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Part 1 Animal science.


Nag--A horse or pony of nondescript breed.

Nagana--See Trypanosomiasis.

Nanny--A female goat.

Nape--The back of the neck of an animal.

Narrow Nutritive Ration--A feed with high protein content in proportion to its nonnitrogenous fat and carbohydrate nutrients.

Narrow-spectrum Antibiotic--An antibiotic whose activity is restricted to either gram-negative or gram-positive bacteria; e.g., penicillin is active primarily against gram-positive organisms, whereas streptomycin attacks only gram-negative organism.

National Cattlemen's Association--An association of cattle producers that serves as the communications arm of the nation's beef cattle industry. The membership includes cattle breeders, producers, and feeders. This nonprofit organization was officially formed on September 1, 1977, through the consolidation of the American National Cattlemen's Association (founded 1898) and the National Livestock Feeders Association (founded 1946).

National Sire Evaluation--Programs of sire evaluation conducted by breed associations to compare sires on a progeny test basis. Carefully conducted national reference sire evaluation programs give unbiased estimates of expected progeny differences. Sire evaluations based on field data rely on large numbers of progeny per sire to compensate for possible favoritism or bias for sires within herds.

National Wool Act--Legislation that provides price support for shorn wool at an incentive level to encourage production. The law also provides for a payment on sales of unshorn lambs.

Native--(1) Designating a plant that grows naturally in a country or region; one not introduced by people. (2) Designating animals, as cattle, hogs, and horses, which, though originally introduced into a region, have lost some of their original characteristics or have gone wild: a scrub or mongrel. (3) Designating an unbranded beef hide. See Feral, Indigenous.

Native Disease--A disease caused by an indigenous organism.

Natural Cross--Interbreeding or hybridizing that takes place in nature without assistance from people.

Natural Enemy--In nature, any organism that preys or feeds upon another. A natural enemy may be introduced by people for biological control. See Myxomatosis.

Natural Immunity--Immunity to disease, infestation, etc., that results from qualities inherent in plants, animals, or people.

Natural Selection--A natural process by which less-vigorous plants and animals tend to be eliminated from a population in an area without leaving enough descendants to perpetuate their traits.

Natural Selection Theory--A theory of evolution, propounded by Charles Darwin in the nineteenth century, which postulates that the distinctive characteristics of fitness can be inherited. Also called the survival of the fittest theory.

Natural Thickness--A livestock judging term that refers to the amount of muscling on an animal.

Navel--(1) In Mammalia spp. the point of connection between the umbilical cord and the fetus. (2) See Navel Orange.

Navel Cord--The umbilical cord.

Navel Hernia--See Umbilical Hernia.

Navel-ill--A disease of newborn animals that results from infection of the umbilical cord shortly after birth. It is characterized by temperature, weakness, listlessness, lameness, hot and painful swelling of the joints, and loss of appetite. The affected animal finally dies.

Navicular Bone--A small oblong bone in the lower part of a horse's leg between the second and third phalanx; the sesamoid of the third phalanx.

Navicular Disease--In horses, an inflammatory disease of the navicular bone and bursa of the front foot. Affected animals go lame and have a short, stubby stride.

NDM--Nonfat dry milk.

Near Side--The left side of a horse; the side from which to mount in riding. See Off Side.

Neat's Foot Oil--An oil obtained by boiling the feet and bones of calves and other cattle; used as a fine lubricant, for dressing leather, and in hoof ointments.

Neck--(1) In humans and animals, the connecting link between the head and the body. (2) To tie cattle neck-to-neck (western United States). (3) (land) An elevated, narrow strip of land between two somewhat parallel streams, or water bodies; a promontory; a peninsula; an isthmus.

Neck Ail--A cobalt-deficiency disease of cattle that results in listlessness and an emaciated appearance.

Neck Piece--Of a meat carcass, that part between the shoulders and head.

Neck Rein--To turn a saddle horse in a desired direction by laying the reins on the neck rather than pulling on the bit.

Neck Rope--(1) A rope tied around the neck of a horse being trained for use in lassoing cattle. (2) A rope used in picketing horses.

Necro--(1) Ulcers of the intestine, necrotic enteritis. (2) Infectious enteritis in pigs. (3) Swollen nose of hogs; bull nose.

Necrobaciloses--Several disease entities in domestic animals, sometimes of uncertain etiology but involving some bacteria, usually the bacillus Actinomyces, and such predisposing factors as trauma, excessive moisture, or filth. These include such diseases as foot rot, bull nose of pigs, and necrotic stomatitis.

Necropsy--An examination of the internal organs of a dead body to determine the cause of death. Also called autopsy, post-mortem.

Necros--(Greek) Dead.

Necrosis--Death of plant or animal cells of tissues, usually in localized areas.

Necrosis of the Beak--An inflammation of the beak of poultry chicks caused by particles of finely round, all-mash feed remaining under the tongue and adhering to the edges of the upper and lower mandibles.

Necrotic--Designating a necrosis.

Necrotic Enteritis--Infectious enteritis in pigs.

Nectar--A sweet secretion of flowers of various plants, used by bees to store as honey.

Nectar Carrier--A worker bee actively engaged in carrying nectar from flowers.

Nectar Flow--The period when abundant nectar is available for bees to produce honey for storage in the combs of the hive.

Needle Teeth--The eight sharp teeth present in newborn piglets. Especially in large litters, these teeth can cause injury to other piglets and the sow's udder and should be clipped.

Nematodirus--The internal parasite (nematode) of sheep, a nematode of the genus Nematodirus. Also called stomach worms, intestinal worms.

Neomycin--An antibacterial substance produced by the growth of Streptomyces fradiae. It is used to treat systemic infections caused by gram-negative microorganisms.

Neonatal--Pertaining to the first four weeks of life.

Neonate--A newborn animal.

Neonicotine--Anabasine, an insecticide with acute toxicity to mammals.

Neontology--Biology; the study of existing life.

Neoplasm--A new growth of tissue with the potential for uncontrolled and progressive growth. A neoplasm may be benign or malignant.

Neopolitan Farcy--See Mycotic Lymphangitis.

Nephritis--Inflammation of the kidney.

Nerve Poison--A poison that is soluble in tissue lipoids in contrast to respiratory poisons, such as cyanide gas, and physical poisons, such as oils and dusts.

Net Livestock Increase (or Decrease)--The clear profit or loss; a figure obtained by subtracting the total of the value of livestock at the beginning of the year and the cost of livestock purchased during the year from the total of the value of livestock at the end of the year and the receipts from livestock sold. If the result is negative, it is a net livestock decrease.

Net-energy Value--The amount of energy that remains after deducting from a feed's total energy value the amount of energy lost in feces, urine, combustible gases, and heat increment. Sometimes called work of digestion.

Neuron--A nerve cell.

Neurotoxicity---The state or condition of being poisonous to the brain and nerves of the body.

Neutered--Designating an animal that has been spayed, caponized, or castrated.

Neutral Breeding Ground--A fenced-off plot, used only for breeding to prevent the spread of venereal diseases.

Neutron--See Atom.

Neutrophil--A phagocytic white blood cell associated with the formation of pus.

New Hampshire--An American breed of intermediate-sized chicken, characterized by chestnut-red plumage, yellow skin, fast feathering, and rapid growth. It is of the same standard weight as the Rhode Island Red from which it was developed largely as a strain selection. The egg is light brown.

Newberry Castrating Knife--A device that consists of a sharp blade attached to a clamp that is used for castrating calves. The scrotum is slit so the wound will drain properly and heal more quickly.

Newcastle Disease--An acute, rapidly spreading viral disease of poultry, caused by a filterable virus. It occurs all over the world. Also called avian pneumoencephalitis, California flue. See Exotic Newcastle Disease.

Niacin--A vitamin of the B-complex group. Also called nicotinic acid, antipellagra vitamin.

Niche--A term used to describe the status of a plant or animal in its community, that is, its biotic, trophic, and abiotic relationships. All the components of the environment with which an organism or population interacts.

Nick--(Nicking) A term used by livestock producers when the offspring is better than its parents.

Nicked--(1) Descriptive of a horse's tail in which some of the muscles have been severed so that the tail is carried upward. (2) Designating a mating of animals that results in an offspring superior to either of the parents.

Nickel--Ni; a chemical element, a metal which is found in traces in soils. It was once thought to be deleterious rather than beneficial to plant growth, but since 1983 has been suggested as essential for plants. It is required by animals and people.

Nicker--To neigh (as a horse).

Night Blindness--One of several symptoms in livestock, one cause of which is vitamin A deficiency. See Vitamin A.

Night Corral--An enclosure or pen on western United States ranges in which ewes may be placed at night or at lambing time.

Night Hawk--A night wrangler or herder of saddle horses.

Night Horse--A special cow-horse that is surefooted, has good night vision, and a keen sense of direction.

Night Milk--The milk obtained at the evening or night milking.

Night Pasture--A pasture in which domestic animals graze during the night, usually close by the barn or dwelling.

Nightherd--To ride herd at night; to keep cattle or sheep herded at night.


Nippers--(1) The two central incisor teeth of a horse. (2) Small pincers used for holding, breaking, or cutting.

Nipple--(1) A small, conical elevation. (2) The protuberance of the udder of a mammal that contains the mammary gland. See Teat.

Nipple Pail--A pail with a tube and rubber nipple fastened at the bottom, used in calf feeding, weaning, etc.

Nipple Waterer--An automatic watering system in which the animal pushes a "nipple" in the end of a pipe to get water.

Nit--The egg of a louse.

Nitrate--N[O.sub.3]; N combined with oxygen. The N form most used by plants. N[O.sub.3] is a gas that does not exist alone in fertilizer but is combined, as in ammonium nitrate. All nitrates are water-soluble and, when applied in surplus, move with surface waters to contaminate groundwater.

Nitrate of Potash Poisoning--Poisoning to cattle that results from ingestion of potassium nitrate in oat hay. Also called saltpeter poisoning.

Nitrate Toxicity of Forage--Forage containing more than 6,000 ppm nitrate may be toxic to cattle. Causes of high nitrates in forage include drought, cool temperatures, cloudy weather, acid soils, and heavier than recommended nitrogen fertilizer applications. The drying process in making hay does not lower the nitrate level in forage but it is reduced to about half in making silage.

Nitrite--N[O.sub.2]; a partially oxidized form of nitrogen containing two atoms of oxygen for each atom of nitrogen. Soil and rumen bacteria can change nitrite-nitrogen to nitrate-nitrogen.

Nitrogen--N; a gas that occurs naturally in the air and soil, where it is converted into usable forms for plant use by bacteria and other natural processes. This nutrient is a constituent of proteins and is vital to plant-growing processes. Nitrogen can be added to the soil in any of three fertilizer forms: as urea, ammonia, or nitrates.

Nitrogen--free Extract-The portion of a feed made up primarily of starches and sugars; nitrogen-free extract is determined by subtracting the ether extract, crude fiber, crude protein, ash, and water from the total weight of the feed sample.


Nodder--A horse that characteristically nods its head when walking, as the Tennessee Walking Horse.

Nodular Worm--A common name applied to nematodes found in cattle, sheep, goats, and swine, whose larvae normally penetrate into the tissues of the intestines and produce nodular lesions there; the adult worms live in the cavity of the large intestines. Oesophagostomum radiatum is the nodular worm of cattle; O. columbianum, the common nodular worm, and O. venulosum, the lesser nodular worm, occur in sheep and goats; four species of nodular worms have been reported in swine in the United States: O. dentatum, O. longicaudum, O. brevicaudum, and O. georgianum. The symptoms of infestation are called pimply gut, knotty gut.

Nodule--(1) A root tubercle or lump formation on certain leguminous plants produced by the invasion of symbiotic, nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The bacteria furnish the plant with fixed nitrogen compounds and receive nutrient plant juices like carbohydrates. The genus Rhizobium and some species of Azotabacter and Clostridium fix free nitrogen. (2) A small knot, lump, or roundish mass of abnormal tissue.

See Nitrogen--fixing Bacteria.

Noil--The short fibers that are removed from the staple wool in combing. Noil is satisfactory for the manufacture of felts and woolens.

Nonadditive Genes--Genes that express themselves in a dominant or epistatic fashion.

Nonessential Amino Acid--Amino acids that can be synthesized by the animal's body.

Nonfat Dry Milk--The product obtained by the removal of fat and water from sweet cows' milk. It contains lactose, milk proteins, and milk minerals in the same proportions as the fresh milk, maximum content of retained moisture being not more than 5 percent by weight and that of fat not over 11/2 percent unless otherwise specified. Also called defatted milk solids.

Nonfat Solids--The portion of milk remaining after the water and butterfat have been accounted for; nonfat-dried-milk solids.

Nonmotile--Not capable of locomotion.

Nonnutritive Additive--An additive that has no nutritive or food value; e.g., certain drugs or preservatives.

Nonpalatable--(1) Designating a range plant species not grazed when the range or pasture is properly utilized. (2) Designating feeds not relished by animals.

Nonparasitic--See Abiotic Disease.

Nonpathogenic--Not capable of producing disease.

Nonprotein Nitrogen (NPN)--The nitrates, amides, and amino acids that are the forerunners of protein; toxic to livestock in some of these forms.

Nonreacting Infected Animal--An animal that, though infected by a particular disease, does not react to standard tests for the disease.

Nonreturn--In artificial breeding, the breeding efficiency of bulls expressed as the percentage of cows that conceive on the first service.

Nonruminant--An animal, such as a pig, without a functional rumen. Sometimes called a monogastric.

Nonspecific Dermatitis--A skin disease not due to any particular agent. It may affect various parts of an animal's body.

Nonspecific Immunity--Increase of antibodies or production of immunity, resulting from the injection of some nonspecific antigen.

Nonsweating Species--Species of animals that do not sweat, including cattle, sheep, swine, dogs, and chickens.

Nontoxic--Not poisonous to plant or animal. See Toxic, Toxicity.

Northern Cattle Grub--Hypoderma bovis, family Hypodermatidae; an insect that infests cattle in the United States. The adult fly, called a heel, lays eggs on the heels of the animal and the larvae migrate to the back, where they cut small holes through the skin. The flies irritate the animal with consequent decreased production of milk and loss of meat. The grubs damage the hide. Also called bomb fly.

Northern Fowl Mite--Orithonyssus sylviarum, family Dermanyssidae; a parasite of fowls, commonly found about the base of the tail and around the vent. It may cause scabs that damage the dressed carcass. Also called northern feather mite.

Nose--(1) The point of a plow share. (2) The part of the face of people and animals that covers the nostrils; snout; muzzle. (3) To round off the end of a log in order to facilitate snaking or skidding.

Nose Bot Fly--Gasterophilus haemorrhoidalis, family Gasterophilidae; an insect that lays its eggs in hairs on the lips of the horse. The larvae migrate into the mouth and thence into the intestines. It causes great irritation and nervousness.

Nose Clamp--A device that may be fitted tightly on the nose of an animal and used for its control during shoeing, surgical operations, or various types of training. See Twitch, Nose Twitch.

Nose Fly--Sheep bot fly.

Nose Lead--A removable metal ring that is snapped into a bull's nose. A rope is attached to the ring for leading and controlling the animal. This device is required for showing bulls in most livestock shows.

Nose Ring--(1) A metal ring fastened through the cartilage of the nose of a bull for safe control of the animal. A staff, or metal rod, about 6 feet long may be snapped into the ring for handling the animal. See Nose Lead. (2) A metal ring fastened in the nose of a hog to prevent it from rooting.

Nose Twitch--A looped, light rope or heavy cord attached to a short stick. The loop is placed over the end of the nose of the horse and when twisted acts as a control in breaking, training, or leading. See Nose Clamp.

Nosebag--A feed bag hung with the open end over a horse's nose and attached by straps over the head and back of the ears.

Nosema Disease--An intestinal disorder of bees caused by the parasite Nosema apis, family Nosematidae.

Nostril--One of the two outer openings of the nose that serves as a passage for air in breathing.

Notching--(1) Cutting dents on the ears of animals for identification. (2) Removing a V-shaped piece of bark from a branch just above or below a bud.

Notifiable Disease--(reportable) Any disease that must be reported to the government health authorities.

Nubian--A breed of milk goats of Mediterranean origin with long drooping ears, a Roman nose, and commonly colored. The black, red, or tan bucks weigh up to 175 pounds, and the does up to 135 pounds.

Nuclear (Nuc) Box--A small hive used for housing a small colony or nucleus. This type of beehive is used for raising queen bees.

Nuclei Package--In beekeeping, a packaged colony of bees established on combs. See Package Bees.

Nucleus--(1) The central portion of the cell protoplast surrounded by a very thin membrane. It consists of nucleoplasm and includes within itself variously arranged chromatin, nuclear sap, and nutritive substances. It is of crucial significance in metabolism, growth, reproduction and the transmission of the determiners of hereditary characters. (2) A small colony of bees used in queen rearing or in pollination work in greenhouses. (3) A central core around which material collects or is grouped.

Nuclide--Any species of atom that exists for a measurable period of time whose nuclear structure is distinct from that of any other species. Thus each isotope of an element is a separate nuclide.

Number of Contemporaries--The number of animals of similar breed, sex, and age, against which an animal was compared in performance tests. The greater the number of contemporaries, the greater the accuracy of comparisons.

Numdah--A thick, belt blanket placed under a saddle to absorb sweat. Also called namda, nammad.

Nuptial Flight--The flight taken by a queen bee during which mating takes place. She may mate with several drones, but this will be the only mating of her life. She will lay several thousand eggs over a period of two to five years.

Nurse Bees--Three-to ten-day-old adult bees that feed the larvae and perform other tasks in the hive.

Nurse Cow--A milk cow used to supply milk for nursing calves other than her own.

Nursery--(1) Any place where plants, shrubs, and trees are grown either for transplanting or as grafting stocks. (2) A group of young plants or trees in a plantation.

Nursery Deck--A small above-the-floor pen in which the newborn pits are kept to keep them warm and dry.

Nursing Calf--A calf that runs with its mother and is not weaned.

Nursing Mare--A mare with an unweaned foal.

Nursling--A calf that is still suckling the cow.

Nutmeg Liver--Chronic, venous congestion of the liver characterized by a finely mottled appearance; common in old or diseased animals.

Nutrient--(1) A substance that favorably affects the nutritive processes of the body; a food. (2) An element or compound in a soil that is essential for the growth of a plant. (3) In stock feeding, any feed constituent or group of feed constituents of the same general composition that aids in the support of life, as proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, and vitamins.

Nutrient Cycle--The circulation of nutrient elements and compounds in and among the soil, parent rock, streams, plants, animals, and atmosphere.

Nutrient Level--(1) In soils, the amounts and proportions of plant nutrients, such as phosphorus, potassium, and nitrogen in available forms. (2) Specifically, the concentrations of any particular nutrient in the ration of animals.

Nutriment--Nourishment; nutritious substances; food.

Nutrition--The sum of the processes by which an organism utilizes the chemical components of food through metabolism to maintain the structural and biochemical integrity of its cells, thereby ensuring its viability and reproductive potential.

Nutritional Anemia--Anemia in animals that results from a nutritional deficiency, usually iron, copper, or cobalt. See Bush Sickness.

Nutritional Blindness--Blindness of stock that results from a deficiency of vitamin A in the rations.

Nutritional Encephalomalacia--See Crazy Chick Disease.

Nutritional Requirements--Number and quality of complex organic compounds and mineral salts in the diet necessary for optimal development and reproduction of an animal.

Nutritional Roup--See Roup of Fowls.

Nutritive Additive--An additive that has some food value such as a vitamin or mineral.

Nutritive Ratio--In animal feeds, a ratio or proportion between the digestible protein and the digestible nonnitrogenous nutrients found by adding the digestible carbohydrates plus the digestible fat multiplied by 2.25, and dividing the sum by the digestible protein. The ratio is an expression of the energy value of a ration against its body-building power.

Nutritive Value--The relative capacity of a given feed to furnish nutrition for livestock. (Usually prefixed by high, low, etc.)

Nymphomania--Abnormal sexual desire in a female.


O-strain--A strain of the foot-and-mouth disease. See Foot-and-Mouth Disease.

Oak Poisoning--Poisoning or digestive disturbances in cattle resulting from excessive feeding on the ripe acorns of various species of oaks. The symptoms are constipation, black feces, and rose-colored urine. Death may result. Also called acorn poisoning.

Oak-leaf Poisoning--A digestive ailment, observed among cattle on the ranges of the southwestern United States; attributed to excessive ingestion of oak leaves in the spring, before grass makes its appearance. In a few instances the ailment is fatal and otherwise may cause stunted growth.

Oat(s)--(1) Any grass of the genus Avena, family Gramineae. Species are grown for forage, as a cover crop, and for their seed used as food and feed. Native to temperate regions. (2) A. sativa, the common oat, an annual herb native to Europe and Asia. See Animated Oat, Side Oat, Wild Oat.

Oat Straw--The dry stems and leaves of the mature oat plant left after threshing. It has a somewhat higher feed value than the straw of other small grains and is also used for bedding and industrial purposes.

Oberhasli--A breed of dairy goats originating in Switzerland. Their coat is red in color with black trimmings and the ears are erect. Also known as Oberhasli-brienzer, Graubunden, Chamoise, Brown Alpine, and Rehbraun.

Obligate Aerobe--An organism that lives only in the presence of free oxygen.

Obligate Anaerobe--An organism that lives only in the absence of free oxygen.

Obligate Parasite--An organism that develops and lives only as a parasite, and is confined to a specific host.

Obligate Saprophytes--Microorganisms not related to living cells that secure their nutrients from dead organic tissue or inorganic materials.

Obligate Symbiont--An organism that is dependent on mutual relations with another for its existence.

Observation Hive--A beehive made largely of glass to permit the observation of bees at work.

Obstetrical Chain--A metal chain, 30 to 60 inches long, used by veterinarians to assist animals having difficulty in the delivering of newborn (usually calves or foals). It is used to apply a small amount of traction to the unborn.

Obstetrics--The branch of medicine that deals with the birth of the young and management practices during pregnancy.

Occlusion--(1) The process of healing over or closing of the wound caused by cutting or breaking off of a limb in pruning. (2) The absorption of gases by solids; e.g., the absorption of oxygen by milk powder.

Occult Spavin--A type of spavin that occurs between the bones at the hock joint of a horse. See Spavin.

Ocular Lymphomatosis--One of the aspects of avian leukosis complex. A part of the symptoms includes an absence of pigment in the iris. The affected birds ultimately lose their sight. Also called gray eye, white eye.

Ocular Roup--An advanced stage of coryza of poultry, mainly involving the eyes. It is characterized by a thick, cheesy mass of material that develops in the lower corner of the eye under the eyelid. The disease may result in blindness or death.

Odd Lot--On livestock markets, animals that do not conform uniformly to some particular weight, age, or grade of quality class.

Odontomata--A tumor arising in a tissue that normally produces teeth; sometimes found in horses and cattle.

Oestrus--See Estrous.

Off--(1) In cotton transactions, designating grades below middling, the basic grade. (2) A low-grade or inferior product.

Off Feed--(1) Designating an animal that has digestive disturbances due to excessive or improper feeding. (2) Designating an animal that fails, from any cause, to eat the normal feed.

Off Flavor--Designating milk or any milk product that has a peculiar or unnatural flavor.

Off Grade--Designating an agricultural product that fails to meet requirements of commonly accepted standards or legal or official standards in grading products for sale.

Off Take--The animals removed or harvested from a herd.

Off Type--In plants or animals, any notable deviation from standard or normal.

Off Wool--Any wool of inferior quality; a fleece that is otherwise known as discounts, rejections, or unmerchantable wools.

Offal--(1) The inedible parts of a butchered animal, such as the digestive system, lungs, feet, etc. (2) Anything discarded as useless. (3) In grain milling, the by-products such as wheat bran, shorts, etc.

Offal Fat--In cattle slaughter, the internal fat. Also called intestinal fat, internal fat, killing fat.

Offside--The right side of a horse. See Near Side.

Offspring--The young produced by animals.

Oil--One of several kinds of fatty or greasy liquids that are lighter than water, burn easily, are not soluble in water and are composed principally, if not exclusively, of carbon and hydrogen.

Oil Cake--Stock feed that is a mass of compressed seed from which the oil has been largely extracted, as linseed cake, cottonseed cake.

Oil Gland--The gland at the base of the tail of a chicken or other bird that secretes an oil used by the bird in preening its feathers. The gland is removed in dressing chickens for the market. Also called preen gland, uropygial gland.

Oil-protecting Eggs--The process of protecting eggs by dipping them in a hot liquid for a very short time, partially to coagulate the albumen in the shell membranes and to seal the egg shell. See Oiling Machine.

Oiling Machine--In the poultry industry, a machine used for dipping eggs in oil to form a protective coating and to retard loss of moisture and quality. It is used especially on eggs placed in storage. See Oil-protecting Eggs.

Oily Pork--A swine carcass that is soft or oily because of softening feeds such as peanuts.

Ointment--A salve; an unguent; a medicinal preparation that has a base of some kind of fat or soft unctuous substance, such as the petroleum product, petrolatum.

Old Bird--A stewing chicken, hen or fowl, generally a year or more old.

Old Geese--In marketing, geese over one year old.

Old Hen--In marketing, a female turkey over one year old.

Old Shell--Beef cows in very poor condition; classed as canners and cutters.

Old Skin--Referring to a decrepit horse.

Old Tom--A male turkey over one year old after molt is completed.

Old-crop Lambs--Sheep over one year of age that have lamb teeth.

Old-ewe Disease--See Pregnancy Disease in Ewes.

Oleo Stearin--The compound of fats and oils obtained in the rendering of beef and mutton fats at a temperature below 170[degrees]F; it is used in the manufacture of compounds requiring a stearin base.

Oligophagous Parasite--A parasite capable of developing upon a few closely related host species.

Oligotrophia--A condition of inadequate nutrition.

Oligotrophic Waters--Waters with a small supply of nutrients; hence, they support little organic production.

Omasum--The third compartment of the ruminant stomach. Contains a mass of suspended, parallel, rough-surfaced leaves that grind ingesta to a fine consistency. Often called the "manypiles." See Abomasum, Reticulum, Rumen.

Omentum--A fold of the peritoneum connecting the stomach to the adjacent organs. The fat deposited in the folds of the great omentum of cattle, sheep, and swine is in part the source of the suet of commerce.

Omnivorous--Designating animals that feed on both flesh and plants, as people; as applied to insects, voracious, but not necessarily omnivorous. Also called amphivorous. See Carnivorous, Herbivorous.

Omphalitis--An infection, usually fatal, of the navel in baby chicks and turkeys largely due to failure of the navel to close properly and to unsanitary incubation conditions; characterized by listlessness, a puffed and mush condition of the body, and a bluish appearance of the abdomen. Also called mushy-chick disease.

Omphalophlebitis--An inflammation of the umbilical vein and other structures in the umbilicus of young animals caused by filth-borne bacteria. Also called sleepy foal disease, pyosepticemia, navel-ill, joint ill.

On and Off Permit--A grazing permit issued only where movement of livestock is necessitated between national forestland (United States) and adjoining outside range, or where private and forestlands intermingle.

On Feed--(1) Designating livestock kept on farms and ranches that are being fattened for the market. (2) Designating any animal being fed grain for milk or meat production.

On Full Feed--In feeding poultry and livestock, the feeding of the animal all the food necessary for optimum gain.

On Pasture--Designating livestock that are grazing on pasture in contrast to those feeding in the barn or feedlot.

On the Clean Basis--In American wool market reports, referring to quotations given on the cost of the clean fiber that any lot of unscoured wool is estimated to contain.

On the Hoof--Designating a live meat animal.

Onchocerocosis--An ailment of animals characterized by fibrous nodules forming under the skin; caused by worms of the genus

Onchocerca. See Mexican Blindness.

One Bum Lamp--A blind eye of a horse.

One-ear Bridle--A type of horse bridle that is usually used on working stock horses.

One-season Pasture--Pasture composed of a forage plant, usually an annual, such as Sudangrass, which can furnish grazing only for a single season.

Onion Flavor--A flavor defect in milk and milk products that results from ingestion of the wild onion by dairy cows.

Onion Poisoning--See Death Camas.

Ontogeny--(1) The development of an individual tissue, organ, or organism. (2) The complete developmental history of an organism from the egg, spore, bud, etc., to the adult stage.

Oocyst--The encysted or encapsulated stage of parasites, known as coccidia, passed with droppings of infected animals.

Oocyte--Ovicyte; one of the intermediate cells in the process of ovigenesis.

Oocyte-Egg-Mother-Cell--The cell that undergoes two meiotic divisions, oogenesis, to form the egg cell, as primary oocyte, the stage before completion of the first meiotic division, and secondary oocyte, after completion of the first meiotic division.

Oogenesis--The process by which germ cells are produced by the female.

Oogonium--Ovigonium; the first or primary germ cell from which the female gamete is produced.

Oon Egg--An egg, expelled from the vent of a hen without a shell.

Oophagy--The eating of eggs, said of egg-eating insects.

Open--(1) Designating a female animal that is not pregnant. (2) Designating a body defect of cheese in which the cheese has many mechanical openings. (3) To unfold, as a flower opens. (4) Designating a rural or wilderness area in contrast to the congestion of cities and towns.

Open Breed--A breed in which entry is not restricted to progeny of animals registered in that breed (i.e., opposite of closed breed).

Open Bridle--Bridle without blinds or blinkers covering the eyes.

Open Class--In agricultural shows, an exhibit for which no strict limitations are imposed either for the things exhibited or for the exhibitor.

Open Formula--On feed containers, the statement on the tag about the number of pounds of each ingredient in a ton of mixed feed.

Open Heifer--A nonpregnant heifer. See Bred Heifer.

Open Herding--Allowing a band of sheep or goats to spread freely while grazing.

Open Range--An extensive range area where grazing is unrestricted. Also, ranges that have not been fenced into management units.

Open Round-Up--A round-up of cattle in which corrals or fences are not used (western United States).

Open Side--The left side of a beef carcass. There is space between the kidney knob and abdominal wall on this side. See Closed Side.

Open Wool--Wool that is not dense on the sheep and shows a distinct part down the ridge or middle of the back. Usually found in the coarser wool breeds.

Open-faced--Sheep that naturally have little or no wool covering about the face and eyes. This is a desirable trait as it discourages the problem of wool blindness. See Wool Blindness.

Ophthalmia--Inflammation of the eyeball or conjunctiva.

Opisthotonos--Tetanic spasm in which the head is drawn backward and the back is arched.

Opium Poisoning--The poisoning of animals that results from ingesting the opium poppy or from overdoses of opiates.

Opthalmic--Pertaining to the eye, for example, ophthalmic ointment, one used in the eye.

Opthalmic Tuberculin Test--A test for tuberculosis in which a small quantity of a concentrated tuberculin is placed within the lower eyelid of the animal to be tested. A discharge of mucopurulent material within six hours indicates a positive reaction. The test is commonly used on primates held in zoos; e.g., gorillas, baboons, etc.

Optimum Condition--The ideal environment, with regard to nourishment, light, temperature, etc., for an organism's growth and reproduction.

Optimum Fruitfulness--That favorable condition for growth (especially in fruit trees) in which a plentiful supply of blossom buds is produced. The condition is associated with the carbohydrate-nitrogen relationship.

Optimum Level of Performance--The most profitable or favorable ranges in levels of performance for the economically important traits in a given environment and management system. For example, although many cows produce too little milk, in every management system there is a point beyond which higher levels of milk production may reduce fertility and decrease profit.

Oral Medicine--Medicine taken by mouth, whether in drinking water, feed, or in bolus or capsule form.

Oral Toxicity--The toxicity of a substance when the substance is ingested by mouth.

Orchitis--Inflammation of a testis, which is marked by pain and swelling and a feeling of weight.

Orf--A widespread disease of sheep and goats caused primarily by a virus and secondarily by a bacterial organism, Fusiformis necrophorus, family Mycobacteriaceae. In malignant form, ulcers appear inside the mouth and other parts of the body.

Organ--A distinct part of a plant or animal that carries on one or more particular functions; e.g., a leaf, wing of a bird, etc.

Organic--(1) Produced by plants and animals; of plant or animal origin. (2) More inclusively, designating chemical compounds that contain carbon.

Organism--Any living individual whether plant or animal.

Organogen--Any of certain chemical elements without which organisms cannot exist: oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, etc.

Organoleptic--Concerning the sensory impressions, such as temperature, taste, smell, feel, sweet, sour, and salt, associated with eating and drinking.

Orientals--A standard class of certain breeds of chickens native to the Orient or largely of oriental type and breeding, as the Sumatras, Malays, and the Cubalayas.

Orientation Flight--The flight of a young bee. It often begins during the latter part of the nursing period, which may extend slightly beyond thirteen days in case of lack of nurse bees.

Orifice--(1) An opening by which spores, etc., escape; any opening. (2) An opening in a nozzle tip, duster, or granular applicator through which the spray, dust, or granules flow.

Orpington--A breed of general-purpose chickens of the English class. They are large, loose-feathered birds having single combs, white skin, and nonfeathered shanks. Mature cocks weigh about 10 pounds, hens about 8 pounds. The eggshell is brown. Varieties are the Buff, the Black, the White, and the Blue.

Orthotropic--Assuming a vertical position.

Osmophyllic--Organisms that grow in solutions with high osmotic pressure.

Osmosis--The flow of a fluid through a semipermeable membrane separating two solutions, which permits the passage of the solvent but not the dissolved substance. The liquid will flow from a weaker to a stronger solution, thus tending to equalize concentrations.

Osmotic Pressure--The hydrostatic pressure required to stop osmosis or prevent diffusion of molecules of a dilute solution from passing through the walls of a semipermeable membrane into a more-concentrated solution.

Ossification--The process of forming bone. Cartilage is made into bone by the process of ossification. The minerals, calcium, and phosphorus are deposited in the cartilage, changing it into bone.

Ossolets--A soft, warm, sensitive swelling over the front and sometimes sides of the fetlock joint in the horse. It is an inflammation of the bone covering, periosteum, occurring usually only in the front legs. Also called osslets.

Osteocyte--A bone cell, particularly one encased in hard bone.

Osteofibrosis--A loss of calcium salts from the bones that causes them to become fragile. A condition chiefly affecting the horse, it may also appear in pigs, goats, and dogs.

Osteomalacia--A disease in which the bones of animals become softer, supposedly due to a deficiency of phosphorus, calcium, or both, in the diet. Also known as creeping sickness, loin disease of cattle, down in the back, adult rickets.

Osteoporosis--A bone disease caused by calcium deficiency that results in increased porosity and softness of the bone. In the Equidae (horse, etc.), it is a specific disease marked by enlargement, softening, and increased porosity of the bones of the face. In poultry, the condition is commonly referred to as rickets; however, some specialists distinguish between osteoporosis and rickets.

Otolith--Earstone, used by fish for its sense of balance. There is one in each plane of the semicircular canals on each side of the head, making six in all. Fishery biologists use the biggest ones to determine the age of fish.

Outapiary--An apiary located some distance from the beekeeper's home.

Outbreeding--Mating animals distinctly unrelated, usually with diverse type or production traits. See Crossbreeding.

Outcrossing--Mating of individuals that are less closely related than the average of the breed. Commercial breeders and some purebred breeders should be outcrossing by periodically adding new sires that are unrelated to their cow herd. This outcrossing should reduce the possibility of loss of vigor due to inbreeding. See Outbreeding.

Outer Cover--In beekeeping, usually a cover that telescopes over the top of the hive to a depth of an inch or more and is covered with galvanized iron or aluminum sheeting, to protect the hive from the weather.

Outlaw--(1) A horse that refuses or fails to become tractable during the breaking process. (2) A wild, unbroken horse.

Outrider--A cowboy whose duty it is to ride the range and protect his employer's interests (western United States).

Ova--A female egg or gamete.

Ovarian Cyst--A benign cyst, often congenital.

Ovarian Extract--A by-product of packing houses, made form the ovaries of sheep, hogs, and cattle containing female sex hormones, useful in treating ovary disorders or hormone imbalances.

Ovarian Follicle--The small cystlike structures in ovaries which when fully developed contain a mature ovum. Also called Graafian follicle.

Ovary--(1) The portion of the pistil or carpel of a flower that contains one or more ovules. (2) The organ in female animals that produces the egg or ovum.

Overbrowsing--Excessive cropping of shrubs or tree growth, usually by goats, sheep, or game animals.

Overcheck Bridle--A horse bridle used with an overcheck rein.

Overcheck Rein--A checkrein that passes over a horse's head between the ears.

Overfeeding--Consuming excessive amounts of feed. It can cause various digestive disturbances, such as diarrhea, colic, bloat, and founder.

Overgraze--To graze land so heavily as to impair future forage production and to cause range deterioration through consequential damage to plants, soil, or both. Also called overstocking.

Overhaul--(1) The rehandling or repacking of ham during the pickling period to permit a more uniform distribution of pickle. (2) To repair and recondition tools, implements, machines, etc.

Overhead Check--In horses, a rein that extends from the bit over the head of a horse to a hook on the harness backpad to prevent the animal from tossing or lowering its head.

Overo--Denotes a horse that is basically white in color and the spotting is usually roan and extends upwards from the belly. The darker areas are usually small or rather ragged patches; the mane and tail are usually a mixture of color giving a roan effect. Overo horses usually have bald faces, and glass eyes are not uncommon.

Overreach--In a horse, to strike the heel of the forefoot with the front of the hind foot.

Overshot Jaw--A condition where the lower jaw of an animal protrudes beyond the upper one.

Overshot Wheel--A waterwheel operated by the weight of water falling into buckets attached to the periphery of the wheel.

Overstocked--(1) Designating a condition of a stand of trees or of a forest, in which there are more trees than normal or full stocking would require. The overstocking may be to such a degree that growth is slowed down and many trees, including dominants, are suppressed. (2) Designating a pasture, range, or grazing game area that has more animals on it than the vegetation of the area will support. See Overgraze. (3) Designating a locality in which there are too many bees.

Oversummer--To live through the summer.

Ovicide--Any substance that kills parasites or other organisms in the egg stage.

Ovicyte--Same as oocyte, an intermediate cell in the process of ovigenesis.

Oviduct--The tube that leads from the ovary to the uterus or other organs where fertilization or further development of the ovum or egg cell occurs. Also called fallopian tube, tubes.

Ovigenesis--Oogenesis; the process of producing the female gamete.

Ovigonium--The primary germ cell from which the female gamete is produced.

Ovine--(1) A animal of the subfamily Ovidae; sheep, goats, etc. (2) Pertaining to such an animal, commonly to sheep.

Ovine Balano-Posthitis--A veneral disease of sheep causing ulcerations of the penis sheath and vulva, ulcerative vulvitis, thought to be caused by a filterable virus with bacteria as secondary invaders.

Oviposition--The process of laying an egg.

Ovipositor--A tubular structure in female insects used for depositing its eggs.

Ovoid--Referring to a solid body with the shape of a hen's egg, the point of attachment, if any, at the broader end.

Ovotestis--A gonad, part of which is composed of ovarian tissue and testicular tissue.

Ovoviviparous--Refers to animals who produce eggs that are incubated inside the body of the dam and hatch inside the body or shortly after laying. See Oviparous, Viviparous.

Ovulation--The process of releasing eggs or ova from the ovarian follicles.

Ovule--The body that, after fertilization, becomes the seed; the egg containing unit of the ovary.

Ovum--The female sex cell, produced on the ovary, and carrying a sample half of the genes carried by the female in which it was produced. Plural, ova.

Ox--(Plural: oxen) Any species of the bovine family of ruminants. Specifically, the domesticated and castrated male bovines used for work purposes, as distinguished from steers used for meat, or the uncastrated bulls used for breeding.

Ox Bot--See Cattle Grub.

Ox Tongue--A food product prepared by pickling beef tongues.

Ox Warble Fly--See Cattle Grub, Heel Fly.

Oxalacetate--An intermediate compound formed from sugars and sugar-producing (gluconeogenic) amino acids, essential for the oxidation of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats for energy.

Oxalic Acid Poisoning--A toxic condition of sheep and cattle resulting from the ingestion of large quantities, over a short period of time, of dried plants in which the oxalic acid content is more than 10 percent.

Oxen--See Ox.

Oxford Sheep--A mutton and medium-wool breed of sheep that is a cross of several foundation breeds. Mature ewes weigh 175 to 250 pounds. First produced in Oxfordshire, England. Also known as Oxford Down.

Oxidase--Oxidizing enzymes. See Enzyme.

Oxidation--Any chemical change that involves the addition of oxygen or its chemical equivalent. Oxidation may affect agricultural products adversely or even cause destruction: e.g., it can be the cause of taints in milk or butter and it can cause spontaneous combustion of hay stored in barns.

Oxidation Pond--A person-made lake or body of water in which wastes are consumed by bacteria. An oxidation pond is the same as a sewage lagoon.

Oxtail--The tail of a beef carcass, one of the edible by-products of packing houses.

Oxygen--The chemical element O; a colorless, odorless gas. The most abundant element in the earth's crust. It accounts for about 47 percent of all elemental material. It is essential in the growth of all crops and for the respiration of most forms of life.

Oxygenation--The absorption by water of elemental oxygen that has: (a) been released into the water by aquatic plants as a waste product of photosynthesis; (b) come from the atmosphere.

Oxyhemoglobin--A substance formed by the union of oxygen with the hemoglobin of the blood, the union being of such a nature that the oxygen is readily given up at times and in places where it is needed.

Oxytocin--The hormone released from the posterior pituitary of the female that causes contractions of the uterus at the time of breeding. These contractions aid the movement of sperm through the cervix and into the uterine horns where fertilization of the egg normally occurs. Oxytocin also aids in parturition and causes milk letdown at milking time.

Oyster--The tenderloin muscle of the poultry carcass. There are two, one on each side, located just in front of the hipbones.

Oyster Shells--Shells of the marine bivalve, genus Ostrea. They are nearly pure calcium carbonate in composition; when finely ground, they make good liming material for soils and a mineral feed for livestock and poultry as a source of calcium.

Ozena--A fetid nasal discharge accompanied by chronic inflammation of the mucous membranes, associated with a disease of bones in the nose.


Pace--(1) A measure of length: the ordinary length of a human step from heel to heel is 21/2 feet. The geometric is 5 feet. Distances for land measure are usually stepped according to some definite distance per step, as 3 feet. Land measurements were often paced off, from some known mark as a base, in early land surveying in the United States. (2) Applied to horses, a rapid, two-beat gait in which the lateral fore and hind legs work in pairs. Also called amble, rack, trot.

Pacer--A horse, one of whose gaits is a pace. Also called side-wheeler. Pack-(1) Fruit, vegetables, meat, etc., which is to be or is packaged, canned, frozen, etc., for the market. (2) The total amount of products that are processed in a season. (3) The manner in which produce is packaged. (4) The load that is carried by a pack animal. (5) To compress or firm soil with a special implement. (6) To damage soil structure by compacting or puddling clay soils, as from the pressure exerted by the wheels of a tractor, by injudicious irrigation, or by excessive rainfall. (7) The sheep given to the shepherd as his share for tending the flock.

Pack Animal--A burro, mule, or horse used for carrying packs and equipment over rough areas and to places inaccessible by other means.

Pack Rat--A bushy-tailed rat, Neotoma cinerea, which collects odds and ends in its burrow. Found in the southwestern United States, it sometimes damages citrus orchards adjacent to canyons with brushy cover.

Package Bees--A quantity of bees (2 to 5 pounds) with or without a queen shipped in a wire-and-wood cage to start or boost colonies.

Packer--(1) One who operates a slaughter and meat-processing business. (2) Pertaining to the business of packing fresh or processed fruits and vegetables or meats. (3) A field tool of the roller type consisting of a set or series of rollers that pack the loose soil after plowing. Also called cultipacker. (4) One who makes a pack, as of vegetables, meat, etc.

Packer Hide--An animal hide prepared for the market as a by-product by meat-packing companies as distinguished from country hides that are not uniformly processed.

Packing House--(1) A slaughtering and meat-distributing organization that buys, slaughters, processes, and distributes livestock products. (2) A separate building or shed adjacent to a range of greenhouses where flowers and greenhouse plants are packed for market. (3) A building equipped and arranged for grading and packing fresh fruit or vegetables.

Packing Sow--A market classification for hogs, the grades based on age, condition, sex, and ratio of lean to fat quality of the animal.

Packsaddle--A carrying unit for camping equipment or other material that is placed on the back of a horse or pack mule, either as separate units or attached to the rider's saddle.

Paddling--A term used to describe a horse that throws the front feet outward as they are picked up. This condition is predisposed in horses with too-narrow or pigeon-toed standing positions.

Paint--A color pattern in horses involving white patches on a dark background.

Paint Horse--A horse, much favored by the American Indians in the western United States, which usually carries odd markings and strong color contrasts. The two common color patterns in paint horses are: piebald, or black-and-white, and skewbald, which is white and any other color than black. Also called calico.

Paint Pony--See Paint Horse.

Paint Roan--A coat color of horses in which the roan color seems to be imposed on other colored areas.

Pair--(1) A male and female of a species. (2) A team of horses or mules frequently spoken of as a well-matched pair regardless of sex.

Palatability--(1) The degree to which a feed is liked or acceptable to an animal. (2) (Forage) Range management usage. The relish that an animal shows for a particular species, plant, or plant part. The characteristics of plants that stimulate a selective grazing or browsing response by animals. Palatability is controlled by the plant factors of chemical composition, proportion of plant parts, growth stage, external form of plant parts, environmental factors such as slope steepness, wind, sun, or shade; and the animal factors of instinct, learning, physiological state, individual behavioral pattern variations, and animal sensory responses.

Palatability Rating--A method of rating the condition of a range, from high to low, depending on the proportion of palatable plants carried by the range. The more such plants the higher the rating.

Palatable--Describing feed that an animal prefers and selects over other feeds.

Palatitis--A painfully swollen condition of the palate of a horse's mouth that may be caused by eating hard food. Also called lampas, lampers.

Pale, Soft, and Exudative (PSE)--Pork that is light or pale in color, is soft, and exudes fluids. The condition is related to porcine stress syndrome (PSS).

Palmetto--Any palm of the genus Sabal, family Palmaceae.

Palmitic Acid--One of the fatty acids of butterfat.

Palomino--(1) A western United States horse, doubtfully a distinct breed, characterized by a cream, yellow, or golden color and light-colored mane. Averaging 15 to 16 hands high, the Palominos weigh 1,000 to 1,200 pounds, and are very popular riding horses. Also called caballo de oro, California sorrel, golden horse. (2) A coat color of certain horses which is a golden chestnut, with flax-colored mane and tail. Ideal body color is that of a newly minted gold coin. Purity of color and mane and tail is very important in Palomino selection.

Palpate--To test or examine by feel. Used to determine pregnancy in cattle.

Palpation--A method of pregnancy determination in cattle in which the arm is inserted into the cow's rectum and the reproductive tract is felt for pregnancy indications.

Pancreas--A gland below and behind the stomach that secretes pancreatic juice. The pancreas is commonly known as the sweetbread but should not be confused with the commercial sweetbreads of veal (thymus gland).

Pancreatic Juice--A secretion by the pancreas containing ferments that contribute to digestion of foods.

Pandemic--Designating a disease or organism of worldwide distribution; widely epidemic.

Panzootic--Referring to a widespread epidemic among animals.

Pap--The teat of a cow.

Papilla--Any small nipplelike process.

Papule--A small elevation, usually of the skin, as a pimple.

Parakeratosis--A skin disease found in hogs that results from a zinc deficiency in the ration commonly associated with a high calcium intake. It is characterized by dry, hard, crusted proliferations of the superficial layers of the skin.

Paralysis--(1) Abolition or impairment of function, especially loss of the power of voluntary motion or sensation. It is frequently a symptom or manifestation of various animal diseases. See Fowl Paralysis. (2) A disease afflicting honeybees characterized by trembling, sprawled legs and wings. (3) See Parturient Paresis.

Paraplegia--Paralysis of the posterior limbs of an animal that follows accident or disease resulting in injury to the spinal cord.

Parasite--An organism that lives at least for a time on or in and at the expense of living animals or plants. Some diseases of people and animals are caused by parasites ordinarily classified as protozoan, helminthic, and anthropod species. There are also innumerable species of plant parasites.

Parasiticide--An agent that kills parasites.

Parathormone--The hormone of the parathyroid glands. It helps to maintain the calcium level of an animal's blood by removing calcium from the bones; also called parathyroid hormone.

Parathyroid Dysfunction--Faulty function of the parathyroid gland. The condition may result in a change in the bony structures and in abnormal calcium deposits in various tissues of the body, or in tetany and low blood calcium. See Grass Tetany.

Parathyroid Glands--Small glands about the size of a grain of wheat located near the thyroid that are mainly concerned with calcium metabolism.

Paratuberculosis--Johne's disease, a chronic infectious disease of the digestive tract of cattle, rarely of sheep and goats, caused by the organism Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. It is closely related to tuberculosis. Also called chronic bacterial dysentery.

Paratyphoid--See Infectious Enteritis in Pigs, Salmonellosis.

Parental Generation--The P1 generation; the first generation in a series of crosses; usually involves homozygotes for different alleles.

Parenteral--As applied to drug or vaccine administration, to inject subcutaneously, intramuscularly.

Paresis--sight or incomplete paralysis that affects the ability of an animal to move.

Paries--A wall of a cavity or hollow body organ in plants and animals.

Parietal--Borne on or belonging to a wall or walls of a cavity.

Paris Green--Acetoarsenite of copper, one of the first arsenical compounds to be widely used in insect sprays as a stomach poison for the destruction of leaf-eating insects. It was almost exclusively used to control the potato beetle. Paris Green is now replaced by insecticides that biodegrade faster.

Parotid--A gland that secretes saliva. This is a paired gland located behind the jaws and somewhat below the ear.

Parrot Mouth--A condition in animals in which the upper teeth protrude over and beyond the lower teeth. See Monkey Mouth.

Parthenogenesis--The development of an individual from an unfertilized egg cell. Known to occur occasionally in turkeys and some lower forms in the animal kingdom but not in mammals. In honeybees, unfertilized eggs produce only drones.

Partial Dominance--A kind of interaction between alleles where one gene is not completely dominant to its allele but where the appearance of the heterozygote is more similar to one of the homozygotes than to the other.

Partido System--In the southwestern United States, a form of operation in which sheep owned by the patron are let out on shares to a partidero, who cares for them and returns part of the increase or income to the owner.

Parts Per Millon--The number of weight or volume units in a million units of a solution or a mixture; a measure of concentration, especially of chemicals in solution: one milligram per liter. Abbreviated ppm.

Parturient Paresis--Partial paralysis that occurs at or near the time of giving birth to young and beginning lactation. The mother mobilizes large amounts of calcium to produce milk to feed the newborn, and blood calcium levels drop below the point necessary for impulse transmission along the nerve tracts. Commonly called milk fever.

Parturition--Giving birth; called calving in cattle, lambing in sheep, farrowing in swine, kidding in goats, and whelping in dogs.

Passive Immunity--A kind of immunity acquired by animals when they are injected with antibodies against some disease.

Pastern--The portion of a horse or other animal's leg that connects the cannon bone and the coffin bone in the hoof. There are two parts to the pastern joint, the long and short pastern. This flexible joint serves as a shock-absorbing mechanism in the action of the leg and foot.

Pasteurization--The process of destroying all or most of the vegetative bacteria in a substance, such as milk or fresh fruit juices, by application of heat of from 140[degrees]F to 185[degrees]F and then cooling. The word pasteurization is derived from the name of Louis Pasteur (1822-1895), the French scientist who first applied heat for the preservation of wine.

Pasteurized Milk--Milk which has been subjected to a temperature over 142[degrees]F for more than 30 minutes or at 160[degrees]F for 16 seconds and then promptly cooled to 50[degrees]F or lower. There are several systems of milk pasteurization.

Pasturage--All vegetation, grasses, and grasslike plants, forbs, and the fruits and twigs of trees and shrubs upon which grazing animals subsist.

Pasture--(1) A fenced or unfenced tract of land on which farm animals feed by grazing. The pasturage is mainly grass but it may consist of various other herbs, brush, and trees. (2) Nectar and honey plants within flight range of bees of an apiary. (3) To place livestock on a field or area of grass to harvest the crop by grazing.

Pasture Forage--A crop ordinarily grown for pasture but which may be cut for green feed, silage, or cured for hay.

Pasture Improvement--The practice of grazing, clipping, fertilizing, liming, seeding, contour furrowing, or other methods of management that improve the vegetation for grazing purposes.

Pasture Off--To remove a crop by grazing; a common practice on grass seedings and grain fields in late summer or fall.

Pasture Rotation--The practice of moving the herd from one field to another after a few days of intensive pasturing.

Pasture-bred--A cow serviced by a bull in the pasture.

Pastured--Designating an area or crop that has been grazed off by livestock.

Pastureland--(1) Land used primarily for the production of adapted domesticated forage plants to be grazed by livestock. (2) Land producing forage plants, principally introduced species, for animal consumption. Management practices usually include one more more treatments such as reseeding, renovating, mowing, liming, or fertilizing. Native pasture that because of location or soil limitation is treated like rangeland is included as pastureland.

Pasturing--The system of removing plant growth by allowing animals to graze it rather than harvesting by other methods.

Paternal--Pertaining to the male parent. See Maternal.

Pathobiology--The study of disease processes; biology of disease.

Pathogen--In the general sense, anything capable of causing disease, but when referred to by most veterinarians and physicians it signifies a living, microscopic, disease-producing agent such as a bacteria or virus. See Parasite.

Pathology--The science that deals with diseases and the effects that disease have on the structure and function of tissues.

Patothenic Acid--A vitamin of the B-complex group; required by poultry and swine. Also called chick antidermatosis vitamin.

Patroclinous--Resembling the male parent.

Paunch--Another name for the rumen.

Paunching--Removing the entrails from a carcass.

Paunchy--A livestock-judging term used to describe an animal (usually cattle) that has a large paunch.

Pea-size Cake--A livestock feed stuff made from soybean, peanut, or linseed cake that has been cracked and screened to the size of a garden pea.

Peanut Hull--The shell of the peanut. It contains more than one-half fiber and is less nutritious than straw; used chiefly as poultry litter, bedding, and fertilizer. See Peanut Hull Meal.

Peanut Hull Meal--Ground peanut hulls; a very slow-acting fertilizer containing 1.5 to 2.5 percent nitrogen.

Peanut Meal--Finely ground peanut oil cake. See Peanut Oil Meal.

Peanut Oil Cake--A livestock feedstuff obtained as a by-product of the partial extraction of oil by pressure or solvents from peanut kernels.

Peavine Hay--The cured vines of peas used for feeding livestock.

Peavine Silage--Silage usually made form canning refuse consisting of the vines and pods of green peas left after the seeds have been removed for canning. It has a strong odor but is an excellent feed for dairy cows, beef cattle, and sheep.

Pecking Order--The order in which same poultry and wild birds within a flock may peck others without being pecked in return; hens at the top of the order can gain a place at feeders, etc., at will, and others according to rank. The males' social standing and mating order is largely determined by combat.

Pediculus--A genus of sucking lice infesting mammals, including people.

Pedigree--(1) A list of an individual animal's ancestors, usually only those of the five closest generations. (2) A list of the ancestors of a crop plant, as the pedigree of corn.

Pedigree Selection--In plant breeding and improvement, the selection of seed stock form healthy, high-yielding plants. The seeds form each plant are planted in one row so that yield, etc., may be carefully evaluated and comparisons made with other similarly selected plants.

Pedigreed Chicks--Chicks whose parents and female ancestors for at least two generations are known. They are wing-banded for identification.

Pedigreed Stock--Animals that have a pedigree. Pedigreed, purebred, or registered stock are interchangeable terms.

Peewees--Small or stunted lambs.

Peg Pony--A saddle horse trained to change direction rapidly.

Pekin--A heavily meated breed of white ducks, excellent for market and table use. The breed is noted for its ability to make rapid and economical growth, young ducklings commonly attaining a weight of 5 pounds or more in 8 to 10 weeks under commercial feeding. It is used almost exclusively for the production of market ducklings in the United States. Also called White Pekin.

Pelham Bit--A bit with two rings on each side for two controlling reins; used on polo ponies.

Pelham Bridle--A single-bitted, double-reined horse bridle used on pleasure horses.

Pellagra--A nutritional deficiency caused by insufficient niacin, characterized by dermatitis, inflammation of mucous membranes, diarrhea, and psychic disturbances.

Pellet--(1) Mixtures of ground ingredients pressed to form aggregates of convenient size to feed livestock. (2) A mass of indigestible hair and bones regurgitated by carnivorous birds or mammals.

Pelleted Feed--A pill-like or cubical type of animal feed made by forcing the loose, bulky, or dusty feeds into small, uniform pellets by the use of grinding, molding, and compressing machinery. It is used in the manufacture of specialized feeds, such as poultry, calf, rabbit, and dog feeds.

Pelleted Hay--Hay that has been highly compressed by passing through a pelleting machine. It is easy to handle and is free from dust.

Pelt--(1) The natural, whole skin covering, including the hair, wool, or fur of the smaller animals, such as sheep, foxes, etc. A large pelt is more often called a hide. (2) To remove the whole skin or pelt form the body of an animal.

Pelvic Capacity--The dimensions of a female's pelvic area that is an indication of its ability to give birth easily.

Pen--(1) A loose, rectangular stack of fuel wood or pulpwood in layers of two pieces each of varying height and width. (2) In poultry shows, a male and four female birds of the same variety. (3) A small space enclosed by any kind of fence, used for confining pigs, cows, and other animals.

Pen Fattening--Fattening livestock or poultry by keeping them in small pens and giving them full feed.

Pen Lot--A number of animals in an enclosure. In livestock exhibitions, the animals are judged as a lot, or group, in contrast to an exhibition of single individuals.

Pen of Lambs--In the show ring, four lambs of both sexes, owned by the exhibitor.

Pencil Shrink--An assumed percentage deduction taken from the weight of slaughtered animals to allow for uncalculated losses in weight.

Pendulous Udder--A low-hanging, poorly attached udder.

Penetrant--Adjuvant that aids a liquid's ability to enter the pores of a surface. See Adjuvant.

Penicillin--An antibiotic extracted form cultures of certain molds of the genera of Penicillium and Aspergillus that have been grown on special media. Penicillin is also produced synthetically.

Penis--The male organ of sexual union.

Penta--Greek for five, used in naming chemical compounds.

Pentachlorophenol--A chemical used extensively to treat fenceposts, telephone poles, and bridge planking, against fungal decay. Reports have indicated some hazard to livestock when they lick or chew on posts so treated.

Pepsin--A digestive enzyme secreted by glands in the stomach. Commercially obtained from the lining of the pyloric end of a pig stomach, it is used in medicine as an aid to protein digestion.

Peptide--A compound made up of a series of amino acids; an intermediate in the synthesis or digestion of a protein.

Peptones--Products obtained by the digestive action of enzymes on albuminous matter. Peptones of different kinds are produced form lean muscle tissue or by the action of yogurt bacteria on lactalbumin in milk, and serve as easily assimilated forms of proteins or as cultural media.

Per Os (P.O.)--By the mouth; medicine administered through the mouth.

Peracute--Excessively acute; e.g., when symptoms of a disease occur much earlier than usual and are well marked.

Performance Data--The record of the individual animal for reproduction, production, and possibly carcass merit. Traits included are birth, weaning and yearling weights, calving ease, calving interval, milk production, etc.

Performance Pedigree--A pedigree that includes performance records of ancestors, half and full sibs, and progeny in addition to the usual pedigree information. Also, the performance information is systematically combined to list estimated breeding values on the pedigrees by some breed associations.

Performance Record--The evaluation of an animal's production based on several factors; factors may be number of calves weaned, birth weight, weaning weight, etc.

Performance Testing--The systematic collection of comparative production information for use in decision making to improve efficiency and profitability of beef production. Differences in performance among cattle must be utilized in decision making for performance testing to be beneficial. The most useful performance records for management, selection, and promotion decisions will vary among purebred breeders and for purebred breeders compared with commercial cattle producers.

Pericarditis--In cattle, inflammation of the membranes surrounding the heart that frequently results from hardware disease. See Hardware Disease.

Pericardium--The membrane that encloses the cavity containing the heart.

Period of Lactation--Period of milk production in an animal; the time between the beginning and end of the milk flow.

Periodic Annual Increment--The growth of a stand of trees for any specified period divided by the number of years in the period.

Periople--The thin, outer layer of the hoof of an animal.

Periosteum--The outer membrane or covering of bone.

Periphyton--The association of aquatic organisms attached or clinging to stems and leaves of rooted plants or other surfaces projecting above the bottom of the body of water.

Perishable--Designating any product that is liable to easy or quick destruction by rot, disease, or decomposition, such as fresh fruits, meats, and vegetables.

Peristalsis--(1) The successive wavelike motion of the muscular fibers in the duct walls that forces the egg through the oviduct. (2) The rhythmic contractions and movements by which the alimentary canal propels its contents.

Perithecium--A round or oval, ascus-containing, fungus fruiting body.

Peritoneum--The membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and invests the contained viscera (digestive organs) of an animal.

Peritonitis--Peritoneal inflammation. See Peritoneum.

Permanent Hay--Hay crops, such as alfalfa and perennial grasses, which occupy the land for a long period without intervening crops.

Permanent Parasites--Parasites, such as bloodsucking lice, which spend all life stages on or in the body of the host.

Permanent Pasture--Grazing land in farms occupied by perennial grasses and legumes. It is not a part of a regular rotation of fields and usually remains unplowed for long periods.

Pernicious--Harmful or fatal.

Pernicious Equine Anemia--See Equine Infectious Anemia.

Perosis--A deforming leg weakness in poultry in which the Achilles tendon slips out of its natural groove at the hock joint causing the leg to become permanently bowed or badly twisted. There is usually an enlargement and flattening of the hock joint. It occurs most frequently in rapidly growing chickens due to manganese deficiency and an excess of phosphorus in the diet. Also called slipped tendon, hock disease.

Peroxidase--A heat-resisting enzyme present in milk, especially in abnormal milk.

Peroxide Number--Measure of the oxidative rancidity of fats by the determination of the peroxides present.

Persian Lamb Skin--The skin of the lamb of Karakul sheep. The wool is lustrous and tightly curled, making the skin highly desirable for luxury coats and other apparel.

Persistent Pesticide--A chemical agent used to control pests, which breaks down extremely slowly, remaining toxic to desirable species of wildlife as well as pests, under natural conditions. Some of these include DDT, chlordane, lindane, and dieldrin. Most are now forbidden or restricted in use.

Pessary--Vaginal suppository for administration of drugs.

Pest--Anything, such as an insect, animal, or plant that causes injury, loss or irritation to a crop, stored goods, an animal, or people.

Pest Control--The use of disinfectant, herbicide, pesticide, insecticide, management or cultural practice that controls pests. See Integrated Pest Management.

Pesticide--A substance used to control insect, plant, or animal pests. Pesticides include insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, nematocides, and rodenticides.

Pesticide Residue--Material that remains on a plant after pesticide application.

Pet--Any animal, such as a cat, dog, lamb, bird, etc., that is kept for affection and companionship.

Petechiae--Small, purple or red spots in the skin of animals caused by small hemorrhages in which blood is released from its normal channel in the blood vessels into very minute areas of the surrounding body tissues.

Petite--(1) A grade for canning small peas of 9/32 inch or less in diameter. (2) Denoting smallness or shortness.

pH--A numerical measure of acidity or hydrogen ion activity of a substance such as food or soil. The neutral point is pH 7.0. All pH values below 7.0 are acid and all above 7.0 are alkaline. The negative logarithm of the hydrogen-ion activity. The degree of acidity (or alkalinity) of a soil as determined by means of a glass, quinhydrone, or other suit able electrode or indicator at a specified moisture content or soil-water ratio, and expressed in terms of the pH scale. See Reaction.

Phagia (Phagy)--A combining form denoting perversion of eating or swallowing; e.g., geophagia (eating earth), aerophagy (swallowing air). See Pica.

Phago--A combining form denoting relationship to eating or consumption by ingestion or engulfing.

Phagocyte--An animal cell capable of ingesting microorganisms or other foreign bodies.

Phagocytic--Designating the ability of certain body cells to assimilate small objects by flowing around them, enclosing them completely, and digesting them, or to render them harmless by eradication. Certain of the white blood cells have this property and use it to destroy germs and worn-out cells and to eliminate foreign particles.

Phagocytosis--The process whereby certain cells such as some white blood cells and amoebae engulf microorganisms and other particles.

Phagomania--An insatiable craving for food.

Phagophobia--A morbid fear of eating.

Pharmaceutical--Any substance used to enhance the health of humans or animals.

Pharynx--The cavity that connects the mouth and nasal cavity to the throat; a passage common to the digestive and respiratory tracts.

Phase--(1) The view that a thing presents to the eye. (2) Any one of the varying aspects or stages through which a disease or process may pass. (3) In colloidal chemistry, the discontinuous portion dispersed in the dispersion medium. (4) In soil taxonomy and soil survey, soil phase terms are surface soil texture, percentage slope, stoniness, saltiness, and erosion. When appropriate these names are added to the soil series name to make a soil mapping unit.

Phase Feeding--Changes in an animal's diet to adjust for age and stage of production, to adjust for season of the year and for temperature change, to account for differences in body weight and nutrient requirements of different strains of animals, or to adjust one or more nutrients as other nutrients are changed for economic or availability reasons.

Phenol--[C.sub.6] [H.sub.5] OH; carbolic acid; a colorless, crystalline compound, obtained by the distillation of coal tar; widely used as a disinfectant and as an ingredient in antiseptics.

Phenol Coefficient--A figure representing the relative killing power of a disinfectant, as compared with phenol acting on the same organism for the same length of time.

Phenothiazine--The compound produced by the cyclization of diphenylamine with sulfur. Highly toxic for many insects, it is used for the removal of parasitic worms on livestock.

Phenotype--The observed character of an individual without reference to its genetic nature. Individuals of the same phenotype look alike but may not breed alike. See Genotype.

Pheromone--A substance secreted to the outside of the body by an individual organism that causes a specific reaction by another organism of the same species; e.g., when an earthworm is alarmed it secretes a mucus which is a warning to other earthworms. See Sex Pheromone.

Phildadelphia Dressed--In poultry slaughter, designating fowl bled and plucked but not eviscerated. Also called New York dressed.

Phobia--(Greek) Fear.

Phosphoric Acid Silage--Legume, small grain, and grass silage to which a small amount of commercial phosphoric acid has been added. There is little loss of green color or nutrients, and the available phosphorus in the silage is increased.

Phylum--The highest grouping in the taxonomy of the plant and animal kingdoms, based on assumed common ancestry.

Physical and Mechanical Pest Controls--Direct or indirect (nonchemical) measures to destroy pests outright or to make the environment unsuitable for their entry, dispersal, survival, or reproduction; e.g., steam sterilization to destroy disease organisms, flaming for the control of weeds, cold storage to control pests, metal or other material barriers to prevent pest entry. See Integrated Pest Management.

Physical Poison--Any poisonous material that exerts a physical rather than a biochemical effect, as heavy mineral oils and inert dusts.

Physiologic Races--Pathogens of the same species and variety that are usually structurally indistinguishable but which differ in their physiologic behavior, particularly in their ability to parasitize varieties of a particular host.

Physiological--(1) Referring to or concerning the science of physiology or the branch of biology that deals with life processes and functions. (2) Referring to the functions of the organs of plants and animals.

Physiological Age--The age of an animal that is determined by an examination of the carcass.

Physiological Maturity--The period of advanced age in the cycle of a tree or stand of trees when resistance to adverse influences is so low that death of a tree or net losses in volume of salable wood are likely to occur within a cutting cycle.

Physiology--The science that deals with the function of a plant or animal's body and its organs, systems, tissues, and cells.

Piaffe Step--A high action step to which horses are trained for exhibition.

Pick--(1) The total amount of a crop harvested, or the yield of an individual tree, as the pick of oranges. (2) Small, irregular openings within the body of a cheese. (3) See Pickax. (4) To pull or pluck ripe fruit, as berries, apples, cotton. (5) To pluck the feathers from a fowl in dressing it for the market. (6) To nibble at food.

Picket--To tether or control the grazing range of an animal by a rope.

Picket Rope--Any rope, with a swivel snap on one end of which an animal may be fastened, and with a picket pin on the other which may be driven into the ground to tether the animal while grazing.

Picking Machine--In poultry dressing, a machine consisting of a revolving drum equipped with flexible rubber fingers which picks the feathers from carcasses.

Pickled Pig's Feet--The feet of the hog carcass that, after removal of the toenails, dew claws, and hair are cured in a special pickling solution, which is basically a brine, with certain seasoning ingredients added.

Picnic Ham--The cured meat from the shoulder of a pig carcass.

Pictou Disease--An eastern Canadian cattle poisoning caused by ingestion of the plant ragwort groundsel, Senecio jacobaea, either fresh or with hay.

Piebald--Designating a horse with a black-and-white or dark coat; a pinto. Also called pied.

Piebaldism--A skin condition in which the skin is partly white (albinism) and partly brown (vitiligo). A common example is a piebald horse.

Piedmontest--A breed of large beef cattle that originated in Italy. They are grayish-white.

Pig--(1) A young swine weighing less than 120 pounds. (A few markets, as Chicago, United States, set 130 pounds as the maximum weight for an animal of this class.) (2) Any young, unweaned swine.

Pig Eye--In a horse, a small, retracted eye that may cause imperfect vision.

Pig Teeth Nipper--A clipperlike instrument used for clipping the canine teeth (temporary or milk teeth) of suckling pigs.

Pig Typhus--Infectious enteritis in pigs.

Pig-eating Sow--A sow that devours her young at farrowing time presumably as a result of a ration deficiency, an unsuitable environmental situation, or exciting disturbances at farrowing time.

Pig-guard Rail--A rail about 8 to 10 inches above the floor and 8 to 10 inches from the wall of a farrowing pen, beneath which recently farrowed pigs can move and thus be protected from crushing by the sow.

Pigeon--Any bird of the genus Columba. In poultry, young pigeons, or squabs, are generally dressed for the market, and old pigeons are sold alive, generally for the Jewish trade. See Squab.

Pigeon Fly--Pseudolynchia canariensis, family Hippoboscidae; a blood-sucking fly, somewhat smaller than the house fly, which infests pigeons and related birds. Known in the United States since 1896.

Pigeon Loft--A dovecot, elevated house, or pen atop buildings for raising pigeons.

Pigeon Louse--Either of two species of lice, Columbicola columbae, or Goniocotes bidentatus, family Philopteridae. Each causes considerable annoyance both to old pigeons and to partially feathered squabs.

Pigeon-toed--Designating an animal or person whose feet turn inward.

Piggin-string--A short rope used for tying down animals, as in calf roping.

Piggy Sow--Any mature female hog that shows advanced pregnancy, as indicated by the swelling of the underline.

Piglet--A young pig of either sex.

Pigment--Any of the natural coloring materials in the cells and tissues of plants and animals. In fruit and vegetables, the green pigment is chlorophyll; orange to red pigments are carotenoids; red to blue colors are anthocyanins; light-yellow pigments are flavoners and flavonols. In meat, the chief pigment producing the pink or red color is myoglobin.

Pigskin--The tanned hides of hogs.

Pigskin Fluff--A food product made from skins removed from fat backs of hog carcasses. The skin are fried in deep fat, or roasted until brittle, and then salted and dried. See Crackling.

Pilchard Oil--The product obtained by extraction of part of the oil from the whole Pacific pilchard fish or from cannery refuse from this species of fish; it is used as a source of vitamins in animal feeds.

Pilgrim--A worn-out, decrepit horse.

Pin--In poultry slaughter, to remove the pin feathers that are embedded in the skin.

Pin Bone--The region on each side of the tail head on the hindquarters of a bovine. These should be wide apart and well-defined for good conformation.

Pin Feather--The young feather embedded in, or just emerging from, the skin of a fowl.

Pin Nipples--Small, underdeveloped nipples on the teats of a pig. They are usually nonfunctional.

Pincers--The incisor teeth of a horse. Also called nippers.

Pine Disease--See Nutritional Anemia.

Pineal Gland--A reddish gland about one-third the size of the pituitary located in a brain cavity behind and just above the pituitary. A by-product of the meat-packing industry, extracts of which are used in medicine to regulate growth.

Pinebarren Deathcamas--Zigadenus leimanthoides, family Liliaceae; a bulbous herb that grows in bogs and on wet pine lands and is poisonous to livestock. Native to coastal areas of the southeastern United States. Also called crowpoison.

Piney Woods Cattle--Scrub cattle, or those nondescript in breed (southeastern United States).

Pining--(1) A disease of sheep in certain sections of England and Scotland that results from cobalt deficiency. (2) Designating any unthrifty or unhealthy animal.

Pinion--(1) The outermost part of a bird's wing including the carpus, metacarpus, and phalanges; the part of a wing, corresponding to the forearm, on which the primary flight feathers are borne. (2) To cut off the pinion on one (or both) wings to permanently prevent a bird from flying. (3) A gear that has the teeth formed on the inside of the hub.

Pinkeye--An infectious disease of the eye in cattle, sheep, and goats that is characterized by an inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva. Also called keratitis, infectious keratitis, contagious ophthalmia in cattle.

Pinning--The sticking of a young lamb's tail to its anus. This will prevent normal bowel action and result in constipation and, if not loosened in time, death.

Pinning Knife--A dull, short-bladed knife that is used in removing pin feathers in the dressing of poultry.

Pinny--In poultry marketing, designating a bird carcass that has an excessive amount of pin feathers, and is therefore of low grade and marketable only at a reduced price.

Pinocytosis--The engulfing or absorption of fluids by cells. Pins--See Pin Bone.

Pinto--Designating a horse that has a spotted or piebald coat color.

Pinworm--(1) A common name often applied to parasitic nematodes belonging to the family Oxyuridae, that infect people and animals; e.g., Enterobius vermicularis, the human pinworm; Oxyuris equi, the common horse pinworm; Skrjabinema ovis, the sheep and goat pinworm. (2) Heterakis gallinae; a cecal, grayish-white worm from 1/3 to 1/2 inch (0.85 to 1.3 centimeters) long which is found in the intestines of chickens, turkeys, and other fowls. It is involved in the transmission of blackhead disease.

Pinzgauer--A breed of horned beef cattle that originated in Australia. They are chestnut brown with white markings that extend from the underline up over the rump and back.

Pip--(1) A horny, dried condition of the tip of the tongue that develops in poultry in cases of infectious coryza when mouth breathing is long continued. (2) The raised crown or individual rootstock of a plant. (3) The specialized underground bud of lily-of-the-valley.

Piping--(1) A series of shrill sounds made by queen bees. (2) Formation by moving water of subsurface tunnels or pipelike cavities in the soil. See Vertisols.

Pipped Egg--An egg through which the chick has forced its beak in the first step of breaking out of the shell during incubation.

Pipping--The process of breaking the eggshell by a chick before hatching.

Piroplasmosis--Any of a number of tick-borne diseases of domestic animals especially affecting cattle, horses, sheep, and dogs, caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia, which invade and destroy red blood cells, giving rise to anemia, elevated body temperature, and sometimes bloody urine. These parasites are transmitted from host to host by ticks of the family Ixodidae. Commonly called tick fever, Texas fever, splenetic fever, southern fever, babesiosis.

Pirouette--A high-school exercise for horses in which the forelegs are held more or less in place while the horse moves his hindquarters around them.

Piscicide--A substance used to kill fish.

Pisciculture--The production of fishing natural or artificial bodies of water under controlled conditions, such as stocking, feeding, and use of chemical fertilizers. See Aquaculture.

Piscis--(Latin) Fish.

Pit Silo--A shallow pit of variable size for storing silage, which is dug in well-drained soil and is frequently walled with lumber or concrete if of a permanent nature. It is very common in the western states of the United States. See Horizontal Silo, Trench Silo.

Pitch--(1) The resin that occurs in the wood of conifers, as the pitch from pines. (2) A heavy, dark, viscous or solid, fusible material obtained by distillation of the tar derived from coal, wood, rosin, and petroleum oils. It consists of many organic compounds, chiefly hydrocarbons, differing according to origin. (3) The jumping action of a horse in its attempt to unseat its rider.

Pithing--A method of animal slaughter in which the spinal cord is severed to cause death.

Pituitary Gland--A small endocrine gland located in the lower part of the brain. Among other functions, it secretes hormones into the bloodstream that influence the growth of the body, stimulate the thyroid gland, the sex organs, and the mammary gland to initiate the secretion of milk after the birth of the young.

Pivot--A leg action in which a horse pivots around his hindquarters while holding one leg in place and side stepping with the other hind-foot.

Pizzle--The penis, especially of a bull.

Placenta--(1) The membranous tissue that envelops the growing fetus in the uterus and establishes communication between the mother and the fetus by the umbilical cord. It is discharged from the uterus at the time of the birth of the young or shortly thereafter. Also called afterbirth, calf bed. (2) In plants, that portion of the ovary on which ovules are borne.

Placental Retention--The undue retention of the placenta and other fetal membranes after the young is born.

Placentome--One of many structures in the pregnant uterus of a ruminant that make up the placenta; composed of a caruncle of the uterus and a cotyledon of the fetal membranes.

Plain--In marketing, designating an animal of poor quality, i.e., one having rough, prominent shoulders, paunchy middle, bare ribs and loin, and small legs.

Plantar Cushion--A pad of fibro-fatty tissue in the foot to the rear of and under the navicular and coffin bones of animals. In horses, it is pronounced and overlies the frog. Also called digital cushion.

Plantation Gait--A natural horse gait, somewhat faster than a walk, which is easy on the horse and rider. Horses with this gait are sometimes called plantation horses, as they are popular on the plantations in the southern United States.

Plantation Horse--A horse that has a plantation gait, as the Tennessee Walking Horse.

Plasma--(1) The liquid portion of blood or lymph. (2) The liquid that may be squeezed from muscle.

Play Flight--Short orientation flight taken by young bees, usually by large numbers at one time and during the warm part of day.

Pleasure Horse--A classification for horses that includes those used for riding, driving, or racing. See Stock Horse, Work Horse.

Pleiotropy--A situation where one gene affects more than one trait.

Plerocercoid--A wormlike larval stage of certain tapeworms.

Plowable Pasture--Land ordinarily kept as pasture but that may be plowed and utilized for other crops.

Pluck--(1) In hog and cattle slaughtering, the organs that lie in the thoracic cavity consisting of the heart, lungs, gullet, and windpipe. (2) In poultry slaughter, to remove the feathers.

Plug--(1) The mass removed by a trier or other special penetrating implement in sampling or testing an agricultural product, as a plug from a cheese, a bale of cotton, or from a watermelon. (2) An old, worn-out horse. (3) A horse with a poor conformation. (4) To repair a leak, as a dam or earth fill. (5) A block of rooted grass that is planted for the purpose of establishing a covering of grass, such as in a law.

Plumage--The feathers of a fowl.

Plump--(1) In poultry slaughter, to create an effect of plumpness by dipping the picked carcass in scalding water. It shrinks the skin and draws up the legs, wings, and neck closer to the body thus imparting a false plumpness. (2) In meat judging, designating a well-muscled carcass or wholesale cut.

Plymouth Rock--A popular breed of dual-purpose chickens of the American class, whose origin is attributed to early crosses of the Dominique and the Black variety of Java. They are characterized by a single comb, nonfeathered shanks, yellow skin, and compact body. Cocks weigh about 91/2 pounds, hens about 71/2 pounds. the eggshell is brown. The varieties are: Barred, White, Buff, Silver-penciled, Partridge, Columbian, and Blue. The White and the Barred varieties are used extensively for commercial egg and meat production. In earlier times, the Barred Plymouth Rock was commonly called Dominecker by farmers because of its similarity to the earlier Dominique breed.

Pneumoencephalitis--See Newcastle Disease.

Pneumonia--Inflammation of the lungs in people and animals, characterized by fast and labored breathing, elevated body temperature, varying amounts of nasal discharge, and many times by a degree of consolidation of the lungs. Pneumonia is caused by various agents, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi, hot or cold air, liquids that might be taken into the lungs, and by dust.

Pod--(1) Technically, a dry, many-seeded fruit that splits open, such as a pea pod or bean pod; a legume. (2) To form pods. (3) A flock of animals, birds, etc.

Point Men--Cowboys who ride toward the head of the herd to keep it going in the desired direction (western United States).

Point of Lay--Age at which pullets begin to lay, usually between twenty and twenty-two weeks.

Points--A condition of coat color in animals in which white or a lighter color appears about the muzzle, eyes, feet, and tail.

Poison--Any substance ingested, inhaled, or developed within the body that causes or may cause damage or disturbance of function of plants, animals, or people. See Toxin.

Poison Bait--A poison mixed with wheat bran, molasses, or other attractant used to control cutworms, grasshoppers, and other insects.

Poison Hemlock--Conium maculatum, family Umbelliferae; a biennial, rank-growing herb, which is an escape and a weed in various sections of the United States. It is dangerously poisonous to people and animals, being most poisonous to stock in the spring, when the herbage is fresh. Symptoms of poisoning of cattle are loss of appetite, salivation, bloating pain, feeble but rapid pulse, and loss of muscular power. Native to Europe and Asia. Also called deadly hemlock, poison parsley, winter fern.

Poison Ivy--Toxicodendron radicans, family Anacardiaceae; a small, erect shrub or climbing vine common throughout the United States in waste places, pastures, woodlands, and along old fencerows. Apparently more dangerous to humans than to animals, contact with the plant among susceptible individuals causes severe blistering and inflammation, especially on the hands, arms, and face. Also called climbing ivy, three-leaved ivy, climath, poisonoak, poison creeper.

Poison Milkweed--Asclepias galioides, family Asclepiadaceae; a poisonous, perennial herb found on dry sites on the western ranges in the United States. It is occasionally eaten by animals with fatal results. Sheep appear to be most susceptible to it. The symptoms of poisoning are loss of muscular control, staggering, falling, spasms, bloating, fever, weak but rapid pulse, and respiratory paralysis. The affected animal usually dies. Native to North America.

Poisonous--Containing poison, as a poisonous plant.

Poke--(1) A yoke with an attached sharp spur pointing forward that is placed on the neck of an animal to prevent it from crawling through or jumping a fence. (2) Pokeberry. (3) A paper bag.

Poland China--A large breed of swine that originated in Ohio, United States, early in the nineteenth century, as the result of crossing the native swine with several breeds including Big China, Berkshire, and Irish Crozier swine. The coat is black with white tips on the tail, white feet, and a white dash or spot on the forehead.

Poliomyelitis--Inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord; an acute infectious viral disease attended with fever, motor paralysis, and atrophy of groups of muscles.

Poll--(1) The region at the crest or apex of the skull in horses and cattle. (2) To cut back the crown of a tree. (3) To remove the horns of cattle.

Poll Evil--A fistula of the poll between the ears that may follow a severe injury to that part, a common affliction of horses and mules.

Pollard--(1) A tree whose crown has been cut back to invite the production of shoots from the top. Sometimes a tree is so pruned to induce a globelike mass of foliage. (2) A hornless ox, sheep, or goat.

Polled--Designating animals, especially cattle, that normally do not develop horns.

Polled Hereford--A strain of the Hereford breed of beef cattle that was developed in the United States; characterized by the absence of horns.

Polled Shorthorn--A strain of beef cattle within the Shorthorn breed, characterized by the absence of horns. See Shorthorn.

Pollen Basket--An area on a bee's hind leg where pollen is packed and carried with help from a central spine and surrounding hairs.

Pollen Cake--Cake of sugar, water, and pollen or pollen substitute, for bee feed.

Pollen Insert--A device placed in the hive entrance to apply live pollen to outgoing bees for cross pollination, as in apples.

Pollen Substitute--Mixture of water, sugar, and other material, such as soy flour, brewer's yeast, etc., used for bee feed.

Pollen Trap--A grid placed at the entrance to a beehive, which removes pollen from the bees' legs as they enter; the pollen falls into a tray below the grid.

Polo Pony--Any small active horse with the ability to be trained to perform in polo.

Polyestrous--Refers to an animal that has several estrous cycles in a breeding season.

Polygastric--Having many stomach compartments as in the ruminant animal (such as cattle).

Polymorphic--Having two or more forms.

Polymorphonuclear Leucocytes--White blood cells in which the nuclei are constricted into irregular shapes.

Polymyxin--Any of various antibiotics that are derived from cultures of the organism Bacillus polymyxa.

Polyneuritis--An inflammation of many nerves at once.

Polyp--A smooth, stalked, or projecting growth from a mucous membrane.

Polyphagia--(1) Voracious appetite. (2) An unnatural craving for many kinds of food. (3) Omnivorousness. See Bulimia, Cynorexia, Sitomania.

Polyphagous Parasite--A parasite capable of parasitizing a considerable number of host species.

Polyphosphates--Salts of polyphosphoric acids such as ammonium polyphosphates and calcium polyphosphates.

Polyphosphoric Acid--Any of a series of phosphoric acids whose molecular structure contains more than one atom of phosphorus such as pryophosphoric acid, tripolyphosphoric acid, and tetrapolyphosphoric acid. See Phosphoric Acids.

Polyploid--An organism with more than two sets of the basic or haploid number of chromosomes; e.g., triploid, tetraploid, pentaploid, hexaploid, heptaploid, octaploid.

Polypnea--Rapid or panting respiration. Polysaccharide--A large molecular weight carbohydrate made up of many sugar units; e.g., starches, cellulose, and glycogen.

Polyspermy--The entrance of many sperm cells into the ovum at fertilization.

Polyuria--Excessive secretion of urine.

Polyvalent--Designating a stock vaccine made up of many strains of the same organism or different organisms.

Polyvalent Colon Bacteria--A bacterin made from several types of bacteria that inhabit the colon or intestinal tract of animals; sometimes useful in the prevention of calf scours.

Polyvoltine--Designating an animal yielding several broods in a season. Especially applied to certain silkworms producing several broods of cocoons in a year.

Pommel--(1) The knob, ball, or protuberant part serving as a means of grip on anything, as the high, forward part of a saddle. (2) A block of hard wood grooved like a crimping board and employed by curriers to render leather supple and impart a grain to it.

Pony--A horse, under 14.2 hands (about 57 inches) at the withers. Poor Feeder--Any animal that does not fatten or grow in a satisfactory manner.

Poorly Bled--In poultry slaughter, designating a bird that shows red pin marks on its breast or thighs, or one whose skin is reddened from blood clots.

Poorly Fleshed--(1) In poultry slaughter, designating a bird that has a narrow breast and whose thighs and back are dark-colored from the absence of fat. (2) Designating any meat animal in thin condition.

Pop-eyed--Refers to a horse whose eyes are generally more prominent or bulge out a little more than normal; also to a horse that is "spooky" or attempts to see everything that goes on and is often frightened.

Pop-hole--A hole small enough to allow piglets to creep through to reach their mother.

Popped Knee--In livestock, a general term describing inflammatory conditions affecting the knees, so named because of the sudden swelling that accompanies it.

Porcine--Refers to swine.

Porcine Stress Syndrome (PSS)--A condition in swine characterized by extreme muscling, nervousness, tail tremors, skin blotching, and sudden death.

Pore--(1) In plant and animal membranous tissues, minute openings for absorption and transpiration of matter. (2) In wood anatomy, the cross section of a vessel or a vascular trachea. (3) In soil, the portion of a given volume of soil that is unfilled with solid matter; air spaces, irregular in shape and size.

Pork--The meat of swine.

Pork Roast--A retail cut of pork for roasting made by removing the ribs and backbones from two blade end cuts and placing the inside cut surfaces together.

Pork Sausage--Any ground and seasoned pork product.

Pork Tenderloin--A retail cut of pork from the last rib to the hip joint, which is the major muscle located below the transverse spinal process in the lumbar region of the swine carcass.

Porker--Any young hog.

Porterhouse Steak--A retail cut of beef taken from the posterior end of the beef short loin containing a large section or area of the tenderloin muscle.

Pose--In the show ring, a special stance or position that a horse may be trained to assume. A posed horse stands with his front feet extended and his rear feet back.

Positive Ion--A cation; an ion that carries a positive charge of electricity.

Positron--A subatomic particle equal in mass and weight to the electron and having an equal but opposite charge. Positrons are emitted by some artificially radioactive isotopes.

Post--(1) A short timber used in an upright position for supporting structures. (2) Any timber that supports fencing. It may be round, split, or sawn. (Posts may be of other materials, such as iron and concrete.) (3) The proper position and balance a rider assumes in the saddle in riding a horse while in the trot gait, rising with each second beat of the one-two rhythm of the trot.

Post Cenam--After feeding (in scientific writing often abbreviated p.c.).

Post-legged--An animal having extremely straight hind legs.

Posterior--Hind or rear.

Posterior Paralysis in Pig--A disease characterized by lameness and sometimes complete paralysis of the rear part of the body. Causes are a lack of lime (calcium) in the diet, or an unbalanced ratio of calcium to phosphorus, especially if there is a deficiency in vitamin D. Other mineral and vitamin deficiencies may be involved.

Postmortem--An examination of an animal carcass or human body after death.

Postnatal--Subsequent to birth, relating to an infant immediately after birth.

Postpartem--A period immediately following parturition (giving birth).

Pot-bellied--(1) Designating any animal that has developed an abnormally large abdomen, usually because of improper feeding or nutrition. (2) Designating a type of coal stove used for heating purposes in pioneer stores and homes, so named because of its large, round, lower half.

Potassium Iodide--KI; a white, water-soluble chemical that may be given to farm animals as an iodine supplement.

Potassium Permanganate--KMN[O.sub.4]; a powerful oxidizing compound used as a disinfectant, deodorant, and a reagent in analytical work, especially in the determination of available nitrogen in organic material. Sometimes also used as a fungicide in greenhouses.

Potato Distillers' Dried Residue--A livestock feedstuff that consists of the dried product obtained after the manufacture of alcohol and distilled liquors from potatoes or from mixtures in which potatoes predominate.

Potency--(1) The power of a medicine to produce the desired effects. (2) The ability of an embryo to develop into a viable destiny. (3) The ability of the male of any plant or animal species to fertilize the female germ cells. (4) The degree of toxicity of a chemical.

Poult--The young turkey before its sex can be distinguished. Sometimes applied to the young of other fowls.

Poultice--A hot, wet dressing applied to an injury or swelling for its softening and soothing properties.

Poultry--Any or all domesticated fowls that are raised primarily for their meat, eggs, or feathers, as chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese.

Poultry Band--A strip of plastic or aluminum marked with numbers, etc., attached to the leg or wing of a bird for identification.

Poultry Bug--Haematosiphon inodorus, family Cimicidae; a blood-sucking insect pest of poultry.

Poultry Fattener--(1) Any of several feeds containing ingredients designed especially for fattening poultry for the market. (2) A person engaged in the fattening of poultry for the market. (3) Poultry feed. Any feed supplied to poultry, commonly, specially formulated mashes designed to be fed either alone or in combination with cereal grains.

Poultry House--Any building equipped and used for housing and handling poultry.

Poultry Husbandry--The science and art of the production and distribution of poultry and poultry products, including breeding, incubation, brooding, rearing, housing, feeding, marketing, and poultry farm management.

Poultry Inhalant--A remedy designed to relieve coughs due to colds, and bronchial irritations in poultry. It is usually sprayed in the house while birds are on roosts.

Poultry Knife--A specially designed knife with a very narrow curved blade, used to kill poultry and to sever arteries for bleeding. Also called chicken sticker.

Poultry Lice--Insects of the order Mallophaga that infest fowls.

Poultry Manure--The mixture of feces and urine voided by birds. When freshly produced it contains about 80 percent moisture, 1 percent nitrogen, 0.8 percent phosphoric acid, and 0.5 percent potash. Poultry manure decomposes with a rapid and large loss of moisture and ammonia, especially during warm weather.

Pound--(1) A unit of weight; 16 ounces avoirdupois, 12 ounces troy. The standard British unit of weight equals 7,000 grains, 1/2, 240 long ton, and 453.59 grams, the weight of 27.692 cubic inches of water at 4[degrees]C. (2) An enclosure in which stray animals are legally confined. (3) An enclosure in which groups of animals, as flocks of sheep, may be gathered for shelter, etc. (4) An enclosure used to trap wild animals.

Pound of Gain--In animal feeding, the net gain of weight in pounds derived from a particular number of pounds of feed fed.

Pounding--In the movement of a horse, a heavy contact of the foot with the ground that usually accompanies a high stride.

Pounds of Butterfat--The production of butterfat by a cow for a certain period, such as a day, week, or lactation period, usually quoted in terms of total pounds of butterfat.

Pounds of Milk--The output of milk by a cow, by weight, for a single milking, a day, or a lactation period.

Pounds of Milk Per Acre of Pasture--The feed value of an acre of pasture expressed in terms of pounds of dry grain feed.

Pounds of Retail Cuts Per Day of Age--A measure of cutability and growth combined, it is calculated as follows: cutability times carcass weight divided by age in days.

Powdered Milk--Dry whole milk. See Nonfat Dry Milk.

Powdered Skimmed Milk--See Nonfat Dry Milk.

Prairie--(1) The extensive, nearly treeless and dominantly grass-covered plains of the midwestern United States that lie east of the Rocky Mountains. In a more restricted sense, the tall grasslands with blackish soils; in a more general sense the semiarid shortgrass plains as well. Also called savannah, steppe. (2) In the generally forested eastern part of the United States, any naturally treeless area that is generally dry or naturally well-drained. (3) Wet, treeless, marshy areas. (4) Prehistoric, treeless tracts that resulted from fires.

Prairie Hay--Any hay made from the wild grasses of the prairie.

Prairie Sandreed--Calamovilfa longifolia, family Gramineae; a perennial, drought-enduring grass, growing from 2 to 6 feet tall, which is found from Michigan to Colorado, United States, and Alberta, Canada. Important for winter pasture and for hay though grazed but lightly in the summer. It is an important, sand-binding grass on dunes and sand hills. Native to North America. Also called prairie sandgrass.

Prance--To walk with a swagger or nervous action, as a horse.

Prawns--Any of the several genii of crustaceans that are caught or raised for food. Some genii can be raised in either fresh-or salt-water. Grown commercially in the United States.

Precipitin--An antibody developed in the blood serum of an animal that has been injected previously with a foreign protein. Precipitins, present in the blood serum, have the property of bringing about a visible precipitate when brought into contact with a solution of the specific protein that induces their formation.

Preclipping--An agronomic practice, sometimes employed in growing clovers for seed production, in which tops of young plants are clipped before flowering to retard excessive growth and to induce flowering at a time when pollinating insects are numerous.

Preconditioning--Term refers to cattle that have been weaned, castrated, dehorned, vaccinated for several diseases, wormed, treated for grubs, and taught to eat from bunk-type feeders before being shipped to the feedlot.

Precooling--(1) Preliminary cooling of milk immediately after a milking to prevent spoilage. (2) Cooling of fruits immediately after harvesting during periods of hot weather to retard ripening and deterioration. (3) The cooling of meats after slaughter and before cutting.

Predacide--A substance that is used to kill predators.

Predatism--Intermittent parasitism, such as the attacks of mosquitoes and bedbugs upon humans.

Predicted Difference (PD)--The estimated difference of an animal from that of its parents or offspring.

Predisposition--(1) Stress or anything that renders an animal liable to an attack of disease without actually producing it. (2) The effect of one or more environmental factors that makes a plant vulnerable to infection by a pathogen.

Preen--Of a bird, to arrange or dress its feathers with its beak.

Preen Gland--An oil-secreting gland at the root of the tail in most birds whose secretion dresses their feathers. Also called rump gland.

Preference--Selection of palatable plants over others by grazing animals.

Pregnancy--The condition of a female animal having a living fetus in the uterus that occurs after the ovum has been fertilized by the male sperm cell. See Gestation Period.

Pregnancy Disease in Ewes--A usually fatal disease of pregnant ewes near term, associated with a disturbance of carbohydrate metabolism. Commonly occurs in ewes carrying twins or triplets. It is characterized by nervousness, inability to rise, pushing the head against an object, gnashing of the teeth. Also called lambing paralysis, old ewe disease, ketosis, acidosis of pregnant ewes, twin lamb disease.

Pregnancy Mare Serum--A gonadotrophic hormone, the secretion of the uterus, obtained from the blood of pregnant mares. It is used in treating certain types of shy-breeding animals. Its main value lies in its content of follicle-stimulating hormone.

Pregnancy Test--Any of several tests that determine whether or not a female is pregnant. Pregnancy can be determined by these tests in humans, mares, and Rhesus monkeys because of two factors: pregnancy gonadotropins produced by the pregnant female from the 40th to the 150th day of pregnancy, and after that period, by the high amount of estrogens found in the urine. See Friedman Test.

Prehension--The taking of food into the mouth.

Premix--In animal feeding, a previously prepared mixture of small amount, as one containing a vitamin or medicine, which is added to the main feed mixture.

Prenatal--Occurring or existing before birth.

Prenuptial Flight--The flight made by the virgin queen bee supposedly to acquaint herself with landmarks that enable her to return to her own hive after her nuptial flight. See Nuptial Flight.

Preparturient--Occurring before birth.

Prepotency--The ability to transmit characteristics to offspring to an unusual degree.

Prepotent--Designating an animal that transmits its characters to its progeny to a marked or highly uniform degree.

Prepuce--The sheath or foreskin covering the penis or clitoris.

Presentation--An animal giving birth.

Preserve--(1) In wildlife management, a game-shooting area on which game species are propagated or released. (2) A tract of land set aside for preservation of natural conditions, and protected against exploitation or any commercial use. (3) To prepare foods by cooking with some preservative so as to reduce fermentation or decomposition.

Press Cake--Pomace, or the residue left after pressing the juices from fruits, olives, or tomatoes. Dried pomace has some value as animal feed.

Press-cake Meal--A by-product left after the separation of oils, by grinding and distillation, from the pits of peaches, apricots, and cherries. It has some value as a stock feed.

Pressure Necrosis--A sore back on a horse that develops from saddle pressure; an area of necrosis (dead tissue) resulting from excessive pressure.

Prick--To pierce or cut a muscle in the tail of a horse so that the tail will be carried higher; an unlawful act in many states.

Primal Cuts--The most valuable cuts on a carcass. Usually includes leg, loin, and rib.

Primary Feathers--The outermost group of major wingfeathers (usually ten) located on the third joint of a bird's wing, hidden when the wing is folded. Also called flight feathers, flights.

Primary S.P.F. Pig--(Specific Pathogen Free) A pig removed from its mother just before the normal birth date by a surgical process (Cesarean section) and raised in laboratory isolation.

Prime--In the grading of various agricultural products, meat, fruits, beans, cottonseed oil, etc., of first class or high quality; choice.

Prime Cattle--Slaughter cattle that have a high finish, and yield prime meat cuts.

Primordium--A member or organ of a plant in its earliest condition, i.e., the first roots to form on a cutting. Plural, primordia.

Private Herd Number--A number assigned to registered animals by their individual owners. It is required by some breed registry associations in the identification of registered animals.

Proboscis--An elongated nose, such as the snout of a hog, or of some species of insects.

Produce--(1) Commodities produced from or grown in the soil. (2) In animal breeding, a female's offspring.

Produce of Dam--In the show ring: (a) for swine, four breeding animals, the offspring of one sow; (b) for horses, two animals, the offspring of one mare; (c) for dairy cattle, two animals, the offspring of one cow.

Proestrus--The phase of the estrous cycle just before estrus; characterized by the development of the ovarian follicle.

Professional Inspector--A meat inspector who is a graduate of an accredited veterinary college and has passed the required civil service examinations for federal, state, or municipal meat inspection (United States).

Profile--(1) The general outline of an animal's body. (2) See Soil Profile.

Progenitor--An individual animal or plant that is recognized as the source of a certain type or character in its offspring.

Progeny--The offspring of animals or plants.

Progeny Records--The average, comparative performance of the progeny of sires and dams.

Progeny Testing--Determining the breeding value of an animal by studying its progeny.

Progesterone--A hormone produced by the corpus luteum of the ovary that functions in preparing the uterus for pregnancy and maintaining it if it occurs.

Proglottids--The segments or parts of a tapeworm other than the head (scolex) and neck region.

Prognosis--Forecast as to the probable result of an attack of disease, the likelihood of recovery.

Progressive--Of a disease, developing through successive stages, usually in a certain direction, whether improving or deteriorating.

Progressive Robbing--The depredation in which bees from one colony enter another hive to steal honey without antagonizing or destroying the robbed colony.

Prolactin--A hormone of the anterior pituitary gland that functions in stimulating the secretion of milk.

Prolapse--A displacement of a body part from its usual position in relation to other parts, most frequently occurring in tubelike structures such as the anus, where the inner portion slips out and extends beyond the outer portion.

Prolapse of the Uterus--Partial or complete turning inside out of the uterus, usually following parturition.

Prolapse Retainer--A device used to support the prolapsed uterus of a ewe. The uterus is held in place until healing occurs.

Prolific--Having the ability to produce many offspring.

Proper Stocking--Stocking of a range area on the basis of its true grazing capacity in a year of adequate rainfall.

Proper Use--The degree of grazing that an individual plant species, or the total palatable cover of a range area, may endure without damage to the plants or the soil.

Proper Use Factor--As applied to individual range species, the estimated maximum percentage of the total vegetative production of the year within easy reach of the livestock to which a given range species may be grazed without damaging it or associated important palatable plants or the soil; the degree to which each species may be grazed when the range as a whole is properly grazed. The proper use factor for a range type is the weighted average of the proper use factors of the individual plants in the type. See Palatability.

Properties--Characteristics by which a substance may be identified. Physical properties describe its state of matter, color, odor, and density; chemical properties describe its behavior in reaction with other materials; biological properties refer to any life-related characteristics such as biodegradation.

Prophase--The first phase of cell division wherein many of the preparatory steps take place, such as shortening and thickening of the chromosomes, division of the centromeres, disappearance of the nuclear membrane, and formation of the spindle.

Prophylactic--Preventive or protective treatment against disease.

Prophylaxis--Prevention of disease by various measures.

Propolis--A glue or resin collected from trees or other plants by bees; used to close holes and cover surfaces in the hive. Also called bee glue.

Prostaglandins--A large group of chemically related fatty acids that have various physiological effects in an animal's body. Artificial prostaglandins are used to synchronize estrus in cattle.

Prostate--One of the accessory glands of the male reproductive system that encircles the neck of the bladder where it joins the urethra.

Prostration--A symptom of an animal's ailment; pronounced weakness and loss of strength, resulting in the animal lying in prone position unable to rise.

Protective Foods--Foods that furnish additional supplies of certain minerals, vitamins, and proteins for the normal growth of the body and the maintenance of good health.

Protein--Any of a large number of complex, organic compounds of amino acids that has a high molecular weight and is an essential part of all living organisms. Proteins consist largely of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen; many contain sulfur, and some also contain iron and phosphorus. They constitute a large portion of the protoplasm, and are obtained from foods such as lean meats, and from vegetables such as beans.

Protein Equivalent--An expression used in computing the protein of feedstuffs. In Great Britain, nonprotein, nitrogenous compounds are considered to have one-half the value of true protein. In the United States, protein equivalent is considered to be the sum of the true protein plus one-half of the amount of nonprotein nitrogen.

Protein Palm Nut Oil Meal--A livestock feedstuff that is the ground residue left after the extraction of part of the oil from the fruit of one or more species of palm.

Protein Solvent Extracted Cottonseed Meal--A livestock feedstuff that is the product resulting from grinding solvent extracted cottonseed flakes.

Protein Solvent Extracted Soybean Flakes--A livestock feedstuff that is the product obtained by expelling part of the oil from soybeans by the use of solvents.

Proteolysis--The process by which casein or some insoluble casein derivative is broken down to water-soluble compounds through the acting of organisms.

Proteolytic Bacteria--(1) Bacteria that produce a proteolytic action on the proteins in cheese and cause a strong odor and taste to develop. (2) Bacteria that act on proteins, breaking them down to simpler compounds. Protoplasm--The gelatinous, colloidal material of plants and animals in which all life activities occur.

Protoplast--A unit of protoplasm in one cell.

Protozoa--A group of one-celled organisms that generally do not contain chlorophyll, including amoebae, paramecia, flagellates, and certain spore-forming organisms; sometimes classified as one-celled animals.

Proven Sire--(Dairy Herd Improvement Association, DHIA). A bull with at least ten daughters that have completed lactation records and are out of dams with completed lactation records.

Provender--All dry feed or fodder for domestic animals.

Provenetriculus--The glandular or true stomach of birds, which is a spindle-shaped organ between the esophagus and gizzard.

Proventriculitis--Inflammation of the glandular (or true) stomach that often occurs in growing chicks reared in confinement and occasionally in adult fowls.

Provitamin--A precursor of a vitamin; a substance from which an animal organism can form a vitamin. Carotene is provitamin A and ergosterol is provitamin D.

Proximal--Opposite of distal; near the point of attachment of reference. Proximate Analysis--A system of analysis used to determine the total composition of nutrients in feed.

Pruritis--Intense itching.

Prussic Acid Poisoning--Poisoning of livestock from prussic acid (hydrocyanic acid) (HCN) which may result from ingestion of sorghums, such as Johnsongrass, under certain conditions such as drought. Hydrocyanic acid may also be produced from the leaves of several species of wild cherries (Prunus spp.) which are occasionally browsed by livestock.

PSA--Packers and Stockyards Administration.

PSE--See Pale, Soft, and Exudative.

Pseudo--A Greek prefix meaning false or spurious. In most scientific terms it denotes a deceptive resemblance to the substance to whose name it is prefixed, e.g., pseudocarp, false fruit.

Pseudo-albino--A coat color of some animals that is a very light cream to white. In horses there is a silver mane and tail and often glass or blue eyes. It is due to the absence of pigment in hair and skin. Pseudo-tubercular Enteritis--See Johne's Disease.

Pseudohermaphrodite--Person or animal having internal genital organs of one sex, while its external genital organs and secondary sex characters resemble in whole or in part those of the opposite sex.

Pseudorabies--A highly contagious, herpesviral, lethal disease of swine, cattle, dogs, cats, rats, and most other mammals.

Psittacosis--An acute or chronic viral disease of birds (domestic and wild) transmissible to humans and characterized by systemic reaction and respiratory involvement. Also called parrot fever.

Psomophagia (Psomophagy)--The rapid eating and swallowing (bolting) of food without thorough chewing. Often induced by nervousness and anxiety and usually resulting in obesity.

Psoroptic Scab--See Scab Mite.

PSS--See Porcine Stress Syndrome.

Ptosis--The prolapse of a body organ, specifically the drooping of the upper eyelid.

Ptyalin--An enzyme in saliva that digests starch.

Puberty--The time when sexual maturity is reached. In the female, ova on the ovaries begin to develop. In the male, sperm production is initiated in the testicles.

Pubescent--Strictly, this means covered with soft, short, fine hairs; as commonly used, however, the term means hairy, bearing hairs, in a generalized sense, without reference to the type of hair.

Pubic Bone--See Pubis.

Pubis--One of the paired bones constituting the pelvis that make up the floor of the pelvis.

Pulled Wool--Wool pulled from skins of slaughtered sheep. The wool is pulled from the skins after treatment of the fleshy side of skins with a depilatory. Pulled wool should not be confused with dead wool.

Pullet--An immature female chicken; in poultry shows, a young hen under one year of age.

Pulling Leather--Designating a rider who hangs on to parts of the saddle with the hands to keep from being thrown from a bucking horse.

Pullorum Disease--A widespread, infectious, bacterial disease of poultry caused by the microorganism Salmonella pullorum. In baby chicks and poults the disease assumes an acute, sepeticemic form with a high degree of fatality, most losses occurring in the first two or three weeks of life. Adult fowls are less seriously affected but may harbor the organism and transmit the disease through infected eggs. The disease is largely controlled by the blood-testing of breeding stock to eliminate carriers of the infection, and by incubator and brooder house sanitation. Pullorum disease was formerly inappropriately called bacillary white diarrhea.

Pulmonary Emphysema--An anatomic change in the lungs characterized by a breakdown of the walls of the alveoli, which can become enlarged, lose their resilience, and disintegrate.

Pulpy Kidney Disease--See Enterotoxemia.

Pulse--(1) The edible seed of legumes, such as peas and beans. (2) The expansion and contraction of an artery associated with each heartbeat, which may be felt with the fingers.

Punch--(1) To herd cattle; to take care of cattle. (2) To forcibly drive sheep up hills when they are tired (New Zealand). (3) See Leather Punch.

Punk--(1) A small, scrubby horse. (2) Partly decayed wood.

Punkies--A bloodsucking midge of the genus Culicoides, family Tendipedidae, which occurs in some wooded or marsh areas. Also called no-seeum, sand fly.

Pupa--(Plural, pupae) The stage between the larva and the adult in insects with complete metamorphosis, a nonfeeding and usually inactive stage.

Pure Line--A strain of organism that is comparatively pure genetically (homozygous) because of continued inbreeding, etc.

Pure Strain--An animal that is similar to a purebred but the breeding program usually involves a greater degree of inbreeding.

Purebred--Designating an animal belonging to one of the recognized breeds of livestock. Such animals are registered or eligible for registry in the official herdbook of the breed. Purebred, registered, and pedigree stock are often used interchangeably, and Thoroughbred is often improperly used for purebred.

Purebred Breeder--A person who raises purebred animals, that may or may not be pedigreed.

Purebreeding--The practice of breeding animals from within the same breed or line; the production of purebreds.

Purgative--A medicinal agent that actively empties the bowels. Aloes, arecoline, and calomel are examples of laxatives, drastic purgatives, and cholagogue purgatives.

Purpura Hemorrhagica--An acute or subacute toxemic infection of horses marked by a rapid onset, small hemorrhages of the skin and body membranes, and swellings under the skin in many parts of the body.

Purulent--Referring to pus, as a purulent discharge.

Pus--The material produced at the site of an infection consisting of tissue fluids, white blood cells, dead tissue cells, and microorganisms.

Push-in Cage--A cage used to introduce a new queen bee into a colony. A 4-inch square of ordinary screen wire is bent along each edge and the corners clipped to form four sides, making a wire cage that is placed over the queen in an area of emerging brood and pushed into the face of the comb.

Pustule--Small elevation of the skin filled with pus or lymph.

Put Off--To lack the desire to copulate, as a bull.

Putrefaction--Decomposition of animal or vegetable matter, produced by microorganisms in the absence of oxygen.

Putrescible--Organic matter capable of putrefaction.

Putrid--Decomposed, rotten; said of organic materials.

Pyelonephritis--Inflammation of the kidney and the pelvis.

Pyemia--A generalized infection in the bloodstream caused by pyogenic organisms resulting in the occurrence of numerous abscesses in various parts of the body.

Pygostyle--The flesh-covered, triangular bone plate formed by the union of vertebrae at the posterior extremity of a bird's body that supports the main tail feathers. Not found in rumpless fowls.


Pyometra--Condition in which pus is present in a sealed uterus.

Pyridoxine--Vitamin B6, which appears to be necessary for the normal growth of chickens and pigs and for the prevention of a type of nerve disorder. Its distribution in ordinary feeds is fair.



Quadrivalent--In genetics, a group of four associated homologous chromosomes.

Quadruped--An animal that walks on four legs.

Quail--Any of the various species of small upland, gallinaceous game birds belonging to the genus Coturnix and allied genera of the family odontophoridae, found in many parts of the world and often erroneously called partridge. Adapted to agricultural lands, they are seldom regarded as a nuisance and are frequently propagated for game purposes. The North American bobwhite quail, Colinus virginianus, is common in the central and eastern United States. The California quail, valley quail, and mountain quail are common in the western United States.

Qualitative Traits--Traits having a sharp distinction between phenotypes, and which are usually controlled by only a few genes; e.g., various coat colors and the horned trait in domestic animals.

Quality Grade--Grade given a beef carcass; closely related to marbling, age of the animal, and color of the lean. The most common quality grades are prime, choice, select, and standard.

Quantitative Traits--Traits that do not have a sharp distinction between phenotypes, and usually require some kind of measuring tools to make the distinctions. These traits are normally controlled by many pairs of genes; e.g., growth rate, milk production, and carcass quality. See Genotype, Phenotype.

Quarantine--(1) A regulation under police power for the exclusion or isolation of animal and plant pests or diseases and insects: (a) the isolation of an animal sick with a contagious disease; (b) a place where the sick are detained away form other animals until the danger of spread of a contagious disease has disappeared. In its wider application, the quarantine may be enforced against an individual animal, against all the animals, or all the animals of the same species, in a township, county, or state, and against those in a foreign country. (2) Prohibition to prevent the introduction or spread of any dangerous insects or plant diseases.

Quarter--(1) In slaughtering for meat, one half of the side of beef, as the forequarter or hindquarter. (2) Pertaining to a horseshoe, the branch between the last nail hole and the heel. (3) A unit of weight: (a) one-quarter cwt. (25 pounds) (avoirdupos); (b) eight bushels, formerly one-quarter ton (especially of grain). (4) A quarter section of land, or 160 acres. (5) A section of the bovine udder.

Quarter Boot--A leather piece fitted around a horse's forefoot to prevent self-injury from striking with the hind foot.

Quarter Clip--A clip on the shoe for the hind hoof of a horse. The clips are placed on the quarters of the shoe on the outside or inside to prevent the shoe from shifting laterally on the foot.

Quarter Crack--A vertical split in the wall of the hoof of a horse that results from improper hoof growth or shoeing. Also called sand crack.

Quarters--(1) The parts of the body of a horse or other quadruped above the legs, as the breast and hips. (2) Place used to house workers on plantations or ranches. (3) Farm or ranch housing for domestic animals.

Queen Bee--A fully developed, mated female bee, larger and longer than a worker bee, whose function is to lay eggs. Formerly, it was believed that the queen bee was a male. See Drone, Worker.

Queen Breeder--One who breeds queen bees commercially or experimentally. Queen cells are removed from the cell building colony and introduced into the nuclei, which are placed in queen mating yards.

Queen Cell--A special, elongated, wax cell resembling a peanut shell in which the queen bee is reared. It is usually at the bottom of the comb.

Queen Cup--The beginnings of a queen cell in which the queen may lay a fertile egg to start the rearing of another queen.

Queen Excluder--Device usually made of wood and wire, with an opening of 0.163 inch, to permit worker bees to pass through but excludes queens and drones. Used to restrict the queen to certain parts of the hive.

Queen Substance--Pheromone material secreted from glands in the queen bee and transmitted throughout the colony by workers. It makes the workers aware of the presence of a queen. See Pheromone.

Queen-cage Candy--Candy made of powdered sugar, sugar syrup or honey, kneaded until it forms a stiff dough, used as a food in queen bee shipping cages.

Queenlessness--A condition of a beehive that has lost its queen. This emergency results in swarming.

Queenright Colony--A honeybee colony with a queen.

Quick Coupler--(1) A coupler used with a portable irrigation pipe that, through the use of split gaskets expanding under increased water pressure, effects a water seal between itself and the coupled section of pipe. (2) A device used to connect hydraulic hoses that allows the hoses to be connected quickly.

Quick Freezing--Freezing of products, fruits, vegetables, poultry, meat, dairy products, etc., for preservation under conditions in which the temperature of the product is lowered from 28[degrees]F to-15[degrees]F within 30 minutes.

Quick Heat--Lack of the usual nervousness, such as riding and other symptoms, that cows display when in heat.

Quill--The hollow, horny part of a feather.

Quittor--A discharging sore on the coronet of a horse's hoof; necrosis of the lateral cartilage of the third phalanx.


Rabbit--Any of certain small mammals of the family Leporidae. Hare and rabbit are often used interchangeably. However the biologist classifies the rabbit as having shorter and smaller legs and ears, and giving birth to naked and helpless young with eyes closed, while the newborn hare has fur and is quite capable of caring for itself.

Rabbit Coop--A wire cage used to contain rabbits for feeding, breeding, and show purposes. Also known as a hutch. See Rabbit Hutch.

Rabbit Feed--A prepared feed which usually consists of ground corn, oats, bran, oil meal, beet pulp, molasses, minerals, and vitamins, usually pressed into pellets.

Rabbit Hutch--An off-the-floor cage or box for raising rabbits.

Rabbit Pox--An acute eruptive disease of laboratory rabbits, caused by a virus related to vacinia virus.

Rabbit Test--(1) A pregnancy test in which virgin female rabbits are used. (2) A test for sweet clover poisoning in which rabbits are fed sweet clover hay and if no injurious effects appear the hay is considered safe for cattle.

Rabbit-proof Fence--A fence of special design which is placed around cultivated fields in New South Wales, Victoria, and Western Australia to keep out rabbits which have overrun the country and have become a very serious pest.

Rabies--An infectious disease caused by a filterable virus which is communicable by means of a bite in which saliva containing the virus enters the wound. It occurs most frequently in dogs, but many other animals and people are quite susceptible. Also called hydrophobia or canine madness.

Race--(1) A group of individual plants which have certain common characteristics because of ancestry. It is generally considered a subdivision of a species; frequently used in plant breeding. (2) Pathogens of the same species and variety which are structurally indistinguishable but which differ in their physiological behavior, especially in their ability to parasitize varieties of a given host. (3) The channel that leads water to or from a waterwheel, the former is the head race and the latter the tail race. (4) A narrow passage or fenced land in a sheep yard for branding, dipping, etc. (5) An elongated white mark on the face of a horse or dog.

Racing Snaffle Bit--A bridle joint with one joint in the center of the mouthpiece which is especially designed for horse racing.

Rack--(1) The gait of a horse in which only one foot touches the ground at any one time, producing a four-beat gait. (2) A frame attached to a truck or wagon for the transportation of hay, tobacco, etc. (3) The rib portion of a sheep carcass. (4) A framework for holding feed for cattle, swine, sheep, etc., with upright partitions so that the animal can insert its head between the partitions and have access to the feed. (5) A frame placed in a stream to prevent the passage of fish. (6) A frame placed at the entrance to a sump pump to remove debris that would clog the pump.

Rack Hay Drying--A method of drying hay in which the freshly cut hay is placed on wooden racks built up off the ground. The method is used most often in small-scale operations in developing countries.

Raddle--The coloring smeared on the chest of a ram to mark ewes when they have mated.

Radical--A group of different elements acting as a single unit in a chemical reaction; normally incapable of separate existence. A radical may be negatively charged, positively charged, or without a charge.

Radioacative Tracers--Small quantities of radioactive isotope mixed with larger amounts of the corresponding stable isotope to be used as labels. Since the stable and radioactive isotope act chemically and biologically in the same manner, as the radioactive one is readily detected.

Radioactivated Milk--Milk treated by cathode rays through special electrical equipment which sterilizes the milk without a sensible rise in the temperature. Also called cold sterilization.

Radius Cruising--The distance between locations at which an individual animal is found at various hours of the day, at various seasons, or at times during various years.

Ragged--Of the fur or hair of animals, shaggy, rough, and hanging in tufts.

Ragged Hips--Irregular or poorly conformed rear quarters of an animal.

Raise--To grow or produce, as to raise corn or cattle.

Raised by Hand--Designating young lambs or other livestock fed from birth out of bottles, specially built pails, etc., in contrast to those nursed from birth by the dam.

Rales--Abnormal lung sounds in cases of pneumonia or lung inflammation.

Ram--A male sheep which has not been castrated, usually used for breeding.

Ram Jacket--A jacket, designed to prevent coitus (breeding), placed on a ram to permit it to run with the flock before the breeding season.

Ram Lamb--A male sheep under one year of age.

Ram Service--The fee charged for the breeding of a ewe.

Rambouillet--A fine wool breed of sheep first developed in France from earlier Spanish Merinos. It is a good wool and mutton breed very popular in the sheep section of the western range in the United States.

Ranch--An expression used mostly in the western United States to describe a tract of land, including land and facilities, used for the production of livestock. Accepted western usage generally refers to the headquarters facilities, pastures, and other land as the ranch, as distinguished from range. Loosely defined, a ranch also may be a small western farm, such as a fruit ranch or a chicken ranch.

Ranch Cattle--Any of the several crossbred varieties of cattle raised as beef animals; e.g., the Santa Gertrudis; the Beefmaster, a three-way cross of Brahman (Zebu), Herefore, and Shorthorn; and the Brangus, an animal which is about 37 percent Brahman (Zebu) and 63 percent Aberdeen Angus. Others include the Braford, a cross between the Brahman (Zebu) and the Hereford; and the Charbray, an animal 12.5 to 25 percent Brahman, the main strain being Charolais. The purpose of this crossbreeding has been to produce beef animals better adapted to tropical climates and more resistant to tick fever.

Rancid--Designating an offensive smell or taste resulting from the chemical transformation or putrefaction of fat, butter, milk, ice cream, and other products.

Random Mating--A mating system with no selection where every male has an equal chance of mating with every female.

Random Sample--A sample taken without bias from an area or from a population in which every part has an equal chance of being taken, in contrast to systematic sampling.

Rang Utilization--(1) For a single plant or species, the degree to which the foliage or herbage has been removed in percentage of the current growth within reach of livestock. (2) For an entire range, the relative amount eaten.

Range Band--A large flock of sheep handled as one unit on the range.

Range Bull--A bull used for breeding purposes on a range.

Range Calving--Permitting cows to drop their calves on the range under approximately natural conditions of shelter and forage.

Range Caterpillar--Hemileuca oliviae, family Saturniidae; a range pest on wild grasses in the southwestern United States, which sometimes infests corn and other cultivated plants. Its larvae are covered with coarse, poisonous spines.

Range Cattle--Cattle raised under range conditions.

Range Condition--(1) The state of health or productivity of both soil and forage of a given range in terms of what it could or should be under a normal climate and under the best practicable management. (2) An animal that is in a sufficient state of health or condition to be kept on the range.

Range Count--A census made on a range of the animals using a grazing area as contrasted to feedlot, corral, driveway, or other similar counts.

Range Crane Fly--Tipula simplex, family Tipulidae; an insect whose dark, leathery maggots bore into and destroy plant roots. It is sometimes destructive on the ranges of southwestern United States.

Range Ecology--The specialized branch of ecology which deals with vegetational response to environmental factors on rangeland, especially with the effects of grazing.

Range Forage--Forage produced on rangeland. See Cured Forage, Forage, Green Forage.

Range Grasses--Grass vegetation on the range areas. There are three types recognized in western United States; (a) tall grasses, such as big bluestem; (b) medium grasses, such as wheatgrass; (c) short grasses, such as buffalograss and blue grama grass.

Range Improvement--Physical development such as a structure (fencing) or excavation (water holes) to facilitate management of range or livestock. Generally measures to manipulate species composition and density such as revegetation, controlled burning, chemical or mechanical control of undesirable plants to increase the grazing capacity of range or increase its usefulness for watershed, wildlife habitat, or recreation.

Range Indicator--Any plant community portraying the condition of its environment which can be used as an indicator for the condition of a range.

Range Kidding--Permitting does (goats) to drop their kids on the range under approximately natural conditions of shelter and forage. See Kid House.

Range Lambing--Permitting ewes (sheep) to drop their lambs on the range under approximately natural conditions of shelter and forage.

Range Paralysis--See Fowl Paralysis.

Range Readiness--The stage of growth of the important palatable plants on the range and the condition of soil which permits grazing without undue compacting of the soil or endangering the maintenance of the plants.

Range Renovation--Improving rangeland by discing or other mechanical means, chemical treatment, or reseeding.

Range Reseeding--See Range Seeding.

Range Seeding--The process of establishing vegetation by the mechanical dissemination of seed.

Range Sheep--Sheep handled in bands of one to two thousand on a range.

Range Suitability--The adaptability of a range to grazing by livestock and/or game.

Range Type--An area of range which differs from other areas primarily by the difference in plant cover, such as grassland, browse, or conifer. One vegetation group can be distinguished from another group by difference of dominating species.

Range Wool--Wool produced under range conditions in the West and Southwest. With the exception of "Texas" and "California" wools, it is usually classified as "Territory" wool.

Range-raised--Designating livestock raised on the range.

Rangeland--(1) Land on which the natural plant cover is composed principally of native grasses, forbs, or shrubs valuable for forage. (2) Land used for grazing by livestock and big game animals on which the natural potential climax community of plants is dominated by grasses, grasslike plants, forbs, and shrubs.

Rangy--Designating an animal that is long, lean, leggy, and not too muscular in appearance.

Ranny--A poor-quality calf.

Ranting--The restless activity of a boar as it matures sexually and as the breeding season approaches. It is usually accompanied by loss of appetite and weight.

Rasorial--Referring to the animals which scratch the ground to obtain food, as a fowl.

Rat--Rattus, family Muridae; a long-tailed rodent which is much larger than a mouse. A serious pest, it is very destructive to stored food and may carry disease.

Rat Bite Fever--A disease caused by the flagellated organism Spierillum minus carried by rats and transmitted to people by their bites. Characterized by severe intermittent attacks, the ailment is not contagious. Especially prevalent in Japan.

Rat Poison--(1) A poison for rats obtained from the seed of a shrub, Chailletia toxicaria, native to West Africa. (2) Hamelia erecta, family Rubiaceae; a tall evergreen shrub, bearing scarlet or orange flowers and small, purple-red fruit, sometimes grown as an ornamental in warm areas. Native to tropical America. Also called scarlet bush.

Rate of Genetic Improvement--Rate of improvement of an animal per unit of time (year). The rate of improvement is dependent on: (a) heritability of traits considered; (b) selection differentials; (c) genetic correlations among traits considered; (d) generation interval in the herd; and (e) the number of traits of which selections are made.

Rate of Growth--(1) The rate at which a tree has laid on wood, measured radially in the trunk or in timber cut from the trunk. (The unit of measure in use is the number of annual growth rings per inch.) (2) The rate at which a young animal increases weight and height.

Ration--The feed allowed an animal during a 24-hour period regardless of whether it is fed at one time or at different times.

Ration of Maintenance--The feed which is necessary to maintain the body of an animal.

Ratios--Performance of an animal compared with its contemporaries, with 100 being average. Ratios greater than 100 are above average, and less than 100 are below average.

Rattail--(1) A slim, hairless tail of a horse. (2) A small, round, tapered file.

Rattle--A wholesale cut of meat made from the arm, shank, brisket, and short plate.

Raw Bone Meal--The dried, ground product suitable for animal feeding obtained by cooking undecomposed bone in water at just enough atmospheric pressure to remove excess fat and meat. Because of incomplete cooking, raw bone meal contains more than 23 percent protein and is lower in calcium and phosphorus than the steamed bone meal. It has limited use as a calcium and phosphorus supplement for livestock.

Raw Milk--Fresh, untreated milk as it comes from the cow.

Raw Wool--Wool prior to the removal of the grease.

Rawhide--Undressed skin of cattle.

Rawhide Bit--A bit made of rawhide used in the breaking of horses to protect the mouth.

Rawhide Hackamore--A bitless bridle or halter made of rawhide, used chiefly in the breaking of horses.

Rawhide Quirt--A riding whip made of rawhide.

Ray Fungus--Actinomyces bovis; an organism widely distributed in nature which may enter the tissue of the various organs of the animal causing swelling of either the bone or soft tissue. The infection usually reaches the surface so that fistulae are established and pus-producing organisms gain entrance. It is the cause of lumpy jaw in cattle.

Razorback--(1) A type of hog with long legs and snout, sharp narrow back, and lean body; usually a half-wild mongrel breed (southern United States). (2) A sharp-ridged spur or hill.

Reach--Difference between the average merit of a herd or flock, in one or several traits, and the average merit of those selected to be parents of the next generation.

Reaction--(1) A change in a market trend. (2) The degree of acidity or alkalinity (e.g., of a soil mass) expressed in pH values and in words as follows: extremely acid, below 4.5; very strongly acid, 4.5-5.5; medium acid, 5.6-6.0; slightly acid 6.1-6.5; neutral, 6.6-7.3 (strictly, 7.0); mildly alkaline, 7.4-8.0; strongly alkaline, 8.1-9.0; very strongly alkaline, over 9.1.

Reactor--(1) Especially in testing for a disease, an animal which reacts positively to a foreign substance: e.g., a tuberculous animal would be a reactor to tuberculin. (2) The apparatus in which nuclear fission takes place.

Ready-to-Eat Ham--A ham cooked until the interior reaches 155[degrees]F and held at that temperature or above for a further 2 hours.

Reagent--Any substance involved in a chemical action.

Rearing--To care for and support up to maturity, as to raise animals or fish to adults.

Reata--Lariat; a kind of strong Mexican rope made by twisting thongs of hide together, used in roping cattle on western ranges (United States).

Recessive--In genetics, a gene or trait which is masked by a dominant gene.

Reclaimed Wool--Wool that is reclaimed from new or old fabrics.

Reconstitute--To restore to the original form or condition by adding water, as reconstituted milk.

Reconstituted Milk--The product which results from the recombining of milk fat and nonfat dry milk or dried whole milk with water in proportions to yield the constituent percentages occurring in normal milk.

Rectovaginal--Pertaining to the rectum and vagina.

Rectrix--A feather in the tail of a bird.

Rectum--The terminal or lower part of the intestine which ends at the anus.

Recurrent Fever--An infectious viral disease of the horse which is characterized by extreme prostration, swelling in the lower parts of the body, jaundice, a pounding heart, and easy exhaustion. Also called swamp fever, infectious anemia, creeping fever.

Red--A common coat color for several species of animals which may range from dark red, deep rich-red, blood-red, golden-red, light red, or yellow-red. Shades of red are most common in cattle.

Red Danish--A dairy breed of cattle developed in Denmark. In color it is red to brindle. Individuals are heavy milk producers.

Red Dysentery--See Cocciciosis.

Red Mange--A skin disease of dogs caused by Demodix canis, family Demodicidae, a mite that lives deep in the hair follicles and produces bare, inflamed spots about the eyes, ears, and joints. Also called demodectic mange, follicular mange.

Red Meat--Refers generally to the meat of cattle, sheep, hogs, and goats as opposed to that of poultry or fish.

Red Milk--A red color of milk caused by: (a) the bacterium Serratia marcescens, a common soil or dirt contaminant, which grows and produces a red pigment that appears first on the top of the milk and then develops throughout; (b) pink yeasts such as Torula rosea and T. glutinis, which produce spotty, red pigment in the cream layer; and (c) the presence of blood, as in acute mastitis or udder injury, which tends to settle to the bottom as the milk stands. Red milk caused by yeasts and bacteria is also referred to as red fermentation of milk.

Red Nose--An infectious rhinotracheitis usually found in feeder cattle, characterized by light-colored sometimes bloody nasal discharge, accompanied by drooling, coughing, and a red nose.

Red Polled--A dual-purpose breed of cattle common to central United States which originated in Norfolk and Suffolk counties in England. Animals are red and polled, and mature cows weigh 1,200 to 1,400 pounds with average milk production.

Red Roan--A coat color of horses and cattle, which is a bay, chestnut, or brown with a red background color.

Red Sindhi--A milking strain of Brahman cattle of India used by the United States Department of Agriculture in breeding experiments to develop better dairy cattle for southern United States. See Ranch Cattle.

Red Worms--Stongylus, family Strongylidae; nematodes which infest the large intestine of equines. Their red color is due to the presence of hemoglobin in the bodies of the worms, and not to blood sucked from their hosts.

Redia--A larval stage in the development of flukes. Redia of liver flukes of cattle, sheep, and goats occurs in snails. See Liver Flukes.

Reflex Ovulation--Ovulation that is triggered by the sexual act. Only a few animals do this, including the rabbit, and in these animals ovulation generally will not take place without such stimulus.

Registered--An animal whose name, along with the name and number of its sire (father) and dam (mother), has been recorded in the record books of its breed association. The association gives the animal a number, known as a registration number. The association also issues a certificate known as a registration certificate showing that the animal has been registered.

Registration Certificate--A paper issued by a breed association which shows that a particular animal has been registered.

Registry Number--A number assigned to a particular purebred animal that has been registered with a breed association.

Regrassing--Reestablishing grass on areas where it was once prevalent but had been killed out by overgrazing or by some environmental condition, such as drought.

Regression--(1) Destruction of the vegetation, as by fire, grazing, cutting, etc., usually with subsequent deterioration of the site, as by exposure, erosion, or loss of nutrients, to such extent as to give rise to a subsequent simpler vegetative type. It is not a true succession or development from forest to grassland, but a replacement as a consequence of complete destruction of the trees, etc. (2) Measure of the relationship between two variables. The value of one trait can be predicted by knowing the value of the other variable; e.g., easily obtained carcass traits (hot carcass weight, fat thickness, ribeye area, and percent of internal fat) are used to predict percent cutability.

Regurgitate--To return undigested food from the stomach to the mouth, as by ruminants. See Cud.

Rein--To control, check, stop, guide, or back up a horse or horses with the reins.

Reins--The part of a horse's harness fastened to each side of the bit or curb by which the rider or driver directs and controls it.

Reinsemination--To repeat the process of insemination.

Relaxin--An ovarian hormone produced at the time of parturition that is thought to aid in the relaxation of the birth canal.

Remnant Teeth--The first premolar teeth of the horse which usually remain embedded under the gum but which occasionally erupt. Also called wolf teeth.

Remount--A fresh horse used to substitute for another worn out or otherwise incapacitated horse. The term was once used to denote horses raised for government purchase as cavalry horses.

Remuda--A collection or string of broken horses.

Render--To extract, separate, or clarify by melting, as to render lard or fat.

Rendering Wax--Melting old combs and wax cappings and removing refuse to partially refine the beeswax. May be put through a wax press as part of the process.

Rennet--An extract of rennin; a digestive ferment secured from the fourth stomach of suckling calves which is used as a milk coagulant in cheese making. See Rennin.

Rennet Curd--The curd produced in milk by rennet action either as a result of specific bacterial growth or by direct addition of a rennet solution.

Rennet Stomach--The abomasum.

Rennets--The salted or dried stomachs of suckling calves, pigs, or lambs.

Rennin--A coagulant enzyme occurring particularly in the gastric juice of cows, and also in some plants and lower animals. See Rennet.

Repeatability--The tendency of animals to repeat themselves in certain performance traits in successive seasons, pregnancies, or lactations.

Replacement Animal--A young animal that is being raised to take the place of an older animal that is being culled.

Reprocessed Wool--Reprocessed wool comprises scraps and clips of woven and felted fabrics made of previously unused wool. These remnants are "garnetted"; i.e., shredded back into a fibrous state and used in the manufacture of woolens.

Reproduce--(1) Of animals, to bring forth young. (2) Of plants, to bear fruit and seeds.

Reproduction--(1) The production of offspring by organized bodies. (2) The creation of a similar object or situation; duplication; replication. Asexual reproduction; reproduction from vegetative parts. Sexual reproduction; reproduction by the fusion of a female sexual cell and a male sexual cell. Parthogenic reproduction; reproduction by the development of an unfertilized egg.

Reproductive System--The organs of the body, either male or female, concerned with producing offspring.

Repulsion--In genetics, the condition in which an individual heterozygous for two pairs of linked genes receives the dominant member of one pair from one parent and the dominant member of the second pair from the other parent; e.g., AAbb x aaBB.

Requeen--To replace a queen in a hive. Usually to replace an old queen with a young one.

Research--All effort directed toward increased knowledge of natural phenomena and the environment and toward the solution of problems in all fields of science. This includes basic and applied research. Much of the agricultural productivity of the United States is directly the result of applying research.

Reserve--(1) Any tract of land, especially public land, set aside for some special use; e.g., forest reserve, school reserve. Also called reservation. (2) A tree or group of trees left uncut on an area for a period, usually a second rotating. After the stand is reproduced, naturally or artificially, an active stand which is held for future utilization.

Reserve Champion--In the show ring, the best animal in a group of first prize animals after the champion has been selected.

Reservoir Host--An animal in which an infectious agent lives and multiplies and depends upon primarily for survival. The reservoir host is usually not greatly affected by the infectious agent that it harbors.

Residual--(1) Remaining in place after all but the least soluble constituents have been removed. Said of the material eventually resulting from the decomposition of rocks. (2) Standing, as a remnant of a formerly greater mass of rock or area of land, above a surrounding area which has been eroded. Said of some rocks, hills, mountains, mesas, plateaus, and groups of such features. (3) Soil developed in place from underlying bedrock. See Monadnock.

Resistant--Designating a plant or animal capable of withstanding disease, inclement weather, or other adverse environmental conditions.

Respiration--(1) A chemical process that takes place in living cells whereby food (fats, carbohydrates, and proteins) is "burned" (oxidized) to release energy and waste products, mainly carbon dioxide and water. Living things use energy produced through respiration to drive vital life processes such as growth and reproduction. (2) The oxidation of carbohydrates in living organisms and the attendant release of energy and liberation of carbon dioxide and water. (3) In animals, the act of breathing; the drawing of air into the lungs and its exhalation. In small organisms with no special breathing organs, the process takes place over a large part of the body surface.

Responsive Mouth--Designating a horse so trained that it easily obeys commands given by means of the reins.

Rest-rotation Grazing--An intensive system of management whereby grazing is deferred on various parts of the range during succeeding years, allowing the deferred part complete rest for one year. Two or more units are required. Control by fencing is usually necessary on cattle range, but may be obtained by herding on sheep ranges.

Rested Pasture--Pasture ungrazed for an entire growing season.

Resting Area--A sheltered area of loose housing where cows are bedded but not fed. The manure is allowed to accumulate during all or a part of the year. Also called bedded area, loafing area, lounging area.

Resting Pasture--A pasture not grazed by livestock.

Restricted Feeding--A system of feeding poultry whereby feed is provided only during certain periods of the day. See Free-choice Feeding.

Restriction Enzymes--Enzymes used in genetic engineering to remove a gene from a piece of DNA.

Restructured Meats--Meat processed by cutting or shredding it into small flakes and then running the flakes through a special forming machine to produce the desired form. The meat flakes are bound together by extracting meat protein from the flakes, or by using a non-meat binder when running flakes through the forming machine. Tenderness and texture of the meat are influenced by the temperature and flake size. Advantages include cheaper price and quick cooking with dry heat. Forms used include chip steak, steak cutlet, and turkey ham.

Resuscitator--A device that is placed over the mouth and nostrils of a newborn animal to help the animal start breathing.

Retail Cuts--Cuts of meat that are ready for purchase and use by the consumer.

Retail Dairy--A type of dairy plant concerned primarily with the distribution and selling of milk and milk products directly to the consumer.

Retained Afterbirth--See Retained Placenta.

Retained Placenta--The fetal membranes or afterbirth which a mammal mother fails to expel normally within a few hours after her young is born.

Retaining Pen--A pen for holding cattle, sheep, and hogs at the time of dehorning, shearing, dipping, or weighing.

Rete Testis--A network of tubules located inside the testis in the mediastinum connecting the seminiferous tubules to the efferent ducts.

Reticuloendothelial System--A widely spread network of cells in the body concerned with blood cell formation, bile formation, and engulfing or trapping of foreign materials, which includes cells of bone marrow, lymph, spleen, and liver.

Reticulum--The second compartment of the ruminant stomach, where bacterial digestion continues. Has a honeycomb-textured lining, so is often called the honeycomb. See Abomasum, Omasum, Rumen.

Retinol--See Vitamin A.

Retired to Pasture--Designating an animal whose productive life has ended and which is turned out to graze.

Retired to the Stud--Designating a horse which no longer races but is retained for breeding purposes.

Retractor Muscle--Part of the male reproductive system which helps extend the penis from the sheath and draws it back after copulation.

Reused Wool--Also called shoddy; made from old wool which has actually been worn or used, including the rags and miscellaneous old clothing collected by rag dealers. These are cleaned and shredded into fibers again, and then blended to make utility fabrics. The consumer has no way of telling how much the original desirable qualities of wool have been impaired by this previous use.

Reverse Osmosis--(1) An external force is used to reverse normal osmotic flow through a semipermeable membrane, resulting in movement of water from a solution of higher solute concentration to one of lower solute concentration. See Osmosis. (2) A process of desalination of seawater whereby only pure water passes through a fine membrane while the salts cannot pass through.

Reworked Wool--Refers to wool that has been previously used. See Mungo, Reused Wool, Shoddy.

Rheum--See Catarrh.

Rhinitis--Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose.

Rhinitis Atrophic--A disease affecting the upper respiratory tract of the pig which causes atrophy of the turbinate bone and frequently distortion of the snout. Affected pigs usually grow at a slower rate than normal.

Rhode Island Red--A breed of domestic chickens of the American class. Single-comb Rhode Island Reds are hardy, dual-purpose birds, bred largely for egg production but with consideration for meat qualities. Individuals are oblong in appearance with relatively long, flat backs, rich red plumage, yellow skin, and yellow shanks tinged with reddish horn. Mature cocks weight about 81/2 pounds, mature hens about 61/2 pounds. The eggshell is brown. The Rose-Comb variety is less commonly raised.

Rhode Island White--A breed of medium-weight chickens of the American class. Individuals have a rose comb and white plumage. The shape and weight specifications are the same as for the Rhode Island Red. It is not a commonly raised breed.

Riata--See Lariat.

Rib--(1) (a) A cut of meat made from five to eight ribs depending upon the method of cutting the forequarter. (b) Any cut of meat which comes from the rib section, as a rib roast. (2) In judging of livestock, spring of rib indicates conformation and vigor. (3) That which resembles a rib in form or use, as a piece of timber to which boards are fastened. (4) To divide a side of beef into a fore and hind quarter. (5) A prominent vein.

Rib Eye--Main muscle exposed when carcass is separated into front and hindquarters. Area of rib eye, sometimes called loin eye, at 12th rib; used as indication of muscling.

Rib Eye Grid--A clear sheet of plastic that has a grid of dots that represents 0.1 inch per dot. A grader places the grid on the rib eye of a beef carcass and counts the number of dots that are over red meat. The total of the dots counted represents the size of the rib eye in square inches. Rib eye size is used as a factor in determining yield grade.

Ribbed-up--Said of a horse on which the back ribs are well arched and incline well backwards, brining the ends closer to the point of the hip and making the horse shorter in coupling.

Riboflavin--Vitamin [B.sub.2]; lactoflavin; [C.sub.17] [H.sub.20] [N.sub.4] [O.sub.6]; an essential nutrient for people and animals, riboflavin functions as a coenzyme concerned with oxidative processes. It promotes the growth of rats, prevents the occurrence of a nutritional cataract in rats, and prevents a specific dermatitis in turkeys.

Riboflavin Supplement--A feed material used chiefly for its riboflavin content which shall contain not less than 1,000 mg of riboflavin per pound according to the tentative method of analysis of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists. The label shall bear a statement of origin.

Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)--The substance in the living cells of all organisms that carries genetic information needed to form protein in the cell.

Rice Hull--A product which consists of the outer covering of the rice. It is low in digestible nutrients and unpalatable, but if well-ground may be used as a low-grade roughage for livestock.

Rice Meal--A livestock feedstuff consisting of ground brown rice.

Rice Straw--The straw remaining after threshing rice. If well cured, it may be fed in the same manner as straw from the other cereals.

Rice Water--A product made by boiling rice grain to a pulp and mixing it with water; especially useful as a drink for horses suffering from diarrhea after exertion.

Rice-Fish Rotation--The alternation of rice and fish crops. Rice fields, which would ordinarily lie fallow and idle, are flooded and made to produce a crop of fish for one or two years. In addition to yielding income from the fish, the land is rested and enriched for the following rice crop.

Rickets--Caused by a deficiency of vitamin D and sunshine, and dysfunction of the parathyroid glands, especially in infancy. The result is subnormal calcium utilization, poor bone development, bowed legs, formation of nodular enlargements on the bones, muscular pain, and sweating of the head.

Rickettsia--A group of microorganisms that are intermediate in size to bacteria and viruses; they survive by reproducing in the cells of larger organisms in much the same way as do viruses.

Rickety--(1) Having rickets. Also called rachitic. (2) Designating an unstable building or old, infirm animal.

Ride--(1) To mount a horse for going from one place to another. (2) To push down a fence, as a cow. (3) To mount a cow, as another cow indicating heat.

Ride Bareback--To ride without a saddle.

Ride Fence--Regularly to inspect range boundary fences for damage or for loss of cattle (western United States).

Ride Herd--To attend cattle on the range.

Ridgeling--Any male animal whose testicles fail to descend normally into the scrotum. See Cryptorchid.

Riding Crop--A short whip used by horseback riders.

Riding Down--Pushing over of small trees, shrubs, and fences by livestock in order to reach and browse in the foliage.

Riding Horse--A horse which is specially bred and trained to be ridden.

Riding Stable--A stable where saddle horses are maintained by the individual owners or are offered for hire by the management.

Rift Valley Fever--An acute arthropod-borne viral disease of sheep, cattle, and goats causing high mortality in young lambs, calves, and kids and abortion in pregnant females.

Rigging Ring--The ring attached to the saddle tree for a cinch.

Rigor Mortis--A physiological process following the death of an animal in which the muscles stiffen and lock into place.

Rind--(1) A hard coating caused by the desiccation of the surface of cheese. (2) Skin of an animal, especially of a hog, as a pork rind. (3) Skin of a fruit or vegetable. (4) Bark of a tree. (5) To remove the skin.

Rinderpest--A specific, acute, lethal, and inoculable viral disease of cattle, characterized by an ulcerative inflammation of the mucous membranes, especially of the alimentary tract, fever, dullness, drooping head, loss of appetite, grinding the teeth, red eyes, and red nasal discharge. Not observed in the United States. Also called cattle plague.

Ring--(1) A cut or girdle around the trunk, branches, or roots of a tree. See Girdle. (2) Annual growth ring of a tree. See Annual Ring. (3) (a) A circular band of metal or wood, as the metal ring in the nose of a bull. (b) To place a ring through the cartilage of the nose of an animal; e.g., to prevent a hog from harmful rooting or to control a bull, etc. (4) (a) A circular, metal or plastic band placed on the leg of a fowl for identification purposes. (b) To place a ring on the leg of a fowl. Also called ringing birds. (5) A ridge which encircles the horns of a cow, the number increasing with age. (6) A circular exhibition place for the showing or sale of livestock or the racing of horses.

Ring Bit--A large ring that passes over the lower jaw of the horse which is used as a bit.

Ring Bone--A bony enlargement, involving the pastern bones just above the hoof, which interferes with the action of the joints and tendons, thus causing lameness to an animal. Usually only seen in horses.

Ring Test--A milk test for brucellosis. See Brucellosis.

Ring-eyed--Designating the condition of an albino horse in which the iris of one or both eyes is devoid of the characteristic coloring matter and in which the dark shining lens appears to be surrounded by a ring of white.

Ring-necked Pheasant--Phasianus colchicus torquatus, family Phasianidae; a long-tailed, highly colored, gallinaceous bird with a white ring neck. A highly popular game bird, it is sometimes a nuisance on farms because it pulls young corn plants out of the ground and devours what is left of the kernel. It is also occasionally harmful to vegetable crops, such as tomatoes. Originally from China.

Ringing--(1) Clipping the wool from a breeding ram around the neck, belly, and penis region in order to facilitate proper mating. (2) Putting a ring in the nose of cattle or hogs. (3) Removing a narrow strip of bark from around a branch or tree trunk to encourage fruiting. Only outer bark is removed, and the ring does not extend into the cambium layer.

Ringworm--A skin disease of humans and animals caused by parasitic fungi, usually marked by distinct, circular patches with a scaly appearance.

Ripe--(1) Designating mature seeds which are fit for gemination. (2) Designating fruit which has attained full development. (3) In plant propagation, designating wood that will root well. (4) In grafting, designating that wood which is ready for perfect union. (5) Designating the best condition for use, as ripe cheese, ripe wine.

Ripening--(1) Growing to maturity and being fit for food, as ripe fruit or ripe grain. (2) Bringing to a certain condition for use by keeping, as in wine. (3) Preparing milk or batch mixes for making butter or ice cream either by a natural souring or by the addition of starters. (4) Undergoing an aging process, as in meat.

Ripper--An unusually strong, large horse.

Rising Two--Describing a horse, 11/2 to 2 years old. Also called coming two.

RNA--See Ribonucleic Acid.

Roan--(1) A coat color of a horse that is chestnut or bay or may be red or strawberry roan, blue roan, or chestnut roan depending upon the intermingling of the background colors. (2) Designating the red-white color phase of Shorthorn cattle.

Roarer--A windbroken animal that makes a loud noise in drawing air into the lungs.

Roaring--A defect in the air passage of a horse which causes him to roar or whistle when respiration is forced.

Roaster--A chicken of either sex that weights between 31/2 and 5 pounds and is less than eight months old. See Broiler, Fryer.

Roasting Pig--A pig weighing from 15 to 50 pounds, dressed with the head left on.

Robber Bee--A bee which robs food from another colony.

Robber Fly--A group of flies (family Asilidae) that are predaceous as adults and as larvae. They are generally considered as beneficial except for the species Sparopogon dispar, which preys on honey bees.

Robust--Designating a strong vigorous animal or plant.

Rocker Toe Shoe--A special horseshoe which is used on a horse that stumbles.

Rocky Mountain Crazyweed--Oxytropis saximontana, family Leguminosae; a poisonous plant found from Montana to Utah, United States, whose foliage is poisonous to cattle. Symptoms of poisoning are dullness, irregularity of gait, lack of appetite, dragging of the feet, a solitary habit, loss of flesh, and shaggy coat. As the animal ceases to eat it dies. Native to North America. See Loco.

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever--A disease of people and animals characterized by intermittent chills and fever, painful muscles and joints, and red blotches on the skin. Occurring in the Rocky Mountain area, United States, the Rocky Mountain wood tick is the vector.

Rocky Mountain Wood Tick--Dermacentor andersoni, family Ixodidae; probably the most important tick vector of disease. This tick transmits Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, Colorado tick fever, American Q-fever, and encephalomyelitis and, experimentally, anaplasmosis. Most domestic animals, humans, and numerous wild mammals are its hosts. The stages in the life cycle are egg, larva, nymph, and adult. Larvae and nymphs usually live on small wild animals, mainly rodents; adults attack larger animals and people.

Rodent--A classification of mammals, mostly vegetarians, characterized by their single pair of chisel-shaped, upper incisors. Rodents are members of the orders Rodentia (rats, mice, squirrels, etc.) and Lagomorpha (rabbits, etc.).

Rodenticide--Any poison which is lethal to rodents.

Rodeo--(1) The rounding up of cattle. (2) A public performance presenting features of a cattle round-up, as lariat throwing, bronco riding, and bulldogging.

Roe--The eggs or testes of fish. Consisting of two types, the female eggs (hard roe) and the male testes (soft roe), they are widely used for human consumption; e.g., the salted roe of sturgeon (caviar) is highly valued as a delicacy. see Sturgeon.

Rogue--(1) A seedling or plant of inferior or objectionable quality; a variation from type. (2) A horse without inclination to work or cooperate with its handler. (3) To remove and destroy undesirable plants.

Rolcut Secateurs--An instrument for removing the folds of skin from the crotch of ewes, also used in the bloodless emasculation of calves and lambs.

Roll of Honor--A division in the system of Advanced Registration of Ayrshire Cattle in which a cow must meet certain production requirements in 305 days and give birth to a calf within a specified period.

Rolled-toe Shoe--A type of horseshoe which is used to make the foot action of a horse break over easier by improving action at the pivotal point of the shoe.

Rolling--(1) Excessive side motion of shoulders, common in horses with abnormally wide fronts or chests. (2) A part of seed-bed preparation in which the land is rolled to even out the surface. (3) Processing grain through a set of smooth rollers which are close together; sometimes called flaking.

Roman-nosed--Refers to a horse or other animal having a profile that is convex from poll to muzzle.

Room Temperature--In laboratory work, 68[degrees] to 70[degrees]F (20[degrees] to 21[degrees]C).

Roost--(1) A resting or lodging place for fowls. (2) A group of roosting fowls. (3) To rest upon a roost or perch.

Rooster--Male chicken. Also called cock, cockerel (when under one year of age).

Rooting--(1) The production of roots by a plant. (2) Digging the earth with the snout, as hogs. (3) A root used for propagation. (4) The production of roots by a cutting.

Rope Bridle--A bridle made of rope instead of leather.

Rope Burn--A skin irritation caused by pressure contact and speedy movement of a rope upon the surface of the skin of a human or animal.

Rope Halter--A halter made of rope instead of leather.

Rope Walking--The leg motion in which the horse swings the striding leg around and in front of the supporting leg in walking or running.

Roped--Designating an animal which has been lassoed or tied.

Roper--A cowboy who is skilled with the lasso.

Roper Curved Cheek Bit--A common type of bit that is used on horses that are used for roping.

Roping Horse--A horse trained for use by a rider wielding a lasso.

Rose Chafer Poisoning--A poultry poisoning which is caused when rose chafers or rose beetles are eaten by chickens under ten weeks old.

Rose-comb--A chicken's comb which is low and solid having the upper surface covered with small, rounded points. There is no indentation in the center and there is a spike termination on the rear. See Single Comb.

Ross Test--A test of urine for the presence of ketone bodies, used in detection of acetonemia in cattle and sheep. See Acetonemia.

Rot--A state of decay caused by bacteria or fungi. See Decay.

Rotary Hog Feeder--A round or many-sided feeder which the hog turns with its snout to make grain feed come down from the hopper to the animal for consumption.

Rotated Pasture--(1) A pasture in the regular crop rotation which is grazed for a few years, usually two or three, and then plowed for other crops. (2) A pasture which is divided into segments by use of fences: the livestock being confined to one segment at a time in a definite rotation pattern.

Rotation Grazing--Grazing forage plants on well-managed pastures in such a manner as to allow for a definite recovery period following each grazing period. This includes alternate use of two or more pastures at regular intervals or the use of temporary fences within pastures to prevent overgrazing.

Rotation-deferred Grazing--Grazing under a system where the key plants in one or more range units are rested at planned intervals throughout the growing season, and no unit is grazed more than half of any growing season or at the same time in successive years.

Rotational Crossbreeding--Systems of crossing two or more breeds where the crossbred females are bred to bulls of the breed contributing the least genes to that female's genotype. Rotation systems maintain relatively high levels of heterosis and produce replacement heifers from within the system. Opportunity to select replacement heifers is greater for rotation systems than for other crossbreeding systems.

Rotted Manure--Animal dung which has undergone decay and is safe to use with growing plants.

Rotten--(1) Designating decomposed or putrid organic matter. (2) Designating ground or soil extremely soft and yielding because of decay, or rocks partially decomposed. (3) Designating sheep attacked by rot.

Rough--(1) To remove the major part of the plumage of a fowl leaving scattered feathers for the finisher. (2) In meat judging, designating uneven contour or uneven distribution of fat on a carcass. (3) Designating an uneven piece of land or a road. (4) Designating food of low quality. (5) Designating a horse not properly trained. (6) A calk for the horse's shoe.

Rough Coat--Coarse, tangled, unkempt animal's coat which may indicate lack of thrift or its remaining in the open during the winter.

Roughage--(1) Any food or feed high in fiber and low in digestible nutrients such as many fruits and vegetables, straw, and low-quality vegetation, hay, haylage, and silage. High-quality grass-legume pasturage and high-protein hay are more properly known as forage. (2) In human nutrition, a coarse food containing considerable indigestible material usually in the form of cellulose, as uncooked celery and lettuce.

Round--The center portion of the hindquarter of a beef animal; the cut of beef taken from the round.

Round Feeder--A round hog feeder with doors around the bottom that the hogs lift to obtain feed.

Round Steak--A retail cut of beef for frying, broiling, or braising which comes from the round of beef.

Round-sausage Casing--A casing made from the small intestines of animals.

Round-up--(1) The deliberate gathering of domestic animals, usually range cattle, for branding, fastening ear tags, injections, pesticide applications, inventory, and potential sales. (2) The brand name of a herbicide used as a foliar spray to kill most plants.

Roundworms--Parasites in humans, animals and plants which may cause disease and great economic loss. They vary in size from a fraction of an inch in length and as thin as a silk thread to over a foot in length and as thick as a lead pencil. In people and animals, they inhabit the intestine, but in completing a complex life cycle may infest the blood stream, lungs, windpipe, liver, kidneys, etc. Symptoms vary but in general are those of unthriftiness. See Nematode.

Roup of Fowls--(1) Infections roup caused by Hemophilus gallinerum, characterized by swelling of the sinuses under the eyes and watery discharge from the nostrils. Also called contagious catarrh of fowls. See Infectious Coryza. (2) Nutritional roup, caused by an insufficient amount of vitamin A in the diet, characterized by a whitish exudate in the eye, which may cause serious loss before deficiency is noticed.

Route of Entry--The means by which a hazardous substance enters the body. Common routes are skin contact, eye contact, inhalation, and ingestion.

Rowel--In horseriding, the wheel of a spur with blunt to sharp projecting points.

Royal Jelly--The food supplied by worker bees throughout the developmental period of the larvae destined to become queen bees. Also called bee milk.

Rubber Sleeve--A protective, rubber covering attached to a rubber glove for the hand, arm, and shoulder which is used by veterinarians and artificial inseminators in various phases of their work.

Rubbing Post--Any of several devices consisting mainly of a post set in the ground with a can of oil attached to the top, so arranged that the oil or medicament is allowed to slowly drip or run down the sides of the post so that when hogs or other livestock rub against it a small amount of oil will be deposited on the rubbed or infected area of the skin. Also called hog oilers, livestock oilers.

Rubefaciant--Liniment, plaster, or any substance that produces redness of the skin when applied to it.

Rudimentaries--The teats on a boar.

Rudimentary--Imperfectly developed.

Rudimentary Copulatory Organ--A very small, shiny or glistening eminence in chicks, which is located in the median portion of the fold between the urodaeum and the proteodaeum. By examination of this organ the sex of day-old chicks can be determined.

Rudimentary Teat--An undeveloped teat which may or may not be connected with milk-secreting tissue. It may be attached as a small nipple to the regular teats, an underdeveloped teat behind the regular ones or show up on the male of the species.

Ruffle Fat--The fat that is located between the intestines of an animal.

Rugged--Designating size, strength, and vigor in the body build or conformation of an animal.

Rumen--The largest compartment of the stomach of cattle, sheep, and goats and their relatives; a large amount of bacterial fermentation of feed materials occurs in the rumen; also called the paunch. See Abomasum, Omasum, Reticulum.

Rumen Fistula--A fistula of the rumen or first stomach of a cud-chewing animal.

Rumen Magnet--A smooth oblong magnet that is placed in the rumen to collect small metal objects that are swallowed by the animal during grazing.

Rumenology--A branch of animal science concerned with the study of the rumen.

Rumenotomy--The operation of cutting into the rumen to remove foreign bodies or to observe activity.

Ruminant--Any one of a class of animals including sheep, goats, and cows that have multiple stomachs. They are most efficient feeders because bacterial action in one of the stomachs, the rumen, increases the feed value of low-grade feed.

Rumination--The process of digestion in cattle whereby food is swallowed to the first stomach, the rumen. Later it is regurgitated into the mouth and chewed over again to be swallowed for further processing by the second, third, and fourth stomachs.

Rump--That part of the rear end of an animal which includes the buttocks or fleshy part of the rear quarters.

Rump Roast--A retail cut of meat taken from the rump section of the hind quarter.

Run--(1) A period of time, as a maple syrup run. (2) The amount of sap or sugar produced in a given time. (3) A swiftly moving tributary, rivulet, or mountain stream (eastern United States). (4) The stream outlet of a large spring (Florida, United States). (5) Unrestricted movement, as the colts have the run of the pasture. (6) An area of land or a leasehold (New Zealand). (7) A small, often dry gully or channel carved by water. See Arroyo. (8) A fenced-in pen used for the exercise of animals or poultry. (9) To feed; to graze, as steers run on the open range. (10) To operate, as a plow is set to run at a depth of 6 inches. (11) To cultivate, mow, combine, etc., as to run over a field with a weeder. (12) To maintain animals, as he runs sheep. (13) To work a dog with sheep or cattle. (14) To discharge pus, as a sore runs. (15) To be, as the prices run very high. (16) To move rapidly, as a horse. (17) To turn, as to run a wheel. (18) To grow, as when the vines begin to run. (19) To operate, as to run an engine.

Run Free--To be loose, as animals that are not restrained and are allowed to move about freely in the barn, yard, or pasture.

Run On--To graze or pasture on, as to run on the range.

Run-of-the-Hatchery--Chickens as they come from the hatchery without culling, sorting, or sexing.

Run-out Fleece--A fleece of wool that varies greatly in quality, lacks character, and carries a large percentage of britch and possibly kemp.

Runner--(1) A breed of ducks of very distinctive type, having a long, narrow body and very erect carriage. The breed derives its name from its gait, which is a quick run, quite unlike the waddle of other ducks. The adult drake weighs about 41/2 pounds; the adult duck about 4 pounds. The runner is noted as an egg-producing breed and has little or no value for meat production. Its three varieties are the White, the Fawn and White, and the Penciled. Also called Indian Runner. (2) A lateral, aboveground shoot (stolon) of certain plants; e.g., strawberries, which roots and forms young plants at some of the nodes, aiding in propagation. (3) A rope used to increase the mechanical power of a tackle. (4) The upper or rotating stone of a set of millstones. (5) A supporting attachment which slides along the ground, as a sled runner. See Stolon.

Running Out--The condition in which an improved variety of plant or animal is reverting to a former and inferior type or is losing some of its desired qualities.

Running Plate--The aluminum horseshoe worn by race horses.

Running Sheep--The handling and management of a flock of sheep under range conditions.

Running Through--Lactation extended beyond 365 days.

Running Walk--A slow, single-foot or four-beat horse's gait with the break in the impact or rhythm occurring between diagonal fore and hind feet. In the stepping pace, which is also a slow, four-beat gait, the break in the impact occurs between lateral fore and rear feet.

Runt--Any animal smaller than normal that is culled and not used for breeding. Smallness may be due to genetics, injury, or disease. Also called puny.

Rustler--A cattle thief.

Rut--(1) The grooved track left by the wheels of vehicles in soft ground. (2) The season of heightened sexual activity in male mammals that coincides with the season of estrus in the female. See Estrus.

Rutter--A female mammal, such as a cow, which for some abnormality remains constantly in heat. Also called a buller.

Rutting Season--The recurring, usually annual, period when deer, cattle, etc., are in heat. See Estrus Cycle.
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Title Annotation:Part 4: N-R
Publication:Delmar's Agriscience Dictionary
Article Type:Definition
Date:Jan 1, 2000
Previous Article:Part 1 Animal science.
Next Article:Part 2 Business and mechanical technology.

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