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Part 1 Animal science.


D Ring--In harness making, a piece of metal shaped like the letter D or O to form a link between two separate bands, straps, or other harness devices.

D-activated Animal Sterol--A livestock feed supplement of plant origin supplying vitamin D3, obtained by activation of a sterol fraction of animal origin with ultraviolet light or other means.

Dairy--(1) (a) A plant in which milk is processed and where dairy products are manufactured and sold. (b) Pertaining to that which is related to the production, processing, or distribution of milk and its products. (2) A place where milk is kept.

Dairy Breed--Any of the breed of cattle especially developed for milk production such as Holstein, Ayrshire, Jersey, Guernsey, Brown Swiss, Dutch Belted, or Red Dane. See Dairy Type.

Dairy Cow Unified Score Card--A system of classifying dairy cattle on the basis of type or body conformation as it relates to their potential for milk production by awarding points based on observations of twenty-seven factors related to general appearance, dairy character, body capacity, and the mammary system, with 100 a perfect score.

Developed originally by the Purebred Dairy Cattle Association in 1943, it does not consider production records.

Dairy Herd Improvement Assocation (DHIA)--A cooperative organization of approximately any twenty-five dairy farmers whose purpose is the testing of dairy cows for milk and fat production and the recording of feed consumed. Each farmer receives a monthly record for each of the cows and a complete, yearly summary of production and feed costs.

Dairy Products--(Weight equivalents) Pounds of milk in: 1 gallon, 8.6; 1 quart, 2.15; 1 pint, 1.075. One pound of butter can be made from 21.1 pounds of whole milk; 1 pound of cheese from 10 pounds; 1 pound of nonfat dry milk from 11 pounds.

Dairy Science--(1) The care, breeding, feeding, and milking of dairy cattle, and the production and sale of milk. (2) The formal study of milk production.

Dairy Shorthorn--A type of the shorthorn breed of cattle that originated in northeastern England. A typical cow weighs from 1,200 to 1,350 pounds and is red, white, or roan. It is the principal dairy cow of England. Also called milking shorthorn. See Shorthorn.

Dairy Type--A cow that indicates an ideal conformation for dairy production. The cow is angular; carries no surplus flesh, but shows evidence of good feeding; has a good development of the udder and milk veins; and shows a marked development of the barrel in proportion to its size. See Dairy Breed.

Daisy Cutter--A horse that seems to skim the surface of the ground at the trot. Such horses are often predisposed to stumbling.

Dallisgrass Poisoning--Cattle poisoning caused by grazing on dallisgrass pastures which have ergot growing on the grass seeds. See Ergot.

Dally--To loop the end of a lariat around the horn of a saddle so that the horse may serve as an anchor in roping animals.

Dam--(1) A quadruped, female parent. (2) An artificial structure which obstructs a stream of water for the purpose of water storage, conservation, water power, flood control, irrigation, recreation, etc.

Damp Wool--Wool that has become damp or wet before or after bagging. The wool may then mildew. This weakens the fibers and seriously affects the spinning properties.

Dance, Bee--A performance given by the worker bee upon returning to the hive after an initial search for pollen or nectar, to indicate to other worker bees the location and distance of the pollen-producing plants.

Dapple--A circular pattern in an animal's coat color in which the outer portion is darker than the center.

Dapple Bay--A term used to describe a horse that has a black mane and tail and light chestnut-colored body, or a light chestnut-colored body covered in part by small rings of darker color.

Dapple Gray--A coat-color pattern of some animals, in which the gray color is overlaid with spots of lighter or darker tones.

Dark Meat--The legs and thighs of cooked fowls.

Dark-chestnut--A term used to describe a brownish-black, mahogany, or liver-colored horse.

Dark-dun--A term used to describe the mouse color of an animal's coat.

Daughter--(1) The female offspring. (2) The primary division or first generation offspring of any plant, regardless of sex.

Daughter Cell--(Doter) A newly formed cell resulting from the division of another cell.

Day-old Chick--Designating a chick which is less than a day old. Chicks are commonly at this age from a hatchery.

DDG--See Distiller Dried Grains.

Deacon--A veal calf that is marketed before it is a week old. Also called bob, bob veal.

Deacon Skin--The hide taken from a veal calf less than a week old.

Dead Mouth--Describing a horse whose mouth is no longer sensitive to direction by rein and bit.

Dead Weight--The weight of an animal after slaughter and when all the offal has been removed (virtually the weight of all the salable meat).

Dead Wool--Wool pulled from dead (not slaughtered) sheep. Wool recovered from sheep that have been dead for some time is sometimes referred to as merrin.


Deaf Ear--(1) A scab of cereals. (2) The fold in the skin of a fowl just below the ear.

Death Camas--Any perennial, poisonous, bulbous herb, Zigadenus paniculatrs, family Liliaceae, occurring mostly in the western United States. Cattle rarely eat these plants, but sheep often do. The characteristics of poisoning are salivation, nausea, vomiting, lowering temperature, staggering, prostration, and finally, a coma in which an animal may remain for days, followed by death. Also called onion poisoning, sage poisoning.

Death Loss--The reduction of the number of animals through death as a result of plant poisoning, accident, or disease; as different from reduction by causes such as straying, theft, or sales.

Debeaker--A device for cutting off the tip of the beak of young chickens and turkeys to reduce pecking, cannibalism, and egg eating.

Debilitation--Loss of strength, or a weakened condition.

Decalcification--(1) Removal of calcium carbonate by leaching. A natural process in soil formation. Technically, it is the replacement of calcium ions by monovalent hydrogen cations. (2) The removal of calcium from bones of animals.

Decay--(1) (a) The decomposition of organic matter by anaerobic bacteria or fungi in which the products are completely oxidized. See Putrefaction. (b) To decompose by aerobic bacteria, fungi, etc., whereby the products are completely oxidized. (2) General disaggregation of rocks, which includes the effects of both chemical and mechanical agents of weathering with stress in the chemical effects. (3) Any chemical or physical process which causes deterioration or disintegration.

Decoction--The residue remaining after a substance has been boiled down.

Decoy Hive--A hive placed to attract stray swarms of honeybees. Dee Race Bit--A type of English riding bit that is used on thoroughbred race horses.

Deep-litter System--The placing of wood shavings, sawdust, straw, etc., mixed with hydrated lime on the floor of a chicken house to about the depth of 6 inches (15 centimeters). The droppings are not removed, although at intervals the litter is stirred and new material added. Normally the litter is changed only when the birds are sold.

Deer Farming--A commercial operation that raises deer for meat or other purposes. Deer farming occurs in New Zealand and other countries of the world. Deer are efficient producers of lean meat and there are few if any religious taboos against eating venison as there are against pork and beef.

Defecation--Voiding of excrement; movement of the bowels.

Defect--(1) Any blemish, fault, irregularity, imperfection in an animal, fowl, or farm product that reduces its usability or impairs its value. (2) In animals or fowls, a departure from breed or variety specification. Because of a tendency to be inheritable, a serious defect is also a disqualification for registration as a purebred.

Defective Wool--Wool that contains excessive vegetable matter such as burs, seeds, and straw, or which is kempy, cotty, tender, or otherwise faulty. These defects lower the value from a manufacturer's viewpoint.

Deferred Grazing--The keeping of livestock from a pasture until there is enough vegetation to support the animals, or in the western range of United States, until the seeds of the herbage have matured.

Deficiency--(1) An insufficiency in reference to amount, volume, proportion, etc.; a lack; a state of incompleteness. The measure of the deficiency can be useful: e.g., the deficiency of the natural flow of a stream in meeting a given irrigation demand determines the storage necessary, the additional supply necessary, or the limitation of the irrigable area. (2) Absence, deletion, or inactivation of a segment of a chromosome.

Deficiency Disease--A pathological condition in plants or animals which results from a deficiency of a nutrient, mineral, or other necessary element in the food supply; e.g., the kind of goiter in humans or animals which results from a deficiency of iodine. Also called hidden hunger.

Deflea--To remove fleas from an animal, frequently by using an insecticide.

Defluorinated Phosphate--(1) A carrier of phosphorus for use in fertilizers or in livestock feeds. It is produced from rock phosphate by heating with water vapor, or by other treatment, to remove fluorine. (2) A phosphorus feed supplement which is ranked below bone meal in value.

Deformity--Any physical deviation from the normal in animals or plants caused by injury or disease.

Degossypolized Cottonseed Meal--Cottonseed meal in which the gossypol (toxic principle of cottonseed) has been removed or deactivated so as to contain not more than 0.04% free gossypol. It must be so designated at the time of sale and must meet the prescribed quality specifications of cotton seed meal to be used as a livestock feed. See Gossypol.

Degras--The commercial designation given to crude wool grease. Degrease--To remove the wool oil from wool fiber and to obtain the fat from which lanolin is made. See Lanolin.

Degree of Grazing--A term used to define the closeness of grazing. The degrees are: ungrazed, lightly grazed, moderately grazed, closely grazed, and severely grazed.

Degumming Agents--Used in refining fats to remove mucilaginous matter consisting of gum, resin, proteins, and phosphatides. Dehorn--(1) To remove the horns from cattle, sheep, and goats or to treat young animals so that horns will not develop. (2) To cut back drastically the larger limbs of a tree.

Dehorning Clippers--A device with long handles attached to sharp blades that are used to remove the horns of a beef animal through a scissorlike action.

Dehydrate--To remove most of the moisture from a substance particularly for the purpose of preservation.

Dehydrated Alfalfa Leaf Meal--A ground feedstuff consisting chiefly of alfalfa leaves. It must be reasonably free from other crop plants and weeds and must not contain more than 18 percenet crude fiber. The freshly cut leaves are artificially dried in such a manner that a temperature of at least 212[degrees]F (100[degrees]C) is attained for a period of not more than 40 minutes.

Dehydrated Alfalfa Stem Meal--A feedstuff which is the product remaining after the separation of the leafy material from alfalfa hay or meal. It must be reasonably free from other crop plants and weeds. The freshly cut stems are artificially dried in such a manner that a temperature of at least 212[degrees]F (100[degrees]C) is attained.

Dehydrated Soybean Hay Meal--A feedstuff which is the product obtained from the artificial drying and grinding of the entire soybean plant, including the leaves and beans, but not any stems, straw, or foreign material. It must be reasonably free from other crop plants and weeds and must not contain more than 33 percent crude fiber. It must have been artificially dried when freshly cut.

Delactation--(1) Cessation of giving milk. (2) Cessation of suckling young; weaning.

Delaine Wool--Fine combing wool, usually obtained from the state of Ohio.


Deletion--Absence of a segment of a chromosome involving one or more genes.

Deliming--The soaking of an animal hide in a sulfuric acid bath to remove the lime used in dehairing the hide. Delousing--The extermination of lice by insecticides.

Demaree--In honeybee keeping, a method of swarm control, by which the queen is separated from most of brood; devised by a man by that name.

Demiluster--Wool that has some luster but not enough to be classified as luster wool. Wool of this type is produced by Romney and similar breeds. Same as semiluster.

Denature--(1) To make a product unfit for human consumption without destroying its value for other purposes: e.g., denatured alcohol. (2) To change the properties of a protein, as to coagulate egg white.

Density--(1) Mass per unit volume. (2) The number of wild animals per unit of area. (3) The degree of closeness with which wool fibers are packed together. (4) In forestry, density of stocking expressed in number of trees, basal area, volume, or other criteria on an acre or hectare basis. See Stocking.

Dental Cup--A small dark-colored depression in the wearing surface of the incisor teeth of horses, having a rim of hard, glistening, white enamel, which disappears as the teeth wear down. Also known as dental star.

Dental Pad--A hard pad in the upper mouth of cattle and other animals that serves in the place of upper teeth.

Denticulate--(1) Diminutive of dentate; with small teeth of the dentate type. (2) A leaf margin that is similar to dentate, but has smaller "teeth."

Dentition--The character, arrangement, and number of teeth in an animal; the formation and growth of teeth.

Denutrition--Lack or withdrawal of nutrition; the failure to transform food elements into nutritional substances.

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)--A genetic proteinlike nucleic acid on plant and animal genes and chromosomes that controls inheritance. Each DNA molecule consists of two strands in the shape of a double helix. Most inheritance characteristics can be predicted but some cannot, because some genes "jump" (are promiscuous). Such genes can result in resistance to pesticides.


Depilate--To remove the hair from the skin.

Depilatory--(1) A substance which is applied to the flesh side of pelts to loosen fibers from the skin. (2) An agent for removing hairs from the living body.

Depot Fat--Fat that is accumulated or stored in the body.

Depraved Appetite--A craving in people, animals, and fowls for items not normally eaten by them which may be caused by a diet deficiency. This may include eating clay soil. See Geophagia, Pica.

Depression--(1) A slight following in the flesh of an animal. (2) A hollow in the surface of the land. (3) A severe drop in income and prices for an area or for a nation. (4) The Great Depression denotes the economic reversal that took place in the United States in the 1930s, which was associated with the Stock Market Crash in October 1929.

Dequeen--To deprive a colony of its queen bee.

Dermal--Of the skin; through or by the skin.

Dermal Toxicity--Ability of a chemical to cause injury when absorbed through the skin.

Dermatitis--A nonspecific skin condition affecting both people and animals, characterized by inflammation or infection of the skin. Animals with light-colored skin are most sensitive, although dermatitis may result from external parasites, irritation chemicals or plants, sunlight, or nutritional deficiencies. See Eczema.

Dermatomycosis--Any skin infection caused by a fungus, for example, ringworm.

Dermatophytes--Fungi that infect only the skin.

Dermatosis--Any skin disease.

Dermis--The major layer of the skin, which is located just under the epidermis.

Desiccate--To dry out; to exhaust of water or moisture content.

Determinant Growth--The type of growth that stops in an animal after it reaches a certain age.

Deutectomy--The removal of the yolk sac from newly hatched chicks.

Deutoplasm--The nutritive material or yolk in the cytoplasm or vitellus of an ovum or egg.

Devon--A red, dual-purpose breed of cattle, originating in Devonshire, England. It is one of the oldest English breeds. In the United States, found primarily in New England.

Dewclaw--A vestigial digit on, or just above, the foot of a quadruped, such as on cattle, which does not touch the ground as the animal stands or walks. Also called false hoof.

Dewlap--The pendulous skin fold hanging from the throat of any animal, particularly a member of the ox (cattle) tribe and certain fowl.

Dextrorotatory Honey--Any honey that contains honeydew and whose solutions cause a plane of polarized light to rotate to the right (clockwise).

DHIA--See Dairy Herd Improvement Association.

DHIA Records--Production records of cows tested under the supervision of the tester of a Dairy Herd Improvement Association.

Di-hybrid--An individual who is heterozygous with respect to two pairs of genes.

Diacetyl--The aromatic chemical compound developed in the ripening of cream for butter which is the chief constituent in the aroma of butter.

Diagnosis--The process of identifying a disease by examination and study of its symptoms.

Diagnostic Antigens--Biological agents which are prepared for use in the diagnosis of a specific disease; e.g., tuberculin, which is injected under the skin of cattle to determine if they have tuberculosis. It has little or no effect on healthy subjects, but in an infected animal, it will cause inflammation of the skin around the injection and a possible rise in temperature.

Diagnostician--Any person, especially one trained in diagnosis, who determines the nature and cause of a disease or abnormality in plants or animals and prescribes a treatment.

Diakinesis--A stage of meiosis just before metaphase of the first division: the homologous chromosomes are associated in pairs near the nucleus and have undergone most of the decreases in length.

Diallel Crossing--In animals, a method of progeny testing in which two males, bred at different times to the same females, are compared with the two sets of progeny.

Diamond Skin Disease--See Swine Erysipelas.

Diaphragm--The layer or sheet of muscle and connective tissue that forms the wall between the thoracic and abdominal cavities of mammals and aids in the process of breathing.

Diarrhea--Frequent and profuse fluid defecation commonly caused by an infection of the gastrointestinal tract.

Diastase--Enzyme that aids in converting starch to sugar.

Dickey--A slang term for a donkey or a small bird.

Dicoumarol--An anticoagulant produced by molds on spoiled clovers.

Diecious--(1) Animals that are either male or female; i.e., each individual animal has either male or female reproductive organs but not both. (2) Plant species with male and female organs on separate plants.

Diestrus--The period of the estrous cycle that occurs between metestrus and proestrus.

Diet--The type and amount of food and drink habitually ingested by a person or an animal. See Ration.

Dietary Fiber--Generic name for plant materials that are resistant to the action of normal digestive enzymes.

Diethylstilbestrol (DES)--A synthetic estrogenic hormone that has been used to stimulate faster growth and the deposition of additional fat in steers on feed.

Differentiation--(1) The development of different kinds of organisms in the course of evolution. (2) The development or growth of a cell, organ, or immature organism into a mature organism.

Digest--(1) To convert food within the body into a form that can be assimilated. (2) To soften, dissolve, or alter any substance by heat and chemical action.

Digester Tankage--A feed supplement or fertilizer made from finely ground, dried residue of animal tissues which has been placed in a tank under live steam. It does not include hair, horn, hoof, manure, or the contents of an animal's stomach, except in small, unavoidable traces not in excess of 0.05 percent of any of these. When this product contains more than 4.4 percent phosphorus, the word "bone" must appear as part of the brand name. If more than 5 percent of this product cannot be passed through a 2-millimeter screen, the words "coarsely ground" must be published. Also called meat meal tankage, feeding tankage.

Digester Tankage with Bone--Digester tankage that contains more than 4.4 percent phosphorus. Also called meat and bone meal, digester tankage, feeding tankage with bone.

Digester Tankage with Paunch Contents--Digester tankage to which the processed contents of an animal's stomach have been added.

Digestibility--(1) The readiness with which a substance may be converted into an absorbable form within the body. (2) The rate or amount of a nutrient digested; i.e., the difference between the amount of a nutrient fed and the amount found in the feces, but since some of the nutrient voided in the feces may not have been a part of the nutrient fed, this is considered apparent digestibility. When the amount of a nutrient digested is converted to a percentage, it is called the digestion coefficient.

Digestible--(1) That feed consumed and digested by an animal as opposed to that which is evacuated by the animal. (2) Feed which can be converted into an absorbable form within the body.

Digestible Crude Protein--The total nitrogenous compound protein fed to livestock less the nitrogenous compounds eliminated in the feces.

Digestible Energy (DE)--The proportion of energy in a feed that can be digested and absorbed by an animal.

Digestible Nonnitrogenous Nutrient--The total digestible nutrients less the digestible protein in a feedstuff.

Digestible Nutrient--That portion of a nutrient that may be digested and absorbed into a human or an animal body.

Digestible Protein--The proportion of protein in a feed that can be digested and absorbed by an animal; usually 50 to 80 percent of crude protein.

Digestion--(1) The changes that food undergoes within the digestive tract to prepare it for absorption and use in the body. (2) The reduction of organic matter by biochemical action into more stable organic matter; e.g., the manufacture of sludge from sewage.

Digestion Coefficient--The amount of a given feed that is digested by an animal expressed as a percentage of the gross amount eaten.

Digestion Trial--An experiment with any feed by an animal or fowl to determine the amount of any substance that can be digested.

Digestive Tract--The mouth, esophagus, digestive organs; stomach or stomachs, crop, gizzard, and the small and large intestines, and anus; all of the organs of an animal or fowl through which food passes.

Dilate--To enlarge, expand, to open.

Diluent--Any gaseous, liquid, or solid inert material that serves to dilute or carry an active ingredient, as in an insecticide or fungicide. Also called carrier.

Dilute--(1) To make more liquid by mixing with water, alcohol, etc. (2) To weaken in flavor, brilliancy, force, strength, etc., by mixing with another element.

Diluted Color--A term applied to feather color in poultry. It refers to soft colors such as light tan, cream or buff, light yellow, and light blue.

Diluted Feed--A feed that has a high concentration of roughage or fiber.

Dingy--Wool that is dark or grayish in color and generally heavy in shrinkage.

Dioestrum--That part of female's cycle between periods of estrus (heat).

Dip--(1) Any chemical preparation into which livestock or poultry are submerged briefly to rid them of insets, mites, ticks, etc. See Dipping Vat. (2) Any preservative preparation in which produce is briefly submerged. (3) To remove ice cream from a container with a dipper. (4) To collect oleoresin from a cup in turpentine orchards.

Diphtheria--A highly contagious bacterial disease of mammals caused by the presence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae; characterized by the fever, heart weakness, anemia, and prostration; often fatal.

Diploid--(1) Having one genome comprising two sets of chromosomes. Somatic tissues of higher plants and animals are ordinarily diploid in chromosome constitution in contrast with the haploid (monoploid) gametes. (2) An organism or cell with two sets of chromosomes, for example, worker and queen honeybees.

Dipping--(1) A method of preserving seasoned wood by submersion in an open tank of creosote or similar preservative. (2) The submerging of animals or fowls in a liquid bath which contains insecticides, ovicides, repellents, etc.

Dipping Vat--A pit filled with a liquid containing insecticides, ovicides, repellents, etc., through which animals are forced to pass for disinfestation. It is concrete-lined or otherwise waterproofed, rectangular, but so narrow that an animal is unable to turn in it. At the entrance it has a vertical drop of five or more feet while at the exit it has a cleated ramp.

Dipteron--An insect of the order Diptera which usually has two wings. Many, such as the mosquito and tsetse fly, are pests because of their ability to bite and to spread diseases. Direct Cut Silage--Plants that are cut and chopped for silage in a single operation.

Discharge--(1) The quantity of water, silt, or other mobile substances passing along a conduit per unit of time; rate of flows. (2) An exudate or abnormal material coming from a wound or from any of the body openings: e.g., a bloody discharge from the nose. (3) To remove the electrical energy from a battery.

Discolor--Different colors; off color.

Discriminate Breeder--An animal that will only breed with a certain mate.

Disease--Any deviation from a normal state of health in plants, animals, or people which temporarily impairs vital functions. It may be caused by viruses, pathogenic bacteria, parasites, poor nutrition, congenital or inherent deficiencies, unfavorable environment, or any combination of these.

Disease Control--Any procedure that tends to inhibit the activity or effect of disease-causing organisms, or which modifies conditions favorable to disease.

Disease Resistant--Designating plants, animals, or people not readily susceptible to, or able to withstand, a particular disease.

Disinfect--To destroy or render inert disease-producing microorganisms and to destroy parasites.

Disk--(1) A round, usually sharp-edged, slightly dished, steel plate that cuts the soil as it revolves on a center axis and moves the soil to one side. Several disks are mounted and spaced on a horizontal shaft to make the disk harrow. Also called disk blade. See Disk Harrow. (2) One of a series of metal plates in a centrifugal separator bowl that increases the efficiency of the machine. (3) In botany, (a) an adhesive surface on the tendril ends of creeper plants that enables them to climb along flat surfaces; (b) an enlargement of a flower's receptacle; (c) the center of a composite flower; (d) an organ's surface; (e) the circular valve of a diatom. Also spelled disc.

Dismount--To get down, alight, as from a horse's back.

Disorder--An unwholesome or unnatural physical condition of a plant or animal. See Disease.

Disposition--The temperament or spirit of an animal.

Disqualification--In animal husbandry, a defect of characters of form or breed types that disqualifies an animal from an exhibition or from breed registration.

Dissect--To cut or divide a plant or animal into pieces for examination.

Dissolved Bone--A fertilizer material that consists of ground bone or of bone meal that has been treated with sulphuric acid to make the phosphorus in the bone more readily available to growing plants.

Dissolved Oxygen--The amount of elementary oxygen present in water in a dissolved state. It is commonly reported in parts per million (by weight), or milligrams per liter, or percentage of saturation, of oxygen in the water. Dissolved oxygen is essential for fish and other aquatic life and for aerobic decomposition of organic matter. Dissolved oxygen in surface water bodies should be maintained at a level above the threshold of 3 mg/1 and an optimum of 5 mg/1 for most species of fish.

Distal--Located in a position that is distant from the point of attachment of an organ; for example, the toes are located on the distal part of the leg.

Distemper of Dogs--An acute, widespread, very contagious disease of dogs, especially of young ones, caused by a filterable virus which may cause death. Also called dog disease, canine distemper.

Distemper of Horses--See Strangles.

Distillers' Dried Grains (DDG)--The dried distillers' grains byproduct of the grain fermentation process that may be used as a high-protein (28%) animal feed. See Distillers' Grains.

Distillers' Dried Yeast Molasses--The properly dried yeast resulting from the fermentation of molasses and yeast that is separated from the medium, either before or after distillation.

Distillers' Grains--A by-product livestock feed obtained from the manufacture of alcohol and distilled liquors from corn, rye, and sometimes, a mixture of rice and other cereals.

Distributor--(1) Any device that is used to move produce from one place and to scatter it in another; e.g., a fertilizer distributor. (2) An agent or a wholesaler who sells goods in quantity. (3) A device in some bulk milk tanks that spreads the milk over a cooling surface. (4) That part of a motor engine that conducts the secondary current to the spark plugs.

Diuresis--An increased production of urine. Division Board--Flat board used to separate two colonies or colony of bees into two parts.

Division Board Feeder--A wooden or plastic trough which is placed in a beehive in a frame space to feed the colony honey or sugar syrup.

Division Screen--A wooden frame with two layers of wire screen that serves to separate two colonies of bees within the same hive, one above the other.

Dizygotic Twins--Twins that develop from two separate fertilized ova.

DNA--See Deoxyribonucleic Acid.

Dobbin--An affectionate designation for a gentle horse.

Docile--Refers to an animal that is gentle in nature.

Docile Temperament--Easily managed disposition of an animal.

Dock--(1) To cut short the tail of an animal (most commonly a lamb); usually for sanitary reasons and to facilitate breeding in females. (2) The area around the tail of sheep or other animals. (3) Any plant of the genus Rumex; a serious weed pest. (4) A leather case to cover a horse's tail when clipped or cut.

Dockage--(1) Foreign material in harvested grain such as weed seeds, chaff, and dust. (2) The weight deducted from stags and pregnant sows to compensate for unmerchantable parts of an animal.

Doddie--A polled cow.

Doe--An adult female goat, rabbit, or deer.

Dog--(1) Canis familiaris, family Canidae; a domesticated, carnivorous animal which is used as a household pet, a watchdog, a herder for sheep, cows, etc. (2) A device, usually consisting of a steel hook and chain, used in skidding logs. (3) A sort of iron hook or bar with one or more sharp fangs that may be fastened into a piece of wood or other heavy article to move it. (4) Any part of a machine acting as a claw or clutch, as an adjustable stop to change the direction of a machine tool. (5) A low-qualitiy beef animal.

Dog Flea--Ctenocephalides canis, family Pulicidae; an insect that infests people, rodents, dogs, cats, etc. It is a possible vector for bubonic plague and is an alternate host for the dog tapeworm and the rodent tapeworm, which occasionally parasitizes people.

Dog Follicle Mite--Demodix canis, family Demodicidae; a mite infesting dogs which causes red mange.

Dogie--(dogy, dogey, doge) A term used on western ranges in the United States for a motherless calf.

Dogtrot--A slow, gentle trot.

Domestic Fowl--Gallus domesticus, family Phasianidae; the chicken.

Domestic Wool--Wools grown in the United States as against foreign wools.

Domesticate--To bring wild animals under the control of humans over a long period of time for the purpose of providing useful products and services; the process involves careful handling, breeding, and care.

Dominance--(1) The tendency for one gene to exert its influence over its partner, after conception occurs and genes exist in pairs. There are varying degrees of dominance, from partial to complete to overdominance. (2) In forestry, the relative basal area of a species to the total basal area of all species in an area. The species having the highest relative basal area is considered the dominant species (syn.: predominant). (3) A term used in various contexts (e.g., in farm programming, input-output budget analysis and decision analysis) to indicate that one alternative is superior to another in the sense of producing higher benefits (output) with equal or lower costs (inputs).

Dominance (Social)--The tendency of one animal in a group to exert its social influence or presence over others in the group. Also referred to as social order or pecking order.

Dominant--(1) In genetics, designating one of any pair of opposite Mendelian characters that dominates the other, when both are present in the germ plasm, and appear in the resultant organism. (2) Designating a plant species that characterizes an area.

Dominant Gene--A gene that prevents its allele from having a phenotypic effect. See Recessive Gene.

Dominique--An American Breed of medium-weight, dual-purpose chickens. The plumage is salt colored, crossed by dark and light bars. The egg shell is brown.

Donkey--(1) A portable engine. (2) An ass.

Dorsal--Refers to the back, or toward the back; the opposite of ventral.

Dorset--(1) A medium-sized breed of sheep originating in southern England. (2) A hard, blue-veined, English cheese made from partly skimmed cow's milk cured with rennet. See Rennet.

Dosage Response Curve--In veterinary medicine, the amount of medicine containing a given chemical as plotted against the killing power of that chemical.

Dose--Proper amount of a medicine to be given at one time.

Dose Syringe--A syringe with a long pipe or nozzle that is used to force medicine down the throats of animals and poultry and to wash out the throats or crops of fowls.

Double--(1) Designating a blossom that has more petals and sepals than normal, usually as a result of plant breeding. Double flowers are often highly prized. (2) Designating a team of horses; e.g., to work horses double.

Double Bit--A set of two bits attached to a horse's bridle: one for guiding the animal, the other for controlling it. The set consists of a curb bit and a straight bit.

Double Cover--Coitus of a mare, cow, or other female animal with a male on successive days to ensure conception. See Double Mating.

Double Fertilization--The usual fertilization in plants, in which the egg nucleus is fertilized by one sperm nucleus and the two fused polar nuclei by another sperm nucleus.

Double Immune--Designating a hog that has been vaccinated with both live virus and antihog cholera serum for protection against hog cholera.

Double Mating--(1) A rarely used breeding practice with Barred Plymouth Rocks to produce birds of exhibition type. (2) The mating of female livestock twice during a given estrous period to the same or different males to ensure conception. See Double Cover.

Double Muscling--An abnormal condition in some beef animals. The term is a misnomer for an undesirable genetically controlled display of gross enlargement of all of the muscles in the animal's body, most noticeably demonstrated by bulging muscles in the round and shoulder. The tail head is set forward and the body is shallow.

Double Reins--Two sets of reins attached to a horse's double bit.

Double-decked Car--A railway car or truck having two main floors, one above the other. It is used for the shipment of sheep, hogs, calves, etc.

Double-rigged Saddle--A saddle that has two cinches.

Double-snaffle Bit--A severe bit for a horse's bridle which consists of two bar bits, each hinged on opposite sides of the middle.

Dourine--A parasitic, contagious disease of the horse and ass caused by Trypanosoma equiperdum as a result of infection during coitus. It is characterized in the stallion or jack by a swelling of the prepuce which in time spreads to the scrotum and abdomen, and the testicles become enlarged and sensitive. The penis extends from the sheath, is swollen, and discharges a yellowish fluid. Blisters on the penis and sheath rupture and result in raw ulcers. There is repeated desire to urinate. In the mare or jenny, it is characterized by swollen, external genitals, a gaping vulva, and clitoris being constantly erect. The mammary glands may be swollen. The female is uneasy, switches her tail, voids small quantities of urine, and appears to be in heat. A discharge similar to the male's is evident. Blisters on the inner and outer mucous membranes of the genitals rupture to leave raw ulcers. Both sexes become nervous. The skin lesions appear in the form of urticarial wheals similar to those in hives. The hindquarters may become paralyzed. Also called dollar plague, breeding paralysis, genital glanders, equine syphilis.

Down--(1) A sandhill. See Dune. (2) The soft, furry or feathery covering of young animals and birds that occurs on certain adult birds under the outer feathers and which is used for stuffing pillows, furniture, and comforters, its most important source being the eider duck. (3) The pappus of a plant. (4) Used to describe the individual crop plants that have been blown or forced to the ground by rain, hail, wind, etc.,; e.g., down corn, down wheat.

Down Breeds--One of two English types of sheep that produce a small sheep of the medium wool class. It includes the common breeds: Southdown, Shropshire, Hampshire, Suffolk, Oxford Down, and Dorset Horn. Down Crossbreed--A sheep that results form crossing a Merino with any of the Down breeds.

Down Wool--Wool of medium fineness produced by such down breeds as Southdown and Shropshire. These wools are lofty and well suited for knitting yarn.

Downer--(1) An animal which, in transit in a truck or railroad car, has fallen or lain down. (2) A diseased animal unable to get up.

Downy--Covered with very short, weak, soft hairs.

Draft--(1) A package deduction, one pound per hundred pounds, allowed a buyer of wool. (2) The horizontal component of pull of an implement parallel to the line of motion. Also called directional pull. (3) Similar to a check but instead of being charged to a signer it is charged to a third person named on the face of the draft. (4) Any feedstuff obtained as a by-product of the distillation of grains.

Draft Animal--Animal used for work stock and, in some countries, is still used for plowing and pulling heavy loads.

Draft Horse--Any horse which, by reason of its size and weight, is used for pulling heavy loads, and which usually weighs over 1,500 pounds and stands up to 171/2 hands high. Breeds include: Belgian, Clydesdale, Shire, Suffolk, See Hand.

Drafting Race--A narrow passageway through which sheep can be driven in order to divide them into two or three groups. See Race.

Draining Pen--A pen with a sloping concrete floor adjoining a dipping vat where dipped animals stand while excess fluid drains back into the vat.

Drake--A mature male duck.

Drape--A term applied to a cow or ewe incapable of bearing offspring, especially to such an animal selected for slaughter.

Drawing--(1) The removal of cuttings from a propagation bed. (2) The eviscerating of poultry.

Drawn Comb--Comb having the cells built out (drawn) by honeybees from a sheet of foundation. Cells are about one-half inch deep.

Drench--(drensh) A fluid dose of medication given by introducing it into the mouth, usually with a dose syringe. Frequently used when attempting to remove parasites from the stomach and intestines of people and animals.

Dress--(1) To curry and brush an animal. (2) To remove the feathers and blood from a bird that has been killed. (3) To plane the surface of a board.

Dress Out--(1) To remove the feathers or skin and to cut up and trim the carcass of an animal after slaughter. (2) The percentage of carcass weight to live weight.

Dressage--Designating a horse that has been trained to perform on almost unnoticeable signals by the rider. Also called high school, haute ecole.

Dressed Weight--(1) The weight of a sheep, cow, or hog carcass. (2) The weight of a bird that has had its blood and feathers removed but not its intestines, head, or feet.

Dressing--(1) An application of medicine or bandage made to a wound on a person, animal, fowl, or plant. (2) An application of manure, fertilizer, mulch, etc. See Side Dress, Top Dressing. (3) The preparation of nursery stock for cutting, budding, grafting, etc. (4) The removal of feathers and blood form a bird. (5) The trimming of excess fat and bone form a meat carcass. (6) The external treatment of cheese, including: (a) the assistance given in forming a coat or rind; (b) improvement given to the external appearance of a cheese; (c) the prevention of loss of moisture from a cheese; (d) protection from external microorganisms.

Dressing Comb--A special comb used to prepare an animal's coat for a show. Also called currycomb.

Dressing Defect--A defect of dressed poultry characterized by one or more of the following: pin feathers left on the carcass; incomplete bleeding; a cut, tear, or abrasion in the skin longer than two inches; a broken bone; feed left in the crop; dirty feet; dirty body; dirty vent.

Dressing Loss--The loss in weight between a live animal and its dressed carcass.

Dressing Percent--Carcass weight divided by live weight and multiplied by 100. Usually the cold carcass weight is used. The dressing percentage for cattle averages around 50 to 60 percent; Hogs average around 70 percent

Dressing Weight--The weight of a dressed animal or bird in contrast to its live weight.

Dried Blood--The collected blood of slaughtered animals, dried and ground. It is sold as a fertilizer and contains 8 to 14% nitrogen in organic form (50 to 87.5% crude protein). The better grades are used as an ingredient of feed. See Blood Meal.

Dried Egg Albumen--Preserved egg albumen obtained by the separation of the albumen (white) from the yolk, followed by the bacterial fermentation of the albumen and the drying of the albumen by heat.

Dried Eggs--Preserved eggs obtained by mixing the white with the yolk and removing all but 3 to 5 percent of the moisture by heat.

Dried Manure--See Manure.

Dried Milk--The product resulting from the removal of water from milk. Also called desiccated milk.

Dried Milk By-product--A designation that may be used in the list of ingredients of a mixed feed to indicate the presence of dried skimmed milk, dried buttermilk, or dried whey, or a blend of two or more of these products.

Dried Skimmed Milk--(1) A livestock feed, especially suited for calves, piglets, and chickens, which is produced by evaporating water from clean, sound skimmed milk, and which contains not more than 8% moisture (approximately 34% protein). (2) Also a human food.

Dried Whey--A by-product from the manufacture of cheese or casein that consists of at least 65% lactose (milk sugar) and approx. 12% protein; used as a livestock feed.

Drifting--The return of field bees to colonies other than their own.

Drinking Cup--A metal or porcelain cup just large enough for an animal's muzzle, within which is a valve or float, activated when the animal pushes its muzzle against it.

Drinking Hole--Waterhole.

Drippings--Fat that liquefies during cooking of meat, etc., and runs to the bottom of the pan.

Drive--(1) (a) The moving of livestock under human direction; (b) To herd livestock. (2) In wildlife management, the herding of wild animals past a particular point for counting or shooting. (3) The process of floating logs down a river from a forest area to a mill or to a shipping point. (4) The means for giving motion to a machine part or machine, as a drive chain, a drive wheel.

Drive-ins--Designating those cattle that are herded in to market, as contrasted to those transported there by truck, etc.

Driveway--(1) In the range country, that land which is set aside for the movement of livestock from place to place; e.g., from the home range to the shipping point. Also called stock driveway, stock route. (2) A path or passage, sometimes paved, for the movement of vehicles and/or livestock. (3) The farm road from the building site to the gate at the highway. (4) Vehicle passage into or through a barn.

Drone--The male honeybee hatched from an unfertilized egg. It is larger than a worker bee, does not gather honey, and has no sting.

Drone Comb--Comb with about four cells to the inch and in which drones are reared.

Drone Layer--A queen that lays only unfertilized eggs which always develop into drones. Results from improperly or nonmated queen or an older queen who has run out of sperm.

Drop--(1) A structure in an open or closed conduit that is used for dropping the water to a lower level and dissipating its kinetic energy. (2) A decrease in height or elevation. (3) Any fruit that falls form a tree to the ground because of wind, or other conditions; e.g., diseased, immature, and usually unfertilized fruit; also normal but ripe fruit. (4) A fungal disease of vegetables caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, S. minor, or S. intermedia, family Sclerotiniaceae. (5) To give birth to young, as to drop a calf. (6) To shoot an animal and to cause it to fall.

Drop Band--A group of ewes or nanny goats that is managed separately at the season of bearing young. Also called drop herd.

Droppings--The excrement of animals and birds. See Guano, Manure.

Dropsy--(1) An excessive, intensive, watery enlargement of parts of a plant sometimes due to a superabundance of moisture in the soil. Also called edema. (2) Widespread edema (swelling) throughout the body of an animal.

Drosophila--(Greek; drosos, dew; philein, to love) A genus of fruit flies common around decaying fruit; used extensively in experimental genetics. One of the most common is Drosophila melanogaster. Drove--A collection or mass of animals of one species, as a drove of cattle.

Drug Residue--Any amount of drug that is left in an animal's body. Drum--(1) A cylinder-shaped package or product, as a drum of cheese. (2) A revolving cylinder, as the drum of a seed cleaner. (3) To knock on the sides of a hive to drive the bees upward when transferring them from one hive to another.

Drumstick--The leg of a fowl from the hock joint to the joint next above.

Dry--(1) (a) To cause a pregnant cow to stop giving milk shortly before she drops her calf; (b) Designating a cow who has ceased to give milk shortly after she drops her calf. (2) To preserve a product by dehydration. (3) Designating dressed poultry packed for shipment with dry ice. (4) Designating a time or place of abnormal lack of precipitation, e.g., a dry year. (5) describing a well that yields no water.

Dry Band--A band of sheep without lambs.

Dry Basis--Designating a product, e.g., soil, fertilizer, or feed, which is analyzed for its constituents calculated on the basis of oven-dried material.

Dry Cow--A cow that has ceased to give milk.

Dry Cure--A method of curing pork by rubbing the meat with salt, sugar, and saltpeter, and allowing it to age.

Dry Lot--A bare, fenced-in area used as a place to keep livestock for feeding and fattening.

Dry Matter--The total amount of matter, as in a feed, less the moisture it contains. Dry feeds in storage, such as cereal grains, usually contain about 10 percent water and 90 percent dry matter, wet weight basis.

Dry Off--(1) To reduce the amount of water given a plant, bulb, tuber, or corm, until it becomes dormant and ready to store. (2) To bring the lactation period of a cow to an end.

Dry Period--That time just before parturition when a cow or other lactating animal ceases to give milk.

Dry Pick--To dress a bird without scalding it. It may be bled by cutting the jugular vein, and its medulla oblongata punctured to relax the feather follicles to facilitate plucking.

Dry Rendered--The residues of animal tissues cooked in open, steam-jacketed vessels until the water has evaporated. The fat is removed by draining and pressing the solid residue.

Dry Salt Cure--A method of preserving pork, especially fat back, in which salt is sprinkled heavily over the pieces of meat that are then piled one on top of another. The salted meat is cured from three weeks to a month.

Dry Weight--The weight of a product or material less the weight of the moisture it contains; the weight of the residue of a substance that remains after virtually all the moisture has been removed from it. Also called dry matter.

Dry-packed--Slaughtered poultry that is packed dry and cooled without ice coming in direct contact with the carcasses.

Drying--Reducing the moisture content of a product to the point at which the concentration of the dissolved solids is so high that osmotic pressure will prevent the growth of microorganisms.

Drying-off--The gradual cessation of milk production by the mother after her young have been weaned.

Dual-purpose--Designating a domestic fowl or animal that is bred for two purposes; e.g., a chicken raised for both meat and egg production; a cow grown for milk and meat.

Dual-use Range--A range containing a forage combination of grass, forbs, and browse that allows two or more kinds of stock (such as cattle and sheep) to graze the area to advantage at the same time through the entire season, or separately, during a part of the season.

Dub--To cut the combs and wattles from cockerels when they are twelve to sixteen weeks old, to prevent injury from freezing or from fighting.

Duck--(1) A bird, family Anatidae, especially the domesticated duck raised for meat and eiderdown. (2) The female duck. See Drake. (3) A heavy cotton or linen cloth.

Duckling--A young duck that still has downy plumage.

Ductless Glands--Those glands of the body whose secretions pass directly into the bloodstream or into the lymph, as one of the endocrine glands.

Dumb Rabies--Paralysis that develops in the last stages of rabies. Also called drop jaw. See Rabies.

Dumba--The fur or skin of the Karakul lamb.

Dummy--(1) A sleepy or stupid horse, especially one that has suffered inflammation of the brain. (2) A strongly built frame suggesting the shape of a female animal, often covered with the hide of such a female, which is used to excite a male animal sexually so that it will mount the dummy and accept the use of an artificial vagina so that the semen may be collected for later use in artificial insemination.

Dumpy--(1) Designating an animal or fowl that does not feel very well, but that is not seriously ill. (2) An animal that is short in length and height and is fat.

Dun--An animal's color characterized by a dark dorsal stripe over the withers and shoulders. Recognized shades are mouse dun, buckskin dun, and claybark dun.

Dung--Manure; the feces or excrement of animals and birds. See Guano, Manure.

Dung Locks--On sheep, britch wool locks that are encrusted in hardened dung.

Duodenum--(1) In birds, the part of the small intestine nearest the gizzard. (2) In mammals, the part of the small intestine nearest the stomach.

Duplicate Genes--Factors with the same recessive phenotypic expression.

Durham Cattle--See Polled Shorthorn.

Duroc--A prolific breed of hogs that grow rapidly; red, with drooping ears. Formerly called Duroc-Jersey.

Dust--(1) Fine, dry particles of earth, or other matter, so attenuated that they may be wafted by the wind. (2) Particles less than 0.1 millimeter in diameter that may be bounced off the ground by sand grains moving in saltation. See Saltation. (3) An insecticide, fungicide, etc., which is applied in a dry state, or the application of these to plants, animals, or fowls. (4) (Volcanic) Pyroclastic detritus consisting mostly of particles less than 0.25 millimeter in diameter; i.e., fine volcanic ash. It may be composed of essential, accessory, or accidental material.

Dutch Cattle--Loosely, all black-and-white dairy cattle. See Holstein.

Dwarf--(1) A serious viral disease of other trailing blackberry characterized by a yellowing of the plant and a shortening of the canes. The canes, spindly at first, become stiff, unusually upright and thick. The leaves are dwarfed, crinkled, and mottled with bronze and light green patches. Found in United States Pacific Coast. (2) A plant, especially one that has been intentionally grafted to be a dwarf. (3) Dwarfing may be caused by disease, lack of water, or mineral deficiency. (4) See

Dwarf Cattle. (5) Designating any plant disease, one of whose symptoms is a stopping or retarding of growth.

Dwarf Cattle--(Midget) A genetic condition of increasing frequency in most breeds of cattle, especially beef cattle. Calves are of less than normal size at birth, remain small throughout life, and often have abnormal body conformation such as stubby legs, a dished or bulldog face, and pop eyes. Dwarfism is now considered an autosomal recessive character.

Dwindling--In honeybees, the rapid or unusual depletion of hive population, usually in the spring.

Dyad--The univalent chromosome, composed of two chromatids, at meiosis. The pair of cells formed at the end of the first meiotic division.

Dysentery--(1) A term used for many kinds of inflammation of the intestines and frequent stools. The cause may be a chemical irritant, bacteria, protozoa, or parasitic worms. (2) A condition of adult bees resulting from an accumulation of feces. It usually occurs during winter and is caused by unfavorable wintering condition and low-quality food. Its presence is detected by small spots of feces around the entrance and within the hive.

Dysfunction--A lessening in the proper action of part of the body.

Dyspepsia--Impairment of digestion.

Dyspnea--Difficult or labored breathing.

Dystocia--Painful or slow delivery or birth.

Dysuria--Difficult or painful urination.


E. Coli Bacteria--Bacteria that naturally inhabit the human colon.

Ear Canker--An inflamed, swollen, scabby condition of the lower inside ear of rabbits, caused by colonies of rabbit ear mites.

Ear Covert--The very small feathers of a bird that cover the ear.

Ear Implant--A small pellet containing a growth regulator or other medication that is placed beneath the skin of the ear of a beef animal. The ear is used for the implant site because the ear is not used for meat when the animal is slaughtered.

Ear Mange--A mange of cats, dogs, rabbits, and foxes caused by Otodoectes cynotis (ear mange mite), family Demodicidae, which infests the skin inside the ear, causing great irritation, impaired hearing or deafness, inability to coordinate movements, and sometimes causing the ear to become packed with dry scabs.

Ear Marking--The process of removing parts of the ears of livestock so as to leave a distinctive pattern; done for the purpose of designating ownership.

Ear Notcher--A punch used to cut notches in the ears of animals for identification.

Ear Tag--A tag fastened in an animal's ear for the purpose of identification.

Eared--(1) Designating the presence of ears or spikes on a plant. (2) Pertaining to an animal restrained by its ears. (3) Designating the presence of earlike tufts of feathers in some birds.

Early Speed--Ability of a horse to obtain his maximum speed in one or two strides.

East Coast Fever--A disease of cattle prevalent in eastern Africa caused by a protozoan transmitted by the biting of the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus.

Eastern Pulled Wool--Wool from sheep and lambs slaughtered in the east. The wool is pulled from the skins after it has been loosened, usually by a depilatory. Pulled wool should not be confused with dead wool.

Easy--(1) A command to a horse to move slower. (2) Designating an animal that has a low or weak back or pasterns, as easy in the back.

Easy Bit--A horse's bit that restrains the horse lightly. See Curb Bit.

Easy Gait--Any horse's gait that is conveniently slow for the rider.

Easy Keeper--An animal that thrives with a minimum of feed, attention, and care.

Ebrillade--The training of a horse by jerking one rein when he refuses to turn.

EBV--See Estimated Breeding Value.

Eclosion--The process of hatching from an egg.

Economy of Gain--The amount of feed required per unit of gain in the weight of an animal or fowl expressed in cash value, i.e., the pounds of feed per pound of gain converted to dollars.

Ecraseur--A surgical instrument consisting of a fine chain or cord that is looped around the scrotum or a diseased part and gradually tightened, thus severing the enclosed part.

Ectoderm--The outer of the three basic layers of the embryo which gives rise to the skin, hair, and nervous system.

Ectothermic--Deriving heat from without the body, cold-blooded, as lizards and snakes.

Eczema--A nonparasitic, skin disease of people and animals characterized by a red inflammation of the skin, development of papules, vesicles, and pustules, serous discharge, formation of crusts, severe itching, and loss of hair. It may be acute or chronic. It is thought to result from allergy, from hypersensitivity to chemicals, from photosensitization, from poor environment, or from faulting feeding. Also known as mange, paraderatosis, dermatitis, and facial eczema.

Edam--A hard, solid, spherical Dutch cheese prepared from cow's milk containing about 2.5 percent fat. Usually the cheese is highly salted. Before marketing it is dipped in red wax.

Edema--(1) An accumulation, usually abnormal, of serous fluids within the intercellular tissue spaces of the body. If the edema is in the subcutaneous tissue, the affected area will be swollen and will pit with pressure. Also called dropsy. (2) Abnormal swelling of plant parts due to an excessive intake of water.

Edema of the Wattles--A condition in birds, in which the wattles are filled with inflammatory liquid so that they become very much enlarged. The cause is unknown, but Pasteurella multocida has been suggested. Also called wattle edema.

Edible--A term applied to food that is fit to eat. It usually refers to food that is suitable for human consumption. The initials E.P. are used to denote the edible portion of a food--e.g., a banana without its skin, a pork chop without the bone, a melon without its seeds and rind.

Effective Progeny Number (EPN)--An indication of the amount of information available for estimation of expected progeny differences in sire evaluation. It is the function of the number of progeny but it is adjusted for their distribution among herds and contemporary groups and for the number of contemporaries by other sires. EPN is less than the actual number because the distribution of progeny is never ideal.

Efferent--Conducting or conveying away from.

Efferent Ducts--Very small ducts located in the testes that connect the rete tests to the epididymis.

Effete--Designating an exhaustion of the ability in animals to produce young or in plants to bear fruit. See Impotence.

Egagropilus--Hair ball in an animal's stomach. See Bezoar, Hair Ball, Stomach Ball.

Egestion--Waste material that is excreted from the digestive tract.

Egg--(1) The reproductive body produced by a female organism: in animals, the ovum; in plants, the germ cell, which after fertilization, develops into the embryo. (2) The oval reproductive body produced by females of birds, reptiles, and certain other animal species, enclosed in a calcerous shell or strong membrane within which the young develop.

Egg Albumen--The white of an egg, a mixture of proteins, which is used in confections, bakery goods, and in manufacturing adhesives.

Egg Candling--The examination of poultry eggs in the shell by means of a bright light, for determining market grade and for the detection of meat spots, blood spots, or air bubbles.

Egg Cart--A rolling device used for transporting stacked trays of eggs to the hatchery.

Egg Cell--A female germ cell.

Egg Cleaner--A device used to clean the surface of egg shells, rendering the eggs more attractive for sale. It consists of a cushion base covered with sandpaper or cloth.

Egg Exchange--A market where eggs are bought and sold in large quantities and where eggs are traded on futures.

Egg Flat--A traylike device used to store eggs.

Egg Grader--A mechanical device used for grading eggs according to weight. As the ungraded eggs are carried along a moving belt, they pass over a weighing device that automatically sorts them into separate bins.

Egg Mash--A mixture of ground cereals or cereal products to which has been added essential protein, vitamin, and mineral supplements in sufficient amounts to provide a balanced ration for laying hens.

Egg Oil--An oil that is obtained from the yolk of a hen's egg.

Egg Pod--A capsule that encloses the egg mass of grasshoppers and that is formed through the cementing of soil particles together by secretions of the ovipositing female.

Egg Powder--Dried eggs.

Egg Production--(1) The tending, feeding, etc., of a flock of hens principally for the eggs they lay. (2) The number of eggs laid by a hen.

Egg Room--A cooled room in which eggs are candled and graded and/or stored.

Egg Tooth--A scale on the tip of the upper mandible of the embryo chick, used as a reinforcement for the beak for breaking open the shell at hatching. Also called pip.

Egg Tube--The oviduct.

Egg Turner--A device used for changing the position of eggs in an incubator.

Egg White--The albumen of an egg.

Egg Yolk--The central, yellow portion of a hen's egg that contains the egg cell.

Ejaculate--(1) Semen which is forced out of the body; specifically that semen taken from a male by use of the artificial vagina or methods other than by coitus for use in artificial insemination. (2) The discharge of semen from the reproductive tract of the male. See Electrical Stimulation.

Elastin--A protein substance that is found in tendons, cartilage, connective tissue, and bone. Elastin is not softened as much as collagen by heat in the presence of water.

Elastration--Bloodless castration in which rubber bands constrict the spermatic cord causing it and the testicles to wither away. It is, however, not always successful.

Elastrator--A tool used in castrating and docking. A tight rubber band is applied to the tail or the scrotum, the circulation is thereby cut off, and the tail or scrotum gradually dries up and falls off. A common method for docking and castrating lambs. Also used in castrating young calves.


Elbow--The joint in a front leg of an animal that corresponds to the elbow joint of a person's arm.

Electric Exerciser--A device, similar to a merry-go-round, consisting of a steel framework that is turned by a motor. Bulls are chained to the frame at the outer edge so that as the device revolves they are forced to walk in a circle for exercise.

Electric Fence--A fence or enclosing device that consists of a single wire supported by insulators on widely separated posts. The wire is attached to a controller that emits electric current for one-tenth of a second or less, forty-five to fifty-five times per minute. When an animal touches the wire, it receives a sharp, short, but harmless, electrical shock. The fence, when properly installed, is not injurious to human beings.

Electric Prod(der)--A portable, battery-powered, canelike device used to control or drive livestock by giving them a slight electrical shock.

Electrical Stimulation--A method of collecting semen from small animals by means of an electric current. An electrode is inserted about 4 inches into the male's rectum and another electrode is held against moistened skin near the fourth lumbar vertebra. About ten stimuli of 30 volts in 5-second periods result in a satisfactory ejaculation. See Ejaculate.

Electrolyte--(1) A nonmetallic substance that will conduct an electric current by the movement of ions when dissolved in certain solvents or when fused by heat; common salt is an example of an electrolyte. (2) A solution containing salts and energy sources used to feed young animals suffering from scours (diarrhea).

Elephantiasis--The final stage of filariasis caused by a parasitic nematode, Wuchereria bancrofti, carried by a mosquito. Symptoms are excessive thickening and swelling of an animal's legs (usually a horse), which results from various infections or disturbances in circulation. Also present in people.

Eligible to Registry--Designating an animal whose sire and dam are registered in the same breed registry and that meets other rules as to age, color, etc., of that breed.

Emaciation--The wasted condition of an animal's body characterized by slimy degeneration of fatty tissues and serous infiltration of the muscles.

Emasculate--(1) To castrate. (2) To remove the androecium (the stamens and their appendages) from a flower for crossbreeding purposes.

Emasculatome--A pincerlike instrument used for bloodless castrating, which severs or breaks the spermatic cord, causing the testicles to wither away. It may also be used in docking the tails of lambs. See Elastrator.

Emasculator--A tool used for docking and castrating that both cuts and crushes surrounding tissue to prevent excessive bleeding.

Embryo--(1) Any organism in its earliest stages of development. (2) The young, sporophyte that results from the union of male and female cells in a seed plant. Also called seed-germ.

Embryo Sac--(1) The mature female gametophyte in higher plants. (2) A sac that contains the embryo in its very early life in animals. Also called blastodermic vesicle.

Embryo Transfer (Transplant) (ET)--The removal of developing embryos from one female and their transfer to the uterus of another; it usually involves the superovulation of superior females and the transfer of their embryos in an attempt to increase the number of superior offspring.

Embryology--The science that deals with the study of the embryo.

Embryonic--(1) Pertaining to the embryo or its development. (2) Underdeveloped; immature. See Rudimentary. Embryonic Vesicle--The sac containing the developing embryo.

Emetics--Drugs that produce vomiting.

Emmentaler--Swiss hard cheese with a sweet delicate flavor that is made from whole or semifat milk.

Emphysema--An abnormal presence of air in the tissue of some part of the body, generally the lungs, where a stretching and rupturing of the walls of the smallest air sacs produces abnormal air space.

Emulsion--A mixture in which one liquid is suspended as tiny drops in another liquid, such as oil in water.

Encapsulation--Enclosure in a capsule or sheath.

Encephalitis--Inflammation of the brain that results in various central nervous system disorders, characterized by excitement and irregular movements, depression, paralysis, and death. It may be a symptom of various diseases or it may occur as a primary disease.

Encephalomyelitis--A disease involving an inflammation of the brain or spinal cord that is caused by a pathogenic organism; sleeping sickness.

Encierro--(Spanish) Corral.

Enclosure--A fenced area that confines animals. See Exclosure.

Encrustation--A crust or hard coating on or in a body.

Encyst--To become enclosed in a sac, bladder, or cyst.

Endocarditis--Inflammation of the endocardium or epithelial lining membrane of the heart.

Endocrine Gland--Any gland of the body that secretes a substance or hormone, thereby controlling certain bodily processes: e.g., pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, adrenal, pancreas.

Endometrium--The inside lining of the uterus.

Endoparasite--Any of the various parasites which lives within the body of its host. See Ectoparasite.

Endotoxin--A toxin produced within an organism and liberated only when the organism disintegrates or is destroyed.

Enrich--(1) To add fertilizer or manure to soil. (2) To add a substance or vitamin to food products.

Enrichment--The process by which bodies of water are enriched, especially by nitrogen, phosphorus, and/or carbon, resulting in accelerated growth of undesirable algae and other aquatic vegetation.

Enrichment sometimes originates as runoff from domestic animal feedlots, landspreading of sewage sludge, and overfertilized fields.

Ensilage--Any green crop preserved for livestock feed by fermentation in a silo, pit, or stack, usually in chopped form. Ensilage can be made from practically any green crop having the proper moisture content. Also called silage.

Ensile--To place green plant material, such as green crops of grain, grasses, cornstalks, etc., in a silo in such a manner as to bring about proper fermentation for preservation and storage. See Silage.

Enteric--Pertaining to the intestines.

Enteritis--Any inflammatory condition of the lining of the intestines of animals or people. Characteristics of enteritis are frequent evacuations of a liquid or very thin, foul-smelling stool which may or may not contain blood, straining, lethargy, and anorexia. In acute cases there is a rise in body temperature. The condition is seen as a symptom of a number of infectious diseases or it may be caused by specific bacteria or viruses. Other common causes include plant and chemical poisons, parasites, overeating, faulty nutrition, and poor environmental factors.

Enterotoxemia--A disease of calves, sheep, and goats, which results in high mortality and is associated with Clostridium perfringens. It is characterized by a lack of coordination and sudden death. Also called pulpy kidney disease.

Entomologist--A person who specializes in the study of insects.

Entomology--That branch of zoology that deals with insects. See Economic Entomology.

Entozoa--Internal animal parasites; e.g., stomach worms.

Entrails--The visceral organs of the body, particularly the intestines.

Entrance Feeder--A wooden runway that fits into the hive entrance so that bees may obtain syrup from a jar inverted into it.

Entropion--A condition where the eyelids are turned in, usually at birth.

Enucleation--The removal of an organ, tumor, or other body in such

a way that it comes out clean and whole as a nut from its shell.

Enurination--Behavior in rabbits where the buck jumps up in some fashion and squirts another rabbit with a stream of urine.

Enzootic Marasmus--Cobalt deficiency.

Enzymatic--Referring to a reaction or process that is catalyzed by an enzyme or group of enzymes.

Enzyme--A large complex protein molecule produced by the body that stimulates or speeds up various chemical reactions without being used up itself; an organic catalyst.

Eolian--(1) Pertaining to action of wind, as soil erosion due to wind, or soil deposits transported by wind. (2) Loosely designating soils that are derived form geologic deposits that are windborne in origin. Also spelled aeolian. See Loess.

EPD--See Expected Progeny Difference.

Epidemic--(1) A widespread invasion or dispersion by an insect or a disease. See Endemic, Epiphytotic. (2) Designating a sudden and widespread attack by a disease or insect infestation. (Most scientists seem to prefer epidemic when referring to all types of disease: people, animal, and plant.)

Epidemiology--(1) A study of the factors determining the frequency and distribution of human diseases. (2) A determination of the causes of localized outbreaks such as infectious hepatitis and of toxic disorders such as nitrate poisoning.

Epidermis--The cellular layer of an organism; the outer skin.

Epididymis--A small, tortuous tube leading from the testicle. A site of sperm storage and maturation.

Epigenetic--As used in reference to cancer, an effect that does not directly involve a change in the sequence of bases in DNA. See DNA.

Epilepsy--A chronic nervous disorder of people and animals, particularly of dogs, which is characterized by a sudden loss of consciousness and convulsions, a stiffened neck, chomping of the jaws, dilated pupils, salivation, distressed breathing, and evacuation of the bladder and bowels. The cause is unknown. Also called fits, falling sickness.

Epinephrine--A hormone, also known as adrenalin, that is produced by the medulla of the adrenal glands in mammals.

Epistasis--(1) The checking of any discharge, secretion, excretion, such as stopping the flow of blood. Also see Epistatic. (2) The type of gene action where genes at one locus affect or control the expression of genes at a different locus.

Epistatic--Designating a condition of genetics in which one factor prevents a factor other than its allelomorph from exhibiting its normal effect on the development of the individual.

Epithelial Layer--Cellular tissue covering all the free body surfaces, cutaneous, mucous, and serous, including the glands and other structures derived therefrom.

Epitheliogenesis Imperfecta--A condition of newborn animals resulting from a lethal recessive genetic factor. There are skin defects on the lower parts of the legs and on the hairless parts of the body. The mucous membranes are defective, and the ears and claws deformed. The animal so affected dies soon after birth.

Epithelium--The dense, cellular tissue that covers all body surfaces and lines all body cavities.

Epizootic--Designating a disease of animals that spreads rapidly and affects many individuals of a kind at the same time, thus corresponding to an epidemic in people. See Endemic, Epidemic, Epiphytotic.

Epizootiology--The study of factors influencing or involved in the occurrence and spread of disease among animals.

Epizooty--See Equine Influenza.

Equine--(1) A horse. (2) Pertaining to, or resembling, a horse or other member of the family Equidae. Horses, mules, and asses are referred to as equines or equine animals.

Equine Encephalomyelitis--A viral disease of horses and people characterized by fever, grinding of the teeth, sleepiness, wobbly gait, difficulty in chewing and swallowing, and frequently death. Also called Borna's disease, horse sleeping sickness.

Equine Infectious Anemia--A widespread, contagious, viral disease of horses and mules characterized by dullness, rapid breathing, weakness of the hind legs, loss of appetite, swollen eyelids, intermittent fever, dropsy, frequent urination, diarrhea, general weakness, loss of the blood's ability to coagulate, emaciation, anemia, and death. Also called pernicious equine anemia, swamp fever, horse malaria, malarial fever, slow fever, mountain fever, creeping fever.

Equine Influenza--The most contagious and most widely spread disease of horses, mules, and asses, caused by a filterable virus with complications attributed to miscellaneous bacteria. It is characterized by fever, extreme weakness, depression, rapid respiration, coughing, watery nasal and eye discharges, a pinkish swelling of the eyelids, edema of the abdomen, legs, and head, and loss of appetite accompanied by excessive thirst. Also called shipping fever, pinkeye, catarrhal fever, epizootic cellulitis, epizooty, stockyard fever.

Equine Piroplasmosis (EP)--A tick-borne disease caused by two blood parasites (Babesia caballi and B. equi); is clinically indistinguishable from equine infectious anemia (EIA). EP was first reported in the United States in Florida in 1962. It has since been found to be endemic in southern Florida, Puerto Rico, and the United States Virgin Islands. Dermacentor nitens, the tropical horse tick, is the principal vector of the disease.

Equine Variola--Horsepox; a contagious, viral disease of horses characterized by fever and pustular eruptions or pox, especially on the pasterns, fetlocks, and mouth. Also called contagious pustular stomatitis.

Equisetum Poisoning--A poisoning of horses and sheep which results from their feed on Equisetum spp., especially E. arvense, family Equisetaceae, the field horsetail. It is characterized by unthriftiness, loss of weight and muscular control, nervousness, falling, lack of ability to eat, and death. Also known as horsetail poisoning.

Equitation--Horsemanship, horsewomanship.

Erection--The process whereby a body part is made to stand upright; a process where the penis becomes engorged with blood causing it to be firm, turgid, and ready for breeding.

Ergosterol--A cholesterol-like substance found in plants that, when irradiated with ultraviolet light, changes to vitamin D2.

Ergot--(1) A fungal disease of cereals and wild grasses caused by Claviceps purpurea, family Clavicepitaceae, which attacks the inflorescence, replacing the grains with black or dark purple, club-shaped, horny structures (sclerotia) that are harvested with the grain and must be removed before the grain is used for flour or feed. Ergot causes a lowered grain yield and ergotism in people and animals. Also called clavus. (2) A drug obtained from such diseased plants used to control bleeding in animals and people. (3) A horny growth behind the fetlock joint of a horse.

Ergotism--A disease of people and lower animals caused from eating grain or grain products contaminated with ergot which is characterized by excessive salivation, redness and blistering of the mouth epithelium, vomiting, colic, diarrhea, and constipation. Also called holy fire, St. Anthony's fire, bread madness, gangrenous ergotism, dry gangrene.

Eructation--The act of belching, or of casting up gas from the stomach.

Erysipelas--A disease caused by a bacillus that usually affects the joints and causes difficult breathing; it primarily affects hogs.

Erythema--Redness or inflammation of the skin caused by congested capillaries.

Erythroblastosis--One manifestation of avian leukosis complex, a viral disease of chickens characterized by paleness or a yellowish discoloration of the comb and wattles, a rapid loss of weight in spite of a good appetite, weakness, prostration, diarrhea, and tightly shut eyes. The infected fowl soon dies. Also called erythroleukosis, erythroblastic leukosis.

Escape--(1) A fowl or animal that has gotten out of its enclosure. (2) Botanically, a cultivated plant that is found growing wild. (3) To become wild after having been in cultivation.

Escape Board--Board with one or more bee escapes on it to permit bees to pass one way.

Escherichia Coli--One of the easily detected species of bacteria in the fecal coliform group. It occurs in large numbers in the gastrointestinal tract and feces of all warm-blooded animals and people. Although not a pathogen, its presence is an indication of the presence of pathogens.

Escutcheon--(1) The scion used in shield budding. (2) That part of a cow which extends upward just above and back of the udder where the hair turns upward in contrast to the normal downward direction of the hair. Also called milk shield, milk mirror.

Esophagus--Gullet; the tube that connects the throat or pharynx with the stomach. It varies greatly in the vertebrates; e.g., in the crop of a bird, it is distended (enlargened) for retention of food.

Essential Amino Acid--Any of the amino acids that cannot be synthesized in the body from other amino acids or substances or that cannot be made in sufficient quantities for the body's use.

Essential Host--A host for one stage in the development of a parasite without which the parasite cannot develop to maturity. See Cedar-Apple Rust.

Estancia--A small farm or small cattle ranch (southwestern United States).

Estimated Breeding Value (EBV)--In beef cattle, an estimate of the value of an animal as a parent, expressed as a ratio with 100 being average. For example, a bull with a yearling weight EBV of 110 would be expected to sire calves with yearling weights 10 percent greater than average.

Estimated Relative Producing Ability (ERPA)--In dairy cattle, a prediction of 305-day, two times per day milking, mature equivalent production compared with the production of other cows in the herd.

Estrapade--The bucking of a horse.

Estray--A wandering domesticated animal of unknown ownership.

Estriol--An estrogenic substance derived form the urine of pregnant animals which, when administered to female animals, causes them to come into heat. Also called theelol.

Estrogen--A hormone or group of hormones produced by the developing ovarian follicle; it stimulates female sex drive and controls the development of feminine characteristics.

Estrone--A product derived form the urine of pregnant animals or from the ovary, which may be administered to female animals to cause them to come into heat. Also called theelin, folliculin, follicular hormone.

Estrous--Pertaining to estrus (heat) in animals.

Estrous Cycle--The reproductive cycle in nonprimates; it is measured from the beginning of estrus or heat period to the beginning of the next.

Estrus--The period of sexual excitement (heat), at which time the female will accept coitus with the male.

Estrus Synchronization--Using synthetic hormones to make a group of females come into heat at the same time. They can then be bred at the same time and all of their calves will be born in a short period, ensuring uniform ages in the calf crop and lower labor and marketing requirements.

ET--See Embryo Transfer.

Ethology--The science of animal behavior related to the environment.

Etiological--Pertaining to the causes of diseases.

Etiology--The science that deals with the origins and causes of disease. Also spelled aetiology.

Eupeptic--Having normal digestion.

Euploid--An organism or cell in which the chromosome number is the exact multiple of the monoploid or haploid number. Terms used for euploid series are: haploid, diploid, triploid, tetraploid, etc. European Foulbrood--An infectious brood disease of bees considered to be caused by Bacillus pluton. Also called black brood. See American Foulbrood.

Evaginated--Turned inside out. Tapeworm larvae often have the head, or scolex, invaginated; when the larvae reach the intestines of the final host, the head is evaginated, or turned inside out, so the suckers can attach to the wall of the intestines.

Evaporated--Designating a product that has had most of the moisture driven off by boiling or other application of heat; e.g., evaporated milk.

Evaporated Buttermilk--The product that results from the removal of a considerable portion of the moisture from clean, sound buttermilk, made from natural cream to which no foreign substance has been added. The product must contain not less than 27 percent total solids, not less than 0.055 percent butterfat for each percent of solids, and not more than 0.14 percent of ash for each percent of solids. Also called concentrated buttermilk, condensed buttermilk.

Evaporated Cultured Skimmed Milk--A product that results from the removal of a considerable portion of moisture from clean, sound skimmed milk which has been made from a suitable culture of lactic bacteria. This product must contain not less than 27 percent of total solids. Also called concentrated cultured skimmed milk, condensed cultured skimmed milk, concentrated sour skimmed milk.

Evaporated Milk--A liquid food product made by evaporating sweet milk to such a point that it contains not less than 7.9 percent of milk fat and not less than 25.9 percent of total milk solids.

Eversion of the Oviduct--The turning inside out and protrusion from the anus of the lower portion of the oviduct of a female bird. The condition renders the bird worthless for egg laying but not for human consumption.

Everted--Turned inside out.

Eviscerate--To remove the entrails, lungs, heart, etc., from a fowl or animal when preparing the carcass for human consumption.

Ewe--A female sheep of any age.

Ewe Index--A factor used in the selection of ewes. It is calculated for ewes giving birth to and raising single lamb: Ewe Index = Adjusted Weight of the Lamb x (3 x fleece Weight). It is calculated for ewes giving multiple birth and raising more than one lamb: Ewe Index = Sum of Adjusted Weight of the Lambs x (3 x Fleece Weight).

Ewe Neck--A neck like that of a sheep, with a dip between the poll and the withers. Also termed a turkey neck and upside-down neck.

Ex--Prefix meaning without or destitute of.

Exclosure--An area of land fenced to prevent all or certain kinds of animals from entering it and used for ecological experiments involving biotic factors such as the grazing pressure of livestock. See Enclosure.

Excluder--A thin grid of wire, wood and wire, sheet plastic, or sheet zinc, with spaces wide enough for worker bees to pass through but not queens or drones. It is used between hive bodies to confine queens to one part of a hive.

Excreta--Matter that is excreted; waste matter discharged from the body; materials cast out of the body. Excrement; waste matters discharged from the bowels; manure.

Exogenous--(1) Produced on the outside of another body. (2) Produced externally, as spores on the tips of hyphae. (3) Growing by outer additions of annual layers, as the wood in dicotyledons. See Endogenous.

Exomphalos--A hernia that has escaped through the umbilicus.

Exoskeleton--Collectively the external plates of the body wall.

Exosmosis--The slow diffusion of the more dense fluid through a membrane to mingle with the less dense fluid.

Exostosis--An outgrowth of a bone: e.g., splints, bone spavins, etc.

Exotic--Foreign, unfamiliar, new, imported; in animal agriculture, it refers to imported breeds, usually of cattle.

Exotic Newcastle Disease Surveillance--Exotic Newcastle disease or velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease (VVND) is a contagious and deadly viral disease affecting all species of birds. The disease causes bleeding in the intestines and reproductive glands, along with severe diarrhea. In commercial poultry operations, it kills many of the birds it affects, shortens the lives of others, and reduces egg production. See Newcastle Disease.

Exotoxin--A soluble toxin excreted by specific bacteria and absorbed into the tissues of the host.

Expected Progeny Difference (EPD)--In beef cattle selection, a score used to measure the amount of performance difference in the offspring of a certain sire as compared to the performance level of the herd average. For example, if bull A has a weaning weight EPD of x 5 pounds and bull B has a weaning weight EPD of -10, Bull A should produce calves that are 15 pounds heavier at weaning than bull B's calves.

Expectorant--A drug that causes expulsion of mucus from the respiratory tract.

Extender--The liquid in which semen is extended for preservation. It usually consists of egg yolk, sodium citrate, glycerol, water, and antibiotics.

Extract--A solid preparation obtained by evaporating a solution of a drug, the juice of a plant, etc. Vitamin extracts are used to supplement a diet.

Extracted Honey--Liquid honey removed from the comb by means of an extractor or other method of separation. See Extractor.

Extracted Meals--Animal feeds that are fermentation products.

Extractor (honey)--A hand- or power-driven device that removes honey from the comb by centrifugal force.

Exudate--A discharge deposited in or on an organ through pores, injured areas, or natural openings, as a bloody discharge from wounds of animals infested with screw worms, or the gummy discharge from a wound in a tree.

Eye Muscle--The longissimus dorsi muscle of four-footed animals. The major muscle of a rib, loin steak, or chop.

Eyeing--Clipping the wool from around the face of closed-faced sheep to prevent wool blindness.

Eyetooth--Either of the two canine teeth in the upper jaw. Also called dog tooth.


[F.sub.1]--The first filial generation; the first generation of a given mating.

[F.sub.1] Females--Female cattle from the first cross of mating of two different purebreeds of cattle.

[F.sub.1] Generation--The first generation out of a cross of two animals of different breeds.

[F.sub.2]--The second generation progeny generally produced by crossing two [F.sub.1] individuals.

Face--(1) The bare skin on a fowl's head around and below its eyes. (2) The front part of the head of an animal, including the eyes, nose, and mouth. (3) The side of a hill or furrow. (4) The top or bottom layer of produce, especially fruit, which is arranged in a container for display purposes when the container is opened. (5) To arrange a layer of produce in a container for display purposes. (6) In turpentining, the exposed portion of the tree from which the oleoresin exudes. (7) In lumber, the side of a board from which it is graded. See Face Side.

Face Fly--Flies that gather in large numbers on the faces of horses or cattle, especially around the eyes and nose.

Factor--(1) A unit of inheritance occupying a definite locus on one or both members of a definite chromosome pair whose presence is responsible for the development of a certain character or modification of a character of the individual who possesses that genotype; a determiner or gene. (2) An agent, as one who buys and sells a commodity on commission for others. (3) An item in the analysis of a farm business; e.g., labor efficiency. (4) Inherent characteristics of the climatic, nutritional, cultural, or biological environment responsible for the specific performances of plants or animals.

Facultative--Designating an organism that is capable of living under more than one condition: e.g., as a saprophyte and as a parasite; as an aerobic or anaerobic organism.

Facultative Aerobe--A microorganism that lives in the presence of oxygen but may live without it.

Facultative Bacteria--Bacteria that can exist and reproduce under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions.

Facultative Parasite--A parasite that feeds upon an organism until the organism dies and then continues to live on the dead organic material.

Fag--(1) Any tick or fly that attacks sheep. (2) Long coarse grass of the preceding season. (3) See Fagot (2).

Fagot--(1) A pork sausage composed of hog livers, hearts, fresh pork, onions, peppers, and sweet marjoram, molded into a 6-ounce ball encased in hog fat. (2) A small bundle of twigs to be used for fuel.

Fahrenheit Scale--A temperature scale in which the freezing point of water is 32[degrees]F and the boiling point is 212[degrees]F. Named after Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit (1686-1736), a German physicist. See Celsius Scale, Kelvin Scale.

Fair Condition--(1) A range-condition class; a range producing only 25 to 50 percent of its potential. The cover consists of early maturing plants of low value for forage or for soil protection. (2) Denoting a medium condition of plants, plant products, or animals.

Falcate--Sickle or scythe-shaped.

Fall Farrow--A pig born in the autumn.

Fall Lamb--A lamb that is usually born in the spring and sold in the fall.

Fall Wool--Wool shorn in the fall (usually in Texas or California) following four to six months' growth. Only a small percentage of the total United States wool production is the product of twice-a-year shearing. Also called fall-shorn wool.

Falling Sickness--See Epilepsy.

Fallopian Tube--One of the two tubes or ducts connected to the uterus of mammals and leading to the ovary; functions in transporting the ovum from the ovary to the uterus.

False Heat--The displaying of estrus by any female animal when she is pregnant or is out of season. It can occur in a healthy animal or may be caused by diseased ovaries.

False Hoof--See Dewclaw.

False Milk Fever--See Acetonemia.

False Molt--The shedding of feathers by a bird due to unnatural causes. See Molt.

False Pregnancy--A condition usually following a sterile mating in which the organs of reproduction go through anatomical and physiological changes similar to those that occur during a real pregnancy. For example, the abdomen may swell as well as the milk glands, which may in fact produce some milk. This is a common problem in the rabbit.

Family Broken--Describing a horse that is gentle and safe for family use.

Family Characteristic--Particular parts of the conformation and/or the temperament that exist among certain families of dairy cattle, etc. Some families are consistently good or bad in straightness of legs, fore udders, depth of body, shape of head, etc. In temperament, there are families that are consistently nervous while others are normally docile. Those identifying marks or characters tend to display relationship.

Fancier--A breeder who shows particular interest in, and the development of, a particular breed or type of animals or plants: e.g., a rose fancier, dog fancier, Hereford fancier.

Fancy--A top-quality grade for many vegetables, fruits, flowers, poultry, and livestock.

Fancy Points--Indications of purity of breeding: e.g., the set of the horns, the carriage of the ear, the color of the hair on certain parts of the body, and the general style of an animal.

Far Side--In horsemanship, the right side of a horse.

Farcy--See Glanders.

Farding Bag--The first stomach, the rumen, of a cow or other ruminant.

Farm Flock--Those animals or fowls, collectively by species, which a farmer raises on his farm, especially a small flock of sheep or chickens.

Farm Manure--The excrement from all or certain of the farm animals, including litter or bedding materials, such as straw. Also called farmyard manure.

Farm Pond--A small reservoir of water on a farm usually formed by constructing a dam across a watercourse or by excavation to collect surface water.

Farmyard Manure--See Farm Manure.

Farrier--(1) A person who shoes horses. (2) An obsolete term for a horse and cattle veterinarian.

Farrow to Finish--A type of farm operation that covers all aspects of breeding, farrowing, and raising pigs to slaughter.

Farrowing Crate--A crate or cage in which a sow is placed at time of farrowing. The crate is so constructed as to prevent the sow from turning around or crushing the newborn pigs as she lies down.

Farrowing House--Any of several types of structures especially designed for a sow and her litter of pigs.

Farrowing Pen--A small pen or enclosure, usually in a farm building, especially designed for a sow that is ready to farrow or has given birth to a litter of pigs. This pen usually includes protective fenders (guard rails) and a brooder for the piglets.

Fascine--(1) A fagot. (2) A long bundle of sticks bound together and used to build a temporary roadway through a marshy soil or to stabilize an unstable slope along an embankment. When used in erosion control, the sticks may be made of willow or other species that sprout. See Gabion.

Fast Breeder--Refers to pigeons, rabbits, and like animals, the parent stock of which are capable of producing a large number of young over a given period such as a year; also referred to as high producers.

Fast Walk--One form of the walk, a horse's gait, which is somewhat more rapid than the walk but slower than the running walk.

Fast-feathering--The maturing of first feathers by certain breeds and strains of chickens at a relatively young age. It is an inherent characteristic that is especially desirable in chickens sold as market broilers.

Fast-reining--Designating a horse that responds readily and quickly to directions given by the rider with the reins.

Fast-stepping Trot--One form of the trot, a horse's gait, characterized by long rapid steps.

Fat--(1) (a) The oily or greasy-substance bearing tissues of an animal. (b) Designating any animal or fowl which abounds in fat. (2) The oily substance of milk; the chief constituent of butter. See Butterfat. (3) The oily or greasy substances found in certain plants; e.g., peanut oil, cottonseed oil. (4) Any food product, e.g., lard or vegetable shortening, which is derived from animal or vegetable fats. (5) Those substances which can be extracted from dry feeds with ether. See Ether Extract. (6) Fattened cattle ready to market. (7) Of, or pertaining to, a prosperous year, as a fat year.

Fat Body--An organ in the insect body with multiple functions in metabolism, food storage, and excretion. Fat body is a misnomer, for protein and glycogen are stored as well as fat.

Fat Content--The amount of butterfat (milk fat) in milk, usually stated in percentages.

Fat Globules--The naturally occurring spheres of butterfat in milk.

Fat Test--A test sometimes applied to determine the fat content of a product such as milk. See Babcock Test.

Fat Type Hog--An antiquated term denoting a hog that yields a high percentage of fat (lard), not necessarily synonymous with the lard-type hog. See Bacon-type Hog, Lard-type Hog, Meat-type Hog.

Fatigue--(1) A weakness of wood or metal that results from a repeated reversal of the load. (2) Loss of energy in people or animals form any of a multitude of causes.

Fatling--A young farm animal that is fattened for slaughter.

Fatten--(1) To add or put on fat, as an animal. (2) To cause an animal or fowl to put on fat.

Fattening--(1) The feeding of animals or fowls so that they put on fat. (2) Designating a feed that when fed to livestock causes them to add fat, as fattening grain.

Fattening Range--A productive range devoted primarily to fattening of livestock for market.

Favor--To protect; to use carefully; as a horse favors a lame leg.

Favus--(1) A fungal disease of poultry caused by Achorion gallinae, characterized by yellowish-white, scaly lesions on the unfeathered portion of the head. If it spreads to the neck, the feathers become brittle and break off. (2) A fungal disease of young cats, and sometimes of dogs, caused by Achorion schoenleini, characterized by circular, yellowish, or grayish patches that appear on the paws near the claws, the head, and the face. Thick, crusty layers develop. Both of these diseases are transmissible to people.

Fawn--(1) A coat color for an animal that is a soft, grayish-tan. (2) A young deer.

FCM--Fat-corrected milk. A means of evaluating milk-production records of different animals and breeds on a common basis energy-wise. The following formula is used: FCM = 0.4 x milk production--(15 x pounds of fat produced).

Feather--(1) The epidermal structure partly embedded in follicles of the skin of birds. Feathers vary greatly in color, size, and shape, and generally cover the body of a bird. (2) (plural) Plumage. (3) The long hair of certain breeds of horses that grows below the knees and hocks.

Feather Eating--The pulling out of one another's feathers. It is a vice among poultry and caged birds resulting from irritation by lice and quill mites, from lack of exercise, or from faulty nutrition. If blood is drawn, cannibalism results. Also called feather pulling.

Feather Follicle--The depression in the skin of a bird from which the feather grows.

Feather in Eye--A mark across the eyeball of a horse, not touching the pupil; often caused by an injury.

Feather Picking--The plucking or removing of feathers from a fowl carcass in preparing it for human consumption.

Feather-legged--Designating the breeds of chickens that have feathers on the shanks and toes.

Feathering--(1) A defect of coffee cream characterized by a lack of homogeneity, causing it to rise to the surface of coffee in flocculent masses and form a light, serrated scum. (2) A rough-edged hole that has been bored in wood in which wood fibers remain to project around the perimeter. It usually results from using a dull bit. It is especially bothersome in maple trees used for collection of sap. (3) The scuffing of the tender skin on an early potato in harvesting. (4) The streaks of fat visible on the ribs of a lamb carcass.

Febrile--Pertaining to fever or a rise in body temperature; e.g., febrile period (period of fever), febrile disease (a malady accompanied by fever).

Fecal--Pertaining to excrement, manure, and waste material passed from the bowels.

Fecal Contamination--Pollution with feces, manure, or excrement; e.g., fecal contamination of pastures, food, etc.

Feces--Waste material of the digestive system.

Fecund--Fruitful; fertile; prolific.

Fecundation--Pollination or fertilization.

Fecundity--The ability to reproduce regularly and easily.

Fed Beef--Beef produced from cattle that have been finished on grain rations, as compared with grass-fed or range cattle.

Fed Cattle--Steers or heifers fattened on grain for slaughter.

Fed Lamb--A market lamb that has been fed some grain, in contrast to one that has subsisted entirely on milk.

Feed--(1) Harvested forage, such as hay, silage, fodder, grain, or other processed feed for livestock. See Forage. (2) The quantity of feed in one portion. (3) To furnish with essential nutrients. (4) To deliver, carry, or transport.

Feed Additive Compendium--A publication that lists feed additives in current use and the regulations for their use.

Feed Additives--A material added to livestock feed, usually an antibiotic, that is not a nutrient but enhances the growth efficiency of the animal. Domestic animals gain weight more rapidly because antibiotic feed additives counteract the ill effects of high grain rations, reduce bacterial infections, reduce scouring, stimulate appetite, and stimulate certain enzymes. Other feed additives include hormones to stimulate growth and substances to control bloat, parasites, and feed spoilage.

Feed Analysis--The chemical or material analysis of a commercially prepared feed, printed on a tag and fastened to the bag in which the feed is to be sold.

Feed Bunk--A forage and grain feeding station.

Feed Composition Table--A table showing the nutrients found in feeds.

Feed Conversion Ratio--The rate at which an animal converts feed to meat. If an animal requires four pounds of feed to gain one pound, it is said to have a four to one (4:1) feed conversion ratio.

Feed Crop--Any crop grown as a feed for livestock, as hay, corn, oats, etc.

Feed Efficiency--Term for the number of pounds of feed required for an animal to gain one pound of weight; e.g., 6.5 pounds of feed per pound of gain.

Feed Energy Utilization--The percentage of the energy obtained from a feed that is used for an animal's bodily functions. For example, the feed energy utilization for an average lactating cow is approximately: 30 percent for fecal energy, 20 percent for heat energy, 20 percent for maintenance, 20 percent for milk production, 5 percent for urinary energy, and 5 percent for gaseous energy.

Feed Flavor--A flavor defect of milk or milk products that suggests the taste of cattle feed.

Feed Hopper--A container that allows feed to drop down gradually as more is consumed.

Feed Out--To prepare animals for market by fattening.

Feed Reserve--Feed harvested and stored for future use, standing forage cured on the range, or pasture for future use.

Feed Unit--One pound of corn, or its equivalent in feed value in other feeds, which is fed to cattle under normal farm conditions.

Feeder--(1) A young animal that does not have a high finish but shows evidence of ability to add weight economically. (2) Any device that carries material to or into a machine, as a feeder in a threshing machine or in a cotton gin. (3) A person who fattens livestock for slaughter. (4) A thing that feeds, as a plant. (5) Any of several types of appliances used for feeding sugar syrup to bees. (6) A hopper in which feed is placed for consumption.

Feeder Buyer--(1) One who buys cattle, sheep, or horses, fattens them and offers them for sale. (2) A buyer of feeder livestock.

Feeder Calf--A weaned calf that is under one year of age and is sold to be fed for more growth.

Feeder Lamb--In marketing or stock judging, a lamb that is a feeder.

Feeder Pig--A barrow or gilt carrying enough age and flesh so as to be ready to place in a feedlot for finishing; usually a pig weighing less than 120 pounds.

Feeder Production--The production of cattle for feeders; feeder cattle do not carry enough finish to make the slaughter grades.

Feeders--Animals that have been grown out to a determined size or weight and are ready to be placed in the feedlot for finishing to a determined grade.

Feedgrain--Any of several grains, and most commonly used for livestock or poultry feed, such as corn, grain sorghum, oats, and barley.

Feeding--(1) Providing animals with the desirable quality and quantity of feeds; making feed available to animals. (2) The ingestion of feed by an animal or plant.

Feeding Area--An area of a barn, shed, or open lot where cows are fed roughages, water, and sometimes concentrates. This area may or may not include feed storage.

Feeding Fence--A fence so constructed that animals can reach through and eat feed placed along the fence.

Feeding Oat Meal--A livestock feed that is the product obtained in the manufacture of rolled oat groats or rolled oats. It consists of broken rolled oat groats, oat-groat chips, and floury portions of the oat groats, with only such quantity of finely ground oat hulls as is unavoidable in the usual process of commercial milling. It must not contain more than 4 percent of crude fiber.

Feeding Pen--An enclosure in which animals or fowls are fed.

Feeding Ratio--Weight of food consumed divided by increase in weight of an animal, during a given time interval.

Feeding Standard--Established standards that state the amounts of nutrients that should be provided in rations for farm animals of various ages and classes in an attempt more nearly to attain the optimum economy of growth, gain, or production.

Feeding Time--The regular time of the day at which animals and fowls are fed. Regular feeding times result in greater feed efficiency.

Feeding Value--A term referring to the nutritive value of different feeds, i.e., expressing the amount of nutrients furnished by each feed and the degree of their digestibility.

Feedlot ADG/<\d>Gain on Test--A measure of the ability of cattle to gain weight when fed high-energy rations, usually expressed as Average Daily Gain.

Feedstuff--One or a mixture of the substances that form the nutrients; namely, proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water. A feedstuff is different from a feed in that a feedstuff is not normally fed by itself but is mixed with other feedstuffs to formulate a feed. For example, soybean meal or fish meal.

Fell--(1) The elastic tissue just under the hide of an animal attached to its flesh; facia. (2) To cut down a tree.

Felon Quarter--See Mastitis.

Felt--A cloth made from woven or pressed fibers of wool or wool and hair and made into such articles as hats.

Felting--(1) The property of wool fibers to interlock when rubbed together under conditions of heat, moisture, and pressure. No other fiber can compare with wool in felting properties. (2) The manufacturing of felts from furs of the rabbit and of other animals.

Femoral Artery--The main artery carrying blood to an animal's hind legs.

Femur--The large bone in the pelvic limb between the stifle and the pelvis.

Fence--(1) A hedge or barrier of wood, metal, stone, or plants erected to enclose an area to prevent trespassing or the straying of animals. (2) To enclose an area with a fence. See Drift Fence, Snow Fence.

Fence Line Feed Bunk--A multipurpose structure designed for feeding roughage along a fence in the open. It is primarily a feed bunk with openings through which the animals may feed. The feed may be distributed by dump trucks or feed carriers operated outside of the enclosed area.

Fence Off--To enclose an area with a fence.

Feracious--Fruitful; bearing abundantly.

Feral Species--(1) Nonnative species, or their progeny, which were once domesticated but have since escaped from captivity and are now living as wild animals; such as wild horses, burros, hogs, cats, and dogs. (2) An organism (and its offspring) that has escaped from cultivation or domestication and has reverted to a wild state. Escaped plants are usually referred to as exotics and nonnative animals as feral or exotic species.

Fertile--(1) Productive; producing plants in abundance, as fertile soil. (2) Capable of growing or of development, as a fertile egg. (3) Capable of reproducing viable offspring. (4) Able to produce fruit, as a fertile flower. (5) Plant capable of producing seed.

Fertile Egg--A fertilized, avian egg capable of embryonic development.

Fertile Queen--A queen bee that has mated and is capable of laying fertile eggs.

Fertility--(1) The ability of a plant to mature viable seeds. (2) The ability of an animal or fowl to produce offspring. (3) The quality that enables a soil to provide the proper compounds, in the proper amounts and in the proper balance for the growth of specified plants, when other factors, e.g., light, temperature, and the physical condition of the soil or favorable. See Sterile.

Fertility Test--A test to determine if an animal is fertile.

Fertilization--(1) Union of pollen with the ovule to produce seeds. This is essential in production of edible flower parts such as tomatoes, squash, corn, strawberries, and many other garden plants. (2) Application to the soil of needed plant nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. (3) The union of a sperm and egg.

Fertilize--(1) To supply the necessary mineral and/or organic nutrients to soil or water to aid the growth and development of plants. (2) To fecundate the egg of an animal or plant, or to pollenize the pistil of a flower.

Fescue--Any species of grass of the genus Festuca, family Gramineae; grown for pasture, hay, and turf. Native to Eurasia and America.

Fescue, Annual--Festuca megalura; native annual bunchgrass adapted to droughty, low-fertility sites. Often called six-weeks fescue. Should be seeded in fall or very early spring. Sets seed and dies in late spring, but reseeds well.

Fescue, Creeping Red--Festuca rubra; long-lived, low-growing, competitive (but slow-developing) weakly rhizomatous grass. Performs best on acid soils, actually increasing in productivity with increasing acidity. Well-adapted for roadside seedings as well as a permanent cover crop in orchards. Important persistent grass in erosion control.

Fescue, Hard--Festuca duriuscula; a low-growing long-lived competitive bunchgrass adapted to a wide range of climate and soil conditions. Has a dense and voluminous root system. Gives excellent erosion control but is slow in becoming established.

Fescue Lameness--A disease condition of cattle attributed to vitamin A starvation and excessive eating of fully matured, tall fescue grass. It is characterized by lameness and apparent circulatory disturbances of ears, tail, and hind feet. Also called fescue foot.

Feta--A white, pickled, salted, Greek cheese made from ewes', or sometimes goats' milk.

Fetid--Having a disagreeable odor.

Fetlock--The joint of a horse's leg just above the hoof; anatomically, the metatarso-phalangeal articulation. Also the tuft of hair growing there.

Fetter--A shackle for the feet of horses.

Fetus--Later stage of individual development within the uterus. Generally, the new individual is regarded as an embryo during the first half of pregnancy, and as a fetus during the last half.

Fever--(1) A temperature higher than normal in animals, which may be caused by disease organisms, poisonous plants, etc. (2) In some cotton plant diseases, as Texas root rot, affected plants have a so-called fever or higher temperature than normal, just prior to showing severe symptoms, which can be distinctly perceived by feeling the leaves in early morning.

Feverish--(1) Referring to milk or stored cream that has an odor due to poor ventilation of the cow stable. Also called smothered, barny, cowy. (2) Pertaining to animals that have a temperature higher than normal because of disease, etc.

FFA Alumni--A national organization composed of former members and supporters of the National FFA Organization. The purpose is to promote and support agricultural education programs and in particular, programs of the FFA. See FFA; Agricultural Education.

Fibrinogen--A soluble protein present in the blood and body fluids of animals.

Filarial--Pertaining to or caused by filariae, the roundworm parasites occurring outside the alimentary canal.

Filariasis--A disease due to infection with filarial roundworms (nematodes of the superfamily Filarioidea). Usually carried by a mosquito.

Filet--(French) Long strips of boneless meat or fish.

Filial--Refers to the child or offspring; the meaning of the F in F1 and F2.

Fill--(1) The soil, sand, gravel, etc., used to fill in a depression in a field, or to build up a terrace or embankment. (2) The substances used in filling tree cavities; e.g., asphalt, concrete, wooden or rubber blocks, etc. Also called filler. (3) The increase in weight and form of livestock that have been watered and fed after arriving at their destination. (4) The shaft of a vehicle. (5) To level a depression in a field or cavities in trees, or to build up an embankment or terrace. (6) To feed and water livestock at the end of the shipment to make up for the loss of weight en route. (7) To enlarge with the enclosed seeds, as the pods of leguminous plants; or to be plump and shriveled when approaching maturity, as the seeds of cereals. (Cereal grains before harvest are often referred to as poorly or well-filled.)

Filler--(1) Material used for packing to prevent breakage. (2) An extra row intercultivated between two regular rows of a crop. (3) An extra, short-lived plant grown between slow-growing, larger plants and removed when the latter approach maturity. (4) Any of the various types of appliances for filling special receptacles, as bottle-filler, silofiller, etc. (5) Any material, active or inert, added to a mixed fertilizer to increase bulk. (6) The nonessential matter in a manufactured or mixed feed, such as high-fiber materials, oat hulls, screenings, etc.

Filly--A young immature female horse. See Colt.

Filterable Virus--A virus that is capable of passing through the pores of a filter which does not allow passage of the ordinary bacteria. See Virus.

Find--To give birth to young; e.g., a cow finds a calf.

Fine Wool--The finest grade of wool: 64s or finer, according to the Numerical Count Grade. This term is also used in a general way for wool from any of the Merino breeds of sheep.

Fineness--(1) One of the several properties of cotton that determines the grade in which it is classified. Fineness refers to the smallness of the cross section diameter of the fibers (or lint). (2) One of several properties of dry milk. Usually the powders prepared by the spray process are extremely fine, whereas those prepared by the cylinder or drum process are coarser. (3) One of the several properties of high-quality hay that help in the determination of the grade of hay as feed for livestock. (4) The relative smallness of the wool fiber.

Fingerling--A fish from 3 to 6 inches long that is used for stocking ponds or lakes.

Finish--The degree of fatness. This term is often used interchangeably with condition but as finish, the fat should lay smoothly over the body in a proper degree to suit the market.

Finishing--The increased feeding of an animal just prior to butchering, which results in rapid gains and increased carcass quality.

Fire--(1) In several different plant diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, or nutritional deficiency, the final result that gives a burning or scorching appearance. (2) Potash deficiency or leaf scorch is sometimes referred to as firing. (3) The burning off of vegetation on lands of various types. This is apparently beneficial in some cases but is often harmful. (4) To treat a spavin or ringbone on a horse with a strong liniment in an attempt to cure or alleviate lameness.

Fire Ant--Solenopsis geminata, family Formicidae; a species of ants that is harmful to plants and whose bite is very painful to people and animals. See Imported Fire Ant.

Firm--(1) An economic unit recognized to be engaged primarily in production. (2) (a) To compact the soil, crushing and pulverizing the lumps to facilitate capillary water movement. (b) Designating well-compacted soil that is not lumpy or powdery. (2) In marketing, designating optimistic conditions. (4) Designating a cheese that feels solid. (5) Designating whites of eggs that are sufficiently viscous to prevent free movement of the yolk. (6) (a) Designating meat that is not soft or soggy. (b) Designating a fruit or vegetable that is not overripe or shriveled.

First--(1) The highest grade of lumber. (2) The second grade, next below extra, for butter. (3) The primary occurrence or the beginning of a series.

First Lock--The portion of a horse's mane immediately behind the foretop and head.

First Meiotic Division--The first of a series of two divisions in the process of producing haploid sex cells or gametes.

Fish Ladder--An inclined trough carrying water down a dam at a velocity against which fish can easily swim upstream to reach their spawning grounds.

Fish Liver and Glandular Meal--A poultry feed obtained by drying and grinding the offal of fish.

Fish Meal--A commercial feed for poultry and other farm animals that consists of the clean, dried, ground tissues of undecomposed whole fish or fish cuttings, with or without the oil extracted.

Fish Oil--Oil, such as obtained from the cod, sardine, halibut, etc., used in preparing feed mixtures containing vitamin A and vitamin D. Also fed to babies as a vitamin supplement.

Fish Pond--A small body of water in which the fish population is managed. On a farm, the pond impounds rainfall runoff, reduces erosion, provides a watering place for livestock, and furnishes a place where fish can be grown.

Fish Pond Fertilizer--Inorganic or organic fertilizer applied to a pond to promote the growth of plankton on which the fish depend directly or indirectly for food.

Fish Scrap--Dried-processed nonedible fish and fish residues from fish canneries. In recent years almost the entire supply has gone into animal feed. The little still sold for fertilizer is bought mostly by organic gardeners. It contains about 9 percent N, 7 percent [P.sub.2][O.sub.5], small amounts of [K.sub.2]O, and secondary and micronutrients.

Fishery--(1) All activities connected with propagation, cultivation, and exploitation of fishes in inland and marine waters, as also the management of fish resources. (2) Fishing ground.

Fishiness--A flavor defect of dairy products that suggests a fishy taste.

Fission--(1) A form of reproduction, common among bacteria and protozoa, in which a unit or organism splits into two or more whole units. (2) The splitting of a heavy nucleus such as uranium or plutonium into approximately equal parts, accompanied by the conversion of mass into energy, the release of the energy, and the production of neutrons and gamma rays.

Fission Fungi--Fungi that reproduce only by fission.

Fistula--(1) An unnatural body passage linking a hollow space or abscess to the skin surface or a surface membrane or joining two such abscesses. (2) Surgically established openings between a hollow organ and the skin or between two hollow organs for experimental purposes.

Fistulas that communicate with the outside are closed with a mechanical plug.

Fistula of the Teat--A fistula that results frequently from barbed wire cuts on the body of the teat so that the milk flows out of the wound.

Fistulous Withers--An inflamed condition in the region of the withers of a horse, commonly thought to be caused by bruising.

Fit--(1) To notch a tree for felling, and to mark it into log lengths after it is felled. (2) To ring, slit, and peel tanbark. (3) To file and set a saw. (4) To condition livestock for use, sale, or exhibit. (5) To prepare land for sowing, i.e., plowing (or disking), harrowing, and rolling. Land so fitted should have no large, hard clods so that the seeds may be placed at a uniform depth and in contact with moist soil.

Fits--See Epilepsy.

Fitting Cow Ration--A ration fed to cows that are being prepared for exhibition, sale, or calving.

Fitty--Referring to a horse that has fits when overheated.

Five-gaited Saddle Horse--A saddle horse that is trained to use the following gaits: walk, trot, rack, pace, and canter.

Flaccid--Without rigidity; lax and weak.

Flagella--Whiplike appendages of certain single-celled aquatic animals and plants, including some bacteria, the rapid movement of which produces motion.

Flank Cinch--A cinch that is separate from the saddle and pulled tight in front of the hips and under the flanks of a horse. It is used in rodeos to cause the horse to buck.

Flank Streaking--Intramuscular fat visible in the flank of a lamb carcass. It is used in determining the quality grade of the carcass.

Flash Pasteurization--The process of bringing a liquid rapidly to a moderate heat to kill growth of yeasts or molds. Also called flash method, flash process.

Flat--(1) A shallow box containing soil, in which seeds are sown or to which seedlings are transplanted form the seedbed. (2) A level, treeless prairie, especially between hills or mountains. (3) Referring to a defect in the flavor of butter, cheese, or milk, due to errors in processing, as lack of sufficient salt, uncleanliness, etc. The flavor may be insipid or lacking in the usual characteristics of the product. (4) A level landform composed of unconsolidated sediments--usually mud or sand. Flats may be irregularly shaped or elongate and continuous with the shore, whereas bars are generally elongate, parallel to the shore, and separated from the shore by water.

Flat Foot--In a horse, a foot of which the angle is less than 45[degrees], or one in which the sole is not concave, or one with a low, weak heel.

Flat-boned--Reference made to the cannon bone region of a horse's leg, which is constituted of the bone, ligaments, and tendons.

Flatuence--A digestive disturbance in which there is an often painful collection of gas in the stomach or bowels of people or animals.

Flatworm--One of the many organisms that are members of the phylum Platyhelminthes.

Flavor--(1) Odor and taste combined with the feeling of the substance in the mouth. (2) (a) The material added to foods to gain a desired taste. (b) To give taste or flavor to a product by the addition of spices, sugar, etc.

Flavus--(Latin) Yellow.

Flax Straw--The straw left after threshing the flax seed crop; used in the manufacture of various types of paper, including cigarette paper.

Flax straw of good quality can be used as a substitute for oat straw roughage in wintering cattle. Also called cattle roughage.

Flaxseed--The seed of flax, known as linseed, which is a source of linseed oil used mainly as a drying agent for paints and varnishes. The residual oil cake is used for livestock feed. See Flax.

Flay--To remove the skin from a carcass.

Flea--Certain active, leaping insects of the family Pulicidae, which feed upon the blood of warmblooded animals. Their legless larvae (maggots) eat organic debris. The most common fleas are found on cats and dogs. Some species attack birds and rats. The human flea, Pulex irritans, is a nuisance in eastern Europe and many other regions.

Flea-bitten Gray--A coat color of horses that is gray with darker hairs throughout.

Flea-bitten White--A coat color of horses that is white with numerous, tiny, dark spots.

Fledge--(Fledgling) To acquire the feathers necessary for flight; for example, a young bird just fledged.

Fleece--(1) The wool from all parts of a single sheep, which consists of the crinkly hair up to 12 inches in length. This waviness enables the wool to be matted together into felt or spun into yarn, twine, or thread. (2) The fluffy mass of cotton that remains after the seeds have been removed by ginning. See Lint Cotton. (3) To shear sheep.

Flehmen--An action by a bull, boar, or ram associated with courtship and sexual activity. The lip curls upward and the animal inhales in the vicinity of urine or the female vulva.

Flesh--(1) The portion of an animal body that consists mainly of muscle. (2) Plumpness or corpulence, especially in such phrases as good flesh, etc. (3) The pulpy or juicy portion of fruits or of storage organs of plants, such as potatoes, etc. (4) To remove adhering fat, flesh, and membrane from the pelt of a butchered animal.

Flesh Fly--Any of a large group of flies that lay their eggs, or place the larvae, in flesh.

Flesh Layer--The innermost layer of a sheepskin, next to the flesh, used for manufacturing chamois leather.

Flesh Side--The side of leather that forms the internal surface of the hide.

Flesh-colored--A coat color of animals in which the hair color is the same as the skin.

Fleshed--(1) Designating muscles or lean meat. (2) Designating a pelt with the flesh or fatty pieces removed from the inner surface.

Fleshy--(1) Designating fruit, leaves, and storage organs of plants with juicy or pulpy tissues. (2) Fat or corpulent. (3) Designating the soft or edible portions of meat.

Flight Coverts--The stiff feathers located at the base forward of the flight feathers (primaries) and covering their base.

Flights--The primary feathers of the wing. The term is sometimes used to denote both primaries and secondaries.

Flitch--(1) A portion of log, sawed on two or more sides, which is intended for sliced or sawed veneer. (2) A pile or bundle of veneer sheets from the same bolt laid together in the sequence of cutting. (3) A side or portion of meat, as a flitch of bacon.

Float--(1) An instrument used for filing animals' teeth. (2) A valve in the cream separator to regulate the flow of milk into the cream-separator bowl; or a similar contrivance for maintaining the desired level of water in a tank. (3) A drag or device for leveling soil. (4) To come to the top of the ground, as with a certain type of plow which automatically adjusts if the bottom strikes an obstruction. (5) To flood irrigate, as in floating a meadow (rare in the United States).

Flock--(1) Several birds or domestic mammals, such as sheep, which are tended as a unit. Also called herd, band. (2) Short fibers sheared from the face of cloth or produced in milling or finishing cloth or obtained by shredding rags to almost a powder. (3) In stock judging, one ram, of any age, and four ewes of varying ages as designated by the show.

Flock Book--The record of breeding and ancestry of sheep, kept privately by the flock owner or officially by the Sheep Breed Association, to register purebred sheep. See Herd Book.

Flock Mating--The indiscriminate breeding of fowls.

Flocking Tendency--The habit of congregating in large flocks, inherent in sheep.

Flow--(1) The quantity of liquid that passes through a pipe, gate, channel, or other conveyance for a given unit of time under given conditions of head or pressure, roughness, etc. Units of measure may be cubic feet per second, acre-feet per day, gallons per minute, etc. (2) The movement of silt, sand, etc., in a channel. (3) Discharge from a pipe, etc. (4) The amount of milk produced per cow herd, etc., at a specified time. (5) The ease or difficulty with which a product can be moved from one place to another.

Flow Rate--The rate at which the cow lets down milk.

Flu--Infectious laryngotracheitis.

Fluff--(1) The downy part of a feather. (2) The soft feathers on the thighs and posteriors of birds.

Fluid Milk--The fluid product of a dairy farm or factory in contrast with the more solid products, such as cream, cheese, butter, and dried milk.

Flukes--Flatworms of the class Trematoda which, at maturity, are internal parasites of vertebrate animals and humans but, in snails, usually have intermediate stages. The mature worms are usually seed-shaped and found in the liver, alimentary canal, and other body cavities, attached usually by two suckers. The eggs of the adults are discharged from the host and hatch under favorable conditions. This resulting intermediate stage enters a snail, passes through several stages of its life cycle and is finally deposited on grasses. Domestic animals and people involved in the food chain from the grasses, are reinfected by the adult flukes. The common liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, may cause a disease fatal to sheep and cattle.

Fluorides--Gaseous or solid compounds containing fluorine, emitted into the air from a number of industrial processes; fluorides are a major cause of vegetation and, indirectly, livestock toxicity.

Flush--(1) To irrigate a field with just enough water to soften the surface soil crust. (2) To increase the feed allowance to ewes or sows with a protein-rich supplement feed a short time before and during the breeding season. (3) A vigorous or abundant, sudden, new growth. (4) To send out vigorous growth on the twigs of a tree. Thus, in the tropical fruit tree, the mango, most of the twigs flush several times a year. (5) To empty, clean, or wash out any material with a quick, heavy supply of water. (6) To introduce and shortly afterwards withdraw an irrigating solution of mild antiseptic of medicinal value, as to flush the vagina or uterus.

Flushed--An animal that receives extra feed and care prior to breeding.

Flushing--The practice of increasing the feed intake of a female animal just prior to ovulation and breeding. This causes the animal to gain some weight and drop more eggs, often resulting in larger litters.

Fly--Any winged insect, such as a moth, bee, gnat, etc. Specifically a two-winged insect of the family Muscidae. Many flies are blood-sucking pests of people and animals, such as the mosquitoes, horse and deer flies, black flies, punkies or nosee-ums, and some sand flies. Some are vectors of diseases, such as the stable flies, etc. Some flies destroy other insects; some are parasites on plants, as the Hessian fly; others are valuable scavengers. Many flies, as the housefly, pass their larval stage in manure and garbage and upon attaining maturity carry with them the bacteria of filth, thus spreading diseases such as typhoid fever, etc.

Fly Net--A meshed covering made of strips of leather or cords of fabric and placed over an animal, usually a horse, to keep the flies away.

Fly-free Date--The date after which it is safe to plant wheat to avoid serious infestation by the Hessian fly. This date has been determined for each county and is available from the county extension agent.

Flying Stall--A portable stall for a horse in which the animal remains while being loaded or unloaded from a vessel or while in transit.

Foal--(1) The unweaned young of the horse or mule. (2) In stock shows, a horse foaled on or after January 1 of the year shown.

Foal Heat--The estrous period that normally occurs a few days after foaling.

Fodder--Feed for livestock, specifically the dry, cured stalks and leaves of corn and the sorghums. In the case of corn, the ears may be removed from the stalk leaving the stover. See Forage, Roughage.


Fold--An enclosure of pen for sheep or cattle.

Fold Unit--A small house, complete with covered-in run, for the controlled grazing of poultry.

Folic Acid--A vitamin found in the leaves of leguminous and other plants, in yeast, liver meal, and wheat. Folic acid is needed in hemoglobin formation and for growth. Also called pteroylglutamic acid.

Follicle--(1) A dry, single-carpel fruit, opening along one side for seed dispersal. (2) A small anatomical cavity; particularly, a small blisterlike development on the surface of the ovary that contains the developing ovum. (3) A small sac, gland, or pit for secretion or excretion. The hairs of an animal grow out of pits called follicles. (4) A one-celled, monocarpellary, dry seed vessel or fruit that splits on the ventral edge. (5) The growth that appears on the surface of the ovary late in the estrous cycle and that contains the developing ovum.

Follicle Mite--Demodex folliculorum, family Demodicidae; a mite that infests the hair follicles of people and domestic animals, sometimes causing intense itching. The infested follicles may become infected.

Follicle-stimulating Hormone--A hormone, produced by the pituitary gland, which promotes growth of ovarian follicles in the female and sperm in the male.

Following Cattle--The practice of allowing feeder pigs to run behind feedlot cattle so they may glean unused grains and other nutrients form the cattle manure.

Fomentation--A poultice; the external application of warm moist cloths, or other objects to ease pain. Fomites--Substances other than food that may harbor or transmit a disease.

Food--Anything which when taken into the body, nourishes the tissues and supplies body heat. Also known as aliment and nutriment.

Food Chamber--Hive body containing honey provided particularly for overwintering bees.

Foot--(1) In people and quadrupeds, the terminal portion of the leg that rests upon the ground. (2) The portion of a cultivator to which the sweep is attached. (3) The organs of locomotion of various invertebrates, as the feet of a caterpillar, the foot of a clam or a snail, etc. (4) The base of a tree, tower, mountain, wall, hill, etc. (5) A unit of linear measure, 12 inches.

Foot Maggot--The larva of some species of the blowfly, family Calliphoridae, which infests the feet of sheep and feeds on wounds. The secondary screwworm, Callitroga macellaria, may also be present.

Foot Mange--A foot-skin disease of animals, especially sheep and cattle, caused by the mite Chorioptes bovis. Also called aphis foot.

Foot Pad--The cushions on the bottom of the feet of such animals as cats and dogs.

Foot Rot--A frequently occurring inflammation in animals' feet, usually followed by pus formation on the soft tissues between the toes. It occurs especially in wet ground in sheep and cattle. One type of the disease is infectious pododermatitis, caused by Spherophorus necrophorus.

Foot-and-Mouth Disease--An acute, highly communicable disease of cloven-footed animals caused by a filterable virus. It is characterized by a short incubation period, high fever, and vesicles in the mouth and on the feet that break to form erosions. Also called aftosa fever, aphthous fever, epizootic aptha.

Forage--(1) That portion of the feed for animals that is secured largely from the leaves and stalks of plants, such as the grasses and legumes used as hays. It may either be for grazing as green or standing dry herbage or be cut and fed green or preserved as dry hay. See Fodder, Roughage. (2) To search for, spread out or seek, for food.

Forage Crops--Those plants or parts of plants that are used for feed before maturing or developing seeds (field corps). The most common forage crops are pasture grasses and legumes.

Forage Feeds--(1) Bulky type feeds composed largely of pasture grasses, hays, silage, etc. (2) A mixture of ground or processed feeds that is composed largely of forages.

Forage Legumes--Any of the legume plants that are grown or used largely as forage for livestock, such as alfalfa, clover, etc.

Forage Mixture--Two or more species grown together for forage production. Usually a mixture of legumes and grasses.

Forage Poisoning--(1) Any poisoning of people or animals from eating food or feed contaminated by the presence of some organism that was not destroyed in the usual processing. Such an organism may produce toxins that are fatal to the animal consuming even small quantities of the forage. the most serious cases are those in which the contaminating organism is Clostridium botulinum that can withstand repeated heatings at the temperatures ordinarily used in the home canning of vegetables. (2) Poisoning of animals grazing or eating forage containing a plant chemical such as the glucoside of hydrocyanic acid in Sudangrass or sorghum, or by forages improperly cured, such as sweetclover, where the breakdown of the alkaloid coumarin results in rupture of the small blood capillaries in the animal. See Selenium Poisoning.

Forage Value--(1) The relative importance for grazing purposes of a range plant or plants, as a whole, on a range. (2) The rank of a range plant or plant type for grazing animals under proper management, preferably expressed as proper-use factor. See Grazing Value. (3) The comparative value of the forage portion of an animal's ration compared with the other feeds in the ration.

Forage Volume--(1) That portion of a plant above the ground and within reach of grazing animals. (2) The measure of the forage crops; i.e., the aggregate amount of forage produced on a range area during any one year.

Foramen--A small opening, usually in the bone.

Forced Supersedure--The construction by worker bees, especially in those colonies in which the queen is old and enfeebled, of queen brood cells within which the larvae develop to mature queens. The brood is protected from destruction by the kin queen by the workers who lead off a swarm, leaving the newly emerged queen in the colony.

Forceps--In veterinary medicine, a pliers-like instrument used for grasping, pulling, and compressing.

Foreflank--That section of the body of a hog just behind the lower shoulder or foreleg. It provides the leanest section of bacon.

Forefoot--To rope the front legs of a running animal usually from horseback. The pursued animal is thrown hard when it reaches the end of the rope, allowing the rider to dismount and tie the animal before it fully recovers.

Forehand--The "front" of the horse, including head, neck, shoulders, and forelegs; that portion of the horse in front of the center of gravity.

Forehobble--A strap or rope that is tied around the forelegs of an animal to prevent straying.

Foreign Flavor--A flavor defect of milk or its products that is any flavor not commonly developed in or associated with milk or milk products.

Foreign Matter--Any material, substance, etc., which is unnatural to, or not commonly developed in, a product.

Foreign Odor--Any odor that is not natural to a product.

Foreleg--The lower portion, above the pastern, of either front leg of four-legged animals. It is commonly used in reference to horses.

Forelock--A lock of hair growing above a horse's forehead; the forepart of the mane.

Foremilk--The first 25 to 50 millimeter of milk to be withdrawn from the udder at the beginning of milking in contrast to middle milk and strippings. Foremilk is of poor quality chemically and bacteriologically and should be rejected.

Foremilk Cup--A metal milking cup fitted with a dark shelf. The first milk at each milking is drawn into the cup. If there is udder trouble (mastitis) clots of milk will be seen on the dark shelf.

Forepastern--A term commonly used to describe the portion of the front leg next to the hoof.

Forepunch--A kind of counterpunch used to make a place for the nail-heads to be set into a horseshoe.

Forequarters--The front two quarters of an animal.

Forestomachs--The three nonglandular stomachs found in ruminants; specifically, the rumen, reticulum, and omasum.

Forestripping--Removal of a small amount of milk by hand from each teat prior to the milking operation; forestrippings are usually discarded because of high bacterial and low fat content.

Forging--The noisy striking of the foreshoe with the toe of the hind shoe by a horse when walking, trotting, or running. Also called clicking, striking.

Form Board--A device used to assist in the insertion of foundations into frames of beehives.

Formamidine Insecticide--A class of insecticides that is used against eggs and mites.

Fortified--(1) Designating a product to which has been added amounts of a vitamin, as vitamin A or vitamin D. (2) A wine to which additional alcohol has been added.

Foundation Herd--Breeding stock; cows, bulls, and heifers or calves retained for replacement; ewes, rams, and lambs for replacement; and nannies. billies, and kids for replacement.

Founder--An inflammation of the tissue that attaches the hoof to the foot; it may be caused by overfeeding, concussion, or a number of other factors.

Four Footing--Throwing an animal by means of a rope around the feet.

Four-cornered Gait--A horse's gait in which each foot is placed on the ground individually. Also called single-foot, rack.

Four-tooth Sheep--A two-year-old sheep.

Four-way Hybrid--The hybrid that results from mating two single crosses. Also called double cross, See Single Cross.

Fowl--Refers to a bird, usually poultry.

Fowl Cholera--An acute, infectious, septicemic disease caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida. It is characterized in very acute form by sudden death; in less acute forms by greenish or yellowish diarrhea, listlessness, sleepiness, ruffled feathers, stationary habit, impaired appetite, increased thirst, rapid respiration, accumulation of mucous in upper nasal passages, fever, and purpling of wattles and comb; in chronic forms by emaciation, depression, paleness of wattles, comb, and membranes of the head, and lameness. Also called cholera of fowls, roup of fowls, hemorrhagic septicemia of fowls, avian pasteurellosis, cholera gallinarium, pasteurellosis, chicken septicemia, acute fowl cholera.

Fowl Gapeworm--Syngamus trachea; a small roundworm that infests the trachea of birds. Infestation of birds under eight weeks old is characterized by a stretching of the neck with open mouth, sneezing, coughing, shaking of the head, loss of appetite, emaciation, prostration, closed eyes, head drawn back against the body. Also called gapes.

Fowl Leukemia--The avian leukosis complex that attacks the blood cells.

Fowl Paralysis--A type of the avian leukosis complex probably caused by a filterable virus; characterized by lameness or drooping of a wing, prostration, legs held in peculiar positions, limpness of legs and wings, no motor control, withering of the muscles of the affected part and by the feathers in the region of the crop being damp, dark, and permanently discolored. Also called neural lymphomatosis, neuritis of chickens, range paralysis, big liver disease.

Fowl Pest--See Fowl Plague.

Fowl Plague--A highly acute, infectious, viral disease characterized by a sudden onset, depression, droopiness, standing still, head drawn in, eyes closed, irregular gait, difficult respiration, shaking of the head, prostration, and bluish-red, swollen wattles and comb. Also called fowl pest, bird plague, chicken pest, bird pest, Brunswick bird plague.

Fowl Pox--A highly infectious, viral disease of birds, especially chickens. Characterized in the skin type, by small, raised, grayish blisterlike spots on the comb or wattles or other unfeathered parts that later rupture and discharge a sticky fluid. As these sores dry, a dark brownish scab forms. Characterized in the diptheric type, by raised, yellowish patches in the mouth and throat that prevent closure of the mouth, and cause difficult breathing and weight loss. Also called chicken pox, contagious epithelioma, canker, avian diphtheria, sore head, fowl diphtheria.

Fowl Tick--Argas persicus, family Argasidae; an ectoparasite of poultry in the south and southwestern parts of United States. It feeds only at night, hiding during the day and is a powerful blood sucker, sometimes killing the bird. Infested birds are characterized by weakness of the legs, droopy wings, paleness of comb and wattles, and cessation of egg laying. Also called adobe tick, chicken tick, dove tick.

Fowl Tuberculosis--See Avian Tuberculosis.

Fowl Typhoid--See Avian Typhoid. Foxtrot--An uneven, easy-to-ride, four-beat gait in horses, intermediate between the walk and the trot.

Frame--A wooden rectangle that surrounds the comb and hangs within a beehive. It may be referred to as Hoffman, Langstroth, or self-spacing because of differences in size and widened end bars that provide a bee space between the combs. The words frame and comb are often used interchangeably; for example, a comb of brood, a frame of brood.

Frame Score--In cattle a score based on subjective evaluation of height or actual measurement of hip height. This score is related to slaughter weights at which cattle will grade choice or have comparable amounts of fat cover over the loin eye at the twelfth to thirteenth rib.

Free Air Cell--An air cell that moves toward the uppermost point in the egg as the egg is rotated slowly in the candling process. This results in a reduction in grade for the egg. See Candle.

Free Wool--Usually means free from defects, such as vegetable matter.

Free-choice Feeding--A type of feeding routine whereby feed, water, salt, etc., are provided in unlimited quantities and an animal is left to regulate its own intake.

Free-ranging--Allowing animals, especially poultry, to roam freely and eat as they wish without any sort of confinement.

Freemartin--A sterile female calf born as a twin to a normal male calf. It is usually intersexual as a result of a male hormone absorbed from its twin through anastomosed placental vessels.

Freeze Branding--An identification method done by clipping hair from the brand area, wetting skin with alcohol, then applying a branding iron cooled in liquid nitrogen or dry ice and alcohol.

Freidman Test--A test for pregnancy in which a small amount of the urine of the tested animal is injected into the bloodstream of a virgin female rabbit. Pregnancy is indicated by certain changes in the ovaries of the rabbit.

French Combing Wools--Wools intermediate in length between strictly combing and clothing. French combs can handle fine wools from 1 1/4 to 2 1/2 inches in length. The yarn is softer and loftier than Bradford (worsted) yarn.

Fresh--(1) Designating a cow that has recently dropped a calf. (2) Designating very recently harvested or gathered food products. (3) Designating an egg of good quality. (4) Designating sweet water; i.e., not salty water.

Fresh Ham--Uncured pork from the hindquarters of a pig. Fresh Manure--Recently excreted animal dung whose direct contact can be harmful to plant tissues because of rapid chemical and fermentive changes that take place.

Freshen--To come into milk, as when a dairy animal gives birth.

Fribs--Short second cuts of wool resulting from faulty shearing; also small-sized dirty or dungy locks.

Friesian--A name sometimes incorrectly applied in the United States to the black-and-white dairy cattle breed the Holstein-Friesian.

Fringed Tapeworm--Thysanosoma actiniodes; a parasite of domestic sheep and certain related wild ruminants in western North America and Central and South America. The tapeworm lives in the bile ducts of the liver and in the small intestine. It causes thickening, or hypertrophy, of the bile ducts. In the United States, livers infected with this tapeworm are condemned as unfit for human consumption. The life history of this tapeworm is unknown, but is very likely transmitted by some small invertebrate animal.

Frizzle Feather--A term used to denote feathers that are curled and that curve outward and forward, a characteristic of Frizzle chickens.

Frog--(1) That part which holds turning plow bottom parts together; an irregularly shaped piece of metal to which the share, landslide, and moldboard are attached. (2) The triangular, horny pad, located on the posterior-ventral part of the hooves of horses, mules, etc.

Frowsy--A wasty, lifeless-appearing, dry and harsh wool, lacking in character. In direct contrast to lofty.

Fruit--(1) Botanically, the matured ovary of a flower and its contents including any external part that is an integral portion of it. (2) In a popular sense, the fleshy, ripened ovary of a woody plant, tree, shrub, or vine, used as a cooked or raw food; it is not always completely and satisfactorily distinguished from a vegetable. The latter may also include edible leaves, roots, and tubers. A fruit may be considered a dessert and not the principal part of a meal as a vegetable is so considered (such a meaning has accepted usage and has also been confirmed by a court decision). See Vegetable. (3) To bear or produce fruit in any of the senses. (4) A mature ovary, either plant or animal.

Fry--(1) To cook in hot oil or fat. (2) The young stage of fishes, particularly after the yolk sac has been absorbed. (3) Young fish, newly hatched, after yolk has been used up and active feeding commenced.

Fryer--Any young chicken approximately eight to twenty weeks old, of either sex, weighing more than 21/2 pounds but not more than 31/2 pounds, which is sufficiently soft-meated to be cooked tender by frying.

FSH--See Follicle-stimulating Hormone.

Fuem Board--A general name for any shallow wooden cover used to hold repellents for driving bees from honeycombs.

Full Bloods--A term referring to purebred animals.

Full Feed--A feed or ration being fed to the limit of an animal's appetite.

Full Mouth--A state in sheep or goats when an animal has a full set of permanent teeth. This occurs at approximately the age of four. The animal will continue to have what is known as a full mouth until it loses some teeth or until it loses all of its teeth. See Broken Mouth, Gummer.

Fulling--The operation of shrinking and felting a woolen fabric to make it thicker and denser. The individual yarns cannot be distinguished on a fulled fabric.

Fumagillin--Antibiotic given bees to control nosema disease.

Fumigant--A substance or mixture of substances that produce gas, vapor, fume, or smoke intended to destroy insect and other pests.

Fumigate--To destroy pathogens, insects, etc., by the use of certain poisonous liquids or solids that form vapors. See Fumigant.

Functional Efficiency--In cattle, the production of as much good red meat per unit area as possible. In its broadest sense: fertility, genetic excellence, libido, ability to copulate, estrus, ovulation, fertilization, embryo survival gestation., parturition, and mothering ability of the cow.

Fungal Spray--An herbicide consisting of fungal spores in a liquid solution sprayed on weeds in crops as a means of biological control of the weeds. For reasons not adequately understood, the fungal spores of different fungi are specific for specific hosts, making it possible to control selected plants without damaging other nearby crop plants.

Fungi--Plantlike organisms that have no chlorophyll; they get their nourishment from living or decaying organic matter. Plural of fungus.

Fungistat--An agent or chemical material that prevents the growth and reproduction of, but does not kill, fungi.

Fungous--Pertaining to a fungus, as a fungous disease.

Fungus--A lower order of plant organisms, excluding bacteria, which contains no chlorophyll, has no vascular system, and is not differentiated into roots, stems, or leaves. They are classified in the plant kingdom division Thallophyta, and vary in size from single-celled forms to the huge puffballs of the meadows. Fungi are familiar as molds, rusts, smuts, rots, and mushrooms. For the large part they reproduce prolifically by means of single or multicelled spores of various longevities, which are disseminated by air or water. They are either saprophytic or parasitic and many are considered useful in breaking down dead vegetation and organic matter into humus and as agents of fermentation, as in yeasts; others are also destructive in rotting structural timbers, posts, cloth, leathers, etc. The parasitic forms cause destructive plant diseases; a few are human and animal parasites.

Fur-bearing Sheep--The Karakul; the only breed of sheep in the United States kept primarily for the fur pelts of its young.


Gait--The action of a horse's legs, such as walking or running.

Gaited--Definite rhythmic movement of a horse such as trot, canter, pace, etc.; certain breeds are selected and bred on the basis of their ability to perform the various gaits.

Galactagogue--Any substance that promotes the flow of milk.

Galactose--A white crystalline sugar obtained from lactose (milk sugar) by hydrolysis.

Gallop--A fast, three-beat gait of a horse, in which two diagonal legs are paired, their single beat falling between the successive beats of the other two legs, the hind one of which makes the first beat of the three. A hind foot makes the first beat in the series, the other hind foot and diagonal fore foot make the second beat simultaneously, and the remaining fore foot makes the third beat in the series. Then the body is projected clear of the ground and the hind foot makes the first beat in a new series.

Galloway--A breed of black beef cattle that originated in Scotland.

Gambrel--A wooden or metal rod whose ends are inserted in the hocks of hogs, and which is used to support animals while butchering. Also called gamble. See Beef Pritch.

Gametogenesis--The process in plants or animals, male or female, involving the production of gametes; ovigenesis or spermatogenesis.

Gamma Globulin--A specific protein fraction of the fluid part of the blood in which are included the bodies that protect against certain infections (immune bodies).

Gander--A mature male goose.

Gangrene--Massive death of tissue caused by bacterial infection or interference by injury, infection, freezing, etc., with blood circulation. Dry gangrene, or mummification, may occur without bacterial action; moist gangrene occurs as a result of the action of bacteria.

Gangrenous Mastitis in Ewes--Mastitis of sheep; an inflammation of the udder of ewes, frequently caused by infection with the filth bacteria Pasteurella mastitidis, Staphylococcus aureus, etc. The condition is characterized by loss of appetite; depression; solitary habit; refusal to suckle her lamb; straddled gait; hot, painful udder; a hardening and caking of the udder; dark, bluish-violet spots on the udder. Also called blue gag, black garget, garget, mammitis.

Gap--(1) A break in a fence or wall that may be used as a gate. (2) A depression forming a break in the continuity of the crest of a mountain ridge.

Garget--(1) The abnormal changes in the udder and its secretion as a result of mastitis. (2) A hog and cattle disease in which the head or throat becomes inflamed.

Gastric--Refers to the stomach.

Gastroenteritis--Inflammation of the stomach and intestines.

Gastrointestinal--Refers to the part of the digestive system made up of the stomach and the intestines.

Gate Cut--Method of dividing a group of cattle by driving through a gate and separating them impartially.

Gaucho--The South American cowboy, in particular, the term is used in the Pampas area of Argentina. The gaucho is considered by many to be the world's finest rough rider.

Gee--A command that directs a horse, mule, or ox to turn to the right; whereas haw means turn to the left.

Geese--The plural of goose.

Gel--A colloidal suspension in which the particles have precipitated; e.g., the coagulum in cheese making.

Gelatin--A water-soluble protein prepared from collagen by boiling with water.

Gelbvieh--A large breed of beef cattle that originated in Germany. They range in color from medium red to fawn.

Geld--(1) Designating an animal that is sterile. (2) To render sterile, as in castration.

Gelding--A castrated male horse.

Gene--The simplest unit of inheritance. Physically, each gene is apparently a nucleic acid with a unique structure. It influences certain traits. Sometimes called a trait determiner.

Gene Pool--The genetic base available to animal breeders for stock improvement.

Gene Splicing--The technique of inserting new genetic information in a plasmid. See Plasmid.

Gene Transfer--The process of moving a gene from one organism to another. Biotechnology methods permit the identification, isolation, and transfer of individual genes as a molecule of DNA. These methods make it possible to transfer genes between organisms that would not normally be able to exchange them. See DNA, Gene.

Genera--The plural of genus.

General Use Pesticide--A pesticide that can be purchased and used without obtaining a permit. It is considered safe for general public use. See Restricted Use Pesticide.

Generation--The group of individuals of a given species that have been reproduced at approximately the same time; the group of individuals of the same genealogical rank.

Generation Interval--The period of time between the birth of one generation and the birth of the next.

Generic--A word used to describe a general class of products, such as meats, vegetables, or grains; also refers to an unadvertised brand.

Genesis--(1) Origin, or evolutionary development, as of a soil, plant, or animal. (2) A combining form, to indicate manner or kind of origin, as parthenogenesis, biogenesis, etc.

Genetic Base--The breeding animals available for a producer to use.

Genetic Drift--The gradual change in a plant or animal species because of rearrangement of the genes due to the environment or unknown causes.

Genetic Engineering--Alteration of the genetic components of organisms by human intervention. Also known as biogenetics.

Genetic Index--An estimate of the future Predicted Difference of a young bull. See Predicted Difference.

Genetic Trait Summary (GTS)--The comparative ranking of beef sires derived from evaluating the conformation of the daughters.

Genetics--(1) The science that deals with the laws and processes of inheritance in plants and animals. (2) The study of the ancestry of some special organism or variety of plant or animal. Also called breeding.

Genital--Pertaining to the organs of reproduction.

Genital Eminence--In sexing chicks, a very small, shiny or glistening projection that is the rudimentary male copulatory organ. Also called male process.

Genitalia--The organs of the female reproductive tract including the external genital organs.

Genome--A complete set of chromosomes (hence of genes) inherited as a unit from one parent.

Genotoxicity--The quality of being damaging to genetic material.

Genotype--The genetic constitution (gene makeup), expressed and latent, of an organism. Individuals of the same genotype breed alike. See Phenotype.

Genus--A group of species of plants or animals believed to have descended from a common direct ancestor that are similar enough to constitute a useful unit at this level of taxonomy.

Germ--(1) In reference to animal disease, a small organism, microbe or bacterium that can cause disease. (2) The embryo of a seed.

Germ Cell--A cell capable of reproduction or of sharing in the reproduction of an organism, which may divide to produce new cells in the same organism, as contrasted with the somatic or body cells.

Germ Plasm--Term for the reproductive and hereditary substance of individuals that is passed on from the germ cell in which an individual originates in direct continuity to the germ cells of succeeding generations. By it, new individuals are produced and hereditary characteristics are transmitted.

Germ Spot--The germinal disc on the surface of the yolk of an egg. The blastoderm of a fertilized egg and the point at which embryonic development starts in the making of a chick.

Germicide--Any agent that kills germs.

Gestation Period--The length of time from conception to birth of young in a particular species. Usual gestation periods for farm animals are: mare, 330 to 340 days; cow, 230 to 285 days; ewe, 145 to 150 days; sow, 112 to 115 days; goat, 148 to 152 days; jennet (female ass), 360 to 65 days.

Get--The offspring of an animal, usually the sire. Get of sire: a show classification in which calves of a particular sire are judged against calves of other sires.

Ghee--In India, semifluid butter prepared from the milk of the buffalo, cow, sheep, or goat. After the butter has been extracted from the milk, it is heated to drive off excess water, cooled, and only the more-liquid, oily portion used. It is virtually 100 percent butterfat.

Giblets--The edible small parts of dressed birds: liver, heart, gizzard, etc.

Gid--A disease of sheep and goats, but rarely of cattle, which is caused by the gid bladderworm (Coenurus cerebralis) or the larval stage of Multiceps multiceps, a tapeworm of dogs. The internal parasites are carried by the bloodstream to various parts of the body, and those that reach the brain complete their full development there as a cyst, reaching the size of a hen's egg. Infestation is characterized by staggering, loss of control of limbs when excited, weaving gait, excitation, walking in circles, prostration, in some cases also by holding the head lowered or elevated, by resting the head on an object, turning backward somersaults, exhaustion, and death. Also called sturdy, turn sickness, staggers.

Gigantism--(1) The production of luxuriant vegetative growth that is usually accompanied by a delay of flowering or fruiting. Also called gone-to-stalk, gone-to-weed. (2) In animals, abnormal overgrowth of a part or all of the body. Also called giantism.

Gigot--A leg of mutton, venison, or veal trimmed ready for the table.

Gill--(1) A unit of liquid measure equal to: 4 fluid ounces, 0.25 liquid pints, 0.118 liters. (2) The breathing mechanism of an aquatic animal such as a fish.

Gilt--A name for a young female pig until it produces its first offspring, when it becomes a sow.

Girth--(1) The circumference of the body of an animal behind the shoulders. (2) A band or strip of heavy leather or webbing that encircles a pack animal's body; used to fasten a saddle or pack on its back. Also called cinch. (3) The circumference of a tree.

Gizzard--The muscular posterior stomach of birds, which has muscular walls and a thick, horny lining; its principal function is the grinding or crushing of coarse feed particles. The presence of grit increases the efficiency of the grinding process.

Gjetost--National cheese of Norway made from the whey of goats' milk. It has a sweet caramel flavor.

Glabrous--Smooth, devoid of hair or surface glands.

Gland--(1) In animals, an organ that secretes substances for the body's use or that excretes waste matter. (2) In plants, any special secreting organ.

Gland Cistern--The internal portion of the mammary gland immediately above each teat into which milk collects as it is secreted by the milk-producing glands of the udder. Each gland cistern is very irregular in shape and capacity.

Glanders--A contagious disease of horses, mules, etc., communicable to people; caused by Malleomyces mallei (Bacillus mallei).

Pulmonary glanders is characterized by unthriftiness and difficult breathing. Nasal glanders is characterized by ulcers in the mucous membranes of the nose that discharge a blood-streaked fluid, a swelling of the glands under the jaw, and unthriftiness. Skin glanders is characterized by hard nodules under the skin, which break to form ulcers. There is a thick discharge from the ulcers that become confluent. Also called burr, farcy.

Glass Eye--An animal's eye in which the iris is pearly white.

Glauber Salt--[Na.sub.2]S[O.sub.4].[10H.sub.2]O; sodium sulfate decahydrate; used as a laxative.

Globular--Having a round or spherical shape.

Globule--A collection of several molecules of fat that takes on a spherelike appearance, and is insoluble in water.

Glomerata--Dense, compact.

Glossanthrax--A disease of horses and cattle in which the oral cavity, especially the tongue, becomes ulcerated and gangrenous.

Glucagon--A hormone produced by the pancreas that stimulates a rise in blood sugar.


Glyceride--Natural fats and oils formed in plants and animals by the chemical union of glycerin and fatty acids.

Glycerol--One of the components of a fat molecule; a fat molecule is composed of three fatty acids attached chemically to glycerol.

Glycogen--[C.sub.6][H.sub.10][O.sub.5]; a carbohydrate similar to starch, found abundantly in the liver and stored in lesser amounts in other tissues and organs. Also called animal starch.

Glycolytic--Pertaining to the chemical breakdown of sugars to lactic acid.

Go Off Feed--(1) To cease feeding with a normal appetite. (2) To refuse feed in the amounts and kinds previously eaten.

Go Stale--(1) To suffer sperm deterioration, as a bull. (2) To go off flavor, as a product. (3) As a person or animal, not to work at normal standards of production. (4) As an animal, to go off feed.

Goat--Any horned ruminant of the genus Capra, family Bovidae, especially the domestic goat, C. hircus, which is bred as a source of milk, meat, and wool or hair.

Goat Fever--A photosensitization of sheep and goats resulting from ingestion of Agave lophantha var. poselgeri, family Amaryllidaceae, or the atamasco lily, and exposure to bright sunlight; characterized by jaundice, liver and kidney lesions, and sometimes by swelling of the face and ears. Also called swell head, big head.

Goat Month--The tenure on range or pasture of a mature goat for one month.

Goatling--Female goat between one and two years of age that has not borne a kid.

Gobby--A lumpy, unattractive condition of the fat covering the body of an animal, such as a sheep or beef animal.

Goiter--The enlargement of the thyroid gland that results from a deficiency of iodine in the diet of people and all farm/ranch animals.

Goitrogen--A food or feed so low in iodine that a steady diet or ration of it may produce goiter in animals or people; e.g., cabbage.

Golden Bay--The rich, yellowish-red of an animal's coat.

Golden Horse--See Palomino.

Gomer Bull--A bull that has been altered so as to render him sterile while leaving the testicles intact. A gomer bull is used to indicate that a cow is in heat by mounting her.

Gonad--The organ in a male or female animal that produces the gametes; an ovary or testis.

Gonadtropin--A hormone that stimulates the gonads.

Gone to Sugar--Designating honey and syrup in which the sugar has crystallized.

Goose--(1) Any large, web-footed bird (intermediate in size between swans and ducks) of the subfamily Anserinae (family Anatidae) including the genus Anser and related genera. The domestic goos, Anser domesticus, includes a number of breeds that are kept for their fresh and feathers. (2) The female goose as distinguished from the male, or gander.

Goose Feather--Any feather (or feathers) from a goose. Especially prized are the mature, soft, downy feathers from the breast and abdomen, which are used as a filling for pillows, sleeping bags, etc. These soft feathers are often plucked from live geese in the summer prior to molting.

Goose-rumped--An animal having a short, steep croup that narrows at the point of the buttocks.

Goosestep--A peculiar walk or body action, locomotor incoordination (spastic gait) of swine which is caused by a nutritional deficiency of pantothenic acid, B3 complex vitamin.

Gore--To pierce the body with an animal's horns.

Gosling--A very young or recently hatched goose.

Gossypol--A material found in cottonseed that is toxic to swine and certain other simple-stomached animals.

Gout--An uncommon, nutritional disease of mature poultry, characterized by internal deposits of sodium urate in the viscera or joints. Also spelled gowt.

Graafian Follicle--A fluid-filled sac in which an egg develops. Part of the ovary, the graafian follicle, also secretes the female sex hormone estrogen which causes heat in females.

Grade--(1) The slope of a road, channel, or natural ground. (2) The finished slope of a prepared surface of a canal bed, roadbed, top of embankment, or bottom of excavation. (3) Any surface that is prepared for the support of a conduit, paving, ties, rails, etc. (4) Any animal that has one purebred parent and one of unknown or mixed breeding. (5) Designating a herd, flock, brand, etc., of such animals. (6) The classification of a product, animal, etc., by standards of uniformity, size, trueness to type, freedom from blemish or disease, fineness, quality, etc. (7) To smooth the surface of a road. (8) To raise the level of a piece of ground by the addition of earth, gravel, etc.

Grade Animal--An animal with nonpurebred ancestors.

Graded Eggs--Eggs that have been sorted and labeled according to size and quality.

Grading--(1) The classification of products, animals, etc., into grades. (2) The mating of a purebred animal with one of mixed or unknown breeding. (3) The smoothing of the land surface.

Grading Up--The practice of improving a flock whereby purebred sires are mated to grade animals and their offspring. In three generations the offspring will be seven-eighths purebred and in some cases eligible for registration. Upgrading.

Grain-fed--Designating animals, such as cattle, which are being or have been fattened for market largely by the use of grain feeds.

Gram Stain--A staining method devised by a Danish physician, Hans

Gram, to aid in the identification of bacteria. Bacteria either resist discolorization with alcohol and retain the initial deep violet stain (grampositive) or can be decolorized by alcohol and are stained with a contrast stain (gram-negative).

Granualted Honey--Honey in which crystals of a sugar (dextrose) have formed.

Granular--(1) In the form of granules or small particles. (2) Covered with small grains, minutely mealy. (3) A porous soil ped. See Soil Porosity, Soil Structure.

Granular Vaginitis--A disease of cattle characterized by the formation of small granular nodules on the vulvar and vaginal mucous membranes of the cow and prepuce of the bull. The affected mucous membrane may be slightly swollen and sensitive and may bleed easily. Frequent urination and some straining may be seen in the cow. The condition may affect young calves and heifers as well. It may spread by coitus, by the hands of attendants, or perhaps by grooming tools. Also called granular venereal disease, nodular vaginitis, infectious vaginitis, contagious granular vaginitis, bull burn.

Grass Egg--In marketing, an egg with an olive-colored yolk.

Grass Lamb--A lamb that is dropped in the springtime and is raised on pasture in the summer months and butchered in the fall, when pasture is less productive.

Grass Tetany--A magnesium-deficiency disease of cattle characterized by hyperirritability, muscular spasms of the legs, and convulsions. In sheep, it is apparently associated with a calcium and magnesium deficiency. The disease is seen when the animals are turned out to lush spring pastures in some areas. Also called grass staggers.

Grass-fattened--Designating an animal that has been fattened on pasture or range, in contrast to one fattened on grain or other feed concentrate.

Grasser--Cattle marketed directly off grass pastures and not grain-fed. Gray--(1) A color of an animal's coat that has white hairs mixed with black. (2) A cotton-lint color designation that is the darkest in chroma.

Gray Roan--A coat color for a horse that is roan in combination with gray. See Steel Gray.

Gray Speck--A magnesium-deficiency disease of oats characterized by light green to gray, irregularly shaped flecks on the leaf blades that enlarge, dry out, and turn brown or buff-colored; dwarfing; and reduction of yield. Also called dry leaf spot.

Gray Wool--Fleeces with a few dark fibers, a rather common occurrence in the medium wools produced by Down or black-faced breeds.

Graze--(1) To consume any kind of standing vegetation, as by domestic livestock or wild animals. See Browse. (2) To cause domestic animals to graze.

Graze Off--To cause animals to feed on and almost consume the top growth of herbaceous vegetation.

Graze Out--To allow domestic animals to feed abusively on certain palatable grasses or forbs alone or in combination until the vegetation ceases to exist on a particular pasture or range.

Grazier--A rancher; a person who owns or manages livestock on grazing land.

Grazing--(1) Feed available to animals on ranges and pastures. (2) The process of feeding by livestock on live or standing plants other than browse.

Grazing Bit--A snaffle or easy curb bit that does not prevent a horse from grazing.

Grazing Capacity--In range or pasture management, the ability of a grassed unit to give adequate support to a constant number of livestock for a stated period each year without deteriorating. It is expressed in number of livestock per acre of given kind or kinds, or in number of acres per specified animal. Modifications must be made during years of drought.

Grazing District--In the United States, an administration unit on federal range established by the Secretary of the Interior under the provisions of the Taylor Grazing Act of 1934, as amended; or an administrative unit of state, private, or other range lands, established under state laws.

Grazing Fee--A charge made for livestock grazing on a range on the basis of a certain rate per head for a certain period of time, as distinguished from lease or rental of the land on which animals may be grazed.

Grazing Land--Land used regularly for grazing; not necessarily restricted to land suitable only for grazing: excluding pasture and cropland used as part of farm crop rotation system.

Grazing Pressure--The actual animal-to-forage ratio at a specific time. For example, three animal units per ton of standing forage.

Grazing Unit--(1) The quantity of pasturage used by an average, mature cow or its equivalent in other livestock in a grazing season in a given region. (2) Any division of the range that is used to facilitate range administration or the handling of livestock.

Grazing Value--The worth of a plant or cover for livestock and/or game that is determined by its palatability, nutritional rating, amount of forage produced, longevity, and area of distribution.

Grease--(1) See Fat, Lanolin, Lard. (2) A thick petroleum derivative used for lubrication. (3) Hog fat as distinguished from tallow, which is the fat of cattle and sheep; commercially differentiated by temperature of solidification which is below 40[degrees]C for grease and above 40[degrees]C for tallow. (4) To lubricate a machine. (5) To apply salve to a wound or irritation.

Grease Heel--In horses, a low-grade infection affecting the hair follicles and skin at the base of the fetlock joint, most frequently the hind legs. It is similar to scratches, but in a more advanced stage.

Grease Mohair--A mohair fleece before it is cleaned. See Mohair.

Grease Wool--Raw wool after it is removed from a sheep and before it is scoured.

Green Algae--Organisms belonging to the class Chlorophyceae and characterized by photosynthetic pigments similar in color to those of the higher green plants. Food manufactured by photosynthesis is stored in algal tissues as starch. See Algae.

Green Broke--A term applied to a horse that has been hitched or ridden only one or two times. Green Chop--Green forage that is cut with a field chopper and hauled to lots or barns for livestock feed in lieu of pasturing. See Green Chopping.

Green Geese--Geese full fed for fast growth and marketed at ten to thirteen weeks of age when they weigh 10 to 12 pounds (4.5 to 5.4 kilograms); also called junior geese.

Green Hay--(1) Uncured hay. (2) That hay which, on being cured, retains a green color.

Green Hide--Skin that has been cleaned, scraped and dried, but has not yet been permanently tanned.

Green Manure--Crops such as legumes or grasses that are grown to be plowed or spaded into the soil to increase humus content and improve soil structure. See Cover Crop.

Green Pellet--A pellet made from alfalfa meal only, or a complete pellet that contains enough green roughage to color it.

Gregariousness--The tendency within a species population to flock or herd together.


Groin--(1) A structure built from the shore into the water to protect the bank against erosion. (2) The part of the body of a person or animal where the thigh joins the body trunk.

Groom--(1) A person who curries, combs, washes, etc., an animal and cares for it generally. (2) To wash, curry, brush, and generally care for an animal. (3) To trim grass and to make a yard and flower garden neat and trim.

Grooming Chute--A portable chute in which cattle are held while they are being groomed for a show.

Grow--(1) To live and to increase in stature and girth toward maturity. (2) To cultivate plants. (3) To raise animals.

Grow Out--To feed cattle so that the cattle get a certain desired amount of growth without much, if any, fattening.

Growth--(1) The increment in size of a living organism. (2) Plants or plant parts. (3) A tumor, gall, etc. (4) The development of an organism from its earliest stage to maturity. (5) The development or increase of an enterprise or an organization.

Growth Hormone--A hormone that promotes body growth and milk production.

Growthy--A livestock judging term used to describe an animal that is large and well developed for its age.

Grub Hole--A hole or wound in the hide of an animal caused by the larva of the common cattle grub. See Cattle Grub.

Grulla--A coat color of some animals, especially the American quarter horse. It is a slate-blue bordering on a sooty black.

Gruyere--A hard, light, yellow, cooked cheese with holes. It is made in Switzerland, France, Finland, and Argentina. Guaranteed Analysis--On feed labels or tags, a listing of certain nutrients, usually crude protein, crude fiber, fat, and ash, guaranteeing a minimum or maximum percentage of each in the feed.

Guernsey--A breed of cattle that originated on the island of Guernsey in the English Channel and is highly regarded for its dairy characteristics and qualities. It is widely distributed, with the largest numbers in the United States. Guernseys are fawn or reddish-fawn and white, and medium in size. Guernsey milk is high in color and percentage of butterfat.

Gullet--See Esophagus.

Gummer--A sheep or goat having no teeth. See Broken Mouth, Full Mouth.

Gummy Wool--Grease wool that has an excessive amount of yolk, or scoured wool that still has some yolk in it.

Gummy-legged--A term applied to a horse having legs in which the tendons lack definition, or do not stand out clearly.

Gynandromorph--An individual of which one part of the body exhibits female characteristics and another part male characteristics.

Gyp-rope--The rope used by a trainer to rope or to exercise his horse.

Gyr--A strain of Zebu cattle.
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Title Annotation:Part 2: D-G
Publication:Delmar's Agriscience Dictionary
Article Type:Definition
Date:Jan 1, 2000
Next Article:Part 1 Animal science.

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