Parenting efficacy and its relationship to the prevention of childhood obesity.
Since the 1980s, childhood obesity rates have risen at an alarming rate. In the 1970s, the childhood obesity rate was only 5% of children two to 19 years of age. Throughout the 1980s, the obesity rates doubled (Anderson & Butcher, 2006), and by 2008, approximately 16.9% of children were obese (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2010). Childhood obesity is now one of the most frequently seen chronic diseases in children (CDC, 2011) and is considered an epidemic with serious financial implications. The financial burden of obesity on health care in the United States was $75 billion in 2003, and approximately one-half of this amount was paid by Medicare and Medicaid (Finkelstein, Fiebelkorn, & Wang, 2004).
Known causes and hypotheses about the reasons for the increase in childhood obesity include poor diets, lack of exercise, and sedentary lifestyles. The root causes of childhood obesity must be closely examined to find a solution. Lack of knowledge regarding proper diet and exercise, medical disorders or conditions, and the environment in which we live all play a role in the obesity epidemic. Multiple prevention programs and treatment centers have been created because of this obesity epidemic in children. In many of these programs, pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) are in the frontline of prevention for these children and their parents who are obese or at risk of becoming obese.
Children are highly influenced by and model themselves after those around them regarding proper diet and exercise. When discussing childhood obesity, PNPs need to acknowledge that childhood obesity is prevented and managed through intense collaborative treatment with not only the practitioner and child, but also with the child's parents. To prevent, screen for, and manage childhood obesity in a child, PNPs need to be able to measure parenting practices, parents' inner beliefs, and parental control over their child's eating practices. Lotz (2004) refers to the knowledge argument, which assumes that parents are in the frontline of deciding what is needed or what satisfies their child. That is, parents are in a better position than health practitioners to decide what is in the best interest for the well-being of their children when discussing the risk or current state of childhood obesity.
Misperception of obesity still exists because many parents fail to accept the idea that their child is overweight or at risk of becoming overweight (Myers & Vargas, 2000). PNPs need to look closely at parents' perceptions to understand the rationale for these perceptions and how they use their cognitive processes when providing basic needs for their child, including feeding behaviors through perceived parental self-efficacy.
Bandura (1982) defines perceived self-efficacy as how a person judges his or her own ability to act or proceed in a certain situation. "Judgments of self-efficacy also determine how much effort people will expend and how long they will persist in the face of obstacles or aversive experiences" (Bandura, 1982, p. 123). He explains that the way people judge their abilities to act is a direct influence on how they react to situations in their environment. One's past experiences, whether they were successes or failures, are a primary source for self-efficacy (Kendall & Bloomfield, 2005). A person's influence over his or her behavior is not a process that occurs just by thought; it takes self-assurance and an effort by the individual to change his or her influence over behaviors.
Since Bandura introduced the concept of self-efficacy in the 1970s, perceived parental efficacy research has been sparse and only used in social and health sciences research (Coleman & Karraker, 1997). According to De Montigny and Lacharite (2005), the term perceived parenting efficacy did not even appear in nursing research until the 1980s and has not been used much since then. Perceived parenting self-efficacy was extensively studied in the 1980s and the 1990s (De Montigny & Lacharite, 2005). Many constructs or terms have been developed over the years, such as parental sense of competence (Gibaud-Wallston & Wandersman, 1978), parental locus of control (Campis, Lyman, & Prentice-Dunn, 1986), and parental satisfaction (Guidubaldi & Cleminshaw, 1985). Each term discusses parents' beliefs and thought processes pertaining to their interactions with their children (Lovejoy, Verda, & Hays, 1997). Psychology and nursing have used concepts from self-efficacy, such as maternal role confidence, perceptions of problem-solving confidence, parents' sense of competence, satisfaction with being a parent, infant capability, and perceived role attainment (De Montigny & Lacharite, 2005).
Self-efficacy is the central cognitive core to parenting competence in which parents look within themselves to decide whether they can influence their child's well-being (Coleman & Karraker, 2000). Parents that exhibit poor beliefs in their own competence level tend to give up easily due to their lack of confidence in their abilities, later losing faith in themselves (Bandura, 1989). Parental locus of control has been used to examine parent-child interactions, child personality characteristics, development, and communication patterns between parent and child. Measuring parental locus of control may be helpful in assessing parents' responses to stressors or to predict the possibility of difficulties in parenting behaviors (Campis et al., 1986). Parenting satisfaction is another term used when discussing parenting beliefs. Guidubaldi and Cleminshaw (1985) discuss the importance of developing a satisfaction scale to correctly understand parent-child interactions and the influence parents have on their children.
Parent Efficacy Literature And Its Relationship To Childhood Obesity
The parent efficacy literature includes several scales with relevance for examining parent efficacy and its relationship to childhood obesity. The following review includes a) parenting competence and self-efficacy-related scales, b) parenting locus of control and parenting beliefs-related scales, c) parent satisfaction-related scales, and d) parenting and nursing-related scales.
Parenting Competence And Self-Efficacy-Related Scales
Parenting self-efficacy has been previously researched and correlated with factors such as parental competence and satisfaction in studies related to child temperament, marital relationships, and situational stressors (Coleman & Karraker, 1997). During this literature search, six studies were found related to parenting competence (see Table 1). Nine studies relating to parenting self-efficacy were found (see Table 2). Six of the 15 scales discussed in the parenting self-efficacy and competence tables were used in both tables. An overlap between scales discussing both parenting competence and self-efficacy was discovered during this literature search (those scales discussing both self-efficacy and competence have an asterisk). Some scales relate to health behaviors and parenting self-efficacy and competence, with none of the studies directly discussing eating behaviors.
Gibaud-Wallston and Wandersman (1978) developed the parenting sense of competence (PSOC) scale to assess parent skill-knowledge and value-comforting, also known as self-efficacy and satisfaction in parenting. The PSOC scale is a 17-item scale administered to families. At least 11 of the 17 items focus on general parenting rather than specific parenting tasks (Gilmore & Cuskelly, 2008). The PSOC scale also looks at perceived difficulty with baby, social support system, and parental well-being. The PSOC scale has been used in many studies and within many age groups (the original scale only looked at infants and first-time parents) (Gilmore & Cuskelly, 2008). Johnston and Mash (1989) used the PSOC while looking at parents of four- to nine-year-old boys and girls to assess parenting frustration, anxiety, and motivation in parenting. Their results validated that the PSOC is a sound scale for looking at parenting self-esteem, problem-solving ability, and ability in the parenting role (Johnston & Mash, 1989). Gilmore and Cuskelly (2008) used the scale with parents of children 18 years of age and younger, measuring mothers' and fathers' answers independently of each other. They asked general parenting questions instead of focusing on the parents' own parenting behaviors (Gilmore & Cuskelly, 2008).
The PSOC has been used in studies about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), child physical disorders, parent reactivity to child, and parent perception of child difficulty (Bugental, New, Johnston, & Silvester, 1998). Sanders and Woolley (2005) used the scale to measure maternal self-efficacy and disciplinary practices. Their results verified the importance of interventions of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program, which is designed to increase parenting strength with parent training interventions (Sanders & Woolley, 2005). The PSOC has also been used to measure mothers' self-esteem when caring for their insulin-dependent diabetic adolescents without father figures present in their homes, the mothers' confidence in having the correct skills and knowledge in parenting, their comfort level as a parent, and how each mother perceived the value of parenthood with their diabetic children (Hanson Henggeler, Rodrigue, Burghen, & Murphy, 1988).
Coleman and Karraker (2000) used the PSOC to study parenting self-efficacy, general self-efficacy, child and maternal characteristics, and parenting satisfaction of mothers with school-aged children. They used a seven-item measure of parenting self-efficacy and a nine-item measure of satisfaction in parenting to measure parenting anxiety, frustration, and motivation in parenting. The Self-Efficacy for Parenting Tasks Index (SEPTI) (Coleman & Karraker, 2000) was used to assess parent's sense of competence in facilitating the child's school achievements, supporting the child's social life, providing discipline and emotional nurturance, and maintaining the child's health. The parenting self-agency (PSA) (Dumka, Stoerzinger, Jackson, & Roosa, 1996) was also used to examine the parent's general level of confidence in parenting, and Sherer and Adam's (1983) self-efficacy scale (S-ES) was used as a general measure of self-efficacy (Coleman & Karraker, 2000).
Parenting Locus of Control And Parenting Beliefs-Related Scales
Locus of control has been thought of as a belief that either an individual is in control of his or her own life events (internal control) or fate or chance are responsible for an individual's outcomes (external control). During this literature search, 16 articles were found related to parenting locus of control and parenting beliefs-related scales (see Table 3). Many of the scales focus on locus of control of child behavior, with a few looking at health locus of control, specifically eating behaviors. This search revealed that three of the 16 articles discussed parenting feeding behaviors with their children. According to Johnston and Mash (1989), parenting efficacy is defined by a parental locus of control.
Many studies that have looked at parenting locus of control have correlated it with childhood behavior problems and parenting difficulties. In a study completed by Campis et al. (1986), a large sample of parents were given the parental locus of control scale along with multiple comparison scales to validate the PLOC scale. Results indicated that parents who demonstrated incompetence and parenting difficulties had an external locus of control orientation. This study demonstrated that parental locus of control measurement can be useful in understanding parenting stressors and predicting any parenting difficulties (Campis et al., 1986).
Barnett, Shanahan, Deng, Haskett, and Cox (2010) believed that early parent-child interactions are big predictors of childhood behavior outcomes. In this study, they interacted with the mothers and children, involving them in play and activities while observing their disciplining techniques and beliefs. Results of this study indicate a need to assess parenting beliefs and behaviors to assess for potential behavior difficulties in childhood. Janssens (1994) assessed the mothers' and fathers' thoughts regarding locus of control, child rearing, and the child's behavior style. This study found that parents who use external locus of control parenting (belief that they are victims of outside events) are more authoritative than internal locus of control parenting (belief they can manage child difficulties themselves), which involves a less intrusive parenting style.
Some studies have developed health locus of control scales to assess parenting's health beliefs regarding their children. The parent health locus of control scales were developed to help explain parenting difficulties in child rearing and neglect in prenatal care (DeVellis et al., 1993). Some studies have focused specifically on parental locus of control and dietary behaviors in children. The child feeding questionnaire (CFQ) was designed to measure parental beliefs and attitudes regarding child feeding (Birch et al., 2001). The questionnaire specifically measured a) parents' perceived responsibility in feeding, b) parents' perceived weight status, c) parents' perceived child weight, and d) parents' concerns about child weight. The authors assessed the parents' monitoring of food intake, the parents' restriction of food, and parents' tendency to pressure their child to eat. Their overall analysis of the CFQ demonstrated that this questionnaire can be further used by practitioners and researchers to measure parenting thoughts, attitudes, practices, and control over children's eating behaviors. Ystrom, Barker, and Volrath (2012) studied mothers' negative affectivity and locus of control on child feeding patterns in three-year-old children with utilization of a subscale of the CFQ. Results indicated that mothers who have a high level of negative affectivity and a high level of external locus of control pressured their child to eat and restricted their food choices, which resulted in a poor diet for the child. The mothers who used control-oriented feeding practices of restriction resulted in the child eating a healthier diet. Favaro and Santonastaso (1995) used Rotter's internal-external locus of control scale (Rotter, 1966), the eating inventory, the brief symptom inventory, and the Eysenck personality inventory (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1964) to correlate mothers' psychiatric symptomatology with a higher outcome of childhood obesity. This study found that mothers with more severe psychiatric symptoms were directly correlated with higher rates of childhood obesity and weight loss than the fathers' psychiatric symptomatology.
Parenting Satisfaction-Related Scales
Satisfaction in parenting is a crucial determinant in parenting competence and an ability to care for children. According his social cognitive theory, Bandura (1997) states that people who feel efficacious in activities will invest more time in those tasks, and consequently, will have satisfaction in what they do. This concept can be applied to parenting.
During this literature search, five articles were found related to parenting satisfaction (see Table 4). There were no articles found relating to parenting satisfaction and feeding behaviors. Giudubaldi and Cleminshaw (1985) designed the Cleminshaw-Guidubaldi parent satisfaction scale, which allowed families to respond to open-ended questions regarding their satisfaction as parents. The parents were asked what three factors they believed contributed to satisfaction and dissatisfaction in parenting. The authors' recommended that the Cleminshaw-Guidubaldi parent satisfaction scale be used as a primary too! in assessing parental stress, support, and satisfaction in parenting, as well as to provide a basis for preventative parental interventions (Guidubaldi & Cleminshaw, 1985).
Mouton and Tuma (1988) used the Cleminshaw-Guidubaldi parent satisfaction scale (Guidubaldi & Cleminshaw, 1985), along with the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (Eyeberg & Ross, 1978), the parenting stress index (Abidin, 1986), and the PLOC (Campis, Lyman, & Prentice-Dunn, 1986), to measure mothers' stress, locus of control, and satisfaction in parenting. Clinic mothers with children in early stages of assessment with behavior problems were compared to control mothers who had never received any psychological assistance for their child. The mothers of children with behavior difficulties demonstrated higher levels of stress, more external locus of control, and less satisfaction in parenting. As mentioned earlier in this review, the PSOC by Gibaud-Wallston and Wandersman (1978) included a nine-item satisfaction subscale that looked at parenting satisfaction, focusing upon anxiety, frustration, and motivation in parenting. Mash and Johnston (1983) used the PSOC to measure mothers' satisfaction and efficacy with their hyperactive children. The satisfaction and efficacy scores were predictable of the mothers' interactions during play and interactions with their children.
Parenting and Nursing-Related Scales
Very few articles were found during this review regarding nursing and parental self-efficacy, competence, satisfaction, or locus of control related to eating behaviors in children. Four of the six articles found directly related to parenting and eating behaviors (see Table 5). Kendall and Bloomfield (2005) developed a tool to measure parenting self-efficacy in the United Kingdom to evaluate parenting programs. They created focus groups for parents for health workers to evaluate challenges parents face with their children (Bloomfield et al., 2005). Findings were used to create this tool for measuring parenting self-efficacy. None of the items discussed by the focus group were directly related to eating behaviors. Gross and Rociassano (1988) created a measure that assesses maternal confidence in toddlerhood the toddler care questionnaire (TCQ). This questionnaire was given to middle-class mothers of 12- to 36-monthold children along with the Beck depression inventory. The questionnaire mentions child eating behaviors, specifically asking what foods the child will or will not eat.
The following studies are directly related to parenting and eating behaviors in children. Hackie and Bowles (2007) measured maternal perception of their obese and overweight two to five-year-old children in a Women, Infant, and Children (WIC) population in a primarily Hispanic population in Nevada. They used the parental perception of pediatric obesity questionnaire (Myers & Vargas, 2000), which was given to WIC mothers in Virginia seven years before. Hackie and Bowles (2007) found that 61.5% of the mothers did not recognize that their child was overweight or obese, compared to 35% of mothers in the Myers and Vargas (2000) study. The Myers and Vargas (2000) study purpose was to increase the health employees' understanding of the parents' perceptions so proper interventions could be developed to provide treatment for or prevent childhood obesity.
Kahlor, Mackert, Junker, and Tyler (2011) discussed the challenges that many parents face when feeding their children. In this study, the authors formed focus groups to determine who in the family was responsible for the children's diet, if there were any difficulties in providing their child with a healthy diet, and if there were any pressures from family or society that may have hindered the possibility of providing a healthy diet to their child. Most parents had discussed multiple factors that limit their ability to provide a healthy diet for their child. Garrett-Wright (2010) used PSOC, the test of the functional health literacy in adults, and the child feeding questionnaire to measure parenting self-efficacy, parenting level of health literacy, and the parents' perception of their preschool child's weight. Results demonstrated that the parents' level of health literacy was predictive of the parents' perception of their child's weight status. Overall, the parents in this study were unconcerned with their child's weight status.
The studies found during this literature search demonstrate a lack of data related to parental efficacy and obesity. Most articles were related to psychology, education, and child and family health. The analysis found that most of the topics related to parental self-efficacy, competence, locus of control, and satisfaction were related to child behavioral difficulties, developmental concerns, or general parenting skills. Many articles were outdated, and most of the focus was on maternal and general parenting, not fathers and parenting. Parenting self-efficacy, competence, and locus of control were the most common conceptual areas discussed. The PLOC (Campis et ah, 1986), PSOC (Gibaud-Wallston & Wandersman, 1978), Cleminshaw-Guidubaldi parent satisfaction scale (Guidubaldi & Cleminshaw, 1985), the child behavior checklist (Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1983), and the CFQ (Johnson & Birch, 1994) were all cited multiple times in articles and have been applied to many topics in parenting.
Nursing literature related to parenting self-efficacy, competence, locus of control, and satisfaction and childhood eating behaviors is lacking. The nursing-related articles found primarily focused on perception and self-efficacy of parenting tasks and behaviors. The PSOC and the child feeding questionnaire were both used in the nursing articles found in this analysis. The Garrett-Wright (2010) study was the only nursing article found that uses the more common questionnaires as mentioned above to research parental perception of childhood obesity. The other sciences, such as psychology and education, have used a multitude of scales and questionnaires listed above to understand parenting perceptions throughout many areas of parenting. Parenting competency and satisfaction factors that have been used for scale and questionnaire development have looked mostly upon other childhood and parenting behaviors, such as child behavioral problems, parenting disciplinary practices, maternal stress, maternal depression, maternal child care experience and of child development, and maternal beliefs about parenting (Coleman & Karraker, 1997). This review of the literature found a lack of research within nursing in regard to parenting self-efficacy, locus of control, satisfaction, and parental sense of competence in parenting regarding eating behaviors.
Implications for Nursing
During pediatric assessments of children, PNPs can use feeding-related scales and ask families to complete questionnaires to determine parents' perceptions of parenting related to eating behaviors and family meal times. With this data, PNPs can begin to work with parents on parenting education related to eating behaviors or refer the parents to a specialist, either family or individual counseling, and dieticians.
It is important to be aware of the difficulties and barriers that parents face in obtaining or providing healthy opportunities for their children. One of the only ways to determine these difficulties and barriers is to measure parents' thought processes on parenting in general, specific parenting tasks, and parenting roles. Questionnaires and other tools can be used to assess parents' perceptions and gain an understanding of the parents' thoughts on how satisfied they are as parents, their locus of control in their parent-child relationship, and how competent they feel in the parenting role. The parenting sense of competence scale (PSOC), created by Gibaud-Wallston and Wandersman (1978), is an excellent scale for PNPs to use to measure parenting self-efficacy and satisfaction related to general parenting behaviors and eating behaviors. Johnston and Mash (1989) used the PSOC to assess parenting sense of competence in parents with children of any age, unlike Gibaud-Wallston and Wandersman (1978) who used the tool for first-time parents of infants (Gilmore & Cuskelly, 2008). This tool could allow the PNP to survey the mothers' and fathers' sense of competence in general parenting tasks along with eating-related parenting behaviors. A suggestion would be to add more questions to the tool directly targeting parenting sense of competence, self-efficacy, and satisfaction related to eating and dietary behaviors in the children. Once the parents' perceptions are understood, it will be a much easier and smoother process for the PNP to intervene and provide interventions to change the child and family's lifestyle, diet, or general health. The PNP can then counsel the child and family with the full knowledge of their current living situation, the barriers they face, and what is feasible for the family in order for a change to occur. Most interventions for these patients and families should involve multiple and regular visits to their PNP for adequate treatment and follow-up therapy. Further research needs to be conducted within nursing alone to develop scales and questionnaires that can be solely focused on nursing care related to assessing parenting and eating behaviors in children.
Abidin, R.R. (1983). Parenting Stress Index manual. Charlottesville, VA: Pediatric Psychology Press.
Abidin, R.R. (1986). Parenting Stress Index (PSI) manual (2nd ed.). Charlottesville, VA: Pediatric Psychology Press.
Achenbach, T.M., & Edelbrock, C.S. (1981). Behavioral problems and competencies reported by parents of normal and disturbed children aged four through sixteen. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 46(1), 1-82.
Achenbach, T.M., & Edelbrock, C. (1983). Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.
Achenbach, T.M., Edelbrock, C., & Howell, C.T. (1987). Empirically based assessment of the behavior/emotional problems of 2- and 3-year-old children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 15, 629-650.
Achenbach, T.M., & Rescorla, L.A. (2000). Manual for the ASEBA preschool forms & profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, and Families.
Anderson, P.M., & Butcher, K.F. (2006). Childhood obesity: Trends and potential causes. The Future of Children, 16(1), 19-45.
Arnold, D.S., O'Leary, S.G., Wolff, L.S., & Acker, M.M. (1993). The parenting scale: A measure of dysfunctional parenting in discipline situations. Psychological Assessment, 5, 137-144.
Baker, D., Williams, M., Parker, R., Gazmararian, J., & Nurss, J. (1999). Development of a brief test to measure functional health literacy. Patient Education and Counseling, 38, 33-42.
Bandura, A. (1982). Self-agency mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37(2), 122-147.
Bandura, A. (1989). Regulation of cognitive processes through perceived self-efficacy. Developmental Psychology, 25, 729-735.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: W.H. Freeman.
Barnett, M.A., Shanahan, L., Deng, M., Haskett, M. E., & Cox, M.J. (2010). Independent and interactive contributions of parenting behaviors and beliefs in the prediction of early childhood behavior problems. Parenting, 10(1), 43-59.
Bartholomew, K., & Horowitz, L. M. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test of a four category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 226-244.
Bates, J.E., Freeland, C.A., & Lounsbury, M.L. (1979). Measurement of infant difficultness. Child Development, 50, 794803.
Beck, A.T, Steer, R.A., & Garbin, M.G. (1988) . Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory: Twenty-five years of evaluation. Clinical Psychology Review, 8, 77-100.
Beck, A.T., Ward, C.H., Mendeison, M., Mock, J., & Erbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 561-571.
Birch, L.L., Fisher, J.O., Grimm-Thomas, K., Markey, C.N., Sawyer, R., & Johnson, S.L (2001). Confirmatory factor analysis of the child feeding questionnaire: A measure of parental attitudes, beliefs and practices about child feeding and obesity proneness. Appetite, 36, 201-210.
Bloomfield, L., Kendall, S., Applin, L., Attarzadeh, V., Dearnley, K., Edwards, L..... Newcombe, T. (2005). A qualita tive study exploring the experiences and views of parents, health visitors and family support centre workers on the challenges and difficulties in parenting. Health and Social Care in the Community, 13, 45-55.
Bugental, D.B., Blue, J., & Cruzcosa, M. (1989). Perceived control over caregiving outcomes: Implications for child abuse. Developmental Psychology, 25, 532-539.
Bugental, D.B., New, M., Johnston, C., & Silvester, J. (1998). Measuring parental attributions: Conceptual and methodological issues. Journal of Family Psychology, 12(4), 459-480.
Burke, W.T. (1979). The development of a technique for assessing the stressors experienced by parents of young children (Doctoral dissertation, University of Virginia, Institute of Clinical Psychology, 1978). Dissertation Abstracts International, 40, 904B.
Buss, A.H., & Plomin, R. (1984). Temperament: Early developing personality traits. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Campis, L.K., Lyman, R.D., & Prentice-Dunn, S. (1986). The parental locus of control scale: Developmental and validation. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 15(3), 260-267.
Carver, C.S., Scheier, M.F., & Weintraub, J.K. (1989) . Assessing coping strategies: A theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 267-283.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2010). Prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents: United States, trends 1963-1965 through 2007-2008. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hestat/ob esity_child_07_08/obesity_child_07_08.htm
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2011). Healthy communities: Preventing chronic disease by activating grassroots change at a glance 2011. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ chronicdisease/resources/publications/ aag/pdf/2011/Healthy_Communities_A AG_Web.pdf
Cerkoney, K.A.B., & Hart, L.K. (1980). The relationship between the health belief model and compliance of persons with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care, 3, 594-598.
Coleman, P.K., & Karraker, K.H. (1997). Self-efficacy and parenting quality: Findings and future applications. Developmental Review, 18, 47-85.
Coleman, P.K., & Karraker, K.H. (2000). Parenting self-efficacy among mothers of school-age children: Conceptualization, measurement, and correlates. Family Relations, 49(1), 13-24.
Connell, J. (1980). A multi-dimensional measure of children's perceptions of control: Manual. Denver, CO: University of Denver.
Connell, J.P (1985). A new multi-dimensional measure of children's perceptions of control. Child Development, 56, 1018-1041.
Cook, W.L. (1993). Interdependence and the interpersonal sense of control: An analysis of family relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64(4), 587-601.
Cox, M.J. (1997). Qualitative ratings for parent-child interaction at 24-36 months of age. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Cox, M.J., & Crnic, K. (2002). Qualitative ratings for parent-child interaction at 3-12 months of age. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Crowne, D., & Marlowe, D. (1964). The approval motive. New York: Wiley.
Dadds, M., & Powell, M. (1991). The relationship of interparental conflict and global marital adjustment to aggression, anxiety and immaturity in aggressive nonclinical children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 19, 553-567.
De Montigny, F., & Lacharite, C. (2005). Perceived parental efficacy: Concept analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 49(4), 387-396.
Derogatis, L.R. (2000). BSI-18: Brief Symptom Inventory-18: Administration, scoring, and procedures manual. Minneapolis, MN: Pearson Assessments.
Derogatis, L.R., & Spencer, M.S. (1982). The Brief Symptom Inventory: Administration, scoring and procedures manual. Baltimore: John Hopkins University School of Medicine, Clinical Psychometric Research Unit.
DeVellis, R.F., DeVellis, B.M., Blanchard, L.W., Klotz, M.L., Luchok, K., & Voyce, C. (1993). Development and validation of the parent health locus of control scales. Health Education & Behavior, 20(2), 211-225.
DeVellis, R.F., DeVellis, B.M., Revicki, D.A,, Lurie, S.J., Runyan, D.K., & Bristol, M. (1985). Development and validation of the Child Improvement Locus of Control (CILC) scales. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 3, 307-324.
Dielman, T.E., Leech, S., Becker, M.H., Rosenstock, I.M., Horvath, W.J., & Radius, S.M. (1982). Parental and child health beliefs and behavior. Health Education & Behavior, 9(2&3), 60-77.
Dumka, L.E., Stoerzinger, H.D., Jackson, K.M., & Roosa, M.W. (1996). Examination of the cross-cultural and crosslanguage equivalence of the Parenting Self-Agency Measure. Family Relations, 45, 216-222.
Eyberg, S.M., & Ross, A.W. (1978). Assessment of child behavior problems: The validation of a new inventory. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 7, 113-116.
Eysenck, H.J., & Eysenck, S.B.G. (1964). The manual of the Eysenck Personality Inventory. London: University of London Press.
Favaro, A., & Santonastaso, P. (1995). Effects of parents' psychological characteristics and eating behaviour on childhood obesity and dietary compliance. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 39(2), 145151.
Finkelstein, F.A., Fiebelkorn, I.C., & Wang, G.J. (2004). State-level estimates of annual medical expenditures attributable to obesity. Obesity Research, 12(1), 1824.
Garrett-Wright, D. (2010). Parental perception of preschool child body weight. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 26(5), 435-445.
Gibaud-Wallston, J., & Wandersman, L.P (1978). Development and utility of the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, Canada, August-September 1978.
Gilmore, L., & Cuskelly, M. (2008). Factor structure of the Parenting Sense of Competence scale using a normative sample. Child: Care, Health, and Development, 35(1), 48-55.
Gordon, L.V. (1953). Gordon Personal Profile. Yonkers-on-Hudson, NY: World Book.
Griffin, D.W., & Bartholomew, K. (1994). The metaphysics of measurement: The case of adult attachment. In K. Bartholomew & D. Perlman (Eds.), Advances in personal relationships: Vol 5. Attachment processes in adulthood (pp. 17-52). London: Jessica Kingsley.
Gross, D., & Rociassano, L. (1988). Maternal confidence in toddlerhood: Its measurement for clinical practice and research. Nurse Practitioner, 13(3), 19-29.
Guidubaldi, J., & Cleminshaw, H.K. (1985). The development of the Cleminshaw-Guidubaldi Parent Satisfaction scale. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 14, 293-298.
Hackie, M., & Bowles, C.L. (2007). Maternal perception of their overweight children. Public Health Nursing, 24(6), 538-546.
Hanson, C.L., Henggerler, S.W., Rodrigue, J.R., Burghen, G., & Murphy, W.D. (1988). Father-adolescent adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: A population at risk? Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 9(2), 243-252.
Henderson, S., Byrne, D.G., & Duncan-Jones, P. (1981). Neurosis and the social environment. Sydney: Academic Press Australia.
Herrara, R.S., DelCampo, R.L., & Ames, M.H. (1993). A serial approach for translating family science instrumentation. Family Relations, 42, 357-360.
Hofferth S.L., & Sandberg J.F. (2001). Changes in American children's use of time, 1981-1997. In T. Owens & S.L. Hofferth (Eds.), Children at the millennium: Where have we come from, where are we going? (pp. 193-229). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers.
Hogan, D.M., & Tudge, J. (1994). Parent Opinion Survey (POS). Unpublished scale, University of North Carolina at Greensboro.
Izard, C.E., Libero, D.Z., Putnam, R, & Haynes, O.M. (1993). Stability of emotion experiences and their relations to traits of personality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 847-860.
Janssens, J.M. (1994). Authoritarian child rearing, parental locus of control, and the child's behaviour style. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 17(3), 485-501.
Jerusalem, M., & Schwarzer, R. (1992). Self-efficacy as a resource factor in stress appraisal processes. In R. Schwarzer (Ed.), Self-efficacy: Thought control of action (pp. 195-213). Washington, DC: Hemisphere.
Johnson, S.L., & Birch, L.L. (1994). Parent's and children's adiposity and eating style. Pediatrics, 94, 653-661.
Johnston, C., & Mash, E.J. (1989). A measure of parenting satisfaction and efficacy. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology 18(2), 167-175.
Kahlor, L., Mackert, M., Junker, D., & Tyler, D. (2011). Ensuring children eat a healthy diet: A theory-driven focus group study to inform communication aimed at parents. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 26(1), 13-24.
Kendall, S., & Bloomfield, L. (2005). Developing and validating a tool to measure parenting self-efficacy. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 51(2), 174-181.
Koch, H.L., Dentler, M., Dysart, B., & Streit, H. (1934). A scale for measuring attitudes toward the question of children's freedom. Child Development, 5, 253-266.
Lau, R.R., & Ware, J.F. (1981). Refinements in the measurement of health-specific locus-of-control beliefs. Medical Care, 19, 1147-1158.
Lee, G.R. (1978). Marriage and morale in later life. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 40, 131-139.
Leenders, F.H.R. (1984). Brood en spelen [Bread and games]. The Netherlands: University of Utrecht.
Levenson, H. (1974). Activism and powerful others: Distinctions within the concept of internal-external control. Journal of Personality Assessment, 38, 377-383.
Locke, H., & Wallace, K. (1959). Short marital adjustment and prediction tests: Their reliability and validity. Marriage and Family Living, 21, 251-255.
Lotz, M. (2004). Childhood obesity and the question of parental liberty. Journal of Social Philosophy, 35(2), 288-303.
Lovejoy, M.C., Verda, M.R., & Hays, C.E. (1997). Convergent and discriminant validity of measures of parenting efficacy and control. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology 26(4), 366-376.
Luster, T., Rhoades, K., & Haas, B. (1989). The relation between parental values and parenting behavior: A test of the Kohn hypothesis. Journal of Marriage and Family, 51, 139-147.
Mash, E.J., & Johnston, C. (1983). The prediction of mothers' behavior with their hyperactive children during play and task situations. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 5, 1-14.
McDevitt, S., & Carey, W.B. (1978). The measurement of temperament in 3-7 year old children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 19, 245-253.
Miller, P.C, Lefcourt, H.M., & Ware, E.E. (1983). The construction and validation of the Miller Marital Locus of Control Scale. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 15, 266-279.
Morton, T.L. (1997). The relationship between parental locus of control and children's perceptions of control. The Journal of Genetic Psychology 158(2), 216-225.
Mouton, P.Y., & Tuma, J.M. (1988). Stress, locus of control, and role satisfaction in clinic and control mothers. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 17(3), 217-224.
Myers, S., & Vargas, Z. (2000). Parental perceptions of the preschool obese child. Pediatric Nursing, 26(1), 23-30.
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research Network. (1999). Child care and mother-child interaction in the first three years of life. Developmental Psychology, 35, 1399-1413.
Neugarten, B.L., Havighurst, R.J., & Tobin, S.S. (1961). The measurement of life satisfaction. Journal of Gerontology, 16, 134-143.
Newborg, J., Stock, J., Wnek, L., Guidubaldi, J., & Svinicki, J. (1984). Battelle Developmental Inventory. Allen, TX: DLM Teaching Resources.
Reynolds, W. M. (1982). Development of reliable and valid short forms of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38, 119-125.
Roberts, M.W., Joe, V.C., & Rowe-Hallbert, A. (1992). Oppositional child behavior and parental locus of control. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 21(2), 170177.
Rosenberg, M. (1989). Society and the adolescent self-image, Rev. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.
Rosno, E.A., Steele, R.G., Johnston, C.A., & Aylward, B.S. (2008). Parental locus of control: Associations to adherence and outcomes in the treatment of pediatric overweight. Children's Health Care, 37, 126-144.
Roth, P. (1980). The mother-child relationship evaluation manual. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.
Rotter, J.B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80(1, Whole No. 609).
Sanders, M.R., Markie-Dadds, C., & Turner, K. M.T. (1999). Practitioner's manual for Enhanced Triple P. Brisbane, Australia: Families International Publishing.
Sanders, M.R., & Woolley, M.L. (2001). Parenting tasks checklist. Brisbane, Australia: PFSC.
Sanders, M.R., & Woolley, M.L (2005). The relationship between maternal self-efficacy and parenting practices: Implications for parenting training. Child: Care, Health & Development, 31 (1), 6573.
Schaefer, E.S. (1965). Children's reports of parental behavior: An inventory. Child Development, 36, 413-424.
Schaefer, E., Finkelstein, N., & Edgerton, M. (1977). Child Behavior Toward Parent Inventory: Short form. Unpublished method, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.
Schafer, L.C., Glasgow, R.E., McCaul, K.D., & Dreher, M. (1983). Adherence to IDDM regimens: Relationship to psychosocial variables and metabolic control. Diabetes Care, 6, 493-498.
Schlenk, E.A., & Hart, L.K, (1984). Relationship between health locus of control, health value, and social support and compliance of persons with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care, 7, 566-574.
Schwarz, J.C. (1991). The development and validation of measures of emotional attachment and coalition with mother and father. Unpublished manuscript, University of Connecticut, Storrs.
Shelton, D., LeGros, K., Norton, L, Stanton-Cook, S., Morgan, J., & Masterman (2007). Randomised controlled trial: A parent-based group education programme for overweight children. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 43, 799-805.
Sherer, M., & Adams, C. (1983). Construct validity of the Self-Efficacy Scale. Psychological Reports, 53, 899-902.
Sherer, M,, Maddux, J., Mercadante, B., Prentice-Dunn, S., Jacobs, B., & Rogers, R.W. (1982). The self-efficacy scale: Construction and validation. Psychological Reports, 51, 663-671.
Smith, T.B., Oliver, M.N., Boyce, G.C., & Innocenti, M.S. (2000). Effects of mothers' locus of control for child improvement in a developmentally delayed sample. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 161(3), 307-313.
Spanier, G.B. (1976). Measuring dyadic adjustment: New scales for assessing the quality of marriage and similar dyads. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 38, 15-28.
Spielberger, C.E., Gorsuch, R.L., Lushene, R., Vagg, P.R., & Jacobs, G.A. (1983). Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Form Y). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Strand, B.H., Dalgard, O.S., Tambs, K., & Rognerud, M. (2003). Measuring the mental health status of the Norwegian population: A comparison of the instruments SCL-25, SCL-10, SCL-5 and MHI-5 (SF-36). Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 57, 113-118.
Stunkard, A.J., & Messick, S. (1985). The Three-Factor-Eating Questionnaire to measure dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 29, 71-83.
Teti, M., & Gelfand, D.M. (1991). Behavioral competence among mothers of infants in the first year: The meditational role of maternal self-efficacy. Child Development, 62(5), 918-929.
Tully, L.A., Sanders, M.R., Baade, P., Lynch, M.E., Heywood, A., Pollard, G., & Youlden, D. (1999). Living with Children: A Survey of Parenting Practices in Queensland: Implications for mental health promotion (online). Health Promotion Journal of Australia: Official Journal of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals, 9(2), 105-114.
Wallston, K.A., Stein, M.J., & Smith, C.A. (1994). Form C of the MHLC scales: A condition- specific measure of locus of control. Journal of Personality Assessment, 63, 534-553.
Wallston, K.A., Strudler Wallston, B., & DeVellis, R. (1978). Development of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) scales. Health Education and Behavior, 6(2), 160-170.
Wallston, B.S., Wallston, K.A., Kaplan, G.D., & Maides, S.A. (1976). Development and validation of the Health Locus of Control (HLC) scale. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 44, 580-585.
Watson D., Clark, L.A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063-1070.
Weisz, J. (1986). Contingency and control beliefs as predictors of psychotherapy outcomes among children and adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 789-795.
Wen, L. M., Kite, J., Merom, D., & Rissel, C. (2009). Time spent playing outdoors after school and its relationship with independent mobility: A cross-sectional survey of children aged 10-12 years in Sydney, Australia. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 6(15), 1-8.
Ystrom, E., Barker, M., & Vollrath, M.E. (2012). Impact of mothers' negative affectivity, parental locus of control and child-feeding practices on dietary of 3year-old children: The MoBa Cohort Study. Maternal & Child Nutrition, 8(1), 103-114. doi: 10.1111 /j.1740-8709.2010. 00257.x
Leenders, F.H.R. (1985). De opvoederkenmerken 'locus of control' en 'geneigdheid tot informatie zoeken' [Parental characteristics 'locus of control' and 'the tendency to look for information']. Tijdschrift voor Orthopedagogiek, 24, 530-548.
Heather Grossklaus, MS, CPNP, CPN, was a Pediatric Nurse, University of Michigan, School of Nursing, Ann Arbor, Ml, at the time this article was written.
Donna Marvicsin, PhD, PNP-BC, CDE, is a Clinical Assistant Professor, University of Michigan, School of Nursing, Ann Arbor, MI.
Table 1. Parenting Competence Concept: Competence Author/Year Study Purpose Age of Subjects Abidin (1986) This study looked at Unknown. parenting competence in terms of handling difficulties, coping with daily demands, and having control over child behavior. Coleman & Karraker This study Mothers of children (2000) * researched parenting 5 to 12 years olds. self-efficacy, general self-efficacy, and parenting satisfaction. Gilmore & Cuskelly This study looked at Parents of children (2008) establishing a younger than 18 factor structure of years old. the PSOC for both mothers and fathers separately. Hanson, Henggeler, This study looked at Mothers of Rodrigue, Burghen, & whether family adolescents without Murphy (1988) structure is fathers in the connected to the picture; mean age of psychological and adolescents -14.4 physical health of years of age. adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Johnston & Mash This study Parents of children (1989) * researched parental 4 to 9 years old. satisfaction and efficacy for analysis of the parenting sense of competence scale. Lovejoy, Verda, & This study Mothers of children Hays (1997) * researched using the 1 to 18 years old, Parent Attribution mothers of children Test, Parental Locus 1 to 17 years old, of Control scale, mothers of 3 to 6 and the Parenting years old. Sense of Competence-Efficacy scale. Sanders & Woolley This study examined Mothers of children (2005) * the correlation 2 to 8 year old. between maternal self-efficacy, dysfunctional discipline practices, and child conduct problems and how they affect parent training. Shelton et al. This study reviewed Parents of children (2007) * a behavioral program 3 to 10 years old. that works with overweight/ obese children. Teti & Gelfand This study Mothers of children (1991) * researched the idea 3 to 13 months old. that mothers' self-efficacy beliefs effect parenting behavior. Tools/Questionnaire Author/Year Utilized Focus of Study Abidin (1986) Sense of Competence Measured parenting Subscale from the competence. Parent Domain-Parenting Stress Index (Abidin, 1983). Coleman & Karraker EAS Temperament Measured general (2000) * Survey for Children parenting (Buss & Plomin, self-efficacy and 1984). Parenting satisfaction, child Self-Agency (PSA) and maternal (Dumka, Stoerzinger, characteristics. Jackson, & Roosa, 1996). Parenting Sense of Competence (PSOC) (Gibaud-Wallston & Wandersman, 1978). Self-efficacy for Parenting Tasks Index (SEPTI): Looking at achievement, recreation, nurturance, and health (Coleman & Karraker, 2000). Self-Efficacy Scale (S-ES) (Sherer & Adams, 1983). Gilmore & Cuskelly Parental Sense of Measured parenting (2008) Competence satisfaction with (Gibaud-Wallston & the parenting role, Wandersman, 1978). parenting efficacy, and interest in parenting. Hanson, Henggeler, Parental Sense of Measured adolescent Rodrigue, Burghen, & Competence adherence to Murphy (1988) (Gibaud-Wallston & treatment, Wandersman, 1978). adolescents' and The Adherence mothers' perceptions Questionnaire of maternal support (Cerkoney & Hart, and nonsupport of 1980; Schlenk & treatment, mothers' Hart, 1984). The parental competence, Diabetes Family and adolescent Behavior Checklist social competence. (DFBC) (Schafer, Glasgow, McCaul, & Dreher, 1983). The Social Competence Scale of the Child Behavior Checklist (SCS-CBCL) (Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1981). Johnston & Mash Child Behavior Measured parenting (1989) * Checklist (CBCL) satisfaction and (Achenbach & efficacy related to Edelbrock, 1983). behavior problems. Parenting Self-Efficacy Subscale of Parenting Sense of Competence Scale (Gibaud-Wallston & Wandersman, 1978). Lovejoy, Verda, & Eyberg Child Measured general Hays (1997) * Behavior Inventory parenting (ECBI) (Eyberg & self-efficacy and Ross, 1978). locus of control. Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS) (Reynolds, 1982). Negative Affect Scale of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS-Negative) (Watson, Clark, & Tellegene, 1988). Parent Attribution Test (PAT)-Failure (Bugental, Blue, & Cruzcosa, 1989). Parental Locus of Control Scale (Campis, Lyman, & Prentice-Dunn, 1986). Parenting Sense of Competence Scale-Efficacy (Gibaud-Wallston & Wandersman, 1978). Relationship Scales Questionnaire (RSQ) (Griffin & Bartholomew, 1994). Relationship Questionnaire (RQ) (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991). State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Trait) (Spielberger, Gorsuch, Lushene, Vagg, & Jacobs, 1983). Sanders & Woolley Eyberg Child Measured maternal (2005) * Behaviour Inventory self-efficacy, (ECBI) (Eyberg & maternal discipline, Ross, 1978) Family and child conduct Background problems. Questionnaire (Sanders, Markie-Dadds, & Turner, 1999). Queensland Health Survey (Tully et al., 1999). Parenting Sense of Competence Scale (Gibaud-Wallston & Wandersman, 1978). The Behavioural Self-Efficacy Subscale (Sanders & Woolley, 2001). The General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) (Jerusalem & Schwarzer, 1992). The Parenting Scale (Arnold, O'Leary, Wolff, & Acker, 1993). The Parenting Tasks Checklist (Sanders & Woolley, 2001). The Setting Self-Efficacy subscale (Sanders & Woolley, 2001). Shelton et al. Parent Problem Measured parenting (2007) * Checklist (Dadds & consistency, style, Powell, 1991). satisfaction and Parenting Sense of efficacy. Competence Scale (Gibaud-Wallston & Wandersman, 1978). The Parenting Scale (Arnold, O'Leary, Wolff, & Acker, 1993). Teti & Gelfand Beck Depression Measured mother's (1991) * Inventory (BDI) self-efficacy (Beck, Ward, beliefs related to Mendelson, Mock, & depression, infant Erbaugh, 1961). temperamental Carey Survey of difficulty, and Temperamental social-marital Characteristics supports. (Bates, Freeland, & Lounsburg, 1979). Interview Schedule for Social Interaction (Henderson, Byrne, & Duncan-Jones, 1981). Marital Harmony Scale (Locke & Wallace, 1959; Spanier, 1976). Maternal Self-Efficacy Scale (Teti & Gelfand, 1991). The Infant Characteristics Questionnaire (Bates, Freeland, & Lounsbury, 1979). The Sense of Competence Scale of the Parenting Stress Index (PSI) (Abidin, 1983). * Scales discussing both self-efficacy and competence. Table 2. Parenting Self-Efficacy Concept: Self-Efficacy Author/Year Study Purpose Age of Subjects Coleman & This study Mothers of Karraker researched children 5 to (2000) * parenting 12 years olds. self-efficacy, general self-efficacy, and parenting satisfaction. Johnston This study Parents of & Mash researched children 4 to 9 (1989) * parental years old. satisfaction and efficacy for analysis of the parenting sense of competence scale. Lovejoy, Verda, This study Mothers of & Hays (1997) * researched children 1 to utilizing the 18 years old, Parent mothers of Attribution children 1 to Test, Parental 17 years old, Locus of mothers of 1 to Control scale, 17 years old. and the Parenting Sense of Competence- Efficacy scale. Sanders & This study Mothers of Woolley (2005) examined the children 2 to 8 * correlation year old. between maternal self-efficacy, dysfunctional discipline practices, and child conduct problems, and how they affect parent training. Shelton et al. This study Parents of (2007) * reviewed a children 3 to behavioral 10 years old. program that works with overweight or obese children. Teti & Gelfand This study Mothers of (1991) * researched the children 3 to idea that 13 month old mothers' infants. self-efficacy beliefs effects parenting behavior. Author/Year Tools/ Focus of Study Questionnaire Utilized Coleman & EAS Temperament Measured Karraker Survey for general (2000) * Children (Buss parenting self- & Plomin, efficacy and 1984). satisfaction, Parenting child and Self-Agency maternal (PSA) (Dumka, characteristics. Stoerzinger, Jackson, & Roosa, 1996). Parenting Sense of Competence (PSOC) (Gibaud- Wallston & Wandersman, 1978). Self-Efficacy for Parenting Tasks Index (SEPTI): Looking at achievement, recreation, nurturance, and health (Coleman & Karraker, 2000). Self-Efficacy Scale (S-ES) (Sherer & Adams, 1983). Johnston Child Behavior Measured & Mash Checklist parenting (1989) * (CBCL) satisfaction (Achenbach & and efficacy Edelbrock, related to 1983). behavior Parenting problems. Self-Efficacy Subscale of Parenting Sense of Competence Scale (Gibaud- Wallston & Wandersman, 1978). Lovejoy, Verda, Eyberg Child Measured & Hays (1997) * Behavior general Inventory parenting self- (ECBI) (Eyberg efficacy, locus & Ross, 1978). of control, and Marlowe-Crowne competence. Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS) (Reynolds, 1982). Negative Affect Scale of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS- Negative) (Watson, Clark, & Tellegene, 1988). Parent Attribution Test (PAT)-Failure (Bugental, Blue, & Cruzcosa, 1989). Parental Locus of Control Scale (Campis, Lyman, & Prentice-Dunn, 1986). Parenting Sense of Competence Scale-Efficacy (Gibaud- Wallston & Wandersman, 1978). Relationship Scales Questionnaire (RSQ) (Griffin & Bartholomew, 1994). Relationship Questionnaire (RQ) (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991). State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Trait) (Spielberger, Gorsuch, Lushene, Vagg, Sanders & Eyberg Child Measured Woolley (2005) Behaviour maternal self- * Inventory efficacy, (ECBI) (Eyberg maternal & Ross, 1978). discipline, and Family child conduct Background problems. Questionnaire (Sanders, Markie-Dadds, & Turner, 1999). Queensland Health Survey (Tully et al., 1999). Parenting Sense of Competence Scale (Gibaud- Wallston & Wandersman, 1978). The Behavioural Self-Efficacy Subscale (Sanders & Woolley, 2001). The General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) (Jerusalem & Schwarzer, 1992). The Parenting Scale (Arnold, O'Leary, Wolff, & Acker, 1993). The Parenting Tasks Checklist (Sanders & Woolley, 2001). The Setting Self-Efficacy subscale (Sanders & Woolley, 2001). Shelton et al. Parent Problem Measured (2007) * Checklist parenting (Dadds & consistency, Powell, 1991). style, Parenting Sense satisfaction of Competence and efficacy. Scale (Gibaud- Wallston & Wandersman, 1978). The Parenting Scale (Arnold, O'Leary, Wolff, & Acker, 1993). Teti & Gelfand Beck Depression Measured (1991) * Inventory (BDI) mother's self- (Beck, Ward, efficacy Mendelson, beliefs: Mock, & depression, Erbaugh, 1961). infant Carey Survey of temperamental Temperamental difficulty, and Characteristics social-marital (Bates et al., supports. 1979). Interview Schedule for Social Interaction (Henderson, Byrne, & Duncan-Jones, 1981). Marital Harmony Scale (Locke & Wallace, 1959; Spanier, 1976). Maternal Self- Efficacy Scale (Teti & Gelfand, 1991). The Infant Characteristics Questionnaire (Bates, Freeland, & Lounsbury, 1979). The Sense of Competence Scale of the Parenting Stress Index (PSI) (Abidin, 1983). * Scales discussing both self-efficacy and competence. Table 3. Parenting Locus of Control and Parenting Beliefs Concepts: Locus of Control/Parenting Beliefs Author/Year Study Purpose Age of Subjects Arnold, O'Leary, This scale was Mother of children Wolff, & Acker developed to measure 18 to 48 months old. (1993) dysfunctional discipline practices in parents. Barnett, Shanahan, This research looked Parents with Deng, Haskett, & Cox at the relationships children between (2010) between parenting ages of birth to 36 beliefs and months. behaviors in predicting childhood external/internal behaviors. Birch et al. (2001) These authors Parents of children developed the Child 5 to 9 years old, Feeding parents of children Questionnaire, which 8 to 11 years old, measured parenting and parents of beliefs, attitudes, children 7 to 11 and practices year old (boys and regarding child girls). feeding patterns. Campis, Lyman, & This study developed Parents of Prentice-Dunn (1986) and validated the elementary school parental locus of children. control. Cook (1993) This study looked at College students, family members' their families, and beliefs about their siblings at least 12 ability to influence years old at home. each other. DeVellis et al. This study describes Parents of children (1993) the development of in middle school, the Parent Health parents of children Locus of Control in preschool, and (PHLOC) scales. parents of children averaging 6.6 years old. Dielman et al. This study looked at Parents and children (1982) parents'and 6 to 17 years old. childrens' health beliefs and behaviors and assessed a correlation between the childrens' outcomes. Dumka, Stoerzinger, This study evaluates Families of 3 to 12 Jackson, & Roosa a Parenting year olds. (1996) Self-Agency Measure (PSAM). Favaro & This study looked at Parents of children Santonastaso (1995) the relationship with the mean age of between parents' 10.5 years old. psychological characteristics and eating behaviors and the amount of obesity among their children, one year before and after treatment. Janssens (1994) This study examined Mother and father of the relationships children 9 to 12 among child rearing, years old. parental locus of control in child rearing, and the parents' thoughts on the child's behavior. Lovejoy, Verda, & This study Mothers of children Hays (1997) researched utilizing 1 to 18 years old, the Parent mothers of children Attribution Test, 1-17 years old, Parental Locus of mothers of 3 to 6 Control scale, and years old. the Parenting Sense of Competence-Efficacy scale. Lovejoy, Verda, & Hays (1997) (continued) Morton (1997) This study looked at Mothers and children a correlation in grade 3 to 5, between parents' and average age of 10.2 childrens' locus of years. control and to explore the affect of children's behavior on parents' locus of control beliefs. Mouton & Tuma (1988) This study looked at Mothers with mothers' stress, children 4 to 10 locus of control, years old and 3 to and 10 years old. role-satisfaction. Roberts, Joe, & This study tested Parents with Rowe-Hallbert (1992) the PLOC for children between 2 reliability and to 12 years old. utilized it with working with oppositional children. Rosno, Steele, This study looked at Children 6 to 18 Johnston, & Aylward the parents' locus years old with one (2008) of control in child parent able to adherence and attend the sessions. outcomes in a treatment program for pediatric overweight. Smith, Oliver, This study looked at Children with Boyce, & Innocenti mother-child dyads developmental (2000) for one year to disabilities, assess the mothers' approximately 4 locus of control in years old on initial improvement of their assessment then developmentally followed for one delayed children. year. Wallston, Strudler This study described Older than 16 years. Wallston, & DeVellis the development of (1978) the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale. Ystrom, Barker, & This study Mothers completed Vollrath (2012) researched dietary assessments before patterns in children birth, at 6 months, 3 years of age and 18 months, and 3 assessed parental years postpartum. locus of control to see if parents affect childrens' eating behaviors. Author/Year Study Tools/Questionnaire Focus of Study Utilized Arnold, O'Leary, Beck Depression Measured Wolff, & Acker Inventory (BDI) dysfunctional (1993) (Beck, Steer, & discipline practices Garbin, 1988). in parenting. Externalizing scale of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (Achenbach, Edelbrock, & Howell, 1987). Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test (SMAT) (Locke & Wallace, 1959). Parenting Scale (Arnold, O'Leary, Wolff, & Acker, 1993). Barnett, Shanahan, Brief Symptom Measured parenting Deng, Haskett, & Cox Inventory-18 beliefs and (2010) (BSI-18) (Derogatis, behaviors in 2000). Child predicting childhood Behavior Checklist external/internal for ages 1.5 to 5 symptoms. (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000). National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care: Sensitivity/ responsiveness, intrusiveness, detachment/ disengagement, positive regard for the child, negative regard for the child, animation, and stimulation of development (NICHD, 1999). Parental Beliefs Survey (PBS) (Luster, Rhoades, & Haas, 1989). Parent Opinion Survey (POS) (Hogan &Tudge, 1994). Qualitative ratings for parent-child interaction at 24 to 36 months of age (Cox, 1997). Qualitative ratings for parent-child interaction at 3 to 12 months of age (Cox & Crnic, 2002). Birch et al. (2001) Child Feeding Measured parental Questionnaire beliefs, attitudes, (Johnson & Birch, and practices 1994). regarding child feeding. Campis, Lyman, & Chance Subscale of Measured parental Prentice-Dunn (1986) the Levenson Locus locus of control. of Control Scale (Levenson, 1974). Child Demandingness Subscale, Sense of Competence Subscale, Restriction of Role Subscale of the Parenting Stress Index (PSI) (Burke, 1979). Overindulgence Subscale of the Mother-Child Relationship Evaluation (MCRE) (Roth, 1980). General Self-Efficacy Subscale of the Self-Efficacy Scale (Sherer et al., 1982). Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (M-CSDS) (Crowne & Marlowe, 1964). PLOC (Campis, Lyman, & Prentice-Dunn, 1986). Responsibility Subscale of the Gordon Personal Profile Inventory (GPPI) (Gordon, 1953). Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale (Rotter, 1966). Scale 2 of the Attitude Toward the Freedom of Children Scale (Koch, Dentler, Dysart, & Streit, 1934). Cook (1993) Emotional Attachment Measured control and Subscale of the fate in family Relationship with members. Mother and Father Scales (Schwarz, 1991). Internality, Powerful others, and Fate-Chance Subscales of Levenson's Locus of Control scale (LLOC) (Levenson, 1974). Interpersonal Sense of Control (ISOC)-(effectance, acquiescence, fate, and conflict control) (Cook, 1993). (Campis, Lyman, & Prentice-Dunn, 1986; Lau & Ware, 1981, Levenson, 1974). Miller Marital Locus of Control Scale (Miller, Lefcourt, & Ware, 1983). Multidimensional Measure of Children's Perceptions of Control (Connell, 1985). DeVellis et al. Parent Health Locus Measured parenting (1993) of Control (PHLOC) beliefs in child, scales: child, divine, fate, media, divine, fate, media, parental, and parental, and professional professional influence over child influence on the health. health and well-being of children (Devellis et al., 1993). Dielman et al. Index Scores created Measured the health (1982) for parental and beliefs and child health behaviors of parents beliefs. (Dielman et and those of their al., 1982). children. Dumka, Stoerzinger, Adult Coping Scale Measured parents' Jackson, & Roosa (COPE) (Carver, personal coping (1996) Scheier, &Weintraub, strategies and 1989). Children's parenting practices. Report of Parental Behavior Inventory (CRPBI) (Schaefer, 1965). Multi-step translation procedure (Herrara, Del Campo, & Ames, 1993). Parenting Locus of Control Scale (PLOC) (Campis, Lyman, & Prentice-Dunn, 1986). Parenting Self-Agency Measure (PSAM) (Dumka, Stoerzinger, Jackson, & Roosa, 1996). Favaro & Rotter's Internal- Measured parents' Santonastaso (1995) External Locus of psychological Control Scale characteristics and (Rotter, 1966). The eating behavior on Brief Symptom childhood obesity Inventory (Derogatis and dietary & Spencer, 1982). compliance. The Eating Inventory (Stunkard & Messick, 1985). The Eysenck Personality Inventory (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1964). Janssens (1994) Leenders' Locus of Measured the Control (LOCO) scale relationships among (Leenders, 1984). child rearing, McDevitt and Carey's parental locus of Behavior Style control about child Questionnaire rearing, and the (McDevitt & Carey, parents' thoughts on 1978). child's behavior style. Lovejoy, Verda, & Eyberg Child General parenting Hays (1997) Behavior Inventory self-efficacy and (ECBI) (Eyberg & locus of control. Ross, 1978). Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS) (Reynolds, 1982). Negative Affect Scale of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS- Negative) (Watson, Clark, & Tellegene, 1988). Parent Attribution Test (PAT)-Failure (Bugental, Blue, & Cruzcosa, 1989). Parental Locus of Control Scale (Campis, Lyman, & Prentice-Dunn, 1986). Parenting Sense of Competence Scale-Efficacy (Gibaud-Wallston & Wandersman, 1978). Lovejoy, Verda, & Relationship Scales Hays (1997) Questionnaire (RSQ) (continued) (Griffin & Bartholomew, 1994). Relationship Questionnaire (RQ) (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991). State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI- Trait) (Spielberger, Gorsuch, Lushene, Vagg, & Jacobs, 1983). Morton (1997) Child Behavior Measured locus of Checklist (CBCL) control in parents (Achenbach & and children. Edelbrock, 1983). Child Behavior Toward Parents Inventory (Scheafer, Finkelstein, & Edgerton, 1977). Contingence, Competence, and Control Questionnaire (CCC) (Weisz, 1986). Parental Locus of Control Scale (Campis, Lyman, & Prentice-Dunn, 1986). Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale (Rotter, 1966). The Multidimensional of Measure of Children's Perceptions of Control (MMCPC) (Connell, 1980, 1985). Mouton & Tuma (1988) Eyberg Child Measured stress, Behaviour Inventory locus of control, (ECBI) (Eyberg & and satisfaction in Ross, 1978). mothers. Parental Locus of Control Scale (Campis, Lyman, & Prentice-Dunn, 1986). Parenting Stress Index (PSI) (Abidin, 1986). The Cleminshaw- Guidubaldi Parent Satisfaction Scale (Guidubaldi & Cleminshaw, 1985). Roberts, Joe, & Parental Locus of Measured parental Rowe-Hallbert (1992) Control Scale locus of control in (Campis, Lyman, oppositional child Prentice-Dunn, behavior. 1986). Rosno, Steele, Multidimensional Measured parents' Johnston, & Aylward Health Locus of locus of control to (2008) Control-Form C child adherence and (MHLC-C) (Wallston, outcomes related to Stein, & Smith, obesity. 1994). Smith, Oliver, Batelle Measured mothers' Boyce, & Innocenti Developmental locus of control for (2000) Inventory (BDI) child improvement (Newborg, Stock, with developmentally Wnek, Guidubaldi, & delayed Svinicki, 1984). children. Child Improvement Locus of Control Scales (CILC) (DeVellis et al., 1985). Wallston, Strudler Health Locus of Measured health Wallston, & DeVellis Control Scale locus of control. (1978) (Wallston, Wallston, Kaplan, & Maides, 1976): Internality (IHLC); powerful others (PHLC); and chance (CHLC) externality (Wallston, Strudler Wallston, & DeVellis, 1978). Ystrom, Barker, & Anger Subscale of Measured how Vollrath (2012) the Differential negative affectivity Emotions Scale and external (Izard, Libero, parental locus of Putnam, & Haynes, control affect 1993). Child Feeding children's dietary Questionnaire patterns. (Johnson & Birch, 1994). Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-8) (Strand, Dalgard, Tambs, & Rognerud, 2003). Parental Locus of Control Scale (Campis, Lyman, & Prentice-Dunn, 1986). Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1989). Table 4. Parenting Satisfaction Concept: Satisfaction Author/Year Study Purpose Age of Subjects Coleman & Relationships among Mothers of children Karraker (2000) parenting 5 to 12 years old. self-efficacy, general self-efficacy, child and maternal characteristics, and parenting satisfaction were found in this study. Guidubaldi & This study describes Parents with Cleminshaw the development of a children from 6 (1985) new parenting weeks to 38 years satisfaction scale. old. Johnston & Mash This study Parents of children (1989) researched parental 4 to 9 years old. satisfaction and efficacy for analysis of the parenting sense of competence scale. Mouton & Tuma This study looked at Mothers with (1988) mothers' stress, children 2 to 10 locus of control, years old and 3 to and 10 years old. role-satisfaction. Shelton et al. This study reviewed Parents of children (2007) a behavioral program 3 to 10 years old. that works with overweight or obese children. Author/Year Tools/ Questionnaire UtFocus of Study Coleman & EAS Temperament General parenting Karraker (2000) Survey for Children self-efficacy and (Buss & Plomin, satisfaction, child 1984). Parenting and maternal Self-Agency (PSA) characteristics. (Dumka, Stoerzinger, Jackson, & Roosa, 1996). Parenting Sense of Competence (PSOC) (Gibaud- Wallston & Wandersman, 1978). Self-efficacy for Parenting Tasks Index (SEPTI): Looking at achievement, recreation, nurturance, and health (Coleman & Karraker, 2000). Self-Efficacy Scale (S-ES) (Sherer & Adams, 1983). Guidubaldi & Cleminshaw- Measured Cleminshaw Guidubaldi Parent satisfaction in (1985) Satisfaction Scale parenting: spouse (Guidubaldi & support, parent- Cleminshaw, 1985). child relationship, Dyadic Adjustment parent performance, Scale (Spanier, family discipline 1976). Marital and and control, and Life Satisfaction general satisfaction Measure (Lee, 1978). in parenting. Life Satisfaction Index (A) (Neugarten, Havighurst, & Tobin, 1961). Johnston & Mash Child Behavior Parening (1989) Checklist (CBCL) satisfaction and (Achenbach & efficacy related to Edelbrock, 1983). behavior problems. Parenting Self- Efficacy Subscale of Parenting Sense of Competence Scale (Gibaud-Wallston & Wandersman, 1978). Mouton & Tuma Eyberg Child Measures stress, (1988) Behaviour Inventory locus of control, (ECBI) (Eyberg & and satisfaction in Ross, 1978). mothers. Parental Locus of Control Scale (Campis, Lyman, & Prentice-Dunn, 1986). Parenting Stress Index (PSI) (Abidin, 1986). The Cleminshaw- Guidubaldi Parent Satisfaction Scale (Guidubaldi & Cleminshaw, 1985) Shelton et al. Parent Problem Measure parenting (2007) Checklist (Dadds & consistency, style, Powell, 1991). satisfaction and Parenting Sense of efficacy. Competence Scale (Gibaud-Wallston & Wandersman, 1978). The Parenting Scale (Arnold, O'Leary, Wolff, & Acker, 1993). Parenting Efficacy and its Relationship to the Prevention of Childhood Obesity Table 5. Parenting and Nursing Concept: Nursing Author/Year Study Purpose Age of Subjects Garrett-Wright This study examined Preschool age (2 to (2010) the correlations 5 years). between parental perception of child body weight, sense of parental efficacy, and health literacy. Gross & Rocissano This study validated Mothers of 12 to 36 (1988) the Toddler Care month olds. Questionnaire (TCQ). Hackie & Bowles This study looked at Mothers of 2 to 5 (2007) maternal perceptions year olds. of their overweight children. Kahlor, Mackert, & This study looked at Parents older than Junker, & Tyler the Theory of 18 year, no (2011) Planned Behavior specified children (TPB) in order to ages in this study. measure parents' perceptions of difficulties in making sure their children eat a healthy diet. Kendall & Bloomfield These researchers Parents of children (2005) developed a tool to up to the age of 6 measure parenting years. self-efficacy; will be used an aid for parenting programs. Myers & Vargas This study Parents of obese (2000) researched a children, no correlation between children age was the staffs' and specified. parents' perceptions regarding the childrens' obesity status and assessed parental perception of child's overweight. The purpose was to increase the staffs' understanding of parents' view so interventions could be made. Tools/ Questionnaire Author/Year Utilized Focus of Study Garrett-Wright Child Feeding Measured parental (2010) Questionnaire perception of child (Johnson & Birch, body weight, sense 1994). Parenting of parental Sense of Competence efficacy, health Scale (PSOC) literacy, and (Gibaud-Wallston & demographic factors Wandersman, 1978). in parents. The Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (ToFHLA) (Baker, Williams, Parker, Gazmararian, & Nurss, 1999). Gross & Rocissano Beck Depression Measured maternal (1988) Inventory (BDI) confidence in (Beck, Ward, toddlerhood. Mendelson, Mock, Erbaugh, 1961). Toddler Care Questionnaire (TCQ) Gross & Rocissano (1988). Hackie & Bowles Parental Perception Measured mothers' (2007) of Pediatric Obesity perceptions of Questionnaire (Myers child's overweight & Vargas, 2000). status. Kahlor, Mackert, & Qualitative/ Measuresd parents' Junker, & Tyler Quantitative perceptions of (2011) Research; no difficulties in questionnaires making sure their mentioned in this children have a study. healthy diet. Kendall & Bloomfield Tool to measure Measured parenting (2005) parenting self-efficacy. self-efficacy (no name was given for this tool) (Kendall & Bloomfield, 2005). Myers & Vargas Questionnaire Measured staffs' and (2000) developed (no name parents' perception was given for this of childhood tool) (Myers & obesity. Vargas, 2000).
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Author:||Grossklaus, Heather; Marvicsin, Donna|
|Date:||Mar 1, 2014|
|Previous Article:||Tyrosinemia type 1: an overview of nursing care.|
|Next Article:||Roles and responsibilities of the nursing scholar.|