaling--The removal of milk stone, rust, or other corrosive oxides form metals by means of a weak acid such as acetic acid or 10% hydrochloric acid.

Detergent--(1) A compound of a soaplike nature used in engine oil to remove engine deposits and hold them in suspension in the oil. (2) A chemical (not soap) having the ability to remove oil or grime. Household detergents can be used as surfactants in herbicide sprays. See Surfactants.

Detonation--A premature or too rapid burning or ignition of the fuel mixture in the cylinders of an engine. It causes a knocking sound in the engine.

DHIA--See Dairy Herd Improvement Association.

DHIA Records--Production records of cows tested under the supervision of the tester of a Dairy Herd Improvement Association.

Diameter Tape--A tape that is put around a tree at a 4.5-foot height. The tape is graduated to read the diameter.

Dibble--(1) A small hand tool used to make holes in the soil for planting bulbs and seeds, or for transplanting plants. It usually has a wooden handle and a steel or brass point. Also called dibber. (2) To transplant with a dibble.

Diesel Engine--A type of internal combustion engine that uses a fuel injection system instead of a carburetor and produces combustion temperatures by the heat of compression instead of a spark plug. The fuel is an oil rather than gasoline. The engine was named after its designer Dr. Rudolph Diesel.

Differential--(1) The difference in price paid for grades which are higher or lower than the basic grade, usually fixed by contract. (2) A system of gears in a tractor or other vehicle which permits one wheel of a pair to travel independently of the other when necessary, at the same time causing each wheel to receive its share of the power from the engine.

Differential Leveling--A method of leveling by which the difference in elevation between two points is determined.

Digestion Coefficient--The amount of a given feed that is digested by an animal expressed as a percentage of the gross amount eaten.

Diminishing Balance Method of Depreciation--A fixed amount of the value of an item is depreciated each year until the salvage value is reached.

Diminishing Returns--See Law of Diminishing Returns.

Dipper--(1) A cup that has a long handle. (2) One who collects the oleoresin from turpentine cups, or the tool used to remove oleoresin from the cups.

Direct Buying--The practice whereby food marketing firms purchase directly from farmers or shipping point markets rather than from terminal markets.

Direct Current (DC)--An electrical current that flows steadily in the same direction along a conductor. It is produced by a generator or battery. See Alternating Current.

Direct Drive--The direct engagement between the engine of a tractor or other machine and the driveshaft where the engine crankshaft and the driveshaft turn at the same speed.

Direct Payments--Payments made by the federal government to agricultural producers enrolled in commodity programs. A deficiency payment is the most common form of a direct payment. Deficiency payments can be made in cash or in certificates entitling the producer to receive an equivalent cash value of crops.

Directs--Stock purchased by packers and shipped direct to them for slaughter.

Dirt Farmer--(1) A farmer who does all or part of his own work in the fields and stables, as contrasted to one who hires all labor or rents his land, or to an absentee farm owner who employs a manager to operate his farm. (2) At times, a name used to downgrade a person.

Disc--See Disk.

Discharge--(1) The quantity of water, silt, or other mobile substances passing along a conduit per unit of time; rate of flows. (2) An exudate or abnormal material coming from a wound or from any of the body openings: e.g., a bloody discharge from the nose. (3) To remove the electrical energy from a battery.

Discount--(1) The amount allowed as a deduction for the settlement or payment of a debt before it is due to be paid. (2) The amount of money that is deducted as a fee by banks or brokerage houses from the sale of an issue of securities. (3) The excess money over the par value or face value of a land contract, or other security.

Discount Factor--The value by which a future cash flow must be multiplied to calculate its present value.

Discounted Loan--A loan where the interest is deducted from the principal at the time the loan is made.

Discounting--Calculation of the present value of a future sum accounting for the rate of compound interest.

Disk--(1) A round, usually sharp-edged, slightly dished, steel plate that cuts the soil as it revolves on a center axis and moves the soil to one side. Several disks are mounted and spaced on a horizontal shaft to make the disk harrow. Also called disk blade. See Disk Harrow. (2) One of a series of metal plates in a centrifugal separator bowl that increases the efficiency of the machine. (3) In botany, (a) an adhesive surface on the tendril ends of creeper plants that enables them to climb along flat surfaces; (b) an enlargement of a flower's receptacle; (c) the center of a composite flower; (d) an organ's surface; (e) the circular valve of a diatom. Also spelled disc.

Disk Harrow--A harrow consisting of two or more gangs of disks used: (a) to cut debris, especially vegetable matter on the surface of the oil; (b) to pulverize the top layer of the soil before or after plowing; (c) to prepare plowed ground for planting; (d) to cultivate crops growing in widely spaced rows; (e) to cover seed sown broadcast; (f) for summer fallowing.

Disk Hiller--A cultivator attachment that is composed of a disk that throws a hill of soil around the plants in the row.

Disk Mower--A hay-cutting implement that cuts by means of blades on rotating disks that are mounted on a bar or arm.

Disk Plow--A plow that uses a disk rather than a share and a moldboard to cut and turn the soil. It is preferable to the moldboard plows in very loose soil, hard ground, or land covered with much plant, residue or debris, as it will not scour. Also, it is possible to change the angle of the disk.

Displacement--A measure of the size of an engine. It refers to the volume displaced by one complete stroke or revolution of the pistons. For example a 360 cubic inch displacement (cid) engine. Displacement Ton--See Ton.

Dispossess--To deprive a person of his/her possession or occupancy of real estate by legal action.

Distillation--The process of separating the components of a mixture by differences in boiling point; a vapor is formed from the liquid by heating the liquid in a vessel and successively collecting and condensing the vapors into liquids.

Distilled Water--Water that has been boiled, converted into steam, and then condensed by cooling. Also known as deionized water.

Distributor--(1) Any device that is used to move produce from one place and to scatter it in another; e.g., a fertilizer distributor. (2) An agent or a wholesaler who sells goods in quantity. (3) A device in some bulk milk tanks that spreads the milk over a cooling surface. (4) That part of a motor engine that conducts the secondary current to the spark plugs.

Ditch--An artificial excavation, as a trench or channel dug to carry irrigation or drainage water.

Ditch Rider--A person appointed by an irrigation company or a governmental unit to examine irrigation ditches, weirs, etc., and to adjust the measuring devices so that the correct amount of water is delivered to each farmer.

Ditching Machine--Used for digging ditches, tile trenches, and making excavations. The machine is powered by an internal combustion engine and has a bucket with a cutting edge attached to a steel frame. It may also have a continuous belt or wheel to which buckets are attached to dig out the soil and deposit it at the side of the trench.

Diversification--The practice of raising many kinds of crops or animals on a farm. See Single-crop Farming.

Diversion Dam--A barrier built to divert part of all of the water from a stream into a different course; e.g., into an irrigation ditch.

Diversion Payments--A per-acre payment available in certain years as an option to producers enrolled in commodity programs who divert land from the production of a program crop in addition to the acreage required by the set-aside provisions of a specific commodity program.

Diversion Terrace--A wide, relatively shallow channel of low gradient with gentle side slopes and ample water capacity, which is constructed across the slope of a field to intercept and change the direction of flow and to reduce the velocity of run-off water and to reduce erosion.

Diviner--One who presumes to discover the location of oil, gas, water, or ore deposits in the earth; a dowser. See Dowsing.

Divining Rod--A rod or switch, often a forked willow or peach twig, which when held tightly in the hands of a dowser (water witch) is supposed to be irresistibly drawn to the earth over an underground supply of water, and hence, is used in locating a place to drill a water well. See Dowsing, Water Witch.

Dockage--(1) Foreign material in harvested grain such as weed seeds, chaff, and dust. (2) The weight deducted from stags and pregnant sows to compensate for unmerchantable parts of an animal.

Dodrans--A full span of a man's hand (from wrist to fingertip), about 9 inches or 23 centimeters.

Dog--(1) Canis familiaris, family Canidae; a domesticated, carnivorous animal which is used as a household pet, a watchdog, a herder for sheep, cows, etc. (2) A device, usually consisting of a steel hook and chain, used in skidding logs. (3) A sort of iron hook or bar with one or more sharp fangs that may be fastened into a piece of wood or other heavy article to move it. (4) Any part of a machine acting as a claw or clutch, as an adjustable stop to change the direction of a machine tool. (5) A low-qualitiy beef animal.

Dolly--A platform on rollers on which heavy loads may be moved, usually in a packing plant or warehouse.

Domestic Market--A market within the boundaries of the United States.

Domestic Water Use--Water used for drinking, sanitation, street flushing, fire protection, and lawn and garden irrigation.

Donkey--(1) A portable engine. (2) An ass.

Doodlebug--(1) The larva of several small insects. (2) A homemade tractor constructed from a used automobile.

Double Wheel--A type of wheel used on a planter that consists of two separate wheels having smaller diameters on one side, which are set with the smaller sides touching, forming an acute angle. The wheels serve to cover the seed and compress the soil. Also known as press wheel.

Double-acting Tank Pump--A type of sprayer pump which forces an ejection on both the downward and upward strokes.

Double-bitted Ax(e)--An ax whose head has two cutting edges.

Double-breaking Cart--A cart which usually consists of the hind wheels and gears of a large wagon and a platformlike seat extending out behind the wheels. Its tongue is often made from a pole up to 6 inches in diameter. It is used to train horses and mules to work in teams.

Double-decked Car--A railway car or truck having two main floors, one above the other. It is used for the shipment of sheep, hogs, calves, etc.

Double-disk Harrow--A harrow in which two single-disk harrows are arranged in tandem. The front gangs are set to throw the soil outward, while the rear gangs are set to throw the soil inward to leave the surface level. Also called double-action harrow, tandem disk harrow.

Double-folding Marker--A type of row marker for a planter that consists of two separate rods attached to either side of the planter. On the end of each rod is a disk or spike tooth for marking the soil for the location of the next row. One marker is used as the planter moves across the field, the other on the return trip.

Dousing Rod--Divining rod.

Dower Right--The widow's right in her husband's real estate. At one time, it was a one-third share.

Down Suction--The downward bend of the point of a turning plow share which helps the plow penetrate the soil to the proper depth as it moves forward.

Downspout--A pipe leading downward from a gutter to carry rainwater from a roof.

Dowser--One who uses a divining rod to locate underground water and indicate the place to drive, dig, or drill a well. Also called water witch, water diviner.

Dowsing--(origin of word Unknown) Using a small forked stick known as a divining rod to locate underground water. This technique has never been accepted by scientists.

Draft--(1) A package deduction, one pound per hundred pounds, allowed a buyer of wool. (2) The horizontal component of pull of an implement parallel to the line of motion. Also called directional pull. (3) Similar to a check but instead of being charged to a signer it is charged to a third person named on the face of the draft. (4) Any feedstuff obtained as a by-product of the distillation of grains.

Drag--(1) To pull a heavy object such as a log, across a newly plowed field for the purpose of smoothing the soil surface. (2) To move a fish net through the water.

Drag Chain--An endless belt of chains that is used to move corn, etc., as from a loading platform of the silage cutter.

Drainage District--An organization that operates under legal regulations for financing, constructing, and operating a drainage system.

Drainage Easement--An easement for directing the flow of water. See Easement.

Drawbar--A device at the rear of a tractor to which implements are hitched.

Drawbar Horsepower--A measure of the pulling power of a tractor at the drawbar hitch. See Brake Horsepower, Effective Horsepower, Horsepower, Rated Horsepower.

Dray--(1) A wagon used for heavy hauling. (2) A single sled used in hauling logs in which one end of the log rides on the sled and the other drags on the ground.

Dredge--(1) Oat and barley seed sown together and cultivated to be used for making malt. (2) Any of several different types of machines to deepen channels and clean out ditches, etc. (3) To excavate or deepen and clean stream beds. (4) To coat the surfaces of food with flour, cornmeal, breadcrumbs or other fine substances before cooking.

Drier--Any device used for removing moisture from a product, usually consisting of a heating unit and a large fan for forcing the hot, dry air through the product being dried. Alfalfa is sometimes dried in such a way before being stored. Also called dehydrator.

Drift Fence--A line of fence, open at both ends, used to direct the movement of grazing animals on the ranges of the western United States.

Drifter--(1) A term once used on the open ranges of the western United States for a shepherd, or owner of a band of sheep, who moved about grazing his sheep. (2) A hired hand who moves from place to place with the season or job and has no permanent location.

Drill--(1) A small furrow in which seeds are planted. (2) A row of seeds that have been planted by dibbling in a small furrow. (3) An implement for planting seeds that forms a small furrow, deposits the seed in dibbles, covers the seeds, and packs soil over it. It can also deposit fertilizer, lime, or other soil preparations into the soil, alone or with the seed. (4) A very small, trickling stream or rill.

Drip Gutter--A small gutter inside a greenhouse at the point where the roof and walls meet which carries off water formed by condensation inside the greenhouse.

Drive--(1) (a) The moving of livestock under human direction; (b) To herd livestock. (2) In wildlife management, the herding of wild animals past a particular point for counting or shooting. (3) The process of floating logs down a river from a forest area to a mill or to a shipping point. (4) The means for giving motion to a machine part or machine, as a drive chain, a drive wheel.

Drive Line--The universal joints, drive shaft, and other parts connecting the transmission of a truck, tractor, or other machine with the driving axles. See Universal Joints.

Drive-ins--Designating those cattle that are herded in to market, as contrasted to those transported there by truck, etc.

Driveway--(1) In the range country, that land which is set aside for the movement of livestock from place to place; e.g., from the home range to the shipping point. Also called stock driveway, stock route. (2) A path or passage, sometimes paved, for the movement of vehicles and/or livestock. (3) The farm road from the building site to the gate at the highway. (4) Vehicle passage into or through a barn.

Drosometer--An instrument that measures the quantity of moisture precipitated as dew.

Drum--(1) A cylinder-shaped package or product, as a drum of cheese. (2) A revolving cylinder, as the drum of a seed cleaner. (3) To knock on the sides of a hive to drive the bees upward when transferring them from one hive to another.

Dry Kiln--A structure in which lumber is seasoned artificially or in which pine cones are dried and opened to collect the seed.

Dry Masonry--Stonework which is laid without mortar.

Drying by Sublimation--The removal of water from a product while it is frozen to lock the molecular structure so that changes cannot occur during dehydration and to prevent bacteriological action. Also called freeze-dried.

Dryland Farming--A system of producing crops in semi-arid regions-usually with less than 20 inches (50 centimeters) of annual rainfall-without the use of irrigation. Frequently, in alternate years part of the land will lie fallow to conserve moisture.

Duff Hygrometer--An instrument for measuring the moisture content of litter to determine fire hazard.

Dump--(1) The storage yard of a portable sawmill. (2) A place for refuse. (3) To unload a truck or wagon by raising the bed and allowing the loaded material to fall to the ground. (4) To discard unwanted materials or refuse.

Dumpy Level--A leveling instrument in which the telescope is permanently attached to the leveling base, either rigidly or by a hinge that can be manipulated by means of a micrometer screw.

Duress--Forcing action or inaction against a person's will.

Dwelling--(1) A farm or ranch home or family residence. (2) A barely perceptible pause in the stride of a horse just before it places one of its feet to the ground when approaching a jump.

Dynamite--(Greek; dynamis, power) An explosive made from nitroglycerin, ammonium nitrate, or similar material absorbed in a porous material similar to sawdust and used on farms and ranches for blasting out stumps and large rocks and for making drainage ditches.

Dynamometer--An instrument for measuring force over time and distance. Used in horse-pulling and tractor-pulling contests and in tractor-evaluation research.


Easement--(1) The right of access or right-of-way through land which is usually attained by purchase for a specific purpose, such as for the construction and maintenance of a gas line, power line, oil line, or telephone line. (2) A vested or acquired right to use land, other than as a tenant or the owner, for a specific purposes.

Ecological Factor (Limiting Factor)--Any part or condition of the habitat affecting directly or indirectly the life of one more organisms in such a way as to differentiate it from other vegetation; often classified into: (a) climatic, physiographic and edaphic, and biotic factors; (b) direct, indirect, and remote factors.

Economic Entomology--That branch of insect study directed toward preventing human losses and increasing gains through manipulation of insect populations. Examples of economic entomology include the methods of protecting plants, people, and animals from insect-borne diseases by insecticides, drainage, crop rotation, and integrated pest management; and the culture of silkworms, honeybees, and various beneficial parasitic insects.

Economic Injury Level--The point at which the buildup of an insect population starts to cause economic damage to a crop or group of animals.

Economic Maturity--The age and growth rate at which a tree or stand of trees will no longer increase in value fast enough to earn a satisfactory rate of interest. At this time the trees should be marketed. Also called financial maturity.

Economic Poisons--Any of the recommended and approved insecticides, herbicides, rodenticides, etc.

Economic Research Service (ERS)--This USDA service develops and carries out a program of economic research designed to benefit farmers and the general public. The findings of this research are made available to farmers and others through research reports and through economic outlook and situation reports on major commodities, the national economy, and the international economy. The ERS functions through a central office in Washington, D.C., and through a field organization that is involved chiefly in farm and marketing economic research. Much of the research is carried on in cooperation with state experiment stations, state departments of agriculture or marketing, and other state institutions.

Economic Size--Under a specified soil, climate, enterprise, and management, the optimum size of a farm, ranch or other agricultural operation that will yield the highest net return for the operator's labor, capital, and management.

Economic Threshold--The point at which insect control measures should be started before a population of insects becomes dense enough to cause economic loss.

Economy of Gain--The amount of feed required per unit of gain in the weight of an animal or fowl expressed in cash value, i.e., the pounds of feed per pound of gain converted to dollars.

Economy of Scarcity--The theory that limited production and relative scarcity of a commodity will result in greater good for a country's economy than abundance, and consequently lower prices.

Edge Firing--A method of controlled burning in which fires are set around the perimeter of the area to be burned and allowed to spread inward.

Edger--A tool used for cutting the sod along walks, the edges of flower borders, shrub borders, and beds. Also called edge iron.

Effective Field Capacity--The actual work accomplished in acres or hectares per hour by an implement despite loss of time from field end turns, inadequate tractor capacity, deficient tractor or implement preparation, adverse soil conditions, irregular field contours, lack of operator skill, or other factors.

Effective Half-Life--Biological half-life.

Effective Horsepower--A measure of the power of a machine calculated by the formula: drawbar pull (pounds) = speed in feet per minute divided by 33,000. One horsepower = 745.7 watts. See Brake Horsepower, Drawbar Horsepower, Horsepower, Rated Horsepower.

Effective Progeny Number (EPN)--An indication of the amount of information available for estimation of expected progeny differences in sire evaluation. It is the function of the number of progeny but it is adjusted for their distribution among herds and contemporary groups and for the number of contemporaries by other sires. EPN is less than the actual number because the distribution of progeny is never ideal.

Efficiency of Irrigation--The fraction of the water diverted from a river or other source that is consumed by the crop, expressed as percent. Often applied to whole irrigation systems and takes account of conveyance losses. See Consumptive Use.

Egg Cart--A rolling device used for transporting stacked trays of eggs to the hatchery.

Egg Exchange--A market where eggs are bought and sold in large quantities and where eggs are traded on futures.

Egg Money--Income derived from the sale of eggs from a general farm, an enterprise usually supervised by the farmer's wife. It is usually set aside for emergencies or for the purchase of personal luxuries.

Elasticity--The ability of wool to return to its original length after having been stretched. The elasticity varies greatly with the character of the wool. Wool that is sound and has good character has considerable elasticity.

Elasticity of Demand--The tendency of demand for a commodity to be influenced or changed by various factors. Price elasticity is the tendency of demand to change as price goes up or down. Income elasticity is the tendency of demand to change as the consumer's income goes up or down. Both are related to ability to buy.

Electric Exerciser--A device, similar to a merry-go-round, consisting of a steel framework that is turned by a motor. Bulls are chained to the frame at the outer edge so that as the device revolves they are forced to walk in a circle for exercise.

Electric Fence--A fence or enclosing device that consists of a single wire supported by insulators on widely separated posts. The wire is attached to a controller that emits electric current for one-tenth of a second or less, forty-five to fifty-five times per minute. When an animal touches the wire, it receives a sharp, short, but harmless, electrical shock. The fence, when properly installed, is not injurious to human beings.

Electric Fly Screen--A window screen so charged with electricity that when an insect alights on the screen it is electrocuted.

Electric Prod(der)--A portable, battery-powered, canelike device used to control or drive livestock by giving them a slight electrical shock.

Electric-capacity Moisture Meter--A meter used for determining the moisture content of wood by utilizing the variation in dielectric capacity of wood with changing moisture content.

Electrical-resistance Moisture Meter--A device used for determining moisture content, directly or indirectly, by measuring the electrical resistance of water, or that of the material itself, as soil, in relation to its content of water.

Electrolyte--(1) A nonmetallic substance that will conduct an electric current by the movement of ions when dissolved in certain solvents or when fused by heat; common salt is an example of an electrolyte. (2) A solution containing salts and energy sources used to feed young animals suffering from scours (diarrhea).

Electrostatic Precipitator--A device that collects particulates by placing an electrical charge on them and attracting them onto a collecting electrode. Used for taking pollutants out of the air.

Electrostatic Sprayer--A spraying system that uses electrical forces of attraction to greatly increase the amount of spray that covers the plant. Individual spray droplets are given an intense electrical charge within a specially designed atomizing nozzle and propelled toward the plant. Individual spray droplets are given an intense electrical charge within a specially designed atomizing nozzle and propelled toward the plant. The approaching charged spray cloud induces an opposite electrical charge into the plants. The charges cause the spray droplets to be attracted like a magnet to the plant. Spray coverage is greatly increased.

Elevator--(1) Any of a number of devices, most often consisting of endless belts, chains and buckets, screws, or suction tubes that are used to raise materials from a lower to a higher level. (2) A building designed for the handling and storage of cereal grains, dried beans, and other seed crops. It may also be used for processing and selling products.

Eligible Storage--A term designating cribs or bins which are of such substantial and permanent construction as to afford protection against rodents, other animals, thieves, and weather, and are therefore eligible for use in storing grain for a United States government loan.

Emblement--In law, the profits from sown land.

Emigration--Movement out of an area. See Immigration.

Eminent Domain, Right of--(1) The right or power of government subject to constitutional and statutory limitations to take private property for public use upon making just compensation. (2) The legal right of public agencies to claim private property for public use, if compensation is made to the owner for property so claimed. The use of this power is limited by the "Due Process of the Law" clause in the 14th Amendment of the United States Constitution.

Empirical Yield Table--A table showing the progressive development of a timber stand at periodic intervals. The table covers the greater part of the useful life of the stand. It is prepared based on actual stand conditions.

Encroachment--A fixture, or structure, such as a wall or fence, that invades a portion of a property belonging to another.

Encumbrance--Any lien or liability attached to real property.

End Play--The amount of axial or end-to-end movement in a shaft of a machine that is due to the clearance in the bearings.

Endorsement--An additional signature on a promissory note that indicates that the signer pledges his unsecured property and is willing to pay the note should the borrower fail to do so.

Energy--The capacity to do work. It may take a number of forms, among them mechanical, chemical, and radiant, and can be transformed from one form to another, but cannot be created or destroyed.

Energy Dissipator--A device used to reduce the excess energy of flowing water.

Energy Head--The energy of a unit height of a stream that takes into account the elevation of the hydraulic grade line at any section plus the velocity head of the mean velocity of the water in that section. The energy head may be referred to any datum, or to an inclined plane, such as the bed of a conduit.

Energy of Position--Potential energy, or the energy possessed by a body by virtue of its position as distinguished from the energy of motion or kinetic energy; e.g., water stored in an elevated reservoir represents potential energy, since its release to a lower level may be utilized to do work, as in a hydroelectric power plant.

Engel's Law--A tendency for the share of a family's (or nation's) income spent for food to fall as income rises. This suggests that the income elasticity of food is lower than that of other products.

Enterprise--A project on a farm, such as the production of any crop or livestock.

Entrepreneur--An individual or firm that commits resources to productive activities in pursuit of a profit; a risk taker and profit seeker.

Environmental Impact Statement--A document prepared by a person, an industry, or a political entity on the environmental impact of its proposals for legislation and other major actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. Environmental impact statements are used as tools for decision making and are required by the National Environmental Policy Act.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)--A federal agency charged by Congress to protect the nation's land, air, and water systems. Under a mandate of national environmental laws focused on air and water quality, solid-waste management and the control of toxic substances, pesticides, noise, and radiation, the EPA strives to formulate and implement actions that lead to a compatible balance between human activities and the ability of natural systems to support and nurture life.

Environmental Quality--An evaluation of environmental quality should include: (a) areas of natural beauty; (b) water, land, and air quality; (c) biological resources and selected ecosystems; (d) geological, archeological, and historical resources; and (e) irretrievable commitments of resources to future use. The sum total of the forces and factors that influence people's satisfactions with their work, leisure, living conditions, and community.

EPA--See Environmental Protection Agency.

EPA Establishment Number--A number assigned to factories that produce pesticides. The numbers are printed on the containers of pesticides to indicate where the pesticide was made.

EPA Registration Number--A number that appears on the label of pesticides to indicate the number under which the pesticide was registered by the manufacturer.

Equitable Rights--Having certain rights because of the ownership of a certain equity.

Equity--The net ownership of a farmer/rancher in his/her business which is the difference between the assets and liabilities of an individual or business as shown on the balance sheet or financial statement. it is comparable to net worth.

Equivalent per Million--An equivalent weight of an ion or salt per one million grams of solution or soil. For solutions, equivalents per million and milliequivalents per liter (meq/1) are numerically identical if the specific gravity of the solution is 1.0.

Equivalent Weight--The weight in grams of an ion or compound that combines with or replaces 1 gram of hydrogen. The atomic weight or formula weight divided by its valence.

Eradicator--(1) Any agent used for the destruction of weeds, insects pests, etc. (2) A device used for scraping the edible flesh from the pineapple shell after the central portion has been removed.

Erect--(1) Designating upright plants, in contrast to prostrate ones. (2) To build or construct buildings, etc.

Erg--Unit of energy measurement. A force of 1 dyne acting through a distance of 1 centimeter.

Ergon--(Greek) Work.

Erodibility Index--An index based on a field's inherent tendency to erode from rain or wind in the absence of a cover crop. It is based on the universal soil loss equation (USLE) and the wind erosion equation (WEE), along with a soil's T value. See T Value, Universal Soil Loss equation, Wind Erosion Equation.

Escheat--The reversion of property to the state in the event the owner thereof dies without leaving a will and has no heirs to whom the property may pass by lawful descent.

Escrow--Money, a deed, or other written instrument delivered to a disinterested third person to be delivered by him or her upon fulfillment of some condition or conditions imposed by written instructions.

Esplees--The yield from farmland; e.g., profit from rent, crops, or remuneration for such.

Establishment--(1) The adjustment of a plant to a new site, consisting of three processes: germination, growth, and reproduction. Also called acesis. (2) A farmstead. (3) An economic unit, generally at a single physical location, where business is conducted or where services or industrial operations are performed.

Estancia--A small farm or small cattle ranch (southwestern United States).

Estate--(1) A relatively large acreage on which are a residence and other buildings, lawns, flower gardens, etc. It connotes wealth and is not usually cultivated for profit. (2) One's entire property. (3) The property left by a person after death.

Estimate--A judgment of the approximate volume or yield of a crop or a timber stand made from incomplete data.

Estimated Breeding Value (EBV)--In beef cattle, an estimate of the value of an animal as a parent, expressed as a ratio with 100 being average. For example, a bull with a yearling weight EBV of 110 would be expected to sire calves with yearling weights 10 percent greater than average.

Estimated Relative Producing Ability (ERPA)--In dairy cattle, a prediction of 305-day, two times per day milking, mature equivalent production compared with the production of other cows in the herd.

Ethnic Group--A segment of a population set aside because of distinct cultural and racial characteristics that is usually of a separate historical origin than the rest of the population.

Eugenics--The application of knowledge of heredity to the improvement of the human race; the study of agencies under social control that may improve or impair the racial qualities of future generations, either physically or mentally.

Evaporative Cooling--Air evaporates water and in the process the air loses heat to the water. Water plus heat equals vapor.

Evaporator--That part of the refrigeration system in which the refrigerant is changed from a liquid to a vapor. The heat required to vaporize the liquid refrigerant is obtained from the product to be cooled.

Even-age Management--The application of a combination of actions designed to create stands in which trees of essentially the same age grow together.

Ex--Prefix meaning without or destitute of.

Excambiator--An exchanger of lands; a broker.

Exempt Carrier--A motor vehicle that hauls raw agricultural commodities and is therefore exempt from Interstate Commerce Commission regulations.

Exempt Stock--In the United States, livestock that are permitted to graze on federal land free of charge. Usually confined to animals actually used for domestic purposes: saddle horses, milk cows, etc.

Exhaust Gas Analyzer--An instrument used to determine the efficiency with which an engine is burning fuel.

Expansion Joint--A device used in connecting long lines of piping, pavement slabs, etc., to permit linear expansion or contraction as the temperature rises or falls.

Experiment--(Latin; experimentum, proof from experience) Action to discover or demonstrate general or specific truth.

Experiment Stations--United States Department of Agriculture research facilities associated with state agricultural universities, where new ways of farming, ranching, or rural living are officially tested.

Experimental Design--The plan of an experiment, intended to ensure that the data to be collected will be suitable for statistical analysis.

Exploitive Farming--Crop production carried on for immediate profit and in disregard of long-term soil productivity.

Export-Import Bank of Washington, D.C.--The bank that aids in financing and facilitating exports and imports and the exchange of commodities between the United States and foreign countries or their agencies or nations. The bank supplements rather than competes with private capital. Its loans, generally made for specific purposes, offer reasonable assurance of repayment.

Exports, United States Agricultural--United States shipment of agricultural commodities to foreign countries.

Extension Service--An agency of the United States Department of Agriculture that represents that department in the conduct of cooperative extension work with the various land-grant colleges and universities. See Cooperative Extension Service.

Extensive Farming--Farming in which a relatively small amount of labor is spread over a large tract of land. See Intensive Farming.


F.O.B.--Free on board; an expression indicating that the seller assumes all responsibilities and costs up to the specific point or stage of delivery named, including transportation, packing, insurance, etc. The buyer takes over responsibility and costs at the same point. A wide variety of f.o.b. terms are used, as f.o.b. factory, f.o.b. cars, f.o.b. ship New York, f.o.b. Detroit, etc.

Factor--(1) A unit of inheritance occupying a definite locus on one or both members of a definite chromosome pair whose presence is responsible for the development of a certain character or modification of a character of the individual who possesses that genotype; a determiner or gene. (2) An agent, as one who buys and sells a commodity on commission for others. (3) An item in the analysis of a farm business; e.g., labor efficiency. (4) Inherent characteristics of the climatic, nutritional, cultural, or biological environment responsible for the specific performances of plants or animals.

Factorial Design--An experimental design in which each level of each factor appears with each level of each other factor.

Factory Farm--A term applied to a farm or type of farming that is usually operated on a large scale according to modern business efficiency standards, solely for monetary profit, as contrasted to a so-called family farm, or farming as a way of life.

Fahrenheit Scale--A temperature scale in which the freezing point of water is 32[degrees]F and the boiling point is 212[degrees]F. Named after Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit (1686-1736), a German physicist. See Celsius Scale, Kelvin Scale.

Fair--(1) An exhibition of farm products, etc., on a competitive basis, usually with premiums offered for excellence. (2) The next-to-lowest grade of Mexican vanilla beans, hothouse lamb carcasses, and other products.

Fair Condition--(1) A range-condition class; a range producing only 25 to 50 percent of its potential. The cover consists of early maturing plants of low value for forage or for soil protection. (2) Denoting a medium condition of plants, plant products, or animals.

Fair Market Value--In appraising, the summation of the price and terms for which a property should or does exchange within a reasonable time between a seller and an able, willing, and informed buyer with a reasonable cash payment. Also called market value, normal sale value.

Fall--(1) The dropping of a plant part, such as leaves or fruits. (2) The slope of land. (3) The amount of precipitation. (4) (a) The quantity of trees cut, (b) Felling trees. (5) (a) The number of lambs born. (b) Giving birth, as of lambs. (6) One of the three outer segments of an iris flower that is often drooping (usually used in the plural). (7) Autumn. (8) Of, or pertaining to, a plant or fruit that matures in the autumn, as a fall apple.

Fall Short--To fail to attain an expected or desirable yield.

Fallage--(1) The act of cutting trees. (2) Timber that has been felled.

Faller--One who cuts down trees.

Falling Ax--A double-bitted ax designed for felling trees, having a long handle and narrow bits.

Falling Wedge--In lumbering, a wedge that is driven into the cut in a tree behind the saw to direct the fall of the tree away from the saw.

Family--(1) A unit of human organization which varies widely according to the cultural method employed in counting kinship. Generally, it is a local residence unit, such as a household which included male(s) and female(s) of a parent generation and the children or which they are socially responsible. Under other definitions it may include non-locally resident persons related or assumed to be related by blood through several generations. See Nuclear Family. (2) Any group of related plants or animals that make up a category for classification. It is usually more inclusive than a genus but smaller than an order. (3) See Soil Family. (4) An isolated group of organisms belonging to a single species; often descendants of a single plant.

Family Earnings (Farm)--Compensation for a farm operator's labor and management and the labor of unpaid members of the operator's family. It includes the value of family living from the farm. The sum is computed by deducting an interest charge for the use of farm capital investment from net family farm income.

Family Farm--A farm of such a size and character that it may be operated by the members of the farm family living on it with little if any hired labor and which under good management can return the family a satisfactory living for their effort and investment. (This definition may be considered as establishing the minimum size for a family farm. A family farm may also be described as a two-man farm operated by a father and his son or by the farmer with the aid of one full-time hired man.)

Family Labor--Farm labor that is available within the farm family excluding the farm operator. Its value is determined by the amount of additional labor the operator would have to employ to carry on an equivalent amount of business if family labor were unavailable.

Family Living--The farm value of home-grown food, fuel, and other products used by the farm family, plus the value of the use of the farm dwelling.

Famine--A catastrophic food shortage affecting large numbers of people. Famine is usually the result of crop failure due to drought, flood, insect pests, disease, or war.

Fan--(1) A piece of equipment that will deliver a large volume of air or other gases at low pressures up to one pound per square inch for cooling, heating, etc. (2) Any winnowing machine; specifically, an old term for a kind of basket which, when filled with wheat, was tossed in the air to separate the chaff from the wheat.

Fan-and-Pad Cooling System--A cooling device used in greenhouses. Air is pulled through wet pads by means of fans. As water evaporates, large quantities of heat are absorbed (heat of vaporization).

Fancy--A top-quality grade for many vegetables, fruits, flowers, poultry, and livestock.

Fanning Mill--In seed cleaning, a device equipped with screens to sift out foreign material and a power fan to separate and blow out chaff and other light material.

FAO--See Food and Agriculture Organization.

Farding Deal--The fourth part of an acre of land.

Farm--A place that has annual sales of agricultural products of $1,000 or more.

Farm Accounts--Either of two types of accounts: (a) financial accounts, which are primarily records of inventories and financial transactions plus the production records, usually on a single farm enterprise; (b) cost accounts, which include the following in addition to the financial accounts: feed records; time records of labor, power, and machinery; building records; interest charges; etc., allocated to the different farm enterprises. They may be kept on single enterprises as well as on the entire farm business. Note: The recent popularity of computers on the farm has made possible the keeping of more-detailed accounts.

Farm Appraisal--A definite, written, detailed opinion of the value of a farm that is prepared by a qualified appraiser.

Farm Bloc--A bipartisan group in the United States Congress to secure favorable legislation for the farming industry and farmers as a class.

Farm Budget--(1) A plan for the organization and operation of a farm for a specified period of time, which includes a detailed statement of the anticipated gross income, expenses, and net income. (2) A plan for the future use of land, human labor, power, other resources, and which shows the crops to be grown, the livestock to be kept, and the estimated production, receipts, expenses, and farm income.

Farm Bureau--A free, independent, nongovernmental, voluntary organization of farm and ranch families in the United States and Puerto Rico, united for the purpose of analyzing their problems and formulating action to achieve educational improvement, economic opportunity, and social advancement and dedicated to the preservation of individual opportunity and freedom. It is local, national, and international in its scope and influence, and is nonpartisan, nonsectarian, and non-secret in character. Farm Bureau policies are determined and implemented in the counties by the members; on the state level by a delegate body comprising representatives chosen by the county Farm Bureau in proportion to their respective membership; at the national level, an annual board of delegates representing the state Farm Bureaus.

Farm Business Record--A record of a year's business on a farm, which includes an inventory of all farm property at the beginning and at the end of the farm year; a record of the number of livestock raised; quantities of livestock products produced; the acreage and production of each crop; and a record of all farm financial transactions, both sales and purchases, made during the year.

Farm Capital--The value of the land, with such permanent improvements as are ordinarily transferred with the title to the land, livestock, machinery and equipment, feed crops, and other supplies which are included in a farm operating unit.

Farm Capital Earnings--Compensation for farm capital that is computed by deducting the value of the operator's labor from net farm income. It is usually expressed as a percentage figure; percent earnings of farm capital; or rate of earnings on the investment.

Farm Cash Surplus--Farm net cash flow adjusted for loans received and interest and principal payments; it represents the amount of cash generated by the farm and available for household use.

Farm Census (United States Census)--Collection of selected information from all the farms every five years. These data are the basis for the "Agricultural Statistics" published by the United States Department of Agriculture.

Farm Conservation Plan--A plan that states a cropping system, livestock system, and land use practices that are designed to reduce the rate of soil erosion and to maintain or improve soil fertility. Usually made with the help of the District Conservationist of the United States Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation Service.

Farm Credit Administration--A credit system established to provide a dependable source of both long- and short-term credit on a sound basis for farmers and stockmen and their cooperative associations. These credit services are supplied in each of the twelve farm credit districts by a federal land bank, a federal intermediate credit bank, and bank for cooperatives. In addition, there is the Central Bank for Cooperatives at Washington, D.C. Farmers obtain individual farm real estate mortgage loans from local National Farm Loan Associations, and loans for production expenses and operating capital from local Production Credit Associations. These associations are largely farm-owned but obtain their financing through the federal land banks and federal intermediate credit banks.

Farm Drainage--The removal, or exclusion, of excess water from farmland by open or closed drains alone or in combination with pumping plants.

Farm Enterprise--A unit of farm business, as a particular crop or a class of livestock.

Farm Equity Capital--Total farm capital less farm borrowings.

Farm Expense--The sum of the annual cash operating expenses, value of unpaid family labor excluding the operator, net decrease in farm inventory including depreciation, and the wages and cost of board furnished to hired laborers.

Farm Flock--Those animals or fowls, collectively by species, which a farmer raises on his farm, especially a small flock of sheep or chickens.

Farm Forestry--The practice of forestry on part of the farmland which is carried on with other farm operations.

Farm Implement--Any mechanical tool used on a farm: e.g., a plow, a tractor.

Farm Income--(1) The net income a farmer receives in operating a farm as a return for the total capital investment and for his/her own labor and management. (2) The collective income of farmers in a county, state, or nation.

Farm Inventory--A list of the amounts and values of all items of farm property as of a given date.

Farm Irrigation Structure--(1) Any structure that is necessary for the proper conveyance and application of irrigation water: e.g., a flume, siphon, suspension, culvert, debris basin, detention dam, etc. These structures require special design, detailed staking and/or onsite assistance. (2) Any small farm irrigation structure for which standard designs are available: e.g., a turnout, check, drop, or measuring device.

Farm Labor--(1) The sum total of all the labor that is used in the operation of a farm. (2) Those people who work on farms as hired hands.

Farm Level--A simple type of surveyor's level, usually consisting of a telescope with crosshairs and a tripod, used in the solution of simple problems of drainage, terracing, irrigation, etc. See Abney Level, Dumpy Level.

Farm Management--(1) The science and art of the organization and operation of farms so as to obtain the maximum amount of continuous net income. It considers the effectiveness of different sizes of operating units and of combinations of productive resources, enterprises, and practices for operating units; programs of adjustment for agricultural areas; and the impact of public policies and programs on economic activities and income on farms. (2) The practical adjustment, organization, and administration of affairs and resources of the farm.

Farm Management Service--An individual or an organization that provides landlords such services as procuring tenants or hired workers and managers for farms, keeping farm records, advising the tenants, workers, or managers, and handling the financial accounts on the farm. Such services are particularly prevalent in the Corn Belt of United States. Also called Commercial Farm Management Services.

Farm Manager--A trained and educated individual who directs the operation of farm enterprises.

Farm Map--An outline map of a farm showing roads, building sites, lanes, and field arrangement, used in farm planning and as a record of the tile lines, lime application, soil tests, etc.

Farm Mechanics--Mechanical activities that are preformed on the farm and in the home, concerning farm power and machinery, farm buildings and conveniences, rural, preparing farm products for sale, storage, or use, and soil and water management.

Farm Net Cash Flow--Farm receipts minus farm payments.

Farm Net Worth--See Farm Equity Capital.

Farm Operator--A person who operates a farm, either by doing or supervising the work and by making the day-to-day operating decisions.

Farm Payments--Cash paid for goods and services purchased for farm use.

Farm Personal Property--The personal, movable property on a farm that is involved in the farm business: e.g., machinery, equipment, livestock, feed, growing crops, crops held for sale, and miscellaneous supplies; also a brooder house or any small building merely resting on the ground that is movable.

Farm Pond--A small reservoir of water on a farm usually formed by constructing a dam across a watercourse or by excavation to collect surface water.

Farm Population--All those persons living on farms, regardless of occupation.

Farm Price--The price a farmer receives for his products at the farm.

Farm Problem--(1) Any problem of farmers collectively on the state or national level: e.g., farm surplus. (2) Any particular problem on a farm: drainage, fertilizer use, marketing, etc.

Farm Program--(1) A plan related to agriculture based upon, or resulting from, the action of the state or national government. (2) A planned program for the operation or management of an individual farm.

Farm Prosperity--A period in which the returns to the farmers are large enough to give them incomes that compare satisfactorily to the incomes of other groups in the United States economy.

Farm Real Estate--The land in a farm including such improvements as the buildings, fences, tile drains, and the permanent features of a water system.

Farm Receipts--The value of cash received from the sale of agricultural output.

Farm Specialization--Any specialization of production activity on the farm, either by commodity, processes, personnel, or geography.

Farm Survey--Data collection from a sample of farms from a given population.

Farm-Retail Price Spread--The difference between the retail price of a food product and the farm value of an equivalent quantity of food sold by farmers.

Farm-to-Market Road--A hard-surfaced road that serves a farming area and leads to a town or city at which farmers can sell their produce and buy things they need.

Farmer--One who operates a farm, or is engaged in the business of farming; a person who produces agricultural products on a farm. Since there are many different types of farms, a farmer may be designated as a dairy farmer, a cattle farmer, fruit farmer, wheat farmer, sheep farmer, etc. Primarily, a farmer is one who devotes the major portion of his time to farming: i.e., a full-time farmer.

Farmer Cooperative Service--The branch of the United States Department of Agriculture with responsibility for fostering and assisting agricultural cooperatives.

Farmer Owned Lands--Lands owned by a person who operates a farm, either doing the work himself/herself or directly supervising the work.

Farmer-direct Sales--Farm sales of produce made directly to consumers, without the use of traditional middlemen; the farm roadside market is an example.

Farmer-owned Reserve--A federal program designed to encourage farmer storage of wheat and feed grains by providing farmers with low-interest, nonrecourse loans and storage payments.

Farmers Home Administration--An agency of the United States Department of Agriculture that aids farmers financially. The agency also provides emergency loans to farmers in districts suffering from drought, flood, or other disasters. It operates through offices located in all 3,197 counties throughout all the fifty states in the United States. Formerly called Farm Security Administration.

Farmers Institutes--A lyceum type of organization similar to the early teachers institutes which was organized to bring scientific information for better agricultural practices directly to farmers in the United States. They were first suggested by the Massachusetts State Board of Agriculture in 1852. By 1899 over 2,000 institutes were held annually in forty-seven states, with an attendance of more than 500,000. They were the forerunners of the Cooperative Agricultural Extension Service that offers a year-round educational service to all farmers. See Cooperative Extension Service.

Farmers' Market--A building or open space, usually located in a town or city, where farmers may bring their produce for direct sale to the consumer.

Farmers' Share--The farm value of food expressed as a percentage of its retail price.

Farmers' Square--Farmers' market.

Farmers' Union--An abbreviation for the Farmers' Educational and Cooperative Union of America, an organization founded in Texas in 1902. The Farmers' Union is organized in local community unions, county unions, state and territorial unions, and a national union. Among its objectives are those of maintaining and protecting the family-type farm, of expanding local and regional farmers' cooperatives, and of educating farm families in the economic, social, and cultural problems of agriculture. Also called the National Farmers' Union.

Farmhand--A man who is hired to work on a farm by the hour, day, week, month, or year. Also called hired hand.

Farming Operation--(1) The sum total of the activities of a farmer in operating a farm. (2) Any one single activity on the farm; e.g., harvesting, planting, cultivating, fencing, etc.

Farmland--Land that is, or is capable of, being used for raising farm crops without further clearing or draining.

Farmland, Prime--Cropland, pastureland, forestland, or rangeland that has physical and chemical characteristics suitable for producing food, feed, forage, or fiber. Rainfall or irrigation and favorable temperature must be present for economical production with modern farm management. See Farmland, Unique; Soil Survey.

Farmland, Unique--Land other than prime farmland that is used for the production of specific high-value food and fiber crops, such as citrus, cranberries, fruits, vegetables, and olives. See Farmland, Prime; Soil Survey.

Farrier--(1) A person who shoes horses. (2) An obsolete term for a horse and cattle veterinarian.

Farrow--(1) To give birth to a litter of pigs. (2) A litter of pigs.

Farrow to Finish--A type of farm operation that covers all aspects of breeding, farrowing, and raising pigs to slaughter.

Farrowing Crate--A crate or cage in which a sow is placed at time of farrowing. The crate is so constructed as to prevent the sow from turning around or crushing the newborn pigs as she lies down.

Farrowing House--Any of several types of structures especially designed for a sow and her litter of pigs.

FAS--See Foreign Agricultural Service.

Fatigue--(1) A weakness of wood or metal that results from a repeated reversal of the load. (2) Loss of energy in people or animals form any of a multitude of causes.

FCIC--Federal Crop Insurance Corporation.

FCM--Fat-corrected milk. A means of evaluating milk-production records of different animals and breeds on a common basis energy-wise. The following formula is used: FCM = 0.4 x milk production--(15 x pounds of fat produced).

FDA--See Food and Drug Administration.

Federal Crop Insurance Act--A part of the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933 designed to provide crop insurance. The first insurance corporation under the act was empowered to provide insurance for loss of wheat crops.

Federal Crop Insurance Corporation--This is a wholly owned government corporation, within the Department of Agriculture, created to promote the national welfare by improving the economic stability of agriculture through a sound system of crop insurance and providing the means for research and experience helpful in devising and establishing such insurance on a national basis. Crop insurance offered to agricultural producers by the corporation provides protection from losses caused by unavoidable natural hazards such as insect and wildlife damage, plant diseases, fire, drought, flood, wind, and other weather conditions. It does not indemnify producers from losses resulting from negligence or failure to observe good farming practices.

Federal Extension Service--A United States agency created February 26, 1923, to assume leadership of all general educational programs in cooperation with the land-grant colleges and universities of the states and territories and the county governments.

Federal Food Stamp Plan--A plan established in 1939 by the United States Department of Agriculture to dispose of surplus agricultural commodities and to aid low-income families.

Federal Inspection--The inspection by United States Department of Agriculture appointed inspectors of slaughter animals and carcasses, fruits, vegetables, and processed products intended for human consumption, to determine if the animals or products meet established specifications.

Federal Land Bank--Any of several banks, which is a part of the Farm Credit Administration of the United States. The Federal Land Banks through local national farm loan associations make long-term (5 to 40 years), amortized, first-mortgage, farm real estate loans. The Farm Credit Administration divides the United States into twelve districts and each district has a Federal Land Bank. In turn, each district has a number of national farm loan associations. The system is entirely member-owned and does not use government funds in its operations. Money for the loans is obtained from the sale of Federal Land Bank bonds that are secured by the real estate covered by the first mortgages. Members of the Board of Directors of the Farm Credit Administration and of the different districts and associations are usually elected by the member-borrowers.

Federated Cooperative--A group of cooperatives receiving goods and services from a single source (cooperatives) organized for this purpose.

Fee--(1) A charge made for livestock grazing on the basis of a certain rate per head for a certain period of time. (2) A charge made for any services as stud fee, marketing charge, loan fee, etc.

Feed Additive Compendium--A publication that lists feed additives in current use and the regulations for their use.

Feed Analysis--The chemical or material analysis of a commercially prepared feed, printed on a tag and fastened to the bag in which the feed is to be sold.

Feed Bunk--A forage and grain feeding station.

Feed Composition Table--A table showing the nutrients found in feeds.

Feed Conversion Ratio--The rate at which an animal converts feed to meat. If an animal requires four pounds of feed to gain one pound, it is said to have a four to one (4:1) feed conversion ratio. Feed Efficiency--Term for the number of pounds of feed required for an animal to gain one pound of weight; e.g., 6.5 pounds of feed per pound of gain.

Feed Energy Utilization--The percentage of the energy obtained from a feed that is used for an animal's bodily functions. For example, the feed energy utilization for an average lactating cow is approximately: 30 percent for fecal energy, 20 percent for heat energy, 20 percent for maintenance, 20 percent for milk production, 5 percent for urinary energy, and 5 percent for gaseous energy.

Feed Hopper--A container that allows feed to drop down gradually as more is consumed.

Feed Lot--The enclosed area in which animals are fed for fattening and finishing. Also called feed yard.

Feed Out--To prepare animals for market by fattening.

Feed Reserve--Feed harvested and stored for future use, standing forage cured on the range, or pasture for future use.

Feed Roll(ers)--The pairs of rollers directly in front of a forage harvester cutterhead that regulate the plant material flow to the cutterhead. Adjusting roll speed regulates the length of cut.

Feed Truck--A large truck used to transport feed from the mill to the farm. The feed is unloaded into the storage bin by an auger. (2) A large hand-pushed cart used for distributing feed to animals.

Feed Unit--One pound of corn, or its equivalent in feed value in other feeds, which is fed to cattle under normal farm conditions.

Feeder Buyer--(1) One who buys cattle, sheep, or horses, fattens them and offers them for sale. (2) A buyer of feeder livestock.

Feeders Margin--The difference between the cost per hundredweight of feeder animals and the selling price per hundredweight of the same animals when finished.

Feeding Ratio--Weight of food consumed divided by increase in weight of an animal, during a given time interval.

Feeding Root--A young root, or rootlet, bearing the root hairs that absorb water and mineral nutrients from the soil. Also called Feeder Root.

Feeding Standard--Established standards that state the amounts of nutrients that should be provided in rations for farm animals of various ages and classes in an attempt more nearly to attain the optimum economy of growth, gain, or production.

Feeding Value--A term referring to the nutritive value of different feeds, i.e., expressing the amount of nutrients furnished by each feed and the degree of their digestibility.

Feedlot ADG/Gain on Test--A measure of the ability of cattle to gain weight when fed high-energy rations, usually expressed as Average Daily Gain.

Feeler Gauge--A metal strip or blade used for measuring the clearance between parts of a machine, etc. Such gauges usually come in a set of different blades graduated in thickness by increments of 0.0001 inch.

Felling Head--A tractor-powered implement that grasps a tree and cuts it using a circular bar that has a cutting chain running around the perimeter.

Fellmonger--A dealer in pelts who pulls the wool from the skins, scours the wool, and tans or pickles the skins.

Felly--The outer part or the rim of a wheel to which spokes are attached. Also spelled felloe.

Female Threads--Threads on the inside of a receiving object such as a nut. See Bolt, Male Threads.

Fence--(1) A hedge or barrier of wood, metal, stone, or plants erected to enclose an area to prevent trespassing or the straying of animals. (2) To enclose an area with a fence. See Drift Fence, Snow Fence.

Fence Line Feed Bunk--A multipurpose structure designed for feeding roughage along a fence in the open. It is primarily a feed bunk with openings through which the animals may feed. The feed may be distributed by dump trucks or feed carriers operated outside of the enclosed area.

Fence Pliers--A tool used to cut, bend, and twist wire, remove staples, and do other jobs associated with fence building.

Fence Stretcher--A ratcheting tool used to tighten wire in fence building or repair.

Fencing--(1) Material used in the construction of fences. (2) The use of fences.

Fertilizer Ratio--The relative proportions of primary nutrients in a fertilizer grade divided by the highest common divisor for that grade; e.g., grades 10-6-4 and 20-12-8 have the same ratio of 5-3-2.

Fertilizer Regulatory Service--Usually a service administered by the fifty respective State Departments of Agriculture.

Fertilizer Requirement--The quantity of certain plant nutrient elements needed as determined by a soil test, in addition to the amount supplied by the soil, to increase plant growth to a designated optimum yield. See Yield Goal.

Fertilizer Unit--One percent (20 pounds) of a short ton (2,000 pounds) of fertilizer.

Fertlizer Abstracts--A monthly journal published by the National Fertilizer Development Center, TVA, Muscle Shoals, Alabama, containing summaries of current literature on technology, marketing, use, and related research on fertilizers.

FFA--An organization for students enrolled in high school agricultural education programs. The purpose of the organization is to teach leadership and to provide incentives for learning. Once known as the Future Farmers of America, the organization is now known as the National FFA Organization. See Future Farmers of America.

FFA Alumni--A national organization composed of former members and supporters of the National FFA Organization. The purpose is to promote and support agricultural education programs and in particular, programs of the FFA. See FFA; Agricultural Education.

FGIS--Federal Grain Inspection Service, U.S.D.A.

Fibrillating Current--Excessive current in an electric fence that on contact either stops an animal's breathing by paralyzing the chest muscles or stops the flow of blood.

Field--An area of agricultural land devoted to the production of farm crops, e.g., cereals, vegetables, etc., or an area in which crop-growing has been postponed or abandoned.

Field Capacity--The amount of water held in a saturated soil after the excess or gravitational water has drained away. Also called capillary capacity.

Field Conditioner--A heavy, wheeled, spring-tooth harrow for secondary tillage used to smooth the soil prior to planting.

Field Crate--A container, holding from 10 to 25 kilograms, used to haul fresh fruits or vegetables to the storage or packing house.

Field Cuber--A machine used to produce cubes directly from windrowed hay.

Field Ell--A right-angled pipe joint for main or lateral pipelines to change the direction of the water used in irrigation.

Field Hand--A man employed to work in the fields on a farm. Also called hired man, farm hand.

Field Run--Designating products (potatoes, onions, etc.) harvested in the field and ungraded as to size or quality.

Field Testing--Testing crop varieties, fertility of soils, etc., to determine their effect on yield or quality.

Fifteen-atmosphere Percentage--The moisture percentage, dry-weight basis, of a soil sample that has been wetted and brought to equilibrium in a pressure-membrane apparatus at a pressure of 221 psi (pounds per square inch). This characteristic moisture value for soils approximates the lower limit of water available for plant growth.

File--A steel instrument whose surface is covered with sharp-edged furrows or teeth, used for sharpening, abrading, or smoothing other substances, as metals, wood, tools, etc.

Filterable--Capable of passing through the pores of a filter.

Finance Budget--A budget constructed to show the extent of necessary borrowings and the manner in which interest and principal payments on loans advanced are to be met.

Financial Statement--A statement usually required by a lender from an applicant for credit. It is a list of assets and liabilities of an individual or a business at a specific time. The difference between the assets and liabilities is the net worth at that particular time. The difference between the net worth at the beginning of the year and at the end of the year represents the financial gain or loss for the year.

Fireman--In forestry, a fire guard whose principal function is suppression of fires, and who usually stays at a fixed position awaiting orders to go to a fire. Also called smokechaser.

Firkin--(1) A measure of weight, used for butter and cheese, of 56 pounds avoirdupois. (2) A wooden cask or tub used for holding butter, fish, etc.

Firm--(1) An economic unit recognized to be engaged primarily in production. (2) (a) To compact the soil, crushing and pulverizing the lumps to facilitate capillary water movement. (b) Designating well-compacted soil that is not lumpy or powdery. (2) In marketing, designating optimistic conditions. (4) Designating a cheese that feels solid. (5) Designating whites of eggs that are sufficiently viscous to prevent free movement of the yolk. (6) (a) Designating meat that is not soft or soggy. (b) Designating a fruit or vegetable that is not overripe or shriveled.

Fiscal Year--Any accounting period that consists of twelve successive calendar months, fifty-two weeks, or thirteen four-week periods.

Fission--(1) A form of reproduction, common among bacteria and protozoa, in which a unit or organism splits into two or more whole units. (2) The splitting of a heavy nucleus such as uranium or plutonium into approximately equal parts, accompanied by the conversion of mass into energy, the release of the energy, and the production of neutrons and gamma rays.

Fit--(1) To notch a tree for felling, and to mark it into log lengths after it is felled. (2) To ring, slit, and peel tanbark. (3) To file and set a saw. (4) To condition livestock for use, sale, or exhibit. (5) To prepare land for sowing, i.e., plowing (or disking), harrowing, and rolling. Land so fitted should have no large, hard clods so that the seeds may be placed at a uniform depth and in contact with moist soil.

Fixed Assets--Assets that can not be converted to cash immediately. Lands, barns, and fences are examples of fixed assets.

Fixed Capital--Capital that is invested in land, buildings, fences, tile drains, wells, and other relatively permanent fixtures.

Fixed Cost--That cost which does not change with volume of production.

Fixed Expenses--Expenses that do not change with output. Examples are taxes and depreciation.

Fixed Groundwater--Groundwater held in saturated material with interstices so small that it is attached to the pore walls, and is usually not available as a source of water for pumping. See Aquifer.

Flail--(1) A power implement with swinging knives or blades on a rotating horizontal shaft. The material is usually cut into several pieces as it is struck by succeeding flails and carried from a standing position to the discharge point. (2) A hand tool used for threshing grain. To use a flail to thresh grain.

Flash Point--The specific temperature at which a flammable material will vaporize sufficiently to ignite when touched with a spark or flame.

Flexibility--(1) The quality of bending without breaking. (2) Adjustment to meet changing conditions; essential for farming and ranching.

Flexible Support--A policy of the United States government that favors adjustment of subsidies of price supports for agricultural products as conditions of supply change, in contrast to a policy of fixed or rigid supports of prices.

Flexible Tine Cultivator--A cultivator with sweeps on a vibrant, curved, spring steel shank. It usually works deeper than spike or tine-tooth harrows.

Float--(1) An instrument used for filing animals' teeth. (2) A valve in the cream separator to regulate the flow of milk into the cream-separator bowl; or a similar contrivance for maintaining the desired level of water in a tank. (3) A drag or device for leveling soil. (4) To come to the top of the ground, as with a certain type of plow which automatically adjusts if the bottom strikes an obstruction. (5) To flood irrigate, as in floating a meadow (rare in the United States).

Flock Book--The record of breeding and ancestry of sheep, kept privately by the flock owner or officially by the Sheep Breed Association, to register purebred sheep. See Herd Book.

Flood Classification--Floods are classified by recurrence magnitude, as 100-year flood, 50-year flood, etc.

Flood Control--(1) Any of the various agricultural practices that hold the soil in place and increase its infiltration and water-retention capacity. These practices include the planting of deep-rooted grasses, trees, and shrubs: no-till crop farming; contouring; terracing; and keeping heavy machinery off the soil when it is too wet to support such loads. (2) Any of the various engineering practices used to reduce flood damage resulting from overflowing rivers and streams. It includes deepening the existing channels, digging diversion canals, building levees and dams to impound the water in numerous small ponds or retention basins in the upper parts of the watershed, or by large detention basins farther downstream.

Flood Control Act--An act of United States Congress passed in 1944 to control floods in the Missouri River basin.

Flood Relief--(1) Assistance given by the International Red Cross, local governments, etc., to persons who have suffered loss in floods. (2) Flood control.

Flood Stage--The stage in which the level of the water rises above the tops of stream banks or dikes. Frequently, an arbitrary level established, beyond which the stream or river is considered to be at flood stage.

Florist--A person who sells plants and cut flowers, often growing these plants and flowers himself/herself. Sales of accessories, such as fungicides, insecticides, seeds, fertilizers, pots, pot labels, etc., are often a part of the florist's service.

Flotation--(1) The ability of tractor or implement tires to stay on the top of the soil surface. It is usually related to soil condition, tractor or implement weight, and contact area between tires and soil surface. (2) Separation of materials by mixing with a liquid of a different specific gravity; one of which will float, the other sink. Overmature peas may be separated from green peas in this manner; frozen oranges may be separated from sound fruit in running water. See Floats, Flotation Concentrates.

Flue--(1) A vertical space, usually 6 inches or less in width, between two adjacent tiers of stock in a lumber pile. (2) A square or round ventilating passageway. (3) The passage in a chimney for conducting smoke, flame, or hot air. (4) The special passageways for heated air in a barn for curing tobacco.

Fluid--A liquid or a gas composed of particles that freely change their relative position without separating. See Fluid Fertilizer.

Fluid Drilling--A technique for planting germinated seeds without injuring the tiny shoots or roots by mixing previously germinated seed with a protective gel and pumping it into the soil behind the planter shoe through tubing, usually plastic, from a holding tank on the planter. Originally developed at Great Britain's National Vegetable Research Station, the technique was first used commercially in the United States to fluid-drill tomato seedlings.

Fluid Drive--A means of power transmission by the use of a pair of vaned rotating elements held in position close to each other without touching. Rotation is transmitted to the driven part by the driving part through the resistance of a body of oil between the parts.

Fluid Fertilizers--Liquid, slurry, or suspension fertilizers.

Fluidity--The property of flowing possessed by gases and liquids. Fluidity and viscosity are opposite (inverse) characteristics. See Viscosity.

Flux--(1) State of change. (2) Substance that reduces the melting point of a mixture. (3) Passage across a physical boundary such as CO2 from atmosphere to hydrosphere, or across a chemical boundary as C[O.sub.2] from atmosphere to organic matter.

FMD--Foot-and-mouth disease.

FmHA--Farmers Home Administration, USDA.

FNS--Food and Nutrition Service.

Foil--(1) A thin metal 0.006 inch (0.1524 millimeter) thick, such as aluminum foil. Materials with greater thickness are known as a sheet.

Food Additive--Any substance that is added to food, either directly or indirectly, to improve nutrition, taste, or shelf life.

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)--An agency of the United Nations, formally organized in 1945, for supporting worldwide studies of agricultural production and food supplies. It is also empowered to lend technical assistance to nations in the solution of problems in agricultural production and human nutrition.

Food and Drug Administration (FDA)--A division of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, charged with the enforcement of federal laws and inspection services pertaining to adulteration and misbranding of foods, feeds, and drugs in intrastate commerce.

Food Constituent--Any essential nutrient (protein, carbohydrate, fat, etc.) contained in a food.

Food Extender--A cheaper product that can be added to a traditional food to expand its volume (e.g., "Hamburger Helper").

Food Poisoning--Any sudden, painful, intestinal disorder in people and animals caused by some harmful bacteria or fungal organism taken into the body with the food. The organism multiplies in the alimentary canal and produces poisonous substances that may bring about death. Clostridium botulinum, one of the bacteria, will cause the disease known as botulism. Also known as food intoxication.

Food Preservation--The treatment of foods in various ways to keep them wholesome and free from decomposition; e.g., refrigeration, canning, smoking, adding of certain antiseptic chemicals, drying, exclusion of air, and irridiation.

Food Technology--The science of food qualities, values, preparation, processing, and marketing.

Foot--(1) In people and quadrupeds, the terminal portion of the leg that rests upon the ground. (2) The portion of a cultivator to which the sweep is attached. (3) The organs of locomotion of various invertebrates, as the feet of a caterpillar, the foot of a clam or a snail, etc. (4) The base of a tree, tower, mountain, wall, hill, etc. (5) A unit of linear measure, 12 inches.

Foot Pound--A measure of the amount of energy or work needed to lift one pound the distance of one foot.

Foot-candle--Standard measure of light. The light of one candle falling on a surface 1 foot away from the candle.

Footing--(1) The rock or soil on which a foundation rests. (2) The condition of the ground surface as it relates to the pulling capacity of a draft animal without slipping.

Forage Blower--A fan type conveyer used for placing forage into storage structures.

Forage Box--A self unloading wagon box for handling silage, haylage, green chop, ear corn, etc. Most forage boxes unload either through a front conveyer or a rear door.

Forage Harvester--A machine that chops hay or forage into short lengths for easy storage or handling. With different header attachments they can cut standing crops, pick up windrows, snap ear corn, or gather stover.

Forage Value--(1) The relative importance for grazing purposes of a range plant or plants, as a whole, on a range. (2) The rank of a range plant or plant type for grazing animals under proper management, preferably expressed as proper-use factor. See Grazing Value. (3) The comparative value of the forage portion of an animal's ration compared with the other feeds in the ration.

Forage Volume--(1) That portion of a plant above the ground and within reach of grazing animals. (2) The measure of the forage crops; i.e., the aggregate amount of forage produced on a range area during any one year.

Forage Wagon--A four-wheel wagon that receives forage from a forage harvester and transports the forage. The forage is unloaded using a conveyor and/or auger.

Forbes Scale--Aspidiotus forbesi, family Diaspididae; a scale insect that occurs on fruit trees and bushes in the eastern United States. It is the chief apple scale in some regions.

Force--Action that attempts to change or changes the motion of a body, usually expressed in pounds per square inch or pascals. One pound per square inch = 6,894.757 pascals.

Forecast--(1) A statement of the anticipated weather conditions in a given region, usually for a period of 12, 24, or 36 hours; 5 days or 30 days. (2) The predicted future price of a product.

Foreclosure--A procedure whereby a lender takes steps toward attaining ownership of property given as security for a loan. The usual steps are: default on the mortgage or contract by the buyer; court proceedings; and sale of the land by the sheriff in case of a real estate mortgage after expiration of the legal redemption period.

Foreign Agricultural Market Development--Includes all activities--in the United States as well as in foreign countries-to influence the flow of United States farm products to foreign consumers. Market development encompasses measures by government agencies, farmers, processors, exporters, and others to improve acceptability of United States farm commodities in the foreign markets. It includes such services as information and grading. It includes government and international agencies to lower trade barriers. It involves market promotion activities carried on cooperatively by government and trade groups, such as participation in trade fairs, advertising, distribution of samples, sponsored visits of foreign buyers to the United States, and the like. Market development, in brief, covers activities undertaken all the way along the "marketing chain."

Foreign Agricultural Service--An agency of the United States Department of Agriculture which is responsible for developing foreign markets for United States farm products.

Foreign Currencies--An expression used frequently in connection with operations under Title I, public law (P.L.) 480, which authorized sales of surplus United States farm products for foreign currencies. Title I also spells out uses to markets for United States farm products; to obtain military equipment, materials, facilities, and services; to finance the purchase of goods or services for other friendly countries; to promote economic development and trade of developing countries; to pay United States obligations abroad; to finance educational exchange activities; and others.

Foreign Market--A market outside the boundaries of the United States.

Forest Economics--The money aspects of forest management that deals with the needs, values, and policies of forest lands in relation to public or individual gains. See Forest Management.

Forest Experiment Station--A United States Forest Service organization that consists of research stations in each major forest region. It conducts research on the protection, management, use, and survey of forest resources. Created within the McNary-McSweeney Act, 1928, and administered under the Secretary of the United States Department of Agriculture.

Forest Industry Lands--Lands owned by companies or individuals operating wood-using plants.

Forest Land--(1) Land at least 10 percent occupied by forest trees of any size, or formerly having had such tree cover and not currently developed for nonforest use. (2) Lands that are at least 10 percent stocked by trees capable of producing timber or other wood products or that exert an influence on the climate or water regime.

Forest Management--The application of business methods and technical principles to the operator of a forest property. It involves the computation of income from forest lands; the establishment of cutting cycles; the conservation of cover, land and water; and the formulation and conduct of long-range plans of operations.

Forester--A person professionally trained in the science of managing trees and woodlands.

Fork--(1) Any of various tools or implements consisting of a handle, shank, and two or more tines that is used for digging soil, grasping or lifting hay, manure, etc. (2) The juncture of two roads, rivers, or tree branches, etc.

Fork Lift--A vehicle with two forks or runners attached to the front that is used to lift and transport heavy loads.

Formula--Any general equation; a rule, or principle expressed in algebraic symbols; e.g., the statement of the quantity and kind of stock materials that are used in making a fertilizer, feed, or other mixture.

Formulation--A term used synonymously with product. It contains the pesticide or fertilizer in a form that can be: (a) dissolved or suspended in a carrier and distributed in solution or suspension by sprayers, (b) distributed dry by dusters or spreaders, or (c) easily vaporized for application.

Forty--Forty acres of land, as a forty, one-sixteenth of a section of land.

Forward Price Contract--A contract farmers may enter into, prior to the harvesting of a crop, which fixes the price in advance.

Forward Pricing--A method of price support designed to announce a guaranteed minimum price far enough in advance so that production can be adjusted. As contrasted with parity prices, forward prices would be set close to the expected free market price under reasonably full employment conditions.

Fossil Fuel--A deposit of organic material containing stored solar energy that can be used as fuel. The most important are coal, natural gas, and oil; oil shale and tar sand have future potential as fossil fuels.

Foulbrood--A general name for infectious diseases of immature bees that cause them to die and their remains to smell bad. The term most often refers to American Foulbrood. See American Foulbrood, European Foulbrood.

Found--Room, board, and laundry, as well as necessary equipment for a hired farm/ranch worker that may be offered in addition to, or as part of, his/her salary.

Four-Cycle (Stroke) Engine--An internal combustion engine that takes four movements of the piston to complete the power cycle. Fuel is brought into the cylinder, ignited, power is produced, and exhaust fumes are removed in the completion of the piston moving up and down two times. See Two-cycle Engine.

Four-Wheel-Drive Tractor--A tractor that will engage power to all four wheels instead of the conventional two; in other words, the engine turns all four wheels. Four-wheel-drive tractors are usually more powerful and have better traction than conventional tractors.

Fractional Distillation--A process of separating alcohol and water (or other mixtures).

Fraud--A misstatement of a material fact made with intent to deceive or made with reckless disregard of the truth, and that actually does deceive.

Free Market--A marketplace with minimum direct involvement of government in market decisions.

Free-ranging--Allowing animals, especially poultry, to roam freely and eat as they wish without any sort of confinement.

Free-wheeling Clutch--A device on a tractor or other machine that engages the driving member to deliver motion to a driven member in one direction but not in the other direction. Also known as an overrunning clutch.

Freehold--An estate in land held for life.

Freeze--(1) A condition of the weather in which the air temperature at plant level falls to 32[degrees]F (0[degrees]C) or lower, with the result that tender plants are frozen. See Frost. (2) To reach the temperature of freezing, 32[degrees]F (0[degrees]C). (3) Of a plant, to die or be impaired as a result of cold. (4) To preserve food products by rapidly reducing the temperature to about 0[degrees]F and maintaining the temperature well below 32[degrees]F.

Freeze Drying--A method of drying in which the material is frozen and a high vacuum applied. The cooling effect of the evaporation keeps the material frozen while the water distills off as a vapor. Freeze-dried material is very porous and occupies the same volume as the original. The process is applied to foods with advantage as they reconstitute rapidly, with a minimum loss of flavor and texture.

Freezer Burn--(1) An undesirable and unattractive condition frequently found with dressed poultry that is kept or stored in quick or deep freezers; caused by an improper control of temperatures and humidity within the freezer. (2) Small, white dehydrated areas that occur on improperly wrapped frozen foods.

Freight Ton--See Ton.

Froe--See Frow.

Front-end Loader--An implement mounted to the front end of a tractor. It is raised and lowered hydraulically and is used to load materials such as feed, fertilizer, manure, hay, soil, etc., onto a truck or trailer.

Frontage--That portion of real estate which lies immediately adjacent to a stream, lake, street, or highway.

Frost Alarm--An alarm that rings by an electric mechanism when the temperature falls to a predetermined level near freezing. It is used as a warning of impending frost.

Frow--A cleaving tool with a wedge-shaped blade used by coopers in splitting staves for casts, etc., and in making shingles and clapboards. The handle is at right angles to the back of the blade and is held in the left hand, while the mallet that drives the wedge into the log is held in the right hand. Also spelled froe.

FS--Forest Service, USDA.

FSW--Farm Sale Weight. Fuel Cell--A device for converting chemical energy into electrical energy.

Fuel Loading--In forestry, the amount of fuel (burnable materials) expressed as weight of fuel per unit area; generally expressed in tons per acre.

Fuel Management--The practice of planning and executing the treatment or control of living and dead vegetative material, primarily for wildfire hazard reduction.

Fuel-moisture Indicator Stick--A scientifically selected wooden stick of known moisture-absorbing properties used to determine relative flammability of forest fuels. Of known dry weight, the stick is exposed to the weather on the forest floor, weighted periodically to determine absorption of moisture, and the gain or loss in moisture to predict forest fire hazard.

Functional Efficiency--In cattle, the production of as much good red meat per unit area as possible. In its broadest sense: fertility, genetic excellence, libido, ability to copulate, estrus, ovulation, fertilization, embryo survival gestation., parturition, and mothering ability of the cow.

Furlong--A distance equal to 1/8 mile; 40 rods; 220 yards; 660 feet; or 201.17 meters.

Furnish--To supply a farmer, especially a sharecropper, with food for his family, seeds, fertilizer, feed, etc., to enable him to raise a crop. The various items are charged to his account, and after the crop is harvested, the account with interest must be paid before any money received from the crop is paid to the farmer. It has generally been proven an unsatisfactory system and has largely fallen into disuses. See Sharecropper.

Furrow Slice--The soil that is cut, raised, and inverted by the moldboard plow.

Furrow Wheel--A tractor or implement wheel that runs in a furrow from a previous implement pass. This helps the operator guide the implement in the proper direction and distance from the previous pass.

Fuse--A replaceable safety device that prevents the overload of an electrical circuit. Fuses are used in the wiring circuits of a building or in the electrical system of a machine.

Fusel Oil--A clear, colorless, poisonous liquid mixture of alcohols obtained as a by-product of grain fermentation; generally amyl, isoamyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, isobutyl alcohols, and acetic and lactic acids.

Fusion--(1) The combination of certain light nuclei, such as deuterium and tritium, forming a heavier nucleus and releasing energy. (2) Act of melting or rendering liquid by heat. (3) State of being melted or dissolved by heat. (4) Union or blending of things as if melted together.

Future Farmers of America (FFA)--The national organization of students enrolled in high school agricultural education programs. The national FFA organization is composed of state FFA associations; state associations are composed of local FFA chapters. The FFA chapters are located in public school offering instruction in agricultural education. The FFA activities are an integral part of other instructional programs under provisions of the national vocational education acts. The primary purpose of this youth organization is to develop leadership, cooperation, and citizenship. Collegiate FFA chapters are located in colleges and universities for students in agricultural education programs. In 1988, delegates to the National Convention voted to change the name to the National FFA Organization. See FFA.

Futures Contract--An agreement between two people, one who sells and agrees to deliver and one who buys and agrees to receive a certain kind, quality, and quantity of product to be delivered during a specified delivery month at a specified price.

Futures Market--A market at which contracts for future delivery of a commodity are bought and sold.

Futures Price--The current price of a futures contract.

Futures Trading--A means of buying or selling agricultural commodities that are to be produced or are in the process of being produced.
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Title Annotation:Part 1: A-F
Publication:Delmar's Agriscience Dictionary
Article Type:Definition
Date:Jan 1, 2000
Previous Article:Part 1 Animal science.
Next Article:Part 2 Business and mechanical technology.

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