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Parenting efficacy and its relationship to the prevention of childhood obesity.

During a walk or drive down the street, it is common to see some children playing outdoors after school, riding bikes, or playing team sports. However, many children are inside playing video games, watching television, or engaging in sedentary behavior. From 1981 to 1997, children's free playtime dropped 25% due to an increase in structured activities (Hofferth & Sandberg, 2001). Wen, Kite, Merom, and Rissel (2009) found that 37% of children spent less than half an hour playing outside after being in school all day, and 43% spent more than two hours a day watching television or playing on the computer.

Since the 1980s, childhood obesity rates have risen at an alarming rate. In the 1970s, the childhood obesity rate was only 5% of children two to 19 years of age. Throughout the 1980s, the obesity rates doubled (Anderson & Butcher, 2006), and by 2008, approximately 16.9% of children were obese (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2010). Childhood obesity is now one of the most frequently seen chronic diseases in children (CDC, 2011) and is considered an epidemic with serious financial implications. The financial burden of obesity on health care in the United States was $75 billion in 2003, and approximately one-half of this amount was paid by Medicare and Medicaid (Finkelstein, Fiebelkorn, & Wang, 2004).

Known causes and hypotheses about the reasons for the increase in childhood obesity include poor diets, lack of exercise, and sedentary lifestyles. The root causes of childhood obesity must be closely examined to find a solution. Lack of knowledge regarding proper diet and exercise, medical disorders or conditions, and the environment in which we live all play a role in the obesity epidemic. Multiple prevention programs and treatment centers have been created because of this obesity epidemic in children. In many of these programs, pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) are in the frontline of prevention for these children and their parents who are obese or at risk of becoming obese.

Children are highly influenced by and model themselves after those around them regarding proper diet and exercise. When discussing childhood obesity, PNPs need to acknowledge that childhood obesity is prevented and managed through intense collaborative treatment with not only the practitioner and child, but also with the child's parents. To prevent, screen for, and manage childhood obesity in a child, PNPs need to be able to measure parenting practices, parents' inner beliefs, and parental control over their child's eating practices. Lotz (2004) refers to the knowledge argument, which assumes that parents are in the frontline of deciding what is needed or what satisfies their child. That is, parents are in a better position than health practitioners to decide what is in the best interest for the well-being of their children when discussing the risk or current state of childhood obesity.

Misperception of obesity still exists because many parents fail to accept the idea that their child is overweight or at risk of becoming overweight (Myers & Vargas, 2000). PNPs need to look closely at parents' perceptions to understand the rationale for these perceptions and how they use their cognitive processes when providing basic needs for their child, including feeding behaviors through perceived parental self-efficacy.

Theoretical Framework

Bandura (1982) defines perceived self-efficacy as how a person judges his or her own ability to act or proceed in a certain situation. "Judgments of self-efficacy also determine how much effort people will expend and how long they will persist in the face of obstacles or aversive experiences" (Bandura, 1982, p. 123). He explains that the way people judge their abilities to act is a direct influence on how they react to situations in their environment. One's past experiences, whether they were successes or failures, are a primary source for self-efficacy (Kendall & Bloomfield, 2005). A person's influence over his or her behavior is not a process that occurs just by thought; it takes self-assurance and an effort by the individual to change his or her influence over behaviors.

Since Bandura introduced the concept of self-efficacy in the 1970s, perceived parental efficacy research has been sparse and only used in social and health sciences research (Coleman & Karraker, 1997). According to De Montigny and Lacharite (2005), the term perceived parenting efficacy did not even appear in nursing research until the 1980s and has not been used much since then. Perceived parenting self-efficacy was extensively studied in the 1980s and the 1990s (De Montigny & Lacharite, 2005). Many constructs or terms have been developed over the years, such as parental sense of competence (Gibaud-Wallston & Wandersman, 1978), parental locus of control (Campis, Lyman, & Prentice-Dunn, 1986), and parental satisfaction (Guidubaldi & Cleminshaw, 1985). Each term discusses parents' beliefs and thought processes pertaining to their interactions with their children (Lovejoy, Verda, & Hays, 1997). Psychology and nursing have used concepts from self-efficacy, such as maternal role confidence, perceptions of problem-solving confidence, parents' sense of competence, satisfaction with being a parent, infant capability, and perceived role attainment (De Montigny & Lacharite, 2005).

Self-efficacy is the central cognitive core to parenting competence in which parents look within themselves to decide whether they can influence their child's well-being (Coleman & Karraker, 2000). Parents that exhibit poor beliefs in their own competence level tend to give up easily due to their lack of confidence in their abilities, later losing faith in themselves (Bandura, 1989). Parental locus of control has been used to examine parent-child interactions, child personality characteristics, development, and communication patterns between parent and child. Measuring parental locus of control may be helpful in assessing parents' responses to stressors or to predict the possibility of difficulties in parenting behaviors (Campis et al., 1986). Parenting satisfaction is another term used when discussing parenting beliefs. Guidubaldi and Cleminshaw (1985) discuss the importance of developing a satisfaction scale to correctly understand parent-child interactions and the influence parents have on their children.

Parent Efficacy Literature And Its Relationship To Childhood Obesity

The parent efficacy literature includes several scales with relevance for examining parent efficacy and its relationship to childhood obesity. The following review includes a) parenting competence and self-efficacy-related scales, b) parenting locus of control and parenting beliefs-related scales, c) parent satisfaction-related scales, and d) parenting and nursing-related scales.

Parenting Competence And Self-Efficacy-Related Scales

Parenting self-efficacy has been previously researched and correlated with factors such as parental competence and satisfaction in studies related to child temperament, marital relationships, and situational stressors (Coleman & Karraker, 1997). During this literature search, six studies were found related to parenting competence (see Table 1). Nine studies relating to parenting self-efficacy were found (see Table 2). Six of the 15 scales discussed in the parenting self-efficacy and competence tables were used in both tables. An overlap between scales discussing both parenting competence and self-efficacy was discovered during this literature search (those scales discussing both self-efficacy and competence have an asterisk). Some scales relate to health behaviors and parenting self-efficacy and competence, with none of the studies directly discussing eating behaviors.

Gibaud-Wallston and Wandersman (1978) developed the parenting sense of competence (PSOC) scale to assess parent skill-knowledge and value-comforting, also known as self-efficacy and satisfaction in parenting. The PSOC scale is a 17-item scale administered to families. At least 11 of the 17 items focus on general parenting rather than specific parenting tasks (Gilmore & Cuskelly, 2008). The PSOC scale also looks at perceived difficulty with baby, social support system, and parental well-being. The PSOC scale has been used in many studies and within many age groups (the original scale only looked at infants and first-time parents) (Gilmore & Cuskelly, 2008). Johnston and Mash (1989) used the PSOC while looking at parents of four- to nine-year-old boys and girls to assess parenting frustration, anxiety, and motivation in parenting. Their results validated that the PSOC is a sound scale for looking at parenting self-esteem, problem-solving ability, and ability in the parenting role (Johnston & Mash, 1989). Gilmore and Cuskelly (2008) used the scale with parents of children 18 years of age and younger, measuring mothers' and fathers' answers independently of each other. They asked general parenting questions instead of focusing on the parents' own parenting behaviors (Gilmore & Cuskelly, 2008).

The PSOC has been used in studies about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), child physical disorders, parent reactivity to child, and parent perception of child difficulty (Bugental, New, Johnston, & Silvester, 1998). Sanders and Woolley (2005) used the scale to measure maternal self-efficacy and disciplinary practices. Their results verified the importance of interventions of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program, which is designed to increase parenting strength with parent training interventions (Sanders & Woolley, 2005). The PSOC has also been used to measure mothers' self-esteem when caring for their insulin-dependent diabetic adolescents without father figures present in their homes, the mothers' confidence in having the correct skills and knowledge in parenting, their comfort level as a parent, and how each mother perceived the value of parenthood with their diabetic children (Hanson Henggeler, Rodrigue, Burghen, & Murphy, 1988).

Coleman and Karraker (2000) used the PSOC to study parenting self-efficacy, general self-efficacy, child and maternal characteristics, and parenting satisfaction of mothers with school-aged children. They used a seven-item measure of parenting self-efficacy and a nine-item measure of satisfaction in parenting to measure parenting anxiety, frustration, and motivation in parenting. The Self-Efficacy for Parenting Tasks Index (SEPTI) (Coleman & Karraker, 2000) was used to assess parent's sense of competence in facilitating the child's school achievements, supporting the child's social life, providing discipline and emotional nurturance, and maintaining the child's health. The parenting self-agency (PSA) (Dumka, Stoerzinger, Jackson, & Roosa, 1996) was also used to examine the parent's general level of confidence in parenting, and Sherer and Adam's (1983) self-efficacy scale (S-ES) was used as a general measure of self-efficacy (Coleman & Karraker, 2000).

Parenting Locus of Control And Parenting Beliefs-Related Scales

Locus of control has been thought of as a belief that either an individual is in control of his or her own life events (internal control) or fate or chance are responsible for an individual's outcomes (external control). During this literature search, 16 articles were found related to parenting locus of control and parenting beliefs-related scales (see Table 3). Many of the scales focus on locus of control of child behavior, with a few looking at health locus of control, specifically eating behaviors. This search revealed that three of the 16 articles discussed parenting feeding behaviors with their children. According to Johnston and Mash (1989), parenting efficacy is defined by a parental locus of control.

Many studies that have looked at parenting locus of control have correlated it with childhood behavior problems and parenting difficulties. In a study completed by Campis et al. (1986), a large sample of parents were given the parental locus of control scale along with multiple comparison scales to validate the PLOC scale. Results indicated that parents who demonstrated incompetence and parenting difficulties had an external locus of control orientation. This study demonstrated that parental locus of control measurement can be useful in understanding parenting stressors and predicting any parenting difficulties (Campis et al., 1986).

Barnett, Shanahan, Deng, Haskett, and Cox (2010) believed that early parent-child interactions are big predictors of childhood behavior outcomes. In this study, they interacted with the mothers and children, involving them in play and activities while observing their disciplining techniques and beliefs. Results of this study indicate a need to assess parenting beliefs and behaviors to assess for potential behavior difficulties in childhood. Janssens (1994) assessed the mothers' and fathers' thoughts regarding locus of control, child rearing, and the child's behavior style. This study found that parents who use external locus of control parenting (belief that they are victims of outside events) are more authoritative than internal locus of control parenting (belief they can manage child difficulties themselves), which involves a less intrusive parenting style.

Some studies have developed health locus of control scales to assess parenting's health beliefs regarding their children. The parent health locus of control scales were developed to help explain parenting difficulties in child rearing and neglect in prenatal care (DeVellis et al., 1993). Some studies have focused specifically on parental locus of control and dietary behaviors in children. The child feeding questionnaire (CFQ) was designed to measure parental beliefs and attitudes regarding child feeding (Birch et al., 2001). The questionnaire specifically measured a) parents' perceived responsibility in feeding, b) parents' perceived weight status, c) parents' perceived child weight, and d) parents' concerns about child weight. The authors assessed the parents' monitoring of food intake, the parents' restriction of food, and parents' tendency to pressure their child to eat. Their overall analysis of the CFQ demonstrated that this questionnaire can be further used by practitioners and researchers to measure parenting thoughts, attitudes, practices, and control over children's eating behaviors. Ystrom, Barker, and Volrath (2012) studied mothers' negative affectivity and locus of control on child feeding patterns in three-year-old children with utilization of a subscale of the CFQ. Results indicated that mothers who have a high level of negative affectivity and a high level of external locus of control pressured their child to eat and restricted their food choices, which resulted in a poor diet for the child. The mothers who used control-oriented feeding practices of restriction resulted in the child eating a healthier diet. Favaro and Santonastaso (1995) used Rotter's internal-external locus of control scale (Rotter, 1966), the eating inventory, the brief symptom inventory, and the Eysenck personality inventory (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1964) to correlate mothers' psychiatric symptomatology with a higher outcome of childhood obesity. This study found that mothers with more severe psychiatric symptoms were directly correlated with higher rates of childhood obesity and weight loss than the fathers' psychiatric symptomatology.

Parenting Satisfaction-Related Scales

Satisfaction in parenting is a crucial determinant in parenting competence and an ability to care for children. According his social cognitive theory, Bandura (1997) states that people who feel efficacious in activities will invest more time in those tasks, and consequently, will have satisfaction in what they do. This concept can be applied to parenting.

During this literature search, five articles were found related to parenting satisfaction (see Table 4). There were no articles found relating to parenting satisfaction and feeding behaviors. Giudubaldi and Cleminshaw (1985) designed the Cleminshaw-Guidubaldi parent satisfaction scale, which allowed families to respond to open-ended questions regarding their satisfaction as parents. The parents were asked what three factors they believed contributed to satisfaction and dissatisfaction in parenting. The authors' recommended that the Cleminshaw-Guidubaldi parent satisfaction scale be used as a primary too! in assessing parental stress, support, and satisfaction in parenting, as well as to provide a basis for preventative parental interventions (Guidubaldi & Cleminshaw, 1985).

Mouton and Tuma (1988) used the Cleminshaw-Guidubaldi parent satisfaction scale (Guidubaldi & Cleminshaw, 1985), along with the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (Eyeberg & Ross, 1978), the parenting stress index (Abidin, 1986), and the PLOC (Campis, Lyman, & Prentice-Dunn, 1986), to measure mothers' stress, locus of control, and satisfaction in parenting. Clinic mothers with children in early stages of assessment with behavior problems were compared to control mothers who had never received any psychological assistance for their child. The mothers of children with behavior difficulties demonstrated higher levels of stress, more external locus of control, and less satisfaction in parenting. As mentioned earlier in this review, the PSOC by Gibaud-Wallston and Wandersman (1978) included a nine-item satisfaction subscale that looked at parenting satisfaction, focusing upon anxiety, frustration, and motivation in parenting. Mash and Johnston (1983) used the PSOC to measure mothers' satisfaction and efficacy with their hyperactive children. The satisfaction and efficacy scores were predictable of the mothers' interactions during play and interactions with their children.

Parenting and Nursing-Related Scales

Very few articles were found during this review regarding nursing and parental self-efficacy, competence, satisfaction, or locus of control related to eating behaviors in children. Four of the six articles found directly related to parenting and eating behaviors (see Table 5). Kendall and Bloomfield (2005) developed a tool to measure parenting self-efficacy in the United Kingdom to evaluate parenting programs. They created focus groups for parents for health workers to evaluate challenges parents face with their children (Bloomfield et al., 2005). Findings were used to create this tool for measuring parenting self-efficacy. None of the items discussed by the focus group were directly related to eating behaviors. Gross and Rociassano (1988) created a measure that assesses maternal confidence in toddlerhood the toddler care questionnaire (TCQ). This questionnaire was given to middle-class mothers of 12- to 36-monthold children along with the Beck depression inventory. The questionnaire mentions child eating behaviors, specifically asking what foods the child will or will not eat.

The following studies are directly related to parenting and eating behaviors in children. Hackie and Bowles (2007) measured maternal perception of their obese and overweight two to five-year-old children in a Women, Infant, and Children (WIC) population in a primarily Hispanic population in Nevada. They used the parental perception of pediatric obesity questionnaire (Myers & Vargas, 2000), which was given to WIC mothers in Virginia seven years before. Hackie and Bowles (2007) found that 61.5% of the mothers did not recognize that their child was overweight or obese, compared to 35% of mothers in the Myers and Vargas (2000) study. The Myers and Vargas (2000) study purpose was to increase the health employees' understanding of the parents' perceptions so proper interventions could be developed to provide treatment for or prevent childhood obesity.

Kahlor, Mackert, Junker, and Tyler (2011) discussed the challenges that many parents face when feeding their children. In this study, the authors formed focus groups to determine who in the family was responsible for the children's diet, if there were any difficulties in providing their child with a healthy diet, and if there were any pressures from family or society that may have hindered the possibility of providing a healthy diet to their child. Most parents had discussed multiple factors that limit their ability to provide a healthy diet for their child. Garrett-Wright (2010) used PSOC, the test of the functional health literacy in adults, and the child feeding questionnaire to measure parenting self-efficacy, parenting level of health literacy, and the parents' perception of their preschool child's weight. Results demonstrated that the parents' level of health literacy was predictive of the parents' perception of their child's weight status. Overall, the parents in this study were unconcerned with their child's weight status.

Discussion

The studies found during this literature search demonstrate a lack of data related to parental efficacy and obesity. Most articles were related to psychology, education, and child and family health. The analysis found that most of the topics related to parental self-efficacy, competence, locus of control, and satisfaction were related to child behavioral difficulties, developmental concerns, or general parenting skills. Many articles were outdated, and most of the focus was on maternal and general parenting, not fathers and parenting. Parenting self-efficacy, competence, and locus of control were the most common conceptual areas discussed. The PLOC (Campis et ah, 1986), PSOC (Gibaud-Wallston & Wandersman, 1978), Cleminshaw-Guidubaldi parent satisfaction scale (Guidubaldi & Cleminshaw, 1985), the child behavior checklist (Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1983), and the CFQ (Johnson & Birch, 1994) were all cited multiple times in articles and have been applied to many topics in parenting.

Nursing literature related to parenting self-efficacy, competence, locus of control, and satisfaction and childhood eating behaviors is lacking. The nursing-related articles found primarily focused on perception and self-efficacy of parenting tasks and behaviors. The PSOC and the child feeding questionnaire were both used in the nursing articles found in this analysis. The Garrett-Wright (2010) study was the only nursing article found that uses the more common questionnaires as mentioned above to research parental perception of childhood obesity. The other sciences, such as psychology and education, have used a multitude of scales and questionnaires listed above to understand parenting perceptions throughout many areas of parenting. Parenting competency and satisfaction factors that have been used for scale and questionnaire development have looked mostly upon other childhood and parenting behaviors, such as child behavioral problems, parenting disciplinary practices, maternal stress, maternal depression, maternal child care experience and of child development, and maternal beliefs about parenting (Coleman & Karraker, 1997). This review of the literature found a lack of research within nursing in regard to parenting self-efficacy, locus of control, satisfaction, and parental sense of competence in parenting regarding eating behaviors.

Implications for Nursing

During pediatric assessments of children, PNPs can use feeding-related scales and ask families to complete questionnaires to determine parents' perceptions of parenting related to eating behaviors and family meal times. With this data, PNPs can begin to work with parents on parenting education related to eating behaviors or refer the parents to a specialist, either family or individual counseling, and dieticians.

It is important to be aware of the difficulties and barriers that parents face in obtaining or providing healthy opportunities for their children. One of the only ways to determine these difficulties and barriers is to measure parents' thought processes on parenting in general, specific parenting tasks, and parenting roles. Questionnaires and other tools can be used to assess parents' perceptions and gain an understanding of the parents' thoughts on how satisfied they are as parents, their locus of control in their parent-child relationship, and how competent they feel in the parenting role. The parenting sense of competence scale (PSOC), created by Gibaud-Wallston and Wandersman (1978), is an excellent scale for PNPs to use to measure parenting self-efficacy and satisfaction related to general parenting behaviors and eating behaviors. Johnston and Mash (1989) used the PSOC to assess parenting sense of competence in parents with children of any age, unlike Gibaud-Wallston and Wandersman (1978) who used the tool for first-time parents of infants (Gilmore & Cuskelly, 2008). This tool could allow the PNP to survey the mothers' and fathers' sense of competence in general parenting tasks along with eating-related parenting behaviors. A suggestion would be to add more questions to the tool directly targeting parenting sense of competence, self-efficacy, and satisfaction related to eating and dietary behaviors in the children. Once the parents' perceptions are understood, it will be a much easier and smoother process for the PNP to intervene and provide interventions to change the child and family's lifestyle, diet, or general health. The PNP can then counsel the child and family with the full knowledge of their current living situation, the barriers they face, and what is feasible for the family in order for a change to occur. Most interventions for these patients and families should involve multiple and regular visits to their PNP for adequate treatment and follow-up therapy. Further research needs to be conducted within nursing alone to develop scales and questionnaires that can be solely focused on nursing care related to assessing parenting and eating behaviors in children.

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Additional Reading

Leenders, F.H.R. (1985). De opvoederkenmerken 'locus of control' en 'geneigdheid tot informatie zoeken' [Parental characteristics 'locus of control' and 'the tendency to look for information']. Tijdschrift voor Orthopedagogiek, 24, 530-548.

Heather Grossklaus, MS, CPNP, CPN, was a Pediatric Nurse, University of Michigan, School of Nursing, Ann Arbor, Ml, at the time this article was written.

Donna Marvicsin, PhD, PNP-BC, CDE, is a Clinical Assistant Professor, University of Michigan, School of Nursing, Ann Arbor, MI.
Table 1.
Parenting Competence

Concept: Competence

Author/Year            Study Purpose          Age of Subjects

Abidin (1986)          This study looked at   Unknown.
                       parenting competence
                       in terms of handling
                       difficulties, coping
                       with daily demands,
                       and having control
                       over child behavior.

Coleman & Karraker     This study             Mothers of children
(2000) *               researched parenting   5 to 12 years olds.
                       self-efficacy,
                       general
                       self-efficacy, and
                       parenting
                       satisfaction.

Gilmore & Cuskelly     This study looked at   Parents of children
(2008)                 establishing a         younger than 18
                       factor structure of    years old.
                       the PSOC for both
                       mothers and fathers
                       separately.

Hanson, Henggeler,     This study looked at   Mothers of
Rodrigue, Burghen, &   whether family         adolescents without
Murphy (1988)          structure is           fathers in the
                       connected to the       picture; mean age of
                       psychological and      adolescents -14.4
                       physical health of     years of age.
                       adolescents with
                       insulin-dependent
                       diabetes mellitus.

Johnston & Mash        This study             Parents of children
(1989) *               researched parental    4 to 9 years old.
                       satisfaction and
                       efficacy for
                       analysis of the
                       parenting sense of
                       competence scale.

Lovejoy, Verda, &      This study             Mothers of children
Hays (1997) *          researched using the   1 to 18 years old,
                       Parent Attribution     mothers of children
                       Test, Parental Locus   1 to 17 years old,
                       of Control scale,      mothers of 3 to 6
                       and the Parenting      years old.
                       Sense of
                       Competence-Efficacy
                       scale.

Sanders & Woolley      This study examined    Mothers of children
(2005) *               the correlation        2 to 8 year old.
                       between maternal
                       self-efficacy,
                       dysfunctional
                       discipline
                       practices, and child
                       conduct problems and
                       how they affect
                       parent training.

Shelton et al.         This study reviewed    Parents of children
(2007) *               a behavioral program   3 to 10 years old.
                       that works with
                       overweight/ obese
                       children.

Teti & Gelfand         This study             Mothers of children
(1991) *               researched the idea    3 to 13 months old.
                       that mothers'
                       self-efficacy
                       beliefs effect
                       parenting behavior.

                       Tools/Questionnaire
Author/Year            Utilized               Focus of Study

Abidin (1986)          Sense of Competence    Measured parenting
                       Subscale from the      competence.
                       Parent
                       Domain-Parenting
                       Stress Index
                       (Abidin, 1983).

Coleman & Karraker     EAS Temperament        Measured general
(2000) *               Survey for Children    parenting
                       (Buss & Plomin,        self-efficacy and
                       1984). Parenting       satisfaction, child
                       Self-Agency (PSA)      and maternal
                       (Dumka, Stoerzinger,   characteristics.
                       Jackson, & Roosa,
                       1996). Parenting
                       Sense of Competence
                       (PSOC)
                       (Gibaud-Wallston &
                       Wandersman, 1978).
                       Self-efficacy for
                       Parenting Tasks
                       Index (SEPTI):
                       Looking at
                       achievement,
                       recreation,
                       nurturance, and
                       health (Coleman &
                       Karraker, 2000).
                       Self-Efficacy Scale
                       (S-ES) (Sherer &
                       Adams, 1983).

Gilmore & Cuskelly     Parental Sense of      Measured parenting
(2008)                 Competence             satisfaction with
                       (Gibaud-Wallston &     the parenting role,
                       Wandersman, 1978).     parenting efficacy,
                                              and interest in
                                              parenting.

Hanson, Henggeler,     Parental Sense of      Measured adolescent
Rodrigue, Burghen, &   Competence             adherence to
Murphy (1988)          (Gibaud-Wallston &     treatment,
                       Wandersman, 1978).     adolescents' and
                       The Adherence          mothers' perceptions
                       Questionnaire          of maternal support
                       (Cerkoney & Hart,      and nonsupport of
                       1980; Schlenk &        treatment, mothers'
                       Hart, 1984). The       parental competence,
                       Diabetes Family        and adolescent
                       Behavior Checklist     social competence.
                       (DFBC) (Schafer,
                       Glasgow, McCaul, &
                       Dreher, 1983). The
                       Social Competence
                       Scale of the Child
                       Behavior Checklist
                       (SCS-CBCL)
                       (Achenbach &
                       Edelbrock, 1981).

Johnston & Mash        Child Behavior         Measured parenting
(1989) *               Checklist (CBCL)       satisfaction and
                       (Achenbach &           efficacy related to
                       Edelbrock, 1983).      behavior problems.
                       Parenting
                       Self-Efficacy
                       Subscale of
                       Parenting Sense of
                       Competence Scale
                       (Gibaud-Wallston &
                       Wandersman, 1978).

Lovejoy, Verda, &      Eyberg Child           Measured general
Hays (1997) *          Behavior Inventory     parenting
                       (ECBI) (Eyberg &       self-efficacy and
                       Ross, 1978).           locus of control.
                       Marlowe-Crowne
                       Social Desirability
                       Scale (MCSDS)
                       (Reynolds, 1982).
                       Negative Affect
                       Scale of the
                       Positive and
                       Negative Affect
                       Schedule
                       (PANAS-Negative)
                       (Watson, Clark, &
                       Tellegene, 1988).
                       Parent Attribution
                       Test (PAT)-Failure
                       (Bugental, Blue, &
                       Cruzcosa, 1989).
                       Parental Locus of
                       Control Scale
                       (Campis, Lyman, &
                       Prentice-Dunn,
                       1986). Parenting
                       Sense of Competence
                       Scale-Efficacy
                       (Gibaud-Wallston &
                       Wandersman, 1978).
                       Relationship Scales
                       Questionnaire (RSQ)
                       (Griffin &
                       Bartholomew, 1994).
                       Relationship
                       Questionnaire (RQ)
                       (Bartholomew &
                       Horowitz, 1991).
                       State Trait Anxiety
                       Inventory
                       (STAI-Trait)
                       (Spielberger,
                       Gorsuch, Lushene,
                       Vagg, & Jacobs,
                       1983).

Sanders & Woolley      Eyberg Child           Measured maternal
(2005) *               Behaviour Inventory    self-efficacy,
                       (ECBI) (Eyberg &       maternal discipline,
                       Ross, 1978) Family     and child conduct
                       Background             problems.
                       Questionnaire
                       (Sanders,
                       Markie-Dadds, &
                       Turner, 1999).
                       Queensland Health
                       Survey (Tully et
                       al., 1999).
                       Parenting Sense of
                       Competence Scale
                       (Gibaud-Wallston &
                       Wandersman, 1978).
                       The Behavioural
                       Self-Efficacy
                       Subscale (Sanders &
                       Woolley, 2001). The
                       General
                       Self-Efficacy Scale
                       (GSE) (Jerusalem &
                       Schwarzer, 1992).
                       The Parenting Scale
                       (Arnold, O'Leary,
                       Wolff, & Acker,
                       1993). The Parenting
                       Tasks Checklist
                       (Sanders & Woolley,
                       2001). The Setting
                       Self-Efficacy
                       subscale (Sanders &
                       Woolley, 2001).

Shelton et al.         Parent Problem         Measured parenting
(2007) *               Checklist (Dadds &     consistency, style,
                       Powell, 1991).         satisfaction and
                       Parenting Sense of     efficacy.
                       Competence Scale
                       (Gibaud-Wallston &
                       Wandersman, 1978).
                       The Parenting Scale
                       (Arnold, O'Leary,
                       Wolff, & Acker,
                       1993).

Teti & Gelfand         Beck Depression        Measured mother's
(1991) *               Inventory (BDI)        self-efficacy
                       (Beck, Ward,           beliefs related to
                       Mendelson, Mock, &     depression, infant
                       Erbaugh, 1961).        temperamental
                       Carey Survey of        difficulty, and
                       Temperamental          social-marital
                       Characteristics        supports.
                       (Bates, Freeland, &
                       Lounsburg, 1979).
                       Interview Schedule
                       for Social
                       Interaction
                       (Henderson, Byrne, &
                       Duncan-Jones, 1981).
                       Marital Harmony
                       Scale (Locke &
                       Wallace, 1959;
                       Spanier, 1976).
                       Maternal
                       Self-Efficacy Scale
                       (Teti & Gelfand,
                       1991). The Infant
                       Characteristics
                       Questionnaire
                       (Bates, Freeland, &
                       Lounsbury, 1979).
                       The Sense of
                       Competence Scale of
                       the Parenting Stress
                       Index (PSI) (Abidin,
                       1983).

 * Scales discussing both self-efficacy and competence.

Table 2.
Parenting Self-Efficacy

Concept: Self-Efficacy

Author/Year            Study Purpose          Age of Subjects

Coleman &              This study             Mothers of
Karraker               researched             children 5 to
(2000) *               parenting              12 years olds.
                       self-efficacy,
                       general
                       self-efficacy,
                       and parenting
                       satisfaction.

Johnston               This study             Parents of
& Mash                 researched             children 4 to 9
(1989) *               parental               years old.
                       satisfaction
                       and efficacy
                       for analysis of
                       the parenting
                       sense of
                       competence
                       scale.

Lovejoy, Verda,        This study             Mothers of
& Hays (1997) *        researched             children 1 to
                       utilizing the          18 years old,
                       Parent                 mothers of
                       Attribution            children 1 to
                       Test, Parental         17 years old,
                       Locus of               mothers of 1 to
                       Control scale,         17 years old.
                       and the
                       Parenting Sense
                       of Competence-
                       Efficacy scale.

Sanders &              This study             Mothers of
Woolley (2005)         examined the           children 2 to 8
*                      correlation            year old.
                       between
                       maternal
                       self-efficacy,
                       dysfunctional
                       discipline
                       practices, and
                       child conduct
                       problems, and
                       how they affect
                       parent
                       training.

Shelton et al.         This study             Parents of
(2007) *               reviewed a             children 3 to
                       behavioral             10 years old.
                       program that
                       works with
                       overweight or
                       obese children.

Teti & Gelfand         This study             Mothers of
(1991) *               researched the         children 3 to
                       idea that              13 month old
                       mothers'               infants.
                       self-efficacy
                       beliefs effects
                       parenting
                       behavior.

Author/Year            Tools/                 Focus of Study
                       Questionnaire
                       Utilized

Coleman &              EAS Temperament        Measured
Karraker               Survey for             general
(2000) *               Children (Buss         parenting self-
                       & Plomin,              efficacy and
                       1984).                 satisfaction,
                       Parenting              child and
                       Self-Agency            maternal
                       (PSA) (Dumka,          characteristics.
                       Stoerzinger,
                       Jackson, &
                       Roosa, 1996).
                       Parenting Sense
                       of Competence
                       (PSOC) (Gibaud-
                       Wallston &
                       Wandersman,
                       1978).
                       Self-Efficacy
                       for Parenting
                       Tasks Index
                       (SEPTI):
                       Looking at
                       achievement,
                       recreation,
                       nurturance, and
                       health (Coleman
                       & Karraker,
                       2000).
                       Self-Efficacy
                       Scale (S-ES)
                       (Sherer &
                       Adams, 1983).

Johnston               Child Behavior         Measured
& Mash                 Checklist              parenting
(1989) *               (CBCL)                 satisfaction
                       (Achenbach &           and efficacy
                       Edelbrock,             related to
                       1983).                 behavior
                       Parenting              problems.
                       Self-Efficacy
                       Subscale of
                       Parenting Sense
                       of Competence
                       Scale (Gibaud-
                       Wallston &
                       Wandersman,
                       1978).

Lovejoy, Verda,        Eyberg Child           Measured
& Hays (1997) *        Behavior               general
                       Inventory              parenting self-
                       (ECBI) (Eyberg         efficacy, locus
                       & Ross, 1978).         of control, and
                       Marlowe-Crowne         competence.
                       Social
                       Desirability
                       Scale (MCSDS)
                       (Reynolds,
                       1982). Negative
                       Affect Scale of
                       the Positive
                       and Negative
                       Affect Schedule
                       (PANAS-
                       Negative)
                       (Watson, Clark,
                       & Tellegene,
                       1988). Parent
                       Attribution
                       Test
                       (PAT)-Failure
                       (Bugental,
                       Blue, &
                       Cruzcosa,
                       1989). Parental
                       Locus of
                       Control Scale
                       (Campis, Lyman,
                       &
                       Prentice-Dunn,
                       1986).
                       Parenting Sense
                       of Competence
                       Scale-Efficacy
                       (Gibaud-
                       Wallston &
                       Wandersman,
                       1978).
                       Relationship
                       Scales
                       Questionnaire
                       (RSQ) (Griffin
                       & Bartholomew,
                       1994).
                       Relationship
                       Questionnaire
                       (RQ)
                       (Bartholomew &
                       Horowitz,
                       1991). State
                       Trait Anxiety
                       Inventory
                       (STAI-Trait)
                       (Spielberger,
                       Gorsuch,
                       Lushene, Vagg,

Sanders &              Eyberg Child           Measured
Woolley (2005)         Behaviour              maternal self-
*                      Inventory              efficacy,
                       (ECBI) (Eyberg         maternal
                       & Ross, 1978).         discipline, and
                       Family                 child conduct
                       Background             problems.
                       Questionnaire
                       (Sanders,
                       Markie-Dadds, &
                       Turner, 1999).
                       Queensland
                       Health Survey
                       (Tully et al.,
                       1999).
                       Parenting Sense
                       of Competence
                       Scale (Gibaud-
                       Wallston &
                       Wandersman,
                       1978). The
                       Behavioural
                       Self-Efficacy
                       Subscale
                       (Sanders &
                       Woolley, 2001).
                       The General
                       Self-Efficacy
                       Scale (GSE)
                       (Jerusalem &
                       Schwarzer,
                       1992). The
                       Parenting Scale
                       (Arnold,
                       O'Leary, Wolff,
                       & Acker, 1993).
                       The Parenting
                       Tasks Checklist
                       (Sanders &
                       Woolley, 2001).
                       The Setting
                       Self-Efficacy
                       subscale
                       (Sanders &
                       Woolley, 2001).

Shelton et al.         Parent Problem         Measured
(2007) *               Checklist              parenting
                       (Dadds &               consistency,
                       Powell, 1991).         style,
                       Parenting Sense        satisfaction
                       of Competence          and efficacy.
                       Scale (Gibaud-
                       Wallston &
                       Wandersman,
                       1978). The
                       Parenting Scale
                       (Arnold,
                       O'Leary, Wolff,
                       & Acker, 1993).

Teti & Gelfand         Beck Depression        Measured
(1991) *               Inventory (BDI)        mother's self-
                       (Beck, Ward,           efficacy
                       Mendelson,             beliefs:
                       Mock, &                depression,
                       Erbaugh, 1961).        infant
                       Carey Survey of        temperamental
                       Temperamental          difficulty, and
                       Characteristics        social-marital
                       (Bates et al.,         supports.
                       1979).
                       Interview
                       Schedule for
                       Social
                       Interaction
                       (Henderson,
                       Byrne, &
                       Duncan-Jones,
                       1981). Marital
                       Harmony Scale
                       (Locke &
                       Wallace, 1959;
                       Spanier, 1976).
                       Maternal Self-
                       Efficacy Scale
                       (Teti &
                       Gelfand, 1991).
                       The Infant
                       Characteristics
                       Questionnaire
                       (Bates,
                       Freeland, &
                       Lounsbury,
                       1979). The
                       Sense of
                       Competence
                       Scale of the
                       Parenting
                       Stress Index
                       (PSI) (Abidin,
                       1983).

* Scales discussing both self-efficacy and competence.

Table 3.
Parenting Locus of Control and Parenting Beliefs

Concepts: Locus of Control/Parenting Beliefs

Author/Year Study      Purpose                Age of Subjects

Arnold, O'Leary,       This scale was         Mother of children
Wolff, & Acker         developed to measure   18 to 48 months old.
(1993)                 dysfunctional
                       discipline practices
                       in parents.

Barnett, Shanahan,     This research looked   Parents with
Deng, Haskett, & Cox   at the relationships   children between
(2010)                 between parenting      ages of birth to 36
                       beliefs and            months.
                       behaviors in
                       predicting childhood
                       external/internal
                       behaviors.

Birch et al. (2001)    These authors          Parents of children
                       developed the Child    5 to 9 years old,
                       Feeding                parents of children
                       Questionnaire, which   8 to 11 years old,
                       measured parenting     and parents of
                       beliefs, attitudes,    children 7 to 11
                       and practices          year old (boys and
                       regarding child        girls).
                       feeding patterns.

Campis, Lyman, &       This study developed   Parents of
Prentice-Dunn (1986)   and validated the      elementary school
                       parental locus of      children.
                       control.

Cook (1993)            This study looked at   College students,
                       family members'        their families, and
                       beliefs about their    siblings at least 12
                       ability to influence   years old at home.
                       each other.

DeVellis et al.        This study describes   Parents of children
(1993)                 the development of     in middle school,
                       the Parent Health      parents of children
                       Locus of Control       in preschool, and
                       (PHLOC) scales.        parents of children
                                              averaging 6.6 years
                                              old.

Dielman et al.         This study looked at   Parents and children
(1982)                 parents'and            6 to 17 years old.
                       childrens' health
                       beliefs and
                       behaviors and
                       assessed a
                       correlation between
                       the childrens'
                       outcomes.

Dumka, Stoerzinger,    This study evaluates   Families of 3 to 12
Jackson, & Roosa       a Parenting            year olds.
(1996)                 Self-Agency Measure
                       (PSAM).

Favaro &               This study looked at   Parents of children
Santonastaso (1995)    the relationship       with the mean age of
                       between parents'       10.5 years old.
                       psychological
                       characteristics and
                       eating behaviors and
                       the amount of
                       obesity among their
                       children, one year
                       before and after
                       treatment.

Janssens (1994)        This study examined    Mother and father of
                       the relationships      children 9 to 12
                       among child rearing,   years old.
                       parental locus of
                       control in child
                       rearing, and the
                       parents' thoughts on
                       the child's
                       behavior.

Lovejoy, Verda, &      This study             Mothers of children
Hays (1997)            researched utilizing   1 to 18 years old,
                       the Parent             mothers of children
                       Attribution Test,      1-17 years old,
                       Parental Locus of      mothers of 3 to 6
                       Control scale, and     years old.
                       the Parenting Sense
                       of
                       Competence-Efficacy
                       scale.

Lovejoy, Verda, &
Hays (1997)
(continued)

Morton (1997)          This study looked at   Mothers and children
                       a correlation          in grade 3 to 5,
                       between parents' and   average age of 10.2
                       childrens' locus of    years.
                       control and to
                       explore the affect
                       of children's
                       behavior on parents'
                       locus of control
                       beliefs.

Mouton & Tuma (1988)   This study looked at   Mothers with
                       mothers' stress,       children 4 to 10
                       locus of control,      years old and 3 to
                       and                    10 years old.
                       role-satisfaction.

Roberts, Joe, &        This study tested      Parents with
Rowe-Hallbert (1992)   the PLOC for           children between 2
                       reliability and        to 12 years old.
                       utilized it with
                       working with
                       oppositional
                       children.

Rosno, Steele,         This study looked at   Children 6 to 18
Johnston, & Aylward    the parents' locus     years old with one
(2008)                 of control in child    parent able to
                       adherence and          attend the sessions.
                       outcomes in a
                       treatment program
                       for pediatric
                       overweight.

Smith, Oliver,         This study looked at   Children with
Boyce, & Innocenti     mother-child dyads     developmental
(2000)                 for one year to        disabilities,
                       assess the mothers'    approximately 4
                       locus of control in    years old on initial
                       improvement of their   assessment then
                       developmentally        followed for one
                       delayed children.      year.

Wallston, Strudler     This study described   Older than 16 years.
Wallston, & DeVellis   the development of
(1978)                 the Multidimensional
                       Health Locus of
                       Control scale.

Ystrom, Barker, &      This study             Mothers completed
Vollrath (2012)        researched dietary     assessments before
                       patterns in children   birth, at 6 months,
                       3 years of age and     18 months, and 3
                       assessed parental      years postpartum.
                       locus of control to
                       see if parents
                       affect childrens'
                       eating behaviors.

Author/Year Study      Tools/Questionnaire    Focus of Study
                       Utilized

Arnold, O'Leary,       Beck Depression        Measured
Wolff, & Acker         Inventory (BDI)        dysfunctional
(1993)                 (Beck, Steer, &        discipline practices
                       Garbin, 1988).         in parenting.
                       Externalizing scale
                       of the Child
                       Behavior Checklist
                       (CBCL) (Achenbach,
                       Edelbrock, & Howell,
                       1987). Locke-Wallace
                       Marital Adjustment
                       Test (SMAT) (Locke &
                       Wallace, 1959).
                       Parenting Scale
                       (Arnold, O'Leary,
                       Wolff, & Acker,
                       1993).

Barnett, Shanahan,     Brief Symptom          Measured parenting
Deng, Haskett, & Cox   Inventory-18           beliefs and
(2010)                 (BSI-18) (Derogatis,   behaviors in
                       2000). Child           predicting childhood
                       Behavior Checklist     external/internal
                       for ages 1.5 to 5      symptoms.
                       (Achenbach &
                       Rescorla, 2000).
                       National Institute
                       of Child Health and
                       Human Development
                       (NICHD) Study of
                       Early Child Care:
                       Sensitivity/
                       responsiveness,
                       intrusiveness,
                       detachment/
                       disengagement,
                       positive regard for
                       the child, negative
                       regard for the
                       child, animation,
                       and stimulation of
                       development (NICHD,
                       1999). Parental
                       Beliefs Survey (PBS)
                       (Luster, Rhoades, &
                       Haas, 1989). Parent
                       Opinion Survey (POS)
                       (Hogan &Tudge,
                       1994). Qualitative
                       ratings for
                       parent-child
                       interaction at 24 to
                       36 months of age
                       (Cox, 1997).
                       Qualitative ratings
                       for parent-child
                       interaction at 3 to
                       12 months of age
                       (Cox & Crnic, 2002).

Birch et al. (2001)    Child Feeding          Measured parental
                       Questionnaire          beliefs, attitudes,
                       (Johnson & Birch,      and practices
                       1994).                 regarding child
                                              feeding.

Campis, Lyman, &       Chance Subscale of     Measured parental
Prentice-Dunn (1986)   the Levenson Locus     locus of control.
                       of Control Scale
                       (Levenson, 1974).
                       Child Demandingness
                       Subscale, Sense of
                       Competence Subscale,
                       Restriction of Role
                       Subscale of the
                       Parenting Stress
                       Index (PSI) (Burke,
                       1979).
                       Overindulgence
                       Subscale of the
                       Mother-Child
                       Relationship
                       Evaluation (MCRE)
                       (Roth, 1980).
                       General
                       Self-Efficacy
                       Subscale of the
                       Self-Efficacy Scale
                       (Sherer et al.,
                       1982).
                       Marlowe-Crowne
                       Social Desirability
                       Scale (M-CSDS)
                       (Crowne & Marlowe,
                       1964). PLOC (Campis,
                       Lyman, &
                       Prentice-Dunn,
                       1986).
                       Responsibility
                       Subscale of the
                       Gordon Personal
                       Profile Inventory
                       (GPPI) (Gordon,
                       1953). Rotter's
                       Internal-External
                       Locus of Control
                       Scale (Rotter,
                       1966). Scale 2 of
                       the Attitude Toward
                       the Freedom of
                       Children Scale
                       (Koch, Dentler,
                       Dysart, & Streit,
                       1934).

Cook (1993)            Emotional Attachment   Measured control and
                       Subscale of the        fate in family
                       Relationship with      members.
                       Mother and Father
                       Scales (Schwarz,
                       1991). Internality,
                       Powerful others, and
                       Fate-Chance
                       Subscales of
                       Levenson's Locus of
                       Control scale (LLOC)
                       (Levenson, 1974).
                       Interpersonal Sense
                       of Control
                       (ISOC)-(effectance,
                       acquiescence, fate,
                       and conflict
                       control) (Cook,
                       1993). (Campis,
                       Lyman, &
                       Prentice-Dunn, 1986;
                       Lau & Ware, 1981,
                       Levenson, 1974).
                       Miller Marital Locus
                       of Control Scale
                       (Miller, Lefcourt, &
                       Ware, 1983).
                       Multidimensional
                       Measure of
                       Children's
                       Perceptions of
                       Control (Connell,
                       1985).

DeVellis et al.        Parent Health Locus    Measured parenting
(1993)                 of Control (PHLOC)     beliefs in child,
                       scales: child,         divine, fate, media,
                       divine, fate, media,   parental, and
                       parental, and          professional
                       professional           influence over child
                       influence on the       health.
                       health and
                       well-being of
                       children (Devellis
                       et al., 1993).

Dielman et al.         Index Scores created   Measured the health
(1982)                 for parental and       beliefs and
                       child health           behaviors of parents
                       beliefs. (Dielman et   and those of their
                       al., 1982).            children.

Dumka, Stoerzinger,    Adult Coping Scale     Measured parents'
Jackson, & Roosa       (COPE) (Carver,        personal coping
(1996)                 Scheier, &Weintraub,   strategies and
                       1989). Children's      parenting practices.
                       Report of Parental
                       Behavior Inventory
                       (CRPBI) (Schaefer,
                       1965). Multi-step
                       translation
                       procedure (Herrara,
                       Del Campo, & Ames,
                       1993). Parenting
                       Locus of Control
                       Scale (PLOC)
                       (Campis, Lyman, &
                       Prentice-Dunn,
                       1986). Parenting
                       Self-Agency Measure
                       (PSAM) (Dumka,
                       Stoerzinger,
                       Jackson, & Roosa,
                       1996).

Favaro &               Rotter's Internal-     Measured parents'
Santonastaso (1995)    External Locus of      psychological
                       Control Scale          characteristics and
                       (Rotter, 1966). The    eating behavior on
                       Brief Symptom          childhood obesity
                       Inventory (Derogatis   and dietary
                       & Spencer, 1982).      compliance.
                       The Eating Inventory
                       (Stunkard & Messick,
                       1985). The Eysenck
                       Personality
                       Inventory (Eysenck &
                       Eysenck, 1964).

Janssens (1994)        Leenders' Locus of     Measured the
                       Control (LOCO) scale   relationships among
                       (Leenders, 1984).      child rearing,
                       McDevitt and Carey's   parental locus of
                       Behavior Style         control about child
                       Questionnaire          rearing, and the
                       (McDevitt & Carey,     parents' thoughts on
                       1978).                 child's behavior
                                              style.

Lovejoy, Verda, &      Eyberg Child           General parenting
Hays (1997)            Behavior Inventory     self-efficacy and
                       (ECBI) (Eyberg &       locus of control.
                       Ross, 1978).
                       Marlowe-Crowne
                       Social Desirability
                       Scale (MCSDS)
                       (Reynolds, 1982).
                       Negative Affect
                       Scale of the
                       Positive and
                       Negative Affect
                       Schedule (PANAS-
                       Negative) (Watson,
                       Clark, & Tellegene,
                       1988). Parent
                       Attribution Test
                       (PAT)-Failure
                       (Bugental, Blue, &
                       Cruzcosa, 1989).
                       Parental Locus of
                       Control Scale
                       (Campis, Lyman, &
                       Prentice-Dunn,
                       1986). Parenting
                       Sense of Competence
                       Scale-Efficacy
                       (Gibaud-Wallston &
                       Wandersman, 1978).

Lovejoy, Verda, &      Relationship Scales
Hays (1997)            Questionnaire (RSQ)
(continued)            (Griffin &
                       Bartholomew, 1994).
                       Relationship
                       Questionnaire (RQ)
                       (Bartholomew &
                       Horowitz, 1991).
                       State Trait Anxiety
                       Inventory (STAI-
                       Trait) (Spielberger,
                       Gorsuch, Lushene,
                       Vagg, & Jacobs,
                       1983).

Morton (1997)          Child Behavior         Measured locus of
                       Checklist (CBCL)       control in parents
                       (Achenbach &           and children.
                       Edelbrock, 1983).
                       Child Behavior
                       Toward Parents
                       Inventory (Scheafer,
                       Finkelstein, &
                       Edgerton, 1977).
                       Contingence,
                       Competence, and
                       Control
                       Questionnaire (CCC)
                       (Weisz, 1986).
                       Parental Locus of
                       Control Scale
                       (Campis, Lyman, &
                       Prentice-Dunn,
                       1986). Rotter's
                       Internal-External
                       Locus of Control
                       Scale (Rotter,
                       1966). The
                       Multidimensional of
                       Measure of
                       Children's
                       Perceptions of
                       Control (MMCPC)
                       (Connell, 1980,
                       1985).

Mouton & Tuma (1988)   Eyberg Child           Measured stress,
                       Behaviour Inventory    locus of control,
                       (ECBI) (Eyberg &       and satisfaction in
                       Ross, 1978).           mothers.
                       Parental Locus of
                       Control Scale
                       (Campis, Lyman, &
                       Prentice-Dunn,
                       1986). Parenting
                       Stress Index (PSI)
                       (Abidin, 1986). The
                       Cleminshaw-
                       Guidubaldi Parent
                       Satisfaction Scale
                       (Guidubaldi &
                       Cleminshaw, 1985).

Roberts, Joe, &        Parental Locus of      Measured parental
Rowe-Hallbert (1992)   Control Scale          locus of control in
                       (Campis, Lyman,        oppositional child
                       Prentice-Dunn,         behavior.
                       1986).

Rosno, Steele,         Multidimensional       Measured parents'
Johnston, & Aylward    Health Locus of        locus of control to
(2008)                 Control-Form C         child adherence and
                       (MHLC-C) (Wallston,    outcomes related to
                       Stein, & Smith,        obesity.
                       1994).

Smith, Oliver,         Batelle                Measured mothers'
Boyce, & Innocenti     Developmental          locus of control for
(2000)                 Inventory (BDI)        child improvement
                       (Newborg, Stock,       with developmentally
                       Wnek, Guidubaldi, &    delayed
                       Svinicki, 1984).       children.
                       Child Improvement
                       Locus of Control
                       Scales (CILC)
                       (DeVellis et al.,
                       1985).

Wallston, Strudler     Health Locus of        Measured health
Wallston, & DeVellis   Control Scale          locus of control.
(1978)                 (Wallston, Wallston,
                       Kaplan, & Maides,
                       1976): Internality
                       (IHLC); powerful
                       others (PHLC); and
                       chance (CHLC)
                       externality
                       (Wallston, Strudler
                       Wallston, &
                       DeVellis, 1978).

Ystrom, Barker, &      Anger Subscale of      Measured how
Vollrath (2012)        the Differential       negative affectivity
                       Emotions Scale         and external
                       (Izard, Libero,        parental locus of
                       Putnam, & Haynes,      control affect
                       1993). Child Feeding   children's dietary
                       Questionnaire          patterns.
                       (Johnson & Birch,
                       1994). Hopkins
                       Symptom Checklist
                       (SCL-8) (Strand,
                       Dalgard, Tambs, &
                       Rognerud, 2003).
                       Parental Locus of
                       Control Scale
                       (Campis, Lyman, &
                       Prentice-Dunn,
                       1986). Rosenberg
                       Self-Esteem Scale
                       (Rosenberg, 1989).

Table 4.
Parenting Satisfaction

Concept: Satisfaction

Author/Year       Study Purpose          Age of Subjects

Coleman &         Relationships among    Mothers of children
Karraker (2000)   parenting              5 to 12 years old.
                  self-efficacy,
                  general
                  self-efficacy, child
                  and maternal
                  characteristics, and
                  parenting
                  satisfaction were
                  found in this study.

Guidubaldi &      This study describes   Parents with
Cleminshaw        the development of a   children from 6
(1985)            new parenting          weeks to 38 years
                  satisfaction scale.    old.

Johnston & Mash   This study             Parents of children
(1989)            researched parental    4 to 9 years old.
                  satisfaction and
                  efficacy for
                  analysis of the
                  parenting sense of
                  competence scale.

Mouton & Tuma     This study looked at   Mothers with
(1988)            mothers' stress,       children 2 to 10
                  locus of control,      years old and 3 to
                  and                    10 years old.
                  role-satisfaction.

Shelton et al.    This study reviewed    Parents of children
(2007)            a behavioral program   3 to 10 years old.
                  that works with
                  overweight or obese
                  children.

Author/Year       Tools/ Questionnaire UtFocus of Study

Coleman &         EAS Temperament        General parenting
Karraker (2000)   Survey for Children    self-efficacy and
                  (Buss & Plomin,        satisfaction, child
                  1984). Parenting       and maternal
                  Self-Agency (PSA)      characteristics.
                  (Dumka, Stoerzinger,
                  Jackson, & Roosa,
                  1996). Parenting
                  Sense of Competence
                  (PSOC) (Gibaud-
                  Wallston &
                  Wandersman, 1978).
                  Self-efficacy for
                  Parenting Tasks
                  Index (SEPTI):
                  Looking at
                  achievement,
                  recreation,
                  nurturance, and
                  health (Coleman &
                  Karraker, 2000).
                  Self-Efficacy Scale
                  (S-ES) (Sherer &
                  Adams, 1983).

Guidubaldi &      Cleminshaw-            Measured
Cleminshaw        Guidubaldi Parent      satisfaction in
(1985)            Satisfaction Scale     parenting: spouse
                  (Guidubaldi &          support, parent-
                  Cleminshaw, 1985).     child relationship,
                  Dyadic Adjustment      parent performance,
                  Scale (Spanier,        family discipline
                  1976). Marital and     and control, and
                  Life Satisfaction      general satisfaction
                  Measure (Lee, 1978).   in parenting.
                  Life Satisfaction
                  Index (A)
                  (Neugarten,
                  Havighurst, & Tobin,
                  1961).

Johnston & Mash   Child Behavior         Parening
(1989)            Checklist (CBCL)       satisfaction and
                  (Achenbach &           efficacy related to
                  Edelbrock, 1983).      behavior problems.
                  Parenting Self-
                  Efficacy Subscale of
                  Parenting Sense of
                  Competence Scale
                  (Gibaud-Wallston &
                  Wandersman, 1978).

Mouton & Tuma     Eyberg Child           Measures stress,
(1988)            Behaviour Inventory    locus of control,
                  (ECBI) (Eyberg &       and satisfaction in
                  Ross, 1978).           mothers.
                  Parental Locus of
                  Control Scale
                  (Campis, Lyman, &
                  Prentice-Dunn,
                  1986). Parenting
                  Stress Index (PSI)
                  (Abidin, 1986). The
                  Cleminshaw-
                  Guidubaldi Parent
                  Satisfaction Scale
                  (Guidubaldi &
                  Cleminshaw, 1985)

Shelton et al.    Parent Problem         Measure parenting
(2007)            Checklist (Dadds &     consistency, style,
                  Powell, 1991).         satisfaction and
                  Parenting Sense of     efficacy.
                  Competence Scale
                  (Gibaud-Wallston &
                  Wandersman, 1978).
                  The Parenting Scale
                  (Arnold, O'Leary,
                  Wolff, & Acker,
                  1993).

Parenting Efficacy and its Relationship to the Prevention
of Childhood Obesity

Table 5.
Parenting and Nursing

Concept: Nursing

Author/Year            Study Purpose          Age of Subjects

Garrett-Wright         This study examined    Preschool age (2 to
(2010)                 the correlations       5 years).
                       between parental
                       perception of child
                       body weight, sense
                       of parental
                       efficacy, and health
                       literacy.

Gross & Rocissano      This study validated   Mothers of 12 to 36
(1988)                 the Toddler Care       month olds.
                       Questionnaire (TCQ).

Hackie & Bowles        This study looked at   Mothers of 2 to 5
(2007)                 maternal perceptions   year olds.
                       of their overweight
                       children.

Kahlor, Mackert, &     This study looked at   Parents older than
Junker, & Tyler        the Theory of          18 year, no
(2011)                 Planned Behavior       specified children
                       (TPB) in order to      ages in this study.
                       measure parents'
                       perceptions of
                       difficulties in
                       making sure their
                       children eat a
                       healthy diet.

Kendall & Bloomfield   These researchers      Parents of children
(2005)                 developed a tool to    up to the age of 6
                       measure parenting      years.
                       self-efficacy; will
                       be used an aid for
                       parenting programs.

Myers & Vargas         This study             Parents of obese
(2000)                 researched a           children, no
                       correlation between    children age was
                       the staffs' and        specified.
                       parents' perceptions
                       regarding the
                       childrens' obesity
                       status and assessed
                       parental perception
                       of child's
                       overweight. The
                       purpose was to
                       increase the staffs'
                       understanding of
                       parents' view so
                       interventions could
                       be made.

                       Tools/
                       Questionnaire
Author/Year            Utilized               Focus of Study

Garrett-Wright         Child Feeding          Measured parental
(2010)                 Questionnaire          perception of child
                       (Johnson & Birch,      body weight, sense
                       1994). Parenting       of parental
                       Sense of Competence    efficacy, health
                       Scale (PSOC)           literacy, and
                       (Gibaud-Wallston &     demographic factors
                       Wandersman, 1978).     in parents.
                       The Test of
                       Functional Health
                       Literacy in Adults
                       (ToFHLA) (Baker,
                       Williams, Parker,
                       Gazmararian, &
                       Nurss, 1999).

Gross & Rocissano      Beck Depression        Measured maternal
(1988)                 Inventory (BDI)        confidence in
                       (Beck, Ward,           toddlerhood.
                       Mendelson, Mock,
                       Erbaugh, 1961).
                       Toddler Care
                       Questionnaire (TCQ)
                       Gross & Rocissano
                       (1988).

Hackie & Bowles        Parental Perception    Measured mothers'
(2007)                 of Pediatric Obesity   perceptions of
                       Questionnaire (Myers   child's overweight
                       & Vargas, 2000).       status.

Kahlor, Mackert, &     Qualitative/           Measuresd parents'
Junker, & Tyler        Quantitative           perceptions of
(2011)                 Research; no           difficulties in
                       questionnaires         making sure their
                       mentioned in this      children have a
                       study.                 healthy diet.

Kendall & Bloomfield   Tool to measure        Measured parenting
(2005)                 parenting              self-efficacy.
                       self-efficacy (no
                       name was given for
                       this tool) (Kendall
                       & Bloomfield, 2005).

Myers & Vargas         Questionnaire          Measured staffs' and
(2000)                 developed (no name     parents' perception
                       was given for this     of childhood
                       tool) (Myers &         obesity.
                       Vargas, 2000).
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Publication:Pediatric Nursing
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Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Mar 1, 2014
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